National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for light gas gun

  1. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  2. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  3. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1996-12-01

    A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved by pneumatic means and free the projectile.

  4. Repetitive, small-bore two-stage light gas gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    A repetitive two-stage light gas gun for high-speed pellet injection has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In general, applications of the two-stage light gas gun have been limited to only single shots, with a finite time (at least minutes) needed for recovery and preparation for the next shot. The new device overcomes problems associated with repetitive operation, including rapidly evacuating the propellant gases, reloading the gun breech with a new projectile, returning the piston to its initial position, and refilling the first- and second-stage gas volumes to the appropriate pressure levels. In addition, some components are subjected to and must survive severe operating conditions, which include rapid cycling to high pressures and temperatures (up to thousands of bars and thousands of kelvins) and significant mechanical shocks. Small plastic projectiles (4-mm nominal size) and helium gas have been used in the prototype device, which was equipped with a 1-m-long pump tube and a 1-m-long gun barrel, to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to 1 Hz) at relatively high pellet velocities (up to 3000 m/s). The equipment is described, and experimental results are presented. 124 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Techniques for Equation-of-State Measurements on a Three-Stage Light-Gas Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; THORNHILL,T.G.

    2000-09-14

    Understanding high pressure behavior materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. Until recently the highest-pressure states in materials have been achieved from impact loading techniques from two-stage light gas guns with velocity limitations of approximately 81cm/s. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 kds. The determination of equation-of-state (EOS) and thermodynamic states of materials in the regimes of extreme high pressures is now attainable utilizing the three-stage launcher. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology. The design and test methodologies used to determine Hugoniot states are described in this paper.

  6. Evaluation of the LLNL Spectrometer for Possible use with the NSTec Optical Streak Camera as a Light Gas Gun Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, J., Cradick, J.

    2012-09-27

    In fiscal year 2012, it was desired to combine a visible spectrometer with a streak camera to form a diagnostic system for recording time-resolved spectra generated in light gas gun experiments. Acquiring a new spectrometer was an option, but it was possible to borrow an existing unit for a period of months, which would be sufficient to evaluate both “off-line” and in-gas gun shots. If it proved adequate for this application, it could be duplicated (with possible modifications); if not, such testing would help determine needed specifications for another model. This report describes the evaluation of the spectrometer (separately and combined with the NSTec LO streak camera) for this purpose. Spectral and temporal resolutions were of primary interest. The first was measured with a monochromatic laser input. The second was ascertained by the combination of the spectrometer’s spatial resolution in the time-dispersive direction and the streak camera’s intrinsic temporal resolution. System responsivity was also important, and this was investigated by measuring the response of the spectrometer/camera system to black body input—the gas gun experiments are expected to be similar to a 3000K black body—as well as measuring the throughput of the spectrometer separately over a range of visible light provided by a monochromator. The flat field (in wavelength) was also measured and the final part of the evaluation was actual fielding on two gas gun shots. No firm specifications for spectral or temporal resolution were defined precisely, but these were desired to be in the 1–2 nm and 1–2 ns ranges, respectively, if possible. As seen below, these values were met or nearly met, depending on wavelength. Other performance parameters were also not given (threshold requirements) but the evaluations performed with laser, black body, and successful gas gun shots taken in aggregate indicate that the spectrometer is adequate for this purpose. Even still, some (relatively minor) opportunities for improvement were noticed and these were documented for incorporation into any near-duplicate spectrometer that might be fabricated in the future.

  7. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Chu, Henry S.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  8. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  10. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of the emittance compensation solenoid are discussed in Section 1.1.7. The novel feature of the LCLS solenoid is the embedded quadrupole correctors. The thermo-mechanical engineering of the LCLS gun is discussed in Section 1.1.8, and the cold and hot RF tests are described in Section 1.1.9. The results of this work are summarized and concluding remarks are given in Section 1.1.10.

  11. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee; Bartram, Brian Douglas; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Lang, John Michael; Morris, John Scott

    2015-09-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  12. LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun Nevada Test Site, NV The National Nuclear Security Administration's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) successfully executes the first plutonium shot using the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research (JASPER) gas gun at NNSA's Nevada Test Site. LLNL scientists use the 100-foot, two-stage gas gun to fire a projectile at

  13. Heating and cooling gas-gun targets: nuts and bolts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Bartram, Brian D; Gehr, Russell J; Bucholtz, Scott M

    2009-01-01

    The nuts and bolts of a system used to heat and cool gas-gun targets is described. We have now used the system for more than 35 experiments, all of which have used electromagnetic gauging. Features of the system include a cover which is removed (remotely) just prior to projectile impact and the widespread use of metal/polymer insulations. Both the cover and insulation were required to obtain uniform temperatures in samples with low thermal conductivity. The use of inexpensive video cameras to make remote observations of the cover removal was found to be very useful. A brief catalog of useful glue, adhesive tape, insulation, and seal materials is given.

  14. Pre-Compression for Dynamic Gas Gun Loading. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pre-Compression for Dynamic Gas Gun Loading. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pre-Compression for Dynamic Gas Gun Loading. Abstract not provided. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T Publication Date: 2014-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141160 Report Number(s): SAND2014-1631C 505044 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: APS March Meeting held March 3 - February 7, 2014 in Denver, CO.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the APS

  15. New LANL Group M-7 two-stage gun: Double-diaphragm and wrap-around gas breech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Martinez, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    A new two-stage gun is being installed in a high explosive testing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of subjecting insensitive high explosives to controlled projectile impacts so that shock-to-detonation transition can be studied in detail. This gun has been patterned after guns designed by Alois Stilp at Ernst Mach Institut (EMI) in Freiburg and Wintersweiler, Germany. Several changes were made to adapt the design to our needs. The gun has a 100-mm diameter pump tube and 33-mm and 50-mm diameter launch tubes; both pump and launch tubes are 7.6 m long. We plan to use only helium as the reservoir gas. Large hydraulic clamps hold the gun together in three places during a shot; these are located on both sides of the transition section and at the breech. These clamps make gun conversions to different setups relatively simple, i.e., the two-stage gun can be converted into a single-stage gun. A gas breech has been designed which can be operated in either wrap-around or double-diaphragm mode with a maximum operating pressure of 15,000 psi. Two-stage gun calculations indicate that in the gas breech configuration, projectile velocities up to 4 km/s can be obtained using helium in both the breech and the reservoir. The gun has been fabricated and is being installed at the present time. Testing is expected to begin in early 1993 if the startup difficulties do not become excessive.

  16. New LANL Group M-7 two-stage gun: Double-diaphragm and wrap-around gas breech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, S.A.; Martinez, A.R.

    1992-10-01

    A new two-stage gun is being installed in a high explosive testing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of subjecting insensitive high explosives to controlled projectile impacts so that shock-to-detonation transition can be studied in detail. This gun has been patterned after guns designed by Alois Stilp at Ernst Mach Institut (EMI) in Freiburg and Wintersweiler, Germany. Several changes were made to adapt the design to our needs. The gun has a 100-mm diameter pump tube and 33-mm and 50-mm diameter launch tubes; both pump and launch tubes are 7.6 m long. We plan to use only helium as the reservoir gas. Large hydraulic clamps hold the gun together in three places during a shot; these are located on both sides of the transition section and at the breech. These clamps make gun conversions to different setups relatively simple, i.e., the two-stage gun can be converted into a single-stage gun. A gas breech has been designed which can be operated in either wrap-around or double-diaphragm mode with a maximum operating pressure of 15,000 psi. Two-stage gun calculations indicate that in the gas breech configuration, projectile velocities up to 4 km/s can be obtained using helium in both the breech and the reservoir. The gun has been fabricated and is being installed at the present time. Testing is expected to begin in early 1993 if the startup difficulties do not become excessive.

  17. Copper damage modeling with the tensile hopkinson bar and gas gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonks, D. L.; Thissell, W. R.; Trujillo, C. P.; Schwartz, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Ductile damage nucleation in recovered copper tensile Hopkinson bar specimens has been modeled using the 2D EPIC code. The model has also been successfully applied to spallation gas gun data to greatly expand the pressure range. The split tensile Hopkinson pressure bar permits the creation of damage at fairly high strain rates (10{sup 4}/s) with large plastic strains (100%). Careful momentum trapping allows incipient damage states to be arrested and recovered for metallurgical examination. The use of notched samples allows the pressure - flow stress, or triaxiality, to be varied from 1/3 to about 1.2 to study the interplay of pressure and deviatoric stress. In this paper, we will concentrate on modeling the nucleation of ductile damage in pure copper (Hitachi). With the same material, we also study spallation in a gas gun experiment to obtain the nucleation stress under high pressure and small plastic strain. The goal of the modeling is to obtain a unified nucleation model suitable for both.

  18. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-12-15

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 {mu}F, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  19. A battery-operated, stabilized, high-energy pulsed electron gun for the production of rare gas excimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcellan, L.; Carugno, G.; Berto, E.; Galet, G.; Galeazzi, G.; Borghesani, A. F.

    2011-09-15

    We report on the design of a new type of hot-filament electron gun delivering fairly high current (a few hundreds of {mu} A) at high voltage (up to 100 kV) in continuous or pulsed mode. Its novel features are that the filament is heated by means of a pack of rechargeable batteries floated atop the high-voltage power supply in order to get rid of bulky isolation transformers, and that the filament current and, hence, the electron gun current, is controlled by a feedback circuit including a superluminescent diode decoupled from the high voltage by means of an optical fiber. This electron gun is intended for general purposes, although we have especially developed it to meet the needs of our experiment on the infrared emission spectroscopy of rare gas excimers. Our experiment requires that the charge injection into the sample is pulsed and constant and stable in time. The new electron gun can deliver several tens of nC per pulse of electrons of energy up to 100 keV into the sample cell. The new design also eliminates ripples in the emission current and ensures up to 12 h of stable performance.

  20. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats: 25 Water Heater: 100 Summary The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric...

  1. ION GUN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  2. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  3. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  4. Gas separation using ultrasound and light absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2012-07-31

    An apparatus and method for separating a chosen gas from a mixture of gases having no moving parts and utilizing no chemical processing is described. The separation of particulates from fluid carriers thereof has been observed using ultrasound. In a similar manner, molecular species may be separated from carrier species. It is also known that light-induced drift may separate light-absorbing species from carrier species. Therefore, the combination of temporally pulsed absorption of light with ultrasonic concentration is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of separation by ultrasonic concentration alone. Additionally, breaking the spatial symmetry of a cylindrical acoustic concentrator decreases the spatial distribution of the concentrated particles, and increases the concentration efficiency.

  5. Spectrometer gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  6. Spectrometer gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  7. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group: Atlanta Gas Light Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—lists Altanta Gas Light (AGL) resources and features a map of its footprint.

  8. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department- Residential Conservation Services Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company (MMWEC), offers the "Incentive Rebate Program" to encourage...

  9. Sandia hypervelocity gun technology for validating EOS at extreme pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Brannon, R.M.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-02-01

    At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization. These phase changes are not easily attainable at typical light-gas gun velocities of 8km/s. Development of well-controlled shock loading capabilities is the first step necessary to improve the understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained using two-stage light-gas gun loading techniques are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of aluminum impacted by an aluminum flier, and shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized zinc at impact velocities of 10 km/s. These experiments also define the maximum stress limit i.e., 200 GPa to which lithium-fluoride windows can be utilized as a laser velocity interferometer window.

  10. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulp, Thomas Jan; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Sommers, Ricky; Goers, Uta-Barbara; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  11. ELECTRON GUN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  12. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  13. Improving the performance of stainless-steel DC high voltage photoelectron gun cathode electrodes via gas conditioning with helium or krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastaninejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed; Forman, Eric I.; Clark, James; Covert, Steven R.; Grames, Joseph M.; Hansknecht, John C.; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Bernard; Suleiman, Riad S.

    2014-10-01

    Gas conditioning was shown to eliminate field emission from cathode electrodes used inside DC high voltage photoelectron guns, thus providing a reliable means to operate photoguns at higher voltages and field strengths. Measurements and simulation results indicate that gas conditioning eliminates field emission from cathode electrodes via two mechanisms: sputtering and implantation, with the benefits of implantation reversed by heating the electrode. We have studied five stainless steel electrodes (304L and 316LN) that were polished to approximately 20 nm surface roughness using diamond grit, and evaluated inside a high voltage apparatus to determine the onset of field emission as a function of voltage and field strength. The field emission characteristics of each electrode varied significantly upon the initial application of voltage but improved to nearly the same level after gas conditioning using either helium or krypton, exhibiting less than 10 pA field emission at ?225 kV bias voltage with a 50 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of ~13 MV/m. Field emission could be reduced with either gas, but there were conditions related to gas choice, voltage and field strength that were more favorable than others.

  14. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  15. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  16. Paul Gunning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gunning About Us Paul Gunning - Director, Climate Change Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Most Recent New Biogas Opportunities Roadmap is Part of Climate Change ...

  17. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geothermal Heat Pumps: 1,600 - 3,200 Lighting Fixtures: varies, up to 100fixture Light bulbs and lighting: varies, up to 15bulb LED Fixtures: 30 LED Bulbs: 10 FanMotor...

  18. NEW GUN CAPABILITY WITH INTERCHANGABLE BARRELS TO INVESTIGATE LOW VELOCITY IMPACT REGIMES AT THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY HIGH EXPLOSIVES APPLICATIONS FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Behn, A; Gresshoff, M; Jr., L F; Chiao, P I

    2009-09-16

    A new gas gun capability is being activated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). The single stage light gas (dry air, nitrogen, or helium) gun has interchangeable barrels ranging from 25.4 mm to 76.2 mm in diameter with 1.8 meters in length and is being fabricated by Physics Applications, Inc. Because it is being used for safety studies involving explosives, the gun is planned for operation inside a large enclosed firing tank, with typical velocities planned in the range of 10-300 m/s. Three applications planned for this gun include: low velocity impact of detonator or detonator/booster assemblies with various projectile shapes, the Steven Impact test that involves impact initiation of a cased explosive target, and the Taylor impact test using a cylindrical explosive sample impacted onto a rigid anvil for fracture studies of energetic materials. A highlight of the gun features, outline on work in progress for implementing this capability, and discussion of the planned areas of research will be included.

  19. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  20. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  1. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  2. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  3. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  4. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  5. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Nang T.; Gilbert, James R.

    1992-08-04

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  6. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Alliant Energy-Interstate Power and Light Website http:www.alliantenergy.comSaveEnergyAndMoneyAdditionalWaysSaveFinan......

  7. The polarized SRF gun experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2007-09-10

    RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

  8. Operational Experience with the Nb/Pb SRF Photoelectron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamps, T; Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Knoblock, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A N; Neumann, A; Quast, T; Rudolph, J; Schubert, S G; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Sekutowicz, J K; Smedley, J; Teichert, J; Volkov, V

    2012-07-01

    SRF photoelectron guns offer the promise of high brightness, high average current beam production for the next generation of accelerator driven light sources such as free electron lasers, THz radiation sources or energy-recovery linac driven synchrotron radiation sources. In a first step a fully superconducting RF (SRF) photoelectron gun is under development by a collaboration between HZB, DESY, JLAB, BNL and NCBJ. The aim of the experiment is to understand and improve the performance of a Nb SRF gun cavity coated with a small metallic Pb cathode film on the cavity backplane. This paper describes the highlights from the commissioning and beam parameter measurements. The main focus is on lessons learned from operation of the SRF gun.

  9. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to gas customers who construct new energy efficient homes or install energy efficient equipment in existing homes. Incentives are available for:

  10. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

  11. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  12. Equation of State Measurements of Materials Using a Three-Stage Gun to Impact Velocities of 11km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; CARROLL,DANIEL E.; THORNHILL,T.G.; WINFREE,N.A.

    2000-09-26

    Understanding high pressure behavior of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be subjugated to phase-changes, such as melting and vaporization. These phase states cannot be obtained through conventional gun technology. These processes need to be represented accurately in hydrodynamic codes to allow credible computational analysis of impact events resulting from hypervelocity impact. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 km/s. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology.

  13. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  14. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  15. Electric arc welding gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  16. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  17. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  18. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  19. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to light olefins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, V. Udaya S.; Gormley, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    A catalyst and process for making same useful in the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide in which a silicalite support substantially free of aluminum is soaked in an aqueous solution of iron and potassium salts wherein the iron and potassium are present in concentrations such that the dried silicalite has iron present in the range of from about 5 to about 25 percent by weight and has potassium present in an amount not less than about 0.2 percent by weight, and thereafter the silicalite is dried and combined with amorphous silica as a binder for pellets, the catalytic pellets are used to convert synthesis gas to C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 olefins.

  20. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  1. Probing the Quantum State of a 1D Bose Gas Using Off-Resonant Light Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykes, A. G.; Ballagh, R. J.

    2011-12-30

    We present a theoretical treatment of coherent light scattering from an interacting 1D Bose gas at finite temperatures. We show how this can provide a nondestructive measurement of the atomic system states. The equilibrium states are determined by the temperature and interaction strength, and are characterized by the spatial density-density correlation function. We show how this correlation function is encoded in the angular distribution of the fluctuations of the scattered light intensity, thus providing a sensitive, quantitative probe of the density-density correlation function and therefore the quantum state of the gas.

  2. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time: 10:00 am - 12:30 pm EDT Purpose: To convene representatives from stakeholder organizations in order to enhance their understanding of the characteristics of condensing natural gas heating and water heating equipment that contribute to the unique installation requirements and challenges of this equipment compared to

  3. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  4. RF Processing Experience with the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, J.F.

    2010-11-24

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. A total of five different metal cathodes (4 Cu and 1 Mg) have been installed on the GTF gun. The rf processing history with the different cathodes will be presented including peak field achieved at the cathode. The LCLS gun is intended to operate at 120 MV/m and fields up to 140 MV/m have been achieved in the GTF gun. After installing a new cathode the number of rf pulses required to reach 120 MV/m is approximately 5-10 million. Total emitted dark current and Fowler Nordheim plots are also shown over the life of the cathode. The GTF photo-injector gun is an S-band standing-wave structure, with two resonant cavities and an intervening thick washer (Figure 1). The flat, back wall of the first cavity is a copper plate that serves as photocathode when illuminated with ultraviolet light from a pulsed, high-power laser. RF power enters the gun through an iris on the outer wall of the second cavity, and is coupled to the first through the axial opening of the washer. The first cavity is often referred to as a half cell, because its full-cell length has been truncated by the cathode plate and the second cavity is called the full cell. The gun is designed to operate in a {pi} mode, with the peak field on axis in each cell approximately equal. The maximum in the half cell occurs at the cathode, and in the full cell near the center of the cavity. The field profile and tuning procedures are discussed in a separate tech note [1].

  5. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  6. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  7. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  8. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  9. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and often exhibit poor reliability. Two technical approaches to solving this problem will be investigated. Firstly, inverted ceramics offer solutions for reduced gradients between the electrodes and ground. An inverted design will be presented for 350 kV, with maximum gradients in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Secondly, novel ceramic manufacturing processes will be studied, in order to protect triple junction locations from emission, by applying a coating with a bulk resistivity. The processes for creating this coating will be optimized to provide protection as well as be used to coat a ceramic with an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of an HV standoff ceramic cylinder. Example insulator designs are being computer modelled, and insulator samples are being manufactured and tested

  10. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limborg-Deprey, C

    2010-12-13

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun [1], referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee [2]. Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  11. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible multiphase mechanisms at work, namely, Darcy-type displacement until gas breakthrough, gravity drainage after breakthrough and film-drainage in gas-invaded zones throughout the duration of the process. The partially-scaled physical model was used in a series of experiments to study the effects of wettability, gas-oil miscibility, secondary versus tertiary mode gas injection, and the presence of fractures on GAGD oil recovery. In addition to yielding recoveries of up to 80% IOIP, even in the immiscible gas injection mode, the partially-scaled physical model confirmed the positive influence of fractures and oil-wet characteristics in enhancing oil recoveries over those measured in the homogeneous (unfractured) water-wet models. An interesting observation was that a single logarithmic relationship between the oil recovery and the gravity number was obeyed by the physical model, the high-pressure corefloods and the field data.

  12. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  13. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.; Len, L. K.; Peter, W.

    1999-07-12

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated cold emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold emission process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied this resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01-5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 100 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1-100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approx}5% of the rf period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approx}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approx}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. About 5.8x10{sup 13} micro-bunches or {approx}62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG{sup {dagger}}, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 150 A/cm{sup 2}. The third project involves the construction of a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. Analytical work has been carried out on this device, and we are ready to proceed with design, fabrication, and testing.

  14. X-Band RF Gun Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlieks, Arnold; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-06-22

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  15. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  16. Self-bunching electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mako, F.M.; Len, L.K.

    1999-05-01

    We report on three electron gun projects that are aimed at power tube and injector applications. The purpose of the work is to develop robust electron guns which produce self-bunched, high-current-density beams. We have demonstrated, in a microwave cavity, self-bunching, cold electron emission, long life, and tolerance to contamination. The cold process is based on secondary electron emission. FMT has studied using simulation codes the resonant bunching process which gives rise to high current densities (0.01{endash}5 kA/cm{sup 2}), high charge bunches (up to 500 nC/bunch), and short pulses (1{endash}100 ps) for frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz. The beam pulse width is nominally {approximately}5{percent} of the {ital rf} period. The first project is the L-Band Micro-Pulse Gun (MPG). Measurements show {approximately}40 ps long micro-bunches at {approximately}20 A/cm{sup 2} without contamination due to air exposure. Lifetime testing has been carried out for about 18 months operating at 1.25 GHz for almost 24 hours per day at a repetition rate of 300 Hz and 5 {mu}s-long macro-pulses. Approximately 5.8{times}10{sup 13} micro-bunches or 62,000 coulombs have passed through this gun and it is still working fine. The second project, the S-Band MPG, is now operational. It is functioning at a frequency of 2.85 GHz, a repetition rate of 30 Hz, with a 2 {mu}s-long macro-pulse. It produces about 45 A in the macro-pulse. The third project is a 34.2 GHz frequency-multiplied source driven by an X-Band MPG. A point design was performed at an {ital rf} output power of 150 MW at 34.2 GHz. The resulting system efficiency is 53{percent} and the gain is 60 dB. The system efficiency includes the input cavity efficiency, input driver efficiency (a 50 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz), output cavity efficiency, and the post-acceleration efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Superconducting 112 MHz QWR electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Rao, T.; Siegel, B.; Skaritka, J.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.; Xue, L.

    2011-07-25

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed and fabricated a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) electron gun. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper describes the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule. Future experiments include studies of different photocathodes and use for the coherent electron cooling proof-of-principle experiment. Two cathode stalk options, one for multi-alkali photocathodes and the other one for a diamond-amplified photocathode, are discussed. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling hadron beams in RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline our plans. This gun will also serve as a prototype for a future SRF gun to be used for coherent electron cooling of hadrons in eRHIC.

  18. Optimizing RF gun cavity geometry within an automated injector design system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicia Hofler ,Pavel Evtushenko

    2011-03-28

    RF guns play an integral role in the success of several light sources around the world, and properly designed and optimized cw superconducting RF (SRF) guns can provide a path to higher average brightness. As the need for these guns grows, it is important to have automated optimization software tools that vary the geometry of the gun cavity as part of the injector design process. This will allow designers to improve existing designs for present installations, extend the utility of these guns to other applications, and develop new designs. An evolutionary algorithm (EA) based system can provide this capability because EAs can search in parallel a large parameter space (often non-linear) and in a relatively short time identify promising regions of the space for more careful consideration. The injector designer can then evaluate more cavity design parameters during the injector optimization process against the beam performance requirements of the injector. This paper will describe an extension to the APISA software that allows the cavity geometry to be modified as part of the injector optimization and provide examples of its application to existing RF and SRF gun designs.

  19. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  20. Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-02-15

    For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

  1. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  2. A compact electron gun for time-resolved electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2015-01-15

    A novel compact time-resolved electron diffractometer has been built with the primary goal of studying the ultrafast molecular dynamics of photoexcited gas-phase molecules. Here, we discuss the design of the electron gun, which is triggered by a Ti:Sapphire laser, before detailing a series of calibration experiments relating to the electron-beam properties. As a further test of the apparatus, initial diffraction patterns have been collected for thin, polycrystalline platinum samples, which have been shown to match theoretical patterns. The data collected demonstrate the focusing effects of the magnetic lens on the electron beam, and how this relates to the spatial resolution of the diffraction pattern.

  3. Oxygenates from light alkanes catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamanaka, Ichiro

    1999-07-01

    The partial oxidations of light alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, and iso-butane) catalyzed by NO{sub x} in the gas phase have been studied at a pressure of less than 1 bar. For all the alkanes tested, the addition of NO to the mixture of alkanes and O{sub 2} enhanced the selectivities and the yields of oxygenates remarkably. It was suggested that NO{sub 2} generated from NO and O{sub 2} initiated the oxidation of alkanes and would specifically accelerate the C-C bond fission, enhancing the formation of C{sub 1}-oxygenates from ethane, propane, and iso-butane. No{sub 2} and NO would be used as a homogeneous catalyst at >600 C because nitroalkanes formed were decomposed completely, releasing the NO{sub x}. The comparison of the product distributions for the decomposition and oxidation of nitroalkanes and alkylnitrites strongly suggested that the oxygenates (HCHO, CH{sub 3}CHO, and CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}) were formed from the corresponding alkylnitrites which must be the reaction intermediates during the oxidation of alkanes with an O{sub 2} and NO mixture.

  4. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  5. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) offers residential energy efficiency rebates to Iowa customers for a variety of home upgrades. Rebates are available for certain heating, insulation,...

  6. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)- Farm Equipment Energy Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy) offers prescriptive rebates for a variety of energy efficient products for agricultural customers. In addition to these incentives, IPL offers a Farm...

  7. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY)

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  8. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni (Shoreham, NY); Ben-Zvi, Ilan (Setauket, NY); Kewisch, Jorg (Wading River, NY); Chang, Xiangyun (Middle Island, NY)

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  9. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  10. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  11. Dynamics Modelling of Biolistic Gene Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Tao, W.; Pianetta, P.A.

    2009-06-04

    The gene transfer process using biolistic gene guns is a highly dynamic process. To achieve good performance, the process needs to be well understood and controlled. Unfortunately, no dynamic model is available in the open literature for analysing and controlling the process. This paper proposes such a model. Relationships of the penetration depth with the helium pressure, the penetration depth with the acceleration distance, and the penetration depth with the micro-carrier radius are presented. Simulations have also been conducted. The results agree well with experimental results in the open literature. The contribution of this paper includes a dynamic model for improving and manipulating performance of the biolistic gene gun.

  12. An evaluation of gas field rules in light of current conditions and production practices in the Panhandle non-associated gas fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, C.L.; O`Rear, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    During the early years of development in the Panhandle fields the Rule of Capture was king. Under the Rule of Capture each property owner has the right to drill as many wells as desired at any location. Adjacent property owners protect their rights by doing the same. Courts adopted the Rule of Capture to protect mineral owners from liability due to migration of oil and gas across property boundary lines. This general practice {open_quotes}to go and do likewise{close_quotes} generally leads to enormous economic and natural resource waste. Established to offset the waste created under the Rule of Capture is the doctrine of Correlative Rights. Correlative Rights is the fight of each mineral owner to obtain oil and gas from a common source of supply under lawful operations conducted from his property. However, each mineral owner has a duty to every other mineral owner not to extract oil and gas in a manner injurious to the common source of supply. This paper will examine the historical context of these common law principles with regard to the Panhandle non-associated gas fields. Discovered in 1917, the Panhandle fields are ideal to evaluate the merit of statutes and regulations enacted in response to production practices. As in many Texas fields, proration in the Panhandle fields is the primary mechanism to protect correlative rights and prevent waste. Signed and made effective May 1989, the current field rules pre-date much of the enhanced recovery techniques that use well-head vacuum compression. This paper reviews the gas rules in the 1989 Texas Railroad Commission order in light of current reservoir conditions and production practices.

  13. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  14. Fission gas release from UO{sub 2+x} in defective light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skim, Y. S.

    1999-11-12

    A simplified semi-empirical model predicting fission gas release form UO{sub 2+x} fuel to the fuel rod plenum as a function of stoichiometry excess (x) is developed to apply to the fuel of a defective LWR fuel rod in operation. The effect of fuel oxidation in enhancing gas diffusion is included as a parabolic dependence of the stoichiometry excess. The increase of fission gas release in a defective BWR fuel rod is at the most 3 times higher than in an intact fuel rod because of small extent of UO{sub 2} oxidation. The major enhancement contributor in fission gas release of UO{sub 2+x} fuel is the increased diffusivity due to stoichiometry excess rather than the higher temperature caused by degraded fuel thermal conductivity.

  15. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas)- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interstate Power and Light (IPL) offers a wide variety of incentives for commercial customers to save energy in eligible facilities, whether they are upgrading existing facilities or building new...

  16. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)- Low Interest Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interstate Power and Light (Alliant Energy), in conjunction with Wells Fargo Bank, offers a low-interest loan for residential, commercial and agricultural customers who purchase and install energy...

  17. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)- New Home Construction Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interstate Power and Light's New Home Program gives incentives to builders and contractors who build energy efficient homes. A base rebate is available to those customers that make the minimum...

  18. RF Gun Photocathode Research at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jongewaard, E.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Grouev, K.; Hering, P.; P.Krejcik,; Lewandowski, J.; Loos, H.; Montagne, T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stefan, P.; Vlieks, A.; Weathersby, S.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2012-05-16

    LCLS is presently operating with a third copper photocathode in the original rf gun, with a quantum efficiency (QE) of {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} and projected emittance {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x,y} = 0.45 {micro}m at 250 pC bunch charge. The spare LCLS gun is installed in the SLAC Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA), fully processed to high rf power. As part of a wider photocathode R and D program, a UV laser system and additional gun diagnostics are being installed at ASTA to measure QE, QE lifetime, and electron beam emittance under a variety of operating conditions. The near-term goals are to test and verify the spare photocathode production/installation sequence, including transfer from the final holding chamber to the rf gun. Mid- and longer-term goals include development of a rigorous understanding of plasma and laser-assisted surface conditioning and investigation of new, high-QE photocathode materials. In parallel, an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy station is nearing completion, to analyze Cu photocathode surface chemistry. In this paper we review the status and anticipated operating parameters of ASTA and the spectroscopy test chamber.

  19. Rail gun development for EOS research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The status of a railgun program for EOS research in progress at Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories is described. The operating principle of rail guns, the power supplies used to drive them, diagnostic techniques used to monitor their performance and initial efforts to develop projectiles suitable for EOS research are discussed. (WHK)

  20. Common Sense Copper and RF Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G.

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this document is to gather together both fundamental information on copper and on the cleaning and operation of copper in RF gun structures. While incomplete, this is a living document and will be added to and updated as necessary.

  1. Progress on a cryogenically cooled RF gun polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fliller, R.P., III; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    RF guns have proven useful in multiple accelerator applications. An RF gun capable of producing polarized electrons is an attractive electron source for the ILC or an electron-ion collider. Producing such a gun has proven elusive. The NEA GaAs photocathode needed for polarized electron production is damaged by the vacuum environment in an RF gun. Electron and ion back bombardment can also damage the cathode. These problems must be mitigated before producing an RF gun polarized electron source. In this paper we report continuing efforts to improve the vacuum environment in a normal conducting RF gun by cooling it with liquid nitrogen after a high temperature vacuum bake out. We also report on a design of a cathode preparation chamber to produce bulk GaAs photocathodes for testing in such a gun. Future directions are also discussed.

  2. An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Hast, C.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, F.; Walz, D.R.; Marsh, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-09-07

    The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.

  3. Modeling of gun barrel surface erosion: Historic perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1996-08-01

    Results and interpretations of numerical simulations of some dominant processes influencing gun barrel propellant combustion and flow-induced erosion are presented. Results include modeled influences of erosion reduction techniques such as solid additives, vapor phase chemical modifications, and alteration of surface solid composition through use of thin coatings. Precedents and historical perspective are provided with predictions from traditional interior ballistics compared to computer simulations. Accelerating reactive combustion flow, multiphase and multicomponent transport, flow-to-surface thermal/momentum/phase change/gas-surface chemical exchanges, surface and micro-depth subsurface heating/stress/composition evolution and their roles in inducing surface cracking, spall, ablation, melting, and vaporization are considered. Recognition is given to cyclic effects of previous firing history on material preconditioning. Current perspective and outlook for future are based on results of a US Army-LLNL erosion research program covering 7 y in late 1970s. This is supplemented by more recent research on hypervelocity electromagnetic projectile launchers.

  4. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

  5. Gun Club Estates, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gun Club Estates, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 26.6753439, -80.1072651 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  6. 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ELECTRON GUNS; BEAM EMITTANCE; CHARGE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPACE 430200* -- Particle Accelerators-- Beam Dynamics, Field Calculations, & Ion Optics The evolution of the electron-beam phase space distribution in laser-driven rf guns is...

  7. Simulations of Ion Migration in the LCLS RF Gun and Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brachmann, Axel; Dowell, David; /SLAC

    2012-06-25

    The motivation for this work was the observed surface contamination of the first LCLS RF gun copper cathode. We will present the results of simulations in regards to ion migration in the LCLS gun. Ions of residual gases will be created by interaction of molecular gas species with the UV drive laser beam and by the electron beam itself. The larger part of those ionized molecules remain in the vicinity of creation, are transported towards beam line walls or away from the cathode. However a small fraction gains enough kinetic energy, focused by RF and magnetic fields and propagates to the cathode, producing an undesirable increase of the cathode's surface work function. Although this fraction is small, during long term operation, this effect may become a significant factor limiting the source performance.

  8. Ultrapyrolytic upgrading of plastic wastes and plastics/heavy oil mixtures to valuable light gas products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovett, S.; Berruti, F.; Behie, L.A.

    1997-11-01

    Viable operating conditions were identified experimentally for maximizing the production of high-value products such as ethylene, propylene, styrene, and benzene, from the ultrapyrolysis of waste plastics. Using both a batch microreactor and a pilot-plant-sized reactor, the key operating variables considered were pyrolysis temperature, product reaction time, and quench time. In the microreactor experiments, polystyrene (PS), a significant component of waste plastics, was pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 800 to 965 C, with total reaction times ranging from 500 to 1,000 ms. At a temperature of 965 C and 500 ms, the yields of styrene plus benzene were greater than 95 wt %. In the pilot-plant experiments, the recently patented internally circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor (Milne et al., US Patent Number 5,370,789, 1994b) was used to ultrapyrolyze low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in addition to LDPE (5% by weight)/heavy oil mixtures at a residence time of 600 ms. Both experiments produced light olefin yields greater than 55 wt % at temperatures above 830 C.

  9. Superconducting laser photocathode RF gun at BNL | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Superconducting laser photocathode RF gun at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About ... Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Superconducting laser photocathode RF gun at BNL ...

  10. Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design for CLIC Gun Pulser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  11. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  12. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high accelerating gradient of the RF guns, potentially offering a long lived cathode with very low emittance. Testing this concept requires preparation of the cathode, transportation to the SRF gun and evaluation of the performance of the cathode and the gun at cryogenic temperatures. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the bulk GaAs in the preparation chamber. The highest quantum efficient was 10% at 532 nm that fell to 0.5% after 100 hours. We explored three different ways to activate the GaAs. We verified that the GaAs photocathode remains stable for 30 hours in a 10{sup -11} Torr vacuum. Passing the photocathode through the low 10{sup -9} Torr transfer section in several seconds caused the QE to drop to 0.8%. The photocathode with 0.8% QE can be tested for the SRF gun. The gun and beam pipe were prepared and assembled. After baking at 200 C baking, the vacuum of the gun and beam pipe can sustain a low 10{sup -11} Torr at room temperature. The final test to extract electrons from the gun is ongoing. In this paper, we discuss our progress with this SRF gun and the results of the photocathode in preparation chamber and in magnet transfer line.

  13. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  14. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hosek, William S. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Garruto, Edward J. (Wayne, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  15. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  16. Fluorescent Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light from a fluorescent lamp is first created by an electric current conducted through an inert gas producing ultraviolet light that is invisible to the human eye.

  17. Thermal modeling of an indirectly heated E-beam gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jallouk, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium atomic vapor for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process is produced by magnetically steering a high-power electron beam to the surface of the uranium melt. The electron beam is produced by a Pierce-type axial E-beam gun with an indirectly heated emitter (IDHE)-the industry standard for high-power melting and vaporization. AVLIS process design requirements for the E-beam gun are stringent, particularly in the areas of modularity, compactness, and lifetime. The gun assembly details are complex, geometric clearances are tight, and operating temperatures and stress levels are at the upper limits of acceptability. Detailed three-dimensional finite-element thermal models of the E-beam gun have been developed to address this challenging thermal packaging issue. These models are used in conjunction with design and testing activities to develop a gun exhibiting a high level of reliability for acceptable operation in a plant environment.

  18. Pyrotechnic ignition studies using a gun tunnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    A gun tunnel is being used to investigate the ignition characteristics of center-hole iron/potassium perchlorate thermal battery discs. Details are given of the construction, operation, and data reduction method for the gun tunnel. To simulate an igniter, this system can readily produce a pulse of hot argon at maximum pressures and temperatures up to P/sub max/ = 8 MPa and T/sub max/ = 4000K, respectively, with flow times of the order of 3 msec. For a single battery disc, a segment of the ignition boundary was found to lie in the region of T/sub max/ = 1200 to 1300K and 0.7 MPa < P/sub max/ < 2.0 MPa. The results also showed two types of ignition: prompt ignition, requiring an average delivered enthalpy /ovr /Delta/H//sub ig/ = 6 cal during an average flow time /ovr /Delta/t//sub ig/ = 0.7 msec, and delayed ignition, with /ovr /Delta/H//sub ig/ = 16 cal and /ovr /Delta/t//sub ig/ = 2.4 msec. In addition, near an ignition boundary, high speed motion photography showed the ignition delay increased to 6 msec with significant spatial non-uniformity. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  19. Model for characterization of a vortex pair formed by shock passage over a light-gas inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.; Kubota, T.; Zukoski, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    This work investigates the two-dimensional flow of a shock wave over a circular light-gas inhomogeneity in a channel with finite width. The pressure gradient from the shock wave interacts with the density gradient at the edge of the inhomogeneity to deposit vorticity around the perimeter, and the structure rolls up into a pair of counter-rotating vortices. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the scaling laws for the flow field produced by this interaction at times long after the passage of the shock across the inhomogeneity. Numerical simulations are performed for various initial conditions and the results are used to guide the development of relatively simple algebraic models that characterize the dynamics of the vortex pair, and that allow extrapolation of the numerical results to conditions more nearly of interest in practical situations. The models are not derived directly from the equations of motion but depend on these equations and on intuition guided by the numerical results. Agreement between simulations and models is generally good except for a vortex-spacing model which is less satisfactory. A practical application of this shock-induced vortical flow is rapid and efficient mixing of fuel and oxidizer in a SCRAMJET combustion chamber. One possible injector design uses the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a jet of light fuel to generate vorticity which stirs and mixes the two fluids and lifts the burning jet away from the combustor wall. Marble proposed an analogy between this three-dimensional steady flow and the two-dimensional unsteady problem of the present investigation. Comparison is made between closely corresponding three-dimensional steady and two-dimensional unsteady flows, and a mathematical description of Marble`s analogy is proposed. 17 refs.

  20. LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Shock physics experiments complement the ongoing subcritical experiment program at NTS as part of the NNSA's stockpile stewardship program to maintain the safety and reliability of ...

  1. Smart Gun Technology project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user form firing a law officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing (or {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes}) surety technologies. This project was funded by the National Institute of Justice. This report lists the findings and results of the project`s three primary objectives. First, to find and document the requirements for a smart firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. Second, to investigate, evaluate, and prioritize technologies that meet the requirements for a law enforcement officer`s smart firearm. Third, to demonstrate and document the most promising technology`s usefulness in models of a smart firearm.

  2. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M.; Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.; Chi, Y.

    2013-11-15

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm{sup 2}), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Available Launchers 100 mm compressed gas gun (velocities to 1 kms) 100 mm compressed light gas gun for oblique impacts (velocities to 400ms) 89 mm powder gun (0.5 - 2.3 kms) 30 ...

  4. Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In computer modeling of air guns the theory is often based on the assumption of an ideal freely oscillating spherical air bubble in an ideal fluid. Theoretical and experimental ...

  5. Cold Test Measurements on the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierman, S.M.

    2010-12-03

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. Based on longitudinal phase space measurements showing a correlated energy spread the gun was removed and re-characterized in 2002. The low power RF measurements performed on the gun are described below. Perturbative bead measurements were performed to determine the field ratio in the two-cell gun, and network analyzer measurements were made to characterize the mode structure. A second probe was installed to monitor the RF field in the first cell, and a diagnostic was developed to monitor the high-power field ratio. Calibration of the RF probes, a model for analyzing RF measurements, and Superfish simulations of bead and RF measurements are described.

  6. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M. E-mail: muniqbal@ihep.ac.cn; Wasy, A.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-02-15

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  7. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  8. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantin, Drago? E. Fahrig, Rebecca; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with 15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T magnet without capture efficiency reduction below the experimental value in zero field. In this range of linac displacements, the electron beam generated by the new gun geometry is more effectively injected into the linac in the presence of an external magnetic field, resulting in approximately 20% increase of the target current compared to the original gun geometry behavior at zero field. The new gun geometry can generate and accelerate electron beams in external magnetic fields without current loss for fields higher than 0.11 T. The new electron-gun geometry is robust enough to function in the fringe fields of the other two magnets with a target current loss of no more than 16% with respect to the current obtained with no external magnetic fields. Conclusions: In this work, a specially designed electron gun was presented which can operate in the presence of axisymmetric strong magnetic fringe fields of MRI magnets. Computer simulations show that the electron gun can produce high quality beams which can be injected into a straight through linac such as Varian 600C and accelerated with more efficiency in the presence of the external magnetic fields. Also, the new configuration allows linac displacements along the magnet axis in a range equal to the diameter of the imaging spherical volume of the magnet under consideration. The new electron gun-linac system can function in the fringe field of a MRI magnet if the field strength at the cathode position is higher than 0.11 T. The capture efficiency of the linac depends on the magnetic field strength and the field gradient. The higher the gradient the better the capture efficiency. The capture efficiency does not degrade more than 16%.

  9. A novel electron gun for inline MRI-linac configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constantin, Dragoş E. Fahrig, Rebecca; Holloway, Lois; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This work introduces a new electron gun geometry capable of robust functioning in the presence of a high strength external magnetic field for axisymmetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-linac configurations. This allows an inline MRI-linac to operate without the need to isolate the linear accelerator (linac) using a magnetic shield. This MRI-linac integration approach not only leaves the magnet homogeneity unchanged but also provides the linac flexibility to move along the magnet axis of symmetry if the source to target distance needs to be adjusted. Methods: Simple electron gun geometry modifications of a Varian 600C electron gun are considered and solved in the presence of an external magnetic field in order to determine a set of design principles for the new geometry. Based on these results, a new gun geometry is proposed and optimized in the fringe field of a 0.5 T open bore MRI magnet (GE Signa SP). A computer model for the 6 MeV Varian 600C linac is used to determine the capture efficiency of the new electron gun-linac system in the presence of the fringe field of the same MRI scanner. The behavior of the new electron gun plus the linac system is also studied in the fringe fields of two other magnets, a 1.0 T prototype open bore magnet and a 1.5 T GE Conquest scanner. Results: Simple geometrical modifications of the original electron gun geometry do not provide feasible solutions. However, these tests show that a smaller transverse cathode diameter with a flat surface and a slightly larger anode diameter could alleviate the current loss due to beam interactions with the anode in the presence of magnetic fields. Based on these findings, an initial geometry resembling a parallel plate capacitor with a hole in the anode is proposed. The optimization procedure finds a cathode-anode distance of 5 mm, a focusing electrode angle of 5°, and an anode drift tube length of 17.1 mm. Also, the linac can be displaced with ±15 cm along the axis of the 0.5 T magnet without capture efficiency reduction below the experimental value in zero field. In this range of linac displacements, the electron beam generated by the new gun geometry is more effectively injected into the linac in the presence of an external magnetic field, resulting in approximately 20% increase of the target current compared to the original gun geometry behavior at zero field. The new gun geometry can generate and accelerate electron beams in external magnetic fields without current loss for fields higher than 0.11 T. The new electron-gun geometry is robust enough to function in the fringe fields of the other two magnets with a target current loss of no more than 16% with respect to the current obtained with no external magnetic fields. Conclusions: In this work, a specially designed electron gun was presented which can operate in the presence of axisymmetric strong magnetic fringe fields of MRI magnets. Computer simulations show that the electron gun can produce high quality beams which can be injected into a straight through linac such as Varian 600C and accelerated with more efficiency in the presence of the external magnetic fields. Also, the new configuration allows linac displacements along the magnet axis in a range equal to the diameter of the imaging spherical volume of the magnet under consideration. The new electron gun-linac system can function in the fringe field of a MRI magnet if the field strength at the cathode position is higher than 0.11 T. The capture efficiency of the linac depends on the magnetic field strength and the field gradient. The higher the gradient the better the capture efficiency. The capture efficiency does not degrade more than 16%.

  10. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-07-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  11. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  12. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  13. Cerenkov Radiator Driven by a Superconducting RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, B R; Harris, J R

    2011-03-07

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Niowave, Inc., and Boeing have recently demonstrated operation of the first superconducting RF electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator structure. In preliminary tests, this gun has produced 10 ps long bunches with charge in excess of 78 pC, and with beam energy up to 396 keV. Initial testing occurred at Niowave's Lansing, MI facility, but the gun and diagnostic beam line are planned for installation in California in the near future. The design of the diagnostic beam line is conducive to the addition of a Cerenkov radiator without interfering with other beam line operations. Design and simulations of a Cerenkov radiator, consisting of a dielectric lined waveguide will be presented. The dispersion relation for the structure is determined and the beam interaction is studied using numerical simulations. The characteristics of the microwave radiation produced in both the short and long bunch regimes will be presented.

  14. Los Alamos Guns Take Aim at Material's Mysteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, Mark; Moore, David; Dimarino, Steve

    2014-04-14

    Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists and technicians conduct thousands of experiments a year, delving into the fundamental nature of everything from supernovas to subatomic particles. One set of instruments used to better understand the fundamental nature of various materials are 10 scientific gun systems that fire various projectiles at high-tech targets to create enormous velocities, pressures, and temperatures - and using laser, x-ray, and other diagnostics - explore the very nature of metals and other materials. The hundreds of gun-based experiments conducted every year at the Laboratory require a highly-skilled staff of scientists and technicians, and has given rise to a special organization called the "gun working group" to foster open communications, cooperation, problem-solving, and a healthy safety culture.

  15. Emittance Measurements of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Michael; Clendenin, James; Fisher, Alan; Miller, Roger; Palmer, Dennis; Park, Sam; Schmerge, John; Weaver, Jim; Wiedemann, Helmut; Winick, Herman; Yeremian, Dian; Meyerhofer, David; Reis, David; /Rochester U.

    2011-09-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand is under construction in the injector vault of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The goal of this facility is to produce an electron beam with a normalized emittance of 1-3[mm-mr], a longitudinal bunch duration of the order of 10[ps] FWHM and approximately 1[nC] of charge per bunch. The beam will be generated from a laser driven copper photocathode RF gun developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL and UCLA. The 3-5[MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section. The emittance of the electron beam will be measured through the use of quadrupole scans with phosphor screens and also a wire scanner. The details of the experimental setup will be discussed, and first measurements will be presented and compared with results from PARMELA simulations.

  16. ELECTROSTATIC MODELING OF THE JEFFERSON LABORATORY INVERTED CERAMIC GUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Evtushenko ,F.E. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is currently developing a new 500kV DC electron gun for future use with the FEL. The design consists of two inverted ceramics which support a central cathode electrode. This layout allows for a load-lock system to be located behind the gun chamber. The electrostatic geometry of the gun has been designed to minimize surface electric field gradients and also to provide some transverse focusing to the electron beam during transit between the cathode and anode. This paper discusses the electrode design philosophy and presents the results of electrostatic simulations. The electric field information obtained through modeling was used with particle tracking codes to predict the effects on the electron beam.

  17. PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation ...

  18. Surface Characterization of the LCLS RF Gun Cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brachmann, Axel; Decker, Franz-Josef; Ding, Yuantao; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Frisch, Josef; Gilevich, Sasha; Hays, Gregory; Hering, Philippe; Huang, Zhirong; Iverson, Richard; Loos, Henrik; Miahnahri, Alan; Nordlund, Dennis; Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter; Pianetta, Piero; Turner, James; Welch, James; White, William; Wu, Juhao; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-25

    The first copper cathode installed in the LCLS RF gun was used during LCLS commissioning for more than a year. However, after high charge operation (> 500 pC), the cathode showed a decline of quantum efficiency within the area of drive laser illumination. They report results of SEM, XPS and XAS studies that were carried out on this cathode after it was removed from the gun. X-ray absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal surface contamination by various hydrocarbon compounds. In addition they report on the performance of the second installed cathode with emphasis on the spatial distribution of electron emission.

  19. Plasma-filled diode based on the coaxial gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zherlitsyn, A. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Pedin, N. N.

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the results of studies of a coaxial gun for a plasma-filled electron diode. Effects of the discharge channel diameter and gun current on characteristics of the plasma and pulse generated in the diode were investigated. The electron beam with maximum energy of {>=}1 MeV at the current of Almost-Equal-To 100 kA was obtained in the experiments with a plasma-filled diode. The energy of Almost-Equal-To 5 kJ with the peak power of {>=}100 GW dissipated in the diode.

  20. First beam commissioning at BNL ERL SRF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Altinbas, Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Deonarine, S.; DeSanto, L.; Gassner, D.; Gupta, R. C.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Ho, C.; Jamilkoski, J.; Kankiya, P.; Kayran, D.; Kellerman, R.; Laloudakis, N.; Lambiase, R.; Liaw, C.; Litvinenko, V.; Mahler, G.; Masi, L.; McIntyre, G.; Miller, T.; Philips, D.; Ptitsyn, V.; Seda, T.; Sheehy, B.; Smith, K.; Rao, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Than, R.; Tuozollo, J.; Wang, E.; Weiss, D.; Wiliniski, M.; Zaltsman, A.

    2015-05-03

    The 704 MHz SRF gun successfully generated the first photoemission beam in November of 2014. The configurations of the test and the sub-systems are described.The latest results of SRF commissioning, including the cavity performance, cathode QE measurements, beam current/energy measurements, are presented in the paper.

  1. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical θ-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, T. E. Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical θ-pinch, resulting in a ∼350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  2. Technologies and policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the U. S. automobile and light truck fleet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The message conveyed by the above discussion is that there are no shortages of technologies available to improve the fuel efficiency of the U.S. fleet of autos and light trucks. It clearly is technically feasible to improve greatly the fuel economy of the average new light-duty vehicle. Many of these technologies require tradeoffs, however, that manufacturers are unwilling or (as yet) unable to make in today's market and regulatory environment. These tradeoffs involve higher costs (that might be reduced substantially over time with learning and economies of scale), technical risk and added complexity, emissions concerns (especially for direct injection engines, and especially with respect to diesel engine technology), and customer acceptance issues. Even with current low U.S. oil prices, however, many of these technologies may find their way into the U.S. market, or increase their market share, as a consequence of their penetration of European and Japanese markets with their high gasoline prices. Automotive technology is ''fungible'' that is, it can be easily transported from one market to another. Nevertheless, it probably is unrealistic to expect substantial increases in the average fuel economy of the U.S. light-duty fleet without significant changes in the market. Without such changes, the technologies that do penetrate the U.S. market are more likely to be used to increase acceleration performance or vehicle structures or enable four wheel drive to be included in vehicles without a net mpg penalty. In other words, technology by itself is not likely to be enough to raise fleet fuel economy levels - this was the conclusion of the 1995 Ailomar Conference on Energy and Sustainable Transportation, organized by the Transportation Research Board's Committees on Energy and Alternative Fuels, and it is one I share.

  3. p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode driven by three-dimensional hole gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zi-Hui; Tiam Tan, Swee; Kyaw, Zabu; Liu, Wei; Ji, Yun; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore) [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Wei Sun, Xiao, E-mail: EXWSUN@ntu.edu.sg [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Volkan Demir, Hilmi, E-mail: VOLKAN@stanfordalumni.org [LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); LUMINOUS Centre of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Electronics, UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800 (Turkey); Department of Physics, UNAM-Institute of Material Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara TR-06800 (Turkey)

    2013-12-23

    Here, GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N heterostructures with a graded AlN composition, completely lacking external p-doping, are designed and grown using metal-organic-chemical-vapour deposition (MOCVD) system to realize three-dimensional hole gas (3DHG). The existence of the 3DHG is confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements. Based on this design, a p-doping-free InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) driven by the 3DHG is proposed and grown using MOCVD. The electroluminescence, which is attributed to the radiative recombination of injected electrons and holes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells, is observed from the fabricated p-doping-free devices. These results suggest that the 3DHG can be an alternative hole source for InGaN/GaN LEDs besides common Mg dopants.

  4. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  5. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G. U.; Misbah, I.; Iqbal, O.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-06-15

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm{sup 2}, respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm{sup 2}, at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  6. Note: O-ring stack system for electron gun alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, In-Yong; Cho, Boklae; Han, Cheolsu; Shin, Seungmin; Lee, Dongjun; Ahn, Sang Jung

    2015-01-15

    We present a reliable method for aligning an electron gun which consists of an electron source and lenses by controlling a stack of rubber O-rings in a vacuum condition. The beam direction angle is precisely tilted along two axes by adjusting the height difference of a stack of O-rings. In addition, the source position is shifted in each of three orthogonal directions. We show that the tilting angle and linear shift along the x and y axes as obtained from ten stacked O-rings are ±2.55° and ±2 mm, respectively. This study can easily be adapted to charged particle gun alignment and adjustments of the flange position in a vacuum, ensuring that its results can be useful with regard to electrical insulation between flanges with slight modifications.

  7. Limitations on area compression of beams from pierce guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V.P.; Nezhevenko, O.A. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-2008 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    An important limitation for rf sources such as klystrons and magnicons, designed for 10{close_quote}s of MW power outputs at cm-wavelengths, is the transverse electron beam size. Cathode current density limits require high beam area compressions to obtain small transverse beam areas for fixed currents. This paper discusses the limitations to high beam area compression, namely geometrical aberrations and thermal spread in transverse velocities. Compensation can oftentimes be introduced for aberrations, but thermal velocity spread presents a fundamental limitation. Examples where subtle compensation strategies were employed are discussed for three guns with 100 MW beam power, and area compressions greater than 2000:1. Two of these guns have already been built. A clear determination of effective cathode temperature has yet to be found experimentally, but possible means to measure it are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 210?? torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  9. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  10. Feebates and Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts on Fuel Use in Light-Duty Vehicles and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential impacts of a national feebate system, a market-based policy that consists of graduated fees on low-fuel-economy (or high-emitting) vehicles and rebates for high-fuel-economy (or lowemitting) vehicles. In their simplest form, feebate systems operate under three conditions: a benchmark divides all vehicles into two categories-those charged fees and those eligible for rebates; the sizes of the fees and rebates are a function of a vehicle's deviation from its benchmark; and placement of the benchmark ensures revenue neutrality or a desired level of subsidy or revenue. A model developed by the University of California for the California Air Resources Board was revised and used to estimate the effects of six feebate structures on fuel economy and sales of new light-duty vehicles, given existing and anticipated future fuel economy and emission standards. These estimates for new vehicles were then entered into a vehicle stock model that simulated the evolution of the entire vehicle stock. The results indicate that feebates could produce large, additional reductions in emissions and fuel consumption, in large part by encouraging market acceptance of technologies with advanced fuel economy, such as hybrid electric vehicles.

  11. A unique gun application for both high velocity and low velocity projectiles in a standard 155mm long tom gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Terminal Ballistics Facility at Sandia National Laboratores in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed an inexpensive and reliable capability for environmental testing of nuclear and kinetic energy weapon systems using the standard military 155 mm long tom gun. An unusual priming technique and charge configuration developed by Sandia National laboratories provides repeatable results such that payloads may be launched outside of the normal operating regime (both high and low) for the 155 mm gun. A 15 pound payload was reliably launched at 1000 fps with a breech pressure of 3000 psi. Another 20 pound payload was reliably launched to 5000 fps with a breech pressure of 50000 psi. A detailed description of charge configuration and test results is presented. 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Final Technical Report- Back-gate Field Emission-based Cathode RF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Gary; Martin, Allen; Noonan, John

    2010-10-30

    The objective was to complete the design of an electron gun which utilizes a radio frequency (RF) power source to apply a voltage to a field emission (FE) cathode, a so called cold cathode, in order to produce an electron beam. The concept of the RF electron gun was originally conceived at Argonne National Laboratory but never reduced to practice. The research allowed the completion of the design based upon the integration of the FE electron source. Compared to other electron guns, the RF gun is very compact, less than one third the size of other comparable guns, and produces a high energy (to several MeV), high quality, high power electron beam with a long focal length with high repetition rates. The resultant electron gun may be used in welding, materials processing, analytical equipment and waste treatment.

  13. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  14. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  15. V-Site Assembly Building and Gun Site | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    V-Site Assembly Building and Gun Site V-Site Assembly Building and Gun Site V-Site Assembly Building and Gun Site The V-Site buildings and the nearby Gun Site are the last significant structures still standing at Los Alamos associated with the development and assembly of the world's first nuclear devices. Located away from the main laboratory for safety and security reasons, the V-Site consisted of a cluster of wooden buildings built in January 1944 as a high explosives handling and assembly

  16. Tests with Sandia's Davis gun aid B61-12 life extension effort...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Tests with Sandia's Davis gun aid B61-12 life extension effort | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  17. Development of an L-Band RF Electron Gun for SASE in the Infrared Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kato, Ryukou; Isoyama, Goro; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Junji

    2010-02-03

    We conduct research on Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) in the infrared region using the 40 MeV, 1.3 GHz L-band linac of Osaka University. The linac equipped with a thermionic electron gun can accelerate a high-intensity single-bunch beam though its normalized emittance is high. In order to advance the research on SASE, we have begun development of an RF gun for the L-band linac in collaboration with KEK. We will report conceptual design of the RF gun and present the status of development of another RF gun for STF at KEK.

  18. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting ... This content will become publicly available on February 17, 2017 Title: Mechanical design ...

  19. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

  20. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Rahman, O.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  1. High-Fidelity RF Gun Simulations with the Parallel 3D Finite Element Particle-In-Cell Code Pic3P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the first parallel Finite Element 3D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code, Pic3P, for simulations of RF guns and other space-charge dominated beam-cavity interactions. Pic3P solves the complete set of Maxwell-Lorentz equations and thus includes space charge, retardation and wakefield effects from first principles. Pic3P uses higher-order Finite Elementmethods on unstructured conformal meshes. A novel scheme for causal adaptive refinement and dynamic load balancing enable unprecedented simulation accuracy, aiding the design and operation of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Application to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) RF gun is presented.

  2. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determine the Feasibility of Installing Energy Efficient Lighting In this part of the exercise, you will plan a new approach to lighting your school library. This new plan will use less energy, cost less, and result in less greenhouse gas. Your plan will also include bottom line calculations and decision factors such as: identifying the costs and payback for buying and installing new lighting equipment and making a determination about whether or not the new, more efficient lighting will provide

  3. A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pea, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

    2006-08-01

    The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp [1] electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN [2] simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

  4. Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.

  5. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  6. ILC @ SLAC R&D Program for a Polarized RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clendenin, J.E.; Brachman, A.; Dowell, D.H.; Garwin, E.L.; Ioakemidi, K.; Kirby, R.E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R.A.; Prescott, C.Y.; Wang, J.W.; Lewellen, J.W.; Prepost, R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-01-25

    Photocathode rf guns produce high-energy low-emittance electron beams. DC guns utilizing GaAs photocathodes have proven successful for generating polarized electron beams for accelerators, but they require rf bunching systems that significantly increase the transverse emittance of the beam. With higher extraction field and beam energy, rf guns can support higher current densities at the cathode. The source laser system can then be used to generate the high peak current, relatively low duty-factor micropulses required by the ILC without the need for post-extraction rf bunching. The net result is that the injection system for a polarized rf gun can be identical to that for an unpolarized rf gun. However, there is some uncertainty as to the survivability of an activated GaAs cathode in the environment of an operating rf gun. Consequently, before attempting to design a polarized rf gun for the ILC, SLAC plans to develop an rf test gun to demonstrate the rf operating conditions suitable for an activated GaAs cathode.

  7. Engineering Design and Fabrication of an Ampere-Class Superconducting Photocathode Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi,I.

    2008-11-17

    Over the past three years, Advanced Energy Systems and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have been collaborating on the design of an Ampere- class superconducting photocathode electron gun. BNL performed the physics design of the overall system and RF cavity under prior programs. Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is currently responsible for the engineering design and fabrication of the electron gun under contract to BNL. We will report on the engineering design and fabrication status of the superconducting photocathode electron gun. The overall configuration of the cryomodule will be reviewed. The layout of the hermitic string, space frame, shielding package, and cold mass will be discussed. The engineering design of the gun cavity and removable cathode will be presented in detail and areas of technical risk will be highlighted. Finally, the fabrication sequence and fabrication status of the gun cavity will be discussed.

  8. Initial Testing of the Mark-0 X-Band RF Gun at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlieks, Arnold; Adolphsen, C.; Dolgashev, V.; Lewandowski, J.; Limborg, Cecile; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    A new X-band RF gun (Mark-0) has been assembled, tuned and was tested in the ASTA facility at SLAC. This gun has been improved from an earlier gun used in Compton-scattering experiments at SLAC by the introduction of a racetrack dual-input coupler to reduce quadrupole fields. Waveguide-to-coupler irises were also redesigned to reduce surface magnetic fields and therefore peak pulse surface heating. Tests of this photocathode gun will allow us to gain early operational experience for beam tests of a new gun with further improvements (Mark-1) being prepared for SLAC's X-Band Test Area (XTA) program and the LLNL MEGa-ray program. Results of current testing up to {approx} 200 MV/m peak surface Electric fields are presented.

  9. Phase II Final Report Computer Optimization of Electron Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Thuc Bui; Hien Tran; Michael Read; Adam Attarian; William Tallis

    2011-04-15

    This program implemented advanced computer optimization into an adaptive mesh, finite element, 3D, charged particle code. The routines can optimize electron gun performance to achieve a specified current, beam size, and perveance. It can also minimize beam ripple and electric field gradients. The magnetics optimization capability allows design of coil geometries and magnetic material configurations to achieve a specified axial magnetic field profile. The optimization control program, built into the charged particle code Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA) utilizes a 3D solid modeling package to modify geometry using design tables. Parameters within the graphical user interface (currents, voltages, etc.) can be directly modified within BOA. The program implemented advanced post processing capability for the optimization routines as well as the user. A Graphical User Interface allows the user to set up goal functions, select variables, establish ranges of variation, and define performance criteria. The optimization capability allowed development of a doubly convergent multiple beam gun that could not be designed using previous techniques.

  10. Construction and Test of a Novel Superconducting RF Electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisognano, Joseph J.

    2014-04-16

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison has completed installation of a superconducting electron gun. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility with multiple megahertz repetition rate end stations. This VHF superconducting configuration holds the promise of the highest performance for CW injectors. Initial commissioning efforts show that the cavity can achieve gradients of 35 MV/m at the cathode position. With the cathode inserted CW operation has been achieved at 20 MV/m with good control of microphonics, negligible dark current, and Q0 > 3×109 at 4 K. Bunch charges of ~100 pC have been delivered, and first simple beam measurements made. These preliminary results are very encouraging for production of 100s pC bunches with millimeter-milliradian or smaller normalized emittances. Plans are in place to carry out more definitive studies to establish the full capabilities. However, since the grant was not renewed, the electron gun is currently mothballed, and without supplemental fund the opportunity for further work will be lost.

  11. W(310) cold-field emission characteristics reflecting the vacuum states of an extreme high vacuum electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Boklae; Shigeru, Kokubo; Oshima, Chuhei

    2013-01-15

    An extremely high vacuum cold-field electron emission (CFE) gun operating at pressures ranging from {approx}10{sup -8} Pa to {approx}10{sup -10} Pa was constructed. Only the CFE current emitting from W(310) surfaces revealed the existence of a 'stable region' with high current angular density just after tip flash heating. In the 'stable region,' the CFE current was damped very slowly. The presence of non-hydrogen gas eliminated this region from the plot. Improvement of the vacuum prolonged the 90% damping time of the CFE current from {approx}10 min to 800 min. The current angular density I{sup Prime} of CFE current was 60 and 250 {mu}A/sr in the 'stable region' for total CFE currents of 10 and 50 {mu}A, respectively. These results were about three times larger than I{sup Prime} when measured after the complete damping of the CFE current. The CFE gun generated bright scanning transmission electron microscopy images of a carbon nanotube at 30 kV.

  12. The Status of Normal Conducting RF (NCRF) Guns, a Summary of the ERL2005 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, D.H.; Lewellen, J.W.; Nguyen, D.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab

    2006-03-13

    The 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL2005) was held at Jefferson Laboratory, March 20 to 23, 2005. A wide range of ERL-related topics were presented and discussed in several working groups with Working Group 1 concentrated upon the physics and technology issues for DC, superconducting RF (SRF) and normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns. This paper summarizes the NCRF gun talks and reviews the status of NCRF gun technology. It begins with the presentations made on the subject of low-frequency, high-duty factor guns most appropriate for ERLs. One such gun at 433MHz was demonstrated at 25%DF in 1992, while the CW and much improved version is currently being constructed at 700MHz for LANL. In addition, the idea of combining the NCRF gun with a SRF linac booster was presented and is described in this paper. There was also a talk on high-field guns typically used for SASE free electron lasers. In particular, the DESY coaxial RF feed design provides rotationally symmetric RF fields and greater flexibility in the placement of the focusing magnetic field. While in the LCLS approach, the symmetric fields are obtained with a dual RF feed and racetrack cell shape. Although these guns cannot be operated at high-duty factor, they do produce the best quality beams. With these limitations in mind, a section with material not presented at the workshop has been included in the paper. This work describes a re-entrant approach which may allow NCRF guns to operate with simultaneously increased RF fields and duty factors. And finally, a novel proposal describing a high-duty factor, two-frequency RF gun using a field emission source instead of a laser driven photocathode was also presented.

  13. The status of normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns; a summary of the ERL2005 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.H. Dowell; J.W. Lewellen; D. Nguyen; R.A. Rimmer

    2005-03-19

    The 32nd Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Energy Recovering Linacs (ERL2005) was held at Jefferson Laboratory, March 20 to 23, 2005. A wide range of ERL-related topics were presented and discussed in several working groups with Working Group 1 concentrated upon the physics and technology issues for DC, superconducting RF (SRF) and normal conducting RF (NCRF) guns. This paper summarizes the NCRF gun talks and reviews the status of NCRF gun technology. It begins with the presentations made on the subject of low-frequency, high-duty factor guns most appropriate for ERLs. One such gun at 433MHz was demonstrated at 25%DF in 1992, while the CW and much improved version is currently being constructed at 700MHz for LANL. In addition, the idea of combining the NCRF gun with a SRF linac booster was presented and is described in this paper. There was also a talk on high-field guns typically used for SASE free electron lasers. In particular, the DESY coaxial RF feed design provides rotationally symmetric RF fields and greater flexibility in the placement of the focusing magnetic field. While in the LCLS approach, the symmetric fields are obtained with a dual RF feed and racetrack cell shape. Although these guns cannot be operated at high-duty factor, they do produce the best quality beams. With these limitations in mind, a section with material not presented at the workshop has been included in the paper. This work describes a re-entrant approach which may allow NCRF guns to operate with simultaneously increased RF fields and duty factors. And finally, a novel proposal describing a high-duty factor, two-frequency RF gun using a field emission source instead of a laser driven photocathode was also presented.

  14. Developing of the large-bore powder gun for the Nevada test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Brian J; Esparza, James S

    2009-01-01

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5-inches or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LARGE-BORE POWDER GUN FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, B.J.; Esparza, J.

    2009-12-28

    Plate-impact experiments on single stage guns provide very planar loading conditions suitable for studying complex phenomena such as phase transitions and material strength, and provide important data useful for constraining and validating predictive models. The objective of the current work was to develop a large-bore (3.5'' or greater) powder gun capable of accelerating projectiles to moderately high velocities (greater than 2.25 km/s) for impact experiments at Nevada Test Site. This gun will span a performance gap between existing gun facilities and provide a means of examining phenomena over a wide range of stresses and time-scales. Advantages of the large-bore gun include the capability to load multiple samples simultaneously, the use of large diameter samples that significantly extend the time duration of the experiment, and minimal tilt (no bow). This new capability required the development of a disposable confinement system that used an explosively driven closure method to prevent contamination from moving up into the gun system. Experimental results for both the gun system and the explosive valve are presented.

  16. An experiment to test the viability of a gallium-arsenide cathode in a SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Wu, Q.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2009-05-04

    Strained gallium arsenide cathodes are used in electron guns for the production of polarized electrons. In order to have a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode the vacuum in the gun must be 10{sup -11} Torr or better, so that the cathode is not destroyed by ion back bombardment or through contamination with residual gases. All successful polarized guns are DC guns, because such vacuum levels can not be obtained in normal conducting RF guns. A superconductive RF gun may provide a sufficient vacuum level due to cryo-pumping of the cavity walls. We report on the progress of our experiment to test such a gun with normal GaAs-Cs crystals.

  17. Theory and simulation of backbombardment in single-cell thermionic-cathode electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edelen, J.  P.; Biedron, S.  G.; Harris, J.  R.; Milton, S.  V.; Lewellen, J.  W.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a comparison between simulation results and a first principles analytical model of electron back-bombardment developed at Colorado State University for single-cell, thermionic-cathode rf guns. While most previous work on back-bombardment has been specific to particular accelerator systems, this work is generalized to a wide variety of guns within the applicable parameter space. The merits and limits of the analytic model will be discussed. This paper identifies the three fundamental parameters that drive the back-bombardment process, and demonstrates relative accuracy in calculating the predicted back-bombardment power of a single-cell thermionic gun.

  18. Commissioning Results of the 2nd 3.5 Cell SRF Gun for ELBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, A; Freitag, M; Murcek, Petr; Teichert, Jochen; Vennekate, H; Xiang, R; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Turlington, Larry D,

    2014-12-01

    As in 2007 the first 3.5 cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) gun was taken into operation, it turned out that the specified performance has not been achieved. However, to demonstrate the full potential of this new type of electron source, a second and slightly modified SRF gun II was built in collaboration with Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). We will report on commissioning and first results of the new gun, which includes in particular the characterization of the most important RF properties as well as their comparison with previous vertical test results.

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Naval Gun Factory and Bureau of

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Ordnance - DC 0-01 Gun Factory and Bureau of Ordnance - DC 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NAVAL GUN FACTORY AND BUREAU OF ORDNANCE (DC.0-01) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to DOD Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Washington , D.C. DC.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 DC.0-01-1 Site Operations: Designed guns and nuclear projectiles. DC.0-01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority DC.0-01-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated

  20. Field Emission Cathode Gating for RF Electron Guns (IN-04-039) - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Field Emission Cathode Gating for RF Electron Guns (IN-04-039) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Field emission (FE) gun&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Field emission (FE) gun <p> <span style="line-height: 115%; font-family:

  1. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore » (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.« less

  2. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  3. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>μA) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolishedmore » by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.« less

  4. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (~nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100 pA of field emission. The speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  5. Evaluation of electropolished stainless steel electrodes for use in DC high voltage photoelectron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, Mahzad Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Forman, Eric; Covert, Steven; Hansknecht, John; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Poelker, Matthew; Das, Lopa; Kelley, Michael; Williams, Phillip

    2015-07-15

    DC high voltage photoelectron guns are used to produce polarized electron beams for accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics research. Low-level field emission (?nA) from the cathode electrode degrades the vacuum within the photogun and reduces the photoelectron yield of the delicate GaAs-based photocathode used to produce the electron beams. High-level field emission (>?A) can cause significant damage the photogun. To minimize field emission, stainless steel electrodes are typically diamond-paste polished, a labor-intensive process often yielding field emission performance with a high degree of variability, sample to sample. As an alternative approach and as comparative study, the performance of electrodes electropolished by conventional commercially available methods is presented. Our observations indicate the electropolished electrodes exhibited less field emission upon the initial application of high voltage, but showed less improvement with gas conditioning compared to the diamond-paste polished electrodes. In contrast, the diamond-paste polished electrodes responded favorably to gas conditioning, and ultimately reached higher voltages and field strengths without field emission, compared to electrodes that were only electropolished. The best performing electrode was one that was both diamond-paste polished and electropolished, reaching a field strength of 18.7 MV/m while generating less than 100?pA of field emission. The authors speculate that the combined processes were the most effective at reducing both large and small scale topography. However, surface science evaluation indicates topography cannot be the only relevant parameter when it comes to predicting field emission performance.

  6. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  7. A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2002-05-22

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure.

  8. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, J.E.

    1992-01-14

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator which provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal. 8 figs.

  9. Quantum efficiency temporal response and lifetime of a GaAs cathode in SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2010-05-23

    RF electron guns with a strained super lattice GaAs cathode can generate polarized electron beam of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface. In a normal conducting RF gun, the extremely high vaccum required by these cathodes can not be met. We report on an experiment with a superconducting SRF gun, which can maintain a vacuum of nearly 10-12 torr because of cryo-pumping at the temperature of 4.2K. With conventional activation, we obtained a QE of 3% at 532 nm, with lifetime of nearly 3 days in the preparation chamber. We plan to use this cathode in a 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun to study its performance. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper. Future particle accelerators such as eRHIC and ILC require high brightness, high current polarized electrons Recently, using a superlattice crystal, the maximum polarization of 95% was reached. Activation with Cs,O lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons excited in to the conduction band and reach the surface to escape into the vacuum. Presently the polarized electron sources are based on DC gun, such as that at the CEBAF at Jlab. In these devices, the life time of the cathode is extended due to the reduced back bombardment in their UHV conditions. However, the low accelerating gradient of the DC guns lead to poor longitudinal emittance. The higher accelerating gradient of the RF gun generates low emittance beams. Superconducting RF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of the DC guns with the higher accelerating gradients of the RF guns and provide potentially a long lived cathode with very low transverse and longitudinal emittance. In our work at BNL, we successfully activated the GaAs. The quantum efficient is 3% at 532 nm and is expected to improve further. In addition, we studied the multipacting at the location of cathode. A new model based on the Forkker-Planck equation which can estimate the bunch length of the electron beam is discussed in this paper.

  10. Reducing the Heat Load on the LCLS 120 Hz RF Gun with RF Pulse Shaping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, J.

    2005-01-31

    The LCLS injector must operate at 120 Hz repetition frequency but to date the maximum operating frequency of an S-band rf gun has been 50 Hz. The high fields desired for the LCLS gun operation limit the repetition frequency due to thermal expansion causing rf detuning and field redistribution. One method of addressing the thermal loading problem is too reduce the power lost on the cavity walls by properly shaping the rf pulse incident on the gun. The idea is to reach the steady state field value in the gun faster than the time constant of the gun would allow when using a flat incident rf pulse. By increasing the incident power by about a factor of three and then decreasing the incident power when the field reaches the desired value in the gun, the field build up time can be decreased by more than a factor of three. Using this technique the heat load is also decreased by more than a factor of three. In addition the rf coupling coefficient can be increased from the typical critically coupled designs to an overcoupled design which also helps reduce the field build up time. Increasing the coupling coefficient from 1 to 2 reduces the heat load by another 25% and still limits the reflected power and coupling hole size to manageable levels.

  11. Design and first cold test of BNL superconducting 112 MHz QWR for electron gun applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Siegel, B.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed, fabricated, and performed the first cold test of a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) for electron gun experiments. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper discusses the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule for future experiments. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling ion/proton beams at RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline plans for the cryomodule upgrade for future experiments.

  12. Heat load of a P-doped GaAs photocathode in SRF electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Jain, A.; Gupta, R.; Holmes, D.

    2010-05-23

    Many efforts were made over the last decades to develop a better polarized electron source for the high energy physics. Several laboratories operate DC guns with the Gallium-Arsenide photo-cathode, which yield a highly polarized electron beam. However, the beam's emittance might well be improved using a Superconducting RF electron gun, which delivers beams of higher brightness than DC guns does, because the field gradient at the cathode is higher. SRF guns with metal cathodes and CsTe cathodes have been tested successfully. To produce polarized electrons, a Gallium-Arsenide photo-cathode must be used: an experiment to do so in a superconducting RF gun is under way at BNL. Since the cathode will be normal conducting, the problem about the heat load stemming from the cathode arises. We present our measurements of the electrical resistance of GaAs at cryogenic temperatures, a prediction of the heat load and the verification by measuring the quality factor of the gun with and without cathode.

  13. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE GUN FORGING MACHINE BUILDING ITHACA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and northwest to where the land drops off sharply to a ... Surface scans were performed using Nal scintillation, gas ... SURFACE ACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Processed natural uranium ...

  14. The RF Design of an HOM Polarized RF Gun for the ILC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.W.; Clendenin, J.E.; Colby, E.R.; Miller, R.A.; Lewellen, J.W.; /Argonne

    2006-11-15

    The ILC requires a polarized electron beam. While a highly polarized beam can be produced by a GaAs-type cathode in a DC gun of the type currently in use at SLAC, JLAB and elsewhere, the ILC injector system can be simplified and made more efficient if a GaAs-type cathode can be combined with a low emittance RF gun. Since this type of cathode is known to be extremely sensitive to vacuum contamination including back bombardment by electrons and ions, any successful polarized RF gun must have a significantly improved operating vacuum compared to existing RF guns. We present a new RF design for an L-Band normal conducting (NC) RF gun for the ILC polarized electron source. This design incorporates a higher order mode (HOM) structure, whose chief virtue in this application is an improved conductance for vacuum pumping on the cathode. Computer simulation models have been used to optimize the RF parameters with two principal goals: first to minimize the required RF power; second to reduce the peak surface field relative to the field at the cathode in order to suppress field emitted electron bombardment. The beam properties have been simulated initially using PARMELA. Vacuum and other practical issues for implementing this design are discussed.

  15. Nicor Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nicor Gas services 129,000 customers and is the largest natural gas distributor in northern Illinois. Certain energy efficient products are eligible for Nicor Gas rebates such as light bulbs,...

  16. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  17. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  18. A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando; Sonnad, Kiran; Staples, John; Virostek, Steven; Wells, Russell

    2008-10-08

    Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.

  19. Demonstration of cathode emittance dominated high bunch charge beams in a DC gun-based photoinjector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulliford, Colwyn Bartnik, Adam Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Cultrera, Luca

    2015-03-02

    We present the results of transverse emittance and longitudinal current profile measurements of high bunch charge (≥100 pC) beams produced in the DC gun-based Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector. In particular, we show that the cathode thermal and core beam emittances dominate the final 95% and core emittances measured at 9–9.5 MeV. Additionally, we demonstrate excellent agreement between optimized 3D space charge simulations and measurement, and show that the quality of the transverse laser distribution limits the optimal simulated and measured emittances. These results, previously thought achievable only with RF guns, demonstrate that DC gun based photoinjectors are capable of delivering beams with sufficient single bunch charge and beam quality suitable for many current and next generation accelerator projects such as Energy Recovery Linacs and Free Electron Lasers.

  20. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  1. Design, simulation and conditioning of the fundamental power couplers for BNL SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu W.; Altinbas, Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I. et al

    2012-05-20

    The 704 MHz SRF gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype uses two fundamental power couplers (FPCs) to deliver up to 1 MW of CW RF power to the half-cell cavity. To prepare the couplers for high-power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A room-temperature test stand was configured for conditioning FPCs in full reflection regime with varied phase of the reflecting wave. The FPCs have been conditioned up to 250 kW in pulse mode and 125 kW in CW mode. The multipacting simulations were carried out with Track3P code developed at SLAC. The simulations matched the experimental results very well. This paper presents the FPC RF and thermal design, multipacting simulations and conditioning of the BNL gun FPCs.

  2. Optimizing the CEBAF Injector for Beam Operation with a Higher Voltage Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.E. Hannon, A.S. Hofler, R. Kazimi

    2011-03-01

    Recent developments in the DC gun technology used at CEBAF have allowed an increase in operational voltage from 100kV to 130kV. In the near future this will be extended further to 200kV with the purchase of a new power supply. The injector components and layout at this time have been designed specifically for 100kV operation. It is anticipated that with an increase in gun voltage and optimization of the layout and components for 200kV operation, that the electron bunch length and beam brightness can be improved upon. This paper explores some upgrade possibilities for a 200kV gun CEBAF injector through beam dynamic simulations.

  3. Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Baksht, R. B.

    2011-09-15

    The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of the Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.

  4. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  5. Investigations and Applications of Field- and Photo-emitted Electron Beams from a Radio Frequency Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panuganti, SriHarsha

    2015-08-01

    Production of quality electron bunches using e cient ways of generation is a crucial aspect of accelerator technology. Radio frequency electron guns are widely used to generate and rapidly accelerate electron beams to relativistic energies. In the current work, we primarily study the charge generation processes of photoemission and eld emission inside an RF gun installed at Fermilab's High Brightness Electron Source Laboratory (HBESL). Speci cally, we study and characterize second-order nonlinear photoemission from a Cesium Telluride (Cs2Te) semiconductor photocathode, and eld emission from carbon based cathodes including diamond eld emission array (DFEA) and carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes located in the RF gun's cavity. Finally, we discuss the application experiments conducted at the facility to produce soft x-rays via inverse Compton scattering (ICS), and to generate uniformly lled ellipsoidal bunches and temporally shaped electron beams from the Cs2Te photocathode.

  6. LightManufacturing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    greenhouse gas emissions resulting from rotational molding. 6 Unlike concentrated solar power firms which focus on utility-scale electric production 7 , LightManufacturing...

  7. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships Lead Performer: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA Partners: -- Burlington Electric Department -- Cape Light Compact -- Connecticut Light and Power -- Efficiency Vermont -- National Grid -- NSTAR Electric and Gas --

  8. LBS GatlingGun13A (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LBS GatlingGun13A Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LBS GatlingGun13A Authors: Martinez, D ; Kane, J O ; Heeter, R ; Casner, A ; Mancini, R Publication Date: 2013-10-09 OSTI Identifier: 1097765 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-644915 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING Word Cloud More Like

  9. Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 17, 2017 Title: Mechanical design and fabrication of the VHF-gun, the Berkeley normal-conducting continuous-wave high-brightness electron source Authors: Wells, R. P. [1]

  10. High temperature erosion and fatigue resistance of a detonation gun chromium carbide coating for steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.M.; Walsh, P.N.; Srinivasan, V.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Chromium carbide based detonation gun coatings have been shown to be capable of protecting steam turbine components from particle erosion. To be usable, however, erosion resistant coatings must not degrade the fatigue characteristics of the coated components. Recent studies of the fatigue properties of a detonation gun coated martensitic substrate at 538 C (1,000 F) will be presented with an emphasis on its long term performance. This study will show the retention of acceptable fatigue performance of coated substrates into the high cycle regime, and will include a discussion on the mechanism of fatigue.

  11. Simulations of multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC of 112 MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2012-05-20

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be used for testing of the performance of various high quantum efficiency photocathodes. In a previous paper, we presented the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC). In this paper we present updated designs of the cathode stalk and FPC. Multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC was simulated using three different codes. All simulation results show no serious multipacting in the cathode stalk and FPC.

  12. PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PARMELA simulation for BNL 704MHz SRF gun in low emittance operation Authors: Wang E. ; Kewisch, J. ; Ben-Zvi, I. Publication Date: 2013-09-29 OSTI Identifier: 1113197 Report Number(s): BNL--100964-2013-CP R&D Project: KBCH139; 18074; KB0202011 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation:

  13. RF and space-charge effects in laser-driven rf electron guns (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Conference: RF and space-charge effects in laser-driven rf electron guns Citation Details In-Document Search Title: RF and space-charge effects in laser-driven rf electron guns × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A

  14. Waveguide gas laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zedong, C.

    1982-05-01

    Waveguide gas lasers are described. Transmission loss of hollow tube light waveguides, coupling loss, the calculation of output power, and the width of the oscillation belt are discussed. The structure of a waveguide CO/sub 2/ laser is described.

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

  16. GAS PHOTOTUBE CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, J.H.

    1958-03-01

    This patent pertains to electronic circuits for measuring the intensity of light and is especially concerned with measurement between preset light thresholds. Such a circuit has application in connection with devices for reading-out information stored on punch cards or tapes where the cards and tapes are translucent. By the novel arrangement of this invention thc sensitivity of a gas phototube is maintained at a low value when the light intensity is below a first threshold level. If the light level rises above the first threshold level, the tube is rendered highly sensitive and an output signal will vary in proportion to the light intensity change. When the light level decreases below a second threshold level, the gas phototube is automatically rendered highly insensitive. Each of these threshold points is adjustable.

  17. Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab: Laser gun to eventually shoot down missiles (Daily Press) External Link: http://articles.dailypress.com/2011-02-21/news/dp-nws-jefferson-lab-20110221_1_j... By jlab_admin on Mon, 2011-02-21

  18. A 120kV IGBT modulator for driving a pierce electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, L. M.; Brown, R. W.; Carlson, R. L.; Ferguson, P.; Haynes, W. B.; Kirbie, H. C.; Russell, S. J.; Sigler, F. E.; Smirnova, E. I.; Wheat, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    An IGBT modulator has been developed to drive a 120 kV, 23 A Pierce electron gun. The modulator is capable of producing pulses up to 10 {mu}s in width at repetition rates up to 10Hz with no active reset. The pulse rise time on the electron gun will be approximately 2 {mu}s and the remaining 8 {mu}s of flattop is tuned to have a ripple of less than 1 percent rms. The modulator technology was developed from a previous 50 kV prototype. The modulator consists of six boards, each with one EUPEC IGBT that drives a single common step-up transformer wound on METGLAS 2605SC cores. The six transformer cores share a common bi-filar output secondary winding. The modulator uses a fiber optic trigger system and has a high voltage cable output with an epoxy receptacle on the oil end and a ceramic receptacle on the vacuum end. The 120 kV electron gun was manufactured by MDS Co. and will be used to generate sheet electron beams from the standard pencil beam produced by the Pierce electron gun.

  19. Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode inside a DC High Voltage Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Rao, J. Smedley, J.M. Grames, R. Mammei, J.L. McCarter, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman

    2011-03-01

    In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K2CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the GaAs:Cs in RF injector and the K2CsSb cathode in the DC gun in order to widen our choices. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with uniform stochiometry over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the life time issues seen in GaAs:Cs due surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized with this material. Hence successful operation of the K2CsSb cathode in DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of K2CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that would allow the fabrication of the cathode at BNL and its testing at JLab. In this paper, we will present the design of the load-lock system, cathode fabrication, and the cathode performance in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

  20. Multipacting in a grooved choke joint at SRF gun for BNL ERL prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Holmes, D.; Kayran, D.; McIntyre, G.; Sheehy, B.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for BNL ERL prototype was tested at JLab with and without choke-joint and cathode stalk. Without choke-joint and cathode stalk, the gradient reached was 25 MV/m with Q{sup 0} {approx} 6E9. The gun cathode insertion port is equipped with a grooved choke joint for multipacting suppression. We carried out tests with choke-joint and cathode stalk. The test results show that there are at least two barriers at about 3.5 MV/m and 5 MV/m. We considered several possibilities and finally found that fine details of the grooved shape are important for multipacting suppression. A triangular groove with round crest may cause strong multipacting in the choke-joint at 3.5 MV/m, 5 MV/m and 10 MV/m. This paper presents the primary test results of the gun and discusses the multipacting analysis in the choke-joint. It also suggests possible solutions for the gun and multipacting suppressing for a similar structure.

  1. Performance Study of K2CsSb Photocathode Inside a DC High Voltage Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarter J. L.; Rao T.; Smedley, J.; Grames, J.; Mammei, R.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-09-01

    In the past decade, there has been considerable interest in the generation of tens of mA average current in a photoinjector. Until recently, GaAs:Cs cathodes and K{sub 2}CsSb cathodes have been tested successfully in DC and RF injectors respectively for this application. Our goal is to test the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode inside a DC gun. Since the multialkali cathode is a compound with constant characteristics over its entire thickness, we anticipate that the lifetime issues seen in GaAs:Cs due to surface damage by ion bombardment would be minimized. Hence successful operation of the K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun could lead to a relatively robust electron source capable of delivering ampere level currents. In order to test the performance of a K{sub 2}CsSb cathode in a DC gun, we have designed and built a load lock system that allows the fabrication of the cathode at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and its testing at Jefferson Lab (JLab). In this paper, we will present the performance of the K{sub 2}CsSb photocathode in the preparation chamber and in the DC gun.

  2. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  3. High power test results of the first SRRC/ANL high current L-band RF gun.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. H.

    1998-09-11

    A joint program is underway between the SRRC (Synchrotrons Radiation Research Center, Taiwan) and ANL (Argonne National Laboratory, USA) for developing a high current L-band photocathode rf guns. We have constructed an L-Band (1.3 Ghz), single cell rf photocathode gun and conducted low power tests at SRRC. High power rf conditioning of the cavity has been completed at ANL. In this paper we report on the construction and high power test results. So far we have been able to achieve > 120 MV/m axial electric field with minimal dark current. This gun will be used to replace the AWA (Argonne Wakefield Accelerator)[l] high current gun.

  4. light-emitting diode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light-emitting diode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  5. Advanced Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Source - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  6. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  7. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  8. Light Show

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Lightning - Nature's Light Show Lightning provides one of nature's most spectacular displays of energy. Though fascinating to observe, lightning can be dangerous and deadly....

  9. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  10. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  11. Study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kui, Zhou; Xing, Luo; Xiangyang, Lu; Shengwen, Quan; Jifei, Zhao; Ziqin, Yang

    2014-09-15

    Micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) employs the basic concept of multipacting to produce high-current and short-pulse electron beams from a radio-frequency (RF) cavity. The concept of MPG has been proposed for more than two decades. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun with theory and experiments. The requirements for the steady operating state are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856 MHz has been designed, constructed, and tested. Some primary experiments have been finished. Both the unstable and stable operating states of the MPG have been observed. The stable output beam current has been detected at about 3.8 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.

  12. Emittance Studies of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 Cell Photocathode RF Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, D.T.; Wang, X.J.; Miller, R.H.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Pellegrini, C.; Sheehan, J.; Skaritka, J.; Winick, H.; Woodle, M.; Yakimenko, V.; /Brookhaven

    2011-09-09

    The symmetrized 1.6 cell S-band photocathode gun developed by the BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration is in operation at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A novel emittance compensation solenoid magnet has also been designed, built and is in operation at the ATF. These two subsystems form an emittance compensated photoinjector used for beam dynamics, advanced acceleration and free electron laser experiments at the ATF. The highest acceleration field achieved on the copper cathode is 150 MV/m, and the guns normal operating field is 130 MV/m. The maximum rf pulse length is 3 {mu}s. The transverse emittance of the photoelectron beam were measured for various injection parameters. The 1 nC emittance results are presented along with electron bunch length measurements that indicated that at above the 400 pC, space charge bunch lengthening is occurring. The thermal emittance, {epsilon}{sub o}, of the copper cathode has been measured.

  13. Multipacting simulation and test results of BNL 704 MHz SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu W.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Cullen, C. et al

    2012-05-20

    The BNL 704MHz SRF gun has a grooved choke joint to support the photo-cathode. Due to the distortion of grooves at the choke joint during the BCP for the choke joint, several multipacting barriers showed up when it was tested with Nb cathode stalk at JLab. We built a setup to use the spare large grain SRF cavity to test and condition the multipacting at BNL with various power sources up to 50kW. The test is carried out in three stages: testing the cavity performance without cathode, testing the cavity with the Nb cathode stalk that was used at Jlab, and testing the cavity with a copper cathode stalk that is based on the design for the SRF gun. This paper summarizes the results of multipacting simulation, and presents the large grain cavity test setup and the test results.

  14. A photocathode rf gun design for a mm-wave linac-based FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassiri, A.; Berenc, T,; Foster, J.; Waldschmidt, G.; Zhou, J.

    1995-07-01

    In recent years, advances in the rf gun technology have made it possible to produce small beam emittances suitable for short period microundulators which take advantage of the low emittance beam to reduce the wavelength of FELs. At the Advanced Photon Source, we are studying the design of a compact 50-MeV superconducting mm-wave linac-based FEL for the production of short wavelengths ({approximately}300 nm) to carry out FEL demonstration experiments. The electron source considered for the linac is a 30- GHz, 3 1/2-cell {pi}-mode photocathode rf gun. For cold model rf measurements a 15-GHz prototype structure was fabricated. Here we report on the design, numerical modelling and the initial cold-model rf measurement results on the 15-GHz prototype structure.

  15. Simulation and optimization of a 10 A electron gun with electrostatic compression for the electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.; Beebe, E. N.; Raparia, D.

    2013-03-15

    Increasing the current density of the electron beam in the ion trap of the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility would confer several essential benefits. They include increasing the ions' charge states, and therefore, the ions' energy out of the Booster for NASA applications, reducing the influx of residual ions in the ion trap, lowering the average power load on the electron collector, and possibly also reducing the emittance of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss our findings from a computer simulation of an electron gun with electrostatic compression for electron current up to 10 A that can deliver a high-current-density electron beam for EBIS. The magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap is formed with a magnetic shield surrounding the gun electrodes and the residual magnetic field on the cathode is (5 Division-Sign 6) Gs. It was demonstrated that for optimized gun geometry within the electron beam current range of (0.5 Division-Sign 10) A the amplitude of radial beam oscillations can be maintained close to 4% of the beam radius by adjusting the injection magnetic field generated by a separate magnetic coil. Simulating the performance of the gun by varying geometrical parameters indicated that the original gun model is close to optimum and the requirements to the precision of positioning the gun elements can be easily met with conventional technology.

  16. Miniature pulsed vacuum arc plasma gun and apparatus for thin-film fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.

    1998-11-24

    A miniature (dime-size in cross-section) vapor vacuum arc plasma gun is described for use in an apparatus to produce thin films. Any conductive material can be layered as a film on virtually any substrate. Because the entire apparatus can easily be contained in a small vacuum chamber, multiple dissimilar layers can be applied without risk of additional contamination. The invention has special applications in semiconductor manufacturing. 8 figs.

  17. Miniature pulsed vacuum arc plasma gun and apparatus for thin-film fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G.; MacGill, Robert A.; Galvin, James E.; Ogletree, David F.; Salmeron, Miquel

    1998-01-01

    A miniature (dime-size in cross-section) vapor vacuum arc plasma gun is described for use in an apparatus to produce thin films. Any conductive material can be layered as a film on virtually any substrate. Because the entire apparatus can easily be contained in a small vacuum chamber, multiple dissimilar layers can be applied without risk of additional contamination. The invention has special applications in semiconductor manufacturing.

  18. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Charles W.; Shearer, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  19. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  20. Superconducting laser photocathode RF gun at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Superconducting laser photocathode RF gun at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  1. Method for computing self-consistent solution in a gun code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Eric M

    2014-09-23

    Complex gun code computations can be made to converge more quickly based on a selection of one or more relaxation parameters. An eigenvalue analysis is applied to error residuals to identify two error eigenvalues that are associated with respective error residuals. Relaxation values can be selected based on these eigenvalues so that error residuals associated with each can be alternately reduced in successive iterations. In some examples, relaxation values that would be unstable if used alone can be used.

  2. Expansion solution of Laplace`s equation: Technique and application to hollow beam gun design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.H.; Taccetti, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a flexible algorithm for the general calculation of expansion solutions to Laplace`s equation. The limiting factor in application of the technique is shown to be series truncation error and not errors in calculating numerical derivatives. Application of the algorithm to the accurate computation of arbitrary magnetic fields in cylindrical geometry from on-axis or coil data will be presented. For an ideal current loop, magnetic field accuracies of better than 0.01% of the exact elliptic integral solution can be obtained out to approximately 70--80% of the loop radius. Accuracy improves dramatically for radii closer to the axis. Results also is shown for thin current disks, thin solenoids and thick coils. Other aspects of the technique is illustrated by application to the design of a coil system for a hollow beam electron gun. With some reasonable assumptions about the overlay of the electron trajectories and the magnetic flux contours, it is possible to generate an estimate for the on-axis profile of the gun magnetic field. The expansion technique can then be applied to calculate the off-axis field and its impact on the trajectories without assuming any particular coil system. The initial estimate can then be refined and retested. Finally, an optimization technique is used to develop a coil system which closely reproduces the refined field. The results of carrying out this set of calculations on a 150 kV, 20 A hollow electron gun design for an FEL experiment is reported.

  3. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  4. Characterization of an SRF gun: a 3D full wave simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Wang, J.

    2011-03-28

    We characterized a BNL 1.3GHz half-cell SRF gun is tested for GaAs photocathode. The gun already was simulated several years ago via two-dimensional (2D) numerical codes (i.e., Superfish and Parmela) with and without the beam. In this paper, we discuss our investigation of its characteristics using a three dimensional (3D) full-wave code (CST STUDIO SUITE{trademark}).The input/pickup couplers are sited symmetrically on the same side of the gun at an angle of 180{sup o}. In particular, the inner conductor of the pickup coupler is considerably shorter than that of the input coupler. We evaluated the cross-talk between the beam (trajectory) and the signal on the input coupler compared our findings with published results based on analytical models. The CST STUDIO SUITE{trademark} also was used to predict the field within the cavity; particularly, a combination of transient/eigenmode solvers was employed to accurately construct the RF field for the particles, which also includes the effects of the couplers. Finally, we explored the beam's dynamics with a particle in cell (PIC) simulation, validated the results and compare them with 2D code result.

  5. Self aligning electron beam gun having enhanced thermal and mechanical stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarpetti, Jr., Raymond D.; Parkison, Clarence D.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Lee, Young J.; Sawyer, William C.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, high power electron gun having enhanced thermal and mechanical stability which incorporates a mechanically coupled, self aligning structure for the anode and cathode. The enhanced stability, and reduced need for realignment of the cathode to the anode and downstream optics during operation are achieved by use of a common support structure for the cathode and anode which requires no adjustment screws or spacers. The electron gun of the present invention also incorporates a modular design for the cathode, in which the electron emitter, its support structure, and the hardware required to attach the emitter assembly to the rest of the gun are a single element. This modular design makes replacement of the emitter simpler and requires no realignment after a new emitter has been installed. Compactness and a reduction in the possibility of high voltage breakdown are achieved by shielding the "triple point" where the electrode, insulator, and vacuum meet. The use of electric discharge machining (EDM) for fabricating the emitter allows for the accurate machining of the emitter into intricate shapes without encountering the normal stresses developed by standard emitter fabrication techniques.

  6. Self aligning electron beam gun having enhanced thermal and mechanical stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarpetti, R.D. Jr.; Parkison, C.D.; Switzer, V.A.; Lee, Y.J.; Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-05-16

    A compact, high power electron gun is disclosed having enhanced thermal and mechanical stability which incorporates a mechanically coupled, self aligning structure for the anode and cathode. The enhanced stability, and reduced need for realignment of the cathode to the anode and downstream optics during operation are achieved by use of a common support structure for the cathode and anode which requires no adjustment screws or spacers. The electron gun of the present invention also incorporates a modular design for the cathode, in which the electron emitter, its support structure, and the hardware required to attach the emitter assembly to the rest of the gun are a single element. This modular design makes replacement of the emitter simpler and requires no realignment after a new emitter has been installed. Compactness and a reduction in the possibility of high voltage breakdown are achieved by shielding the ``triple point`` where the electrode, insulator, and vacuum meet. The use of electric discharge machining (EDM) for fabricating the emitter allows for the accurate machining of the emitter into intricate shapes without encountering the normal stresses developed by standard emitter fabrication techniques. 12 Figs.

  7. UPGRADING THE CEBAF INJECTOR WITH A NEW BOOSTER, HIGHER VOLTAGE GUN, AND HIGHER FINAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reza Kazimi, Arne Freyberger, Alicia Hofler, Andrew Hutton, Fay Hannon

    2012-07-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) accelerator at Jefferson Lab will be upgraded from 6 GeV to 12 GeV in the next few years. To meet the requirement of the new machine and to take the opportunity to improve the beam quality, the CEBAF injector will be upgraded with a higher voltage gun, a new booster, and a new accelerating RF module. The CEBAF injector creates and accelerates three beams at different currents simultaneously. The beams are interleaved, each at one third of the RF frequency, traveling through the same beam line. The higher voltage gun will lower the space charge effects. The new booster with optimized beam dynamics will complete the bunching process and provide initial acceleration matched to the new gun voltage. Using our latest SRF design, the new booster has significantly lower x/y coupling effects that should improve our beam setup and operation for the highly sensitive parity experiments scheduled for the CEBAF's future. Finally, the new accelerating RF module will roughly double the injector final energy to match the rest of the 12 GeV accelerator. In this paper we will provide more detail about this upgrade.

  8. Simulations for preliminary design of a multi-cathode DC electron gun for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Q.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Chang, X.; Skaritka, J.

    2010-05-23

    The proposed electron ion collider, eRHIC, requires a large average polarized electron current of 50 mA, which is more than 20 times higher than the present experimental output of a single, highly polarized electron source, based on cesiated super-lattice GaAs. To meet eRHIC's requirement for current, we designed a multicathode DC electron gun for injection. The twenty-four GaAs cathodes emit electrons in sequence, then are combined on axis by a rotating field (or 'funnelled'). In addition to its ultra-high vacuum requirements, the multicathode DC electron gun will place high demand on the electric field symmetry, the magnetic field shielding, and on preventing arcing. In this paper, we discuss our results from a 3D simulation of the latest model for this gun. The findings will guide the actual design in future. Their preliminary design of a multi-cathode electron source for eRHIC demonstrated tolerable fields and reasonable results in both field and particle simulations.

  9. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  10. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-04-12

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material. 3 figs.

  11. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material.

  12. (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perspectives Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  13. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eakins, D. E. Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  14. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief History of Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History An Energy Lesson Natural Gas - Fueling the Blue Flame The History of Natural Gas Gaslight - One of the earliest uses of natural gas was to fuel street lights in the 1800s....

  15. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from

  16. Series cell light extinction monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for using the light extinction measurements from two or more light cells positioned along a gasflow chamber in which the gas volumetric rate is known to determine particle number concentration and mass concentration of an aerosol independent of extinction coefficient and to determine estimates for particle size and mass concentrations. The invention is independent of particle size. This invention has application to measurements made during a severe nuclear reactor fuel damage test.

  17. California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) California Natural ...

  18. Central Hudson Gas & Electric (Electric) - Commercial Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    project based on the quality assurance plan at completion to verify that the upgrade matches the performance specified in the auditor's proposal. Incentives for this program will...

  19. Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates the Way in Alabama...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Brighter Lights, Safer Streets This is one of the 100 decorative solar-powered LED lights that replaced natural gas-powered streetlights in the city of Deming, New Mexico. | DOE ...

  20. Commercial Lighting and LED Lighting Incentives | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools Institutional Savings Category Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Other EE LED Lighting Maximum Rebate Up to 100% of cost; incentives that exceed 5,000 should be...

  1. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  2. Low amplitude impact of PBX 9501: Modified Steven spigot gun tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idar, D.J.; Lucht, R.A.; Straight, J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Low-velocity mechanical impact and subsequent high explosive (HE) reaction are of concern in credible accident scenarios involving the handling, transport, and storage of nuclear weapons. Using modified Steven spigot gun tests, the authors have investigated the high-explosive violent-reaction (HEVR) potential of PBX 9501 to low-amplitude insult. Reliable modeling predictions require that one identify the relevant parameters and behavioral responses that are key to the reaction mechanism(s) in PBX 9501. Additional efforts have been targeted at identifying relevant differences in the response between baseline and stockpile-aged PBX 9501 to low-velocity impacts.

  3. Effect of RF Gradient upon the Performance of the Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Robert; Legg, Robert A.

    2013-12-01

    The performance of the Wisconsin 200-MHz SRF electron gun is simulated for several values of the RF gradient. Bunches with charge of 200 pC are modeled for the case where emittance compensation is completed during post-acceleration to 85 MeV in a TESLA module. We first perform simulations in which the initial bunch radius is optimal for the design gradient of 41 MV/m. We then optimize the radius as a function of RF gradient to improve the performance for low gradients.

  4. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  5. National Lighting Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Energy National Lighting Energy Consumption Consumption 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all commercial buildings in commercial buildings in 2001 2001 LED (<.1% ) Incandescent 40% HID 22% Fluorescent 38% Lighting Energy Consumption by Lighting Energy Consumption by Breakdown of Lighting Energy Breakdown of Lighting Energy Major Sector and Light Source Type Major Sector and Light Source Type Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., U.S. Lighting

  6. Design, conditioning, and performance of a high voltage, high brightness dc photoelectron gun with variable gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxson, Jared; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce; Dobbins, John; Liu, Xianghong; Smolenski, Karl

    2014-09-15

    A new high voltage photoemission gun has been constructed at Cornell University which features a segmented insulator and a movable anode, allowing the cathode-anode gap to be adjusted. In this work, we describe the gun's overall mechanical and high voltage design, the surface preparation of components, as well as the clean construction methods. We present high voltage conditioning data using a 50 mm cathode-anode gap, in which the conditioning voltage exceeds 500 kV, as well as at smaller gaps. Finally, we present simulated emittance results obtained from a genetic optimization scheme using voltage values based on the conditioning data. These results indicate that for charges up to 100 pC, a 30 mm gap at 400 kV has equal or smaller 100% emittance than a 50 mm gap at 450 kV, and also a smaller core emittance, when placed as the source for the Cornell energy recovery linac photoinjector with bunch length constrained to be <3 ps rms. For 100 pC up to 0.5 nC charges, the 50 mm gap has larger core emittance than the 30 mm gap, but conversely smaller 100% emittance.

  7. Optical backscatter probe for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parks, James E; Partridge, William P

    2013-05-28

    A system for sensing particulate in a combustion gas stream is disclosed. The system transmits light into a combustion gas stream, and thereafter detects a portion of the transmitted light as scattered light in an amount corresponding to the amount of particulates in the emissions. Purge gas may be supplied adjacent the light supply and the detector to reduce particles in the emissions from coating or otherwise compromising the transmission of light into the emissions and recovery of scattered light from the emissions.

  8. Energy and Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    An overview is given of research programs at a two-stage light-gas gun facility. Representative gas-gun experiments are described, and the impact of this research on other LLNL programs and on high-pressure physics work in general are discussed. Particular applications reported include: measurement of equations of state for various materials, synthesis and study of novel materials, and studies of high explosives. Specialized diagnostic techniques for gas-gun experiments are reviewed. (LEW)

  9. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  10. Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Lighting When you're shopping for lightbulbs, compare lumens and use the Lighting Facts label to be sure you're getting the amount of light, or level of brightness, you want. You can save money and energy while lighting your home and still maintaining good light quantity and quality. Consider energy-efficient lighting options to use the same amount of light for less money. Learn strategies for comparing and buying lighting products and using them efficiently. Featured Lighting Choices

  11. Study of beam transverse properties of a thermionic electron gun for application to a compact THz free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Tongning E-mail: yjpei@ustc.edu.cn; Qin, Bin; Tan, Ping; Chen, Qushan; Yang, Lei; Pei, Yuanji E-mail: yjpei@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Ji

    2014-10-15

    A novel thermionic electron gun adopted for use in a high power THz free electron laser (FEL) is proposed in this paper. By optimization of the structural and radiofrequency (RF) parameters, the physical design of the gun is performed using dynamic calculations. Velocity bunching is used to minimize the bunch's energy spread, and the dynamic calculation results indicate that high quality beams can be provided. The transverse properties of the beams generated by the gun are also analyzed. The novel RF focusing effects of the resonance cavity are investigated precisely and are used to establish emittance compensation, which enables the injector length to be reduced. In addition, the causes of the extrema of the beam radius and the normalized transverse emittance are analyzed and interpreted, respectively, and slice simulations are performed to illustrate how the RF focusing varies along the bunch length and to determine the effects of that variation on the emittance compensation. Finally, by observation of the variations of the beam properties in the drift tube behind the electron gun, prospective assembly scenarios for the complete THz-FEL injector are discussed, and a joint-debugging process for the injector is implemented.

  12. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  13. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  14. Evaluation of the phase content and properties of a detonation gun coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whichard, G.C.; Stavros, A.J.

    1994-12-31

    X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify the phases present in four molybdenum base D-Gun{trademark} coatings because the common method of an SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy could not distinguish between the phases. The overlapping diffraction peaks from the coatings were resolved using a profile fitting computer routine. Powder samples from each phase present in the coatings were obtained and reference samples prepared and measured. The Reference Intensity Ratio method was used to quantify the amount of each phase present in each coating. Regression analysis was used to relate coating hardness and laboratory wear test results to the amount of molybdenum in each coating. Hardness appears to be unrelated to molybdenum whereas the erosion and abrasion results can be represented by a linear relationship.

  15. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  16. Simulations of the ILC Electron Gun and ElectronBunching System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, C.B.; /McGill U.

    2006-08-30

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider, expected to provide insight into important questions in particle physics. A part of the global R&D effort for the ILC is the design of its electron gun and electron bunching system. The present design of the bunching system has two sub-harmonic bunchers, one operating at 108 MHz and one at 433MHz, and two 5-cell 1.3 GHz (L-band) bunchers. This bunching system has previously been simulated using the Phase and Radial Motion in Electron Linear Accelerators (PARMELA) software, and those simulations indicated that the design provides sufficient bunching and acceleration. Due to the complicated dynamics governing the electrons in the bunching system we decided to verify and expand the PARMELA results using the more recent and independent simulation software General Particle Tracer (GPT). GPT tracks the motion and interactions of a set of macro particles, each of which represent a number of electrons, and provides a variety of analysis capabilities. To provide initial conditions for the macro particles, a method was developed for deriving the initial conditions from detailed simulations of particle trajectories in the electron gun. These simulations were performed using the Egun software. For realistic simulation of the L-band bunching cavities, their electric and magnetic fields were calculated using the Superfish software and imported into GPT. The GPT simulations arrived at similar results to the PARMELA simulations for sub-harmonic bunching. However, using GPT it was impossible to achieve an efficient bunching performance of the first L-band bunching cavity. To correct this, the first L-band buncher cell was decoupled from the remaining 4 cells and driven as an independent cavity. Using this modification we attained results similar to the PARMELA simulations. Although the modified bunching system design performed as required, the modifications are technically challenging to implement. Further work is needed to optimize the L-Band buncher design.

  17. Design of the fundamental power coupler and photocathode inserts for the 112MHz superconducting electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xin, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Wu, Q.; Wang, E.; Liang, X.

    2011-07-25

    A 112 MHz superconducting quarter-wave resonator electron gun will be used as the injector of the Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) proof-of-principle experiment at BNL. Furthermore, this electron gun can be the testing cavity for various photocathodes. In this paper, we present the design of the cathode stalks and a Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) designated to the future experiments. Two types of cathode stalks are discussed. Special shape of the stalk is applied in order to minimize the RF power loss. The location of cathode plane is also optimized to enable the extraction of low emittance beam. The coaxial waveguide structure FPC has the properties of tunable coupling factor and small interference to the electron beam output. The optimization of the coupling factor and the location of the FPC are discussed in detail. Based on the transmission line theory, we designed a half wavelength cathode stalk which significantly brings down the voltage drop between the cavity and the stalk from more than 5.6 kV to 0.1 kV. The transverse field distribution on cathode has been optimized by carefully choosing the position of cathode stalk inside the cavity. Moreover, in order to decrease the RF power loss, a variable diameter design of cathode stalk has been applied. Compared to the uniform shape of stalk, this design gives us much smaller power losses in important locations. Besides that, we also proposed a fundamental power coupler based on the designed beam parameters for the future proof-of-principle CEC experiment. This FPC should give a strong enough coupling which has the Q external range from 1.5e7 to 2.6e8.

  18. Electron beam simulation from gun to collector: Towards a complete solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertzig, R. Shornikov, A. Wenander, F.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    An electron-beam simulation technique for high-resolution complete EBIS/T modelling is presented. The technique was benchmarked on the high compression HEC{sup 2} test-stand with an electron beam current, current density and energy of 10 A, 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and 49.2 keV, and on the immersed electron beam at REXEBIS for electron beam characteristics of 0.4 A, 200 A/cm{sup 2} and 4.5 keV. In both Brillouin-like and immersed beams the electron-beam radius varies from several millimeters at the gun, through some hundreds of micrometers in the ionization region to a few centimeters at the collector over a total length of several meters. We report on our approach for finding optimal meshing parameters, based on the local beam properties such as magnetic field-strength, electron energy and beam radius. This approach combined with dividing the problem domain into sub-domains, and subsequent splicing of the local solutions allowed us to simulate the beam propagation in EBISes from the gun to the collector using a conventional PC in about 24–36 h. Brillouin-like electron beams propagated through the complete EBIS were used to analyze the beam behavior within the collector region. We checked whether elastically reflected paraxial electrons from a Brillouin-like beam will escape from the collector region and add to the loss current. We have also studied the power deposition profiles as function of applied potentials using two electrode geometries for a Brillouin-like beam including the effects of backscattered electrons.

  19. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  20. Building Controls and Lighting Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation to State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) February 22, 2011 Francis Rubinstein Lead, Lighting Group Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory fmrubinstein@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Building End Use Energy Consumption Buildings consume 40% of Building
sector
has:
 total U.S. energy Largest
Energy
Use!
 * 71% of electricity *54% of natural gas No Single End Use Dominates Fastest
growth
rate!
 Lawrence

  1. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials

  2. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials

  3. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials

  4. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately, given their various advantageous mechanical properties. Their resistance to stress has had researchers proposing nanocrystals as a promising new protective coating for advanced gas turbine and jet engines. But recent studies conducted at the ALS show that the tiny size of nanocrystals does not safeguard them from defects. Engineering Nanocrystal Materials Most nanocrystal materials

  5. Quiz: Test Your Lighting IQ | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quiz: Test Your Lighting IQ Quiz: Test Your Lighting IQ Quiz: Test Your Lighting IQ How bright are you when it comes to lighting trivia? Test your knowledge with this fun quiz! 1. How do LEDs generate light? By heating up filament By moving electrons in compound semiconductors By ionizing mercury vapor in a glass tube By moving electric current through a tube containing gas A light-emitting diode, or LED, is a type of solid-state lighting that uses a semiconductor to convert electricity into

  6. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light ...

  7. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  8. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  9. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  10. Apparatus and method for monitoring of gas having stable isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna E

    2013-03-05

    Gas having stable isotopes is monitored continuously by using a system that sends a modulated laser beam to the gas and collects and transmits the light not absorbed by the gas to a detector. Gas from geological storage, or from the atmosphere can be monitored continuously without collecting samples and transporting them to a lab.

  11. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  12. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  13. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR LOW FIELD SHORT PHOTO-INJECTED RF ELECTRON GUN WITH HIGH CHARGE ELECTRON BUNCH.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI,I.; KEWISCH,J.

    2004-06-21

    The RF field and space charge effect in a low field RF gun is given. The cell lengths are modified to have maximum accelerating efficiency. The modification introduces an extra RF field slice emittance. The phase space evolution of the following emittance compensation system is presented taking into account the chromatic effect. The emittance compensation mechanics for RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance is similar to that of compensating the space charge induced emittance. But the requirements are different to have best compensation for them. The beam waist is far in front of linac entrance to have best compensation for the RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance. For low field RF gun with high charge electron bunch this compensation is more important.

  14. Design Considerations For Low Field Short Photo-Injected RF Electron Gun With High Charge Electron Bunch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Xiangyun; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Joerg

    2004-12-07

    The RF field and space charge effect in a low field RF gun is given. The cell lengths are modified to have maximum accelerating efficiency. The modification introduces an extra RF field slice emittance. The phase space evolution of the following emittance compensation system is presented taking into account the chromatic effect. The emittance compensation mechanics for RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance is similar to that of compensating the space charge induced emittance. But the requirements are different to have best compensation for them. The beam waist is far in front of linac entrance to have best compensation for the RF field and chromatic effect induced emittance. For low field RF gun with high charge electron bunch this compensation is more important.

  15. Cathode performance during two beam operation of the high current high polarization electron gun for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, O.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Degen, C.; Gassner, D. M.; Lambiase, R.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Pietz, J.; Ackeret, M.; Yeckel, C.; Miller, R.; Dobrin, E.; Thompson, K.

    2015-05-03

    Two electron beams from two activated bulk GaAs photocathodes were successfully combined during the recent beam test of the High Current High Polarization Electron gun for eRHIC. The beam test took place in Stangenes Industries in Palo Alto, CA, where the cathodes were placed in diagonally opposite locations inside the high voltage shroud. No significant cross talking between the cathodes was found for the pertinent vacuum and low average current operation, which is very promising towards combining multiple beams for higher average current. This paper describes the cathode preparation, transport and cathode performance in the gun for the combining test, including the QE and lifetimes of the photocathodes at various steps of the experiment.

  16. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  18. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  19. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  20. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  1. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  2. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  3. A mulitple cathode gun design for the eRHIC polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    The future electron-ion collider eRHIC requires a high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), low emittance ({approx}20 {micro}m) polarized electron source. The maximum average current of a polarized electron source so far is more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA, from a GaAs:Cs cathode. One possible approach to overcome the average current limit and to achieve the required 50 mA beam for eRHIC, is to combine beamlets from multiple cathodes to one beam. In this paper, we present the feasibility studies of this technique. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of RHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. It requires polarized electron source with a high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the low quantum efficiency, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and funnel the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. Fig.1 illustrates schematically the concept of combining the multiple beams. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because it bears functional similarity to a Gatling gun. Laser beams strike the cathodes sequentially with revolution frequency of 700 kHz. Each beam bunch is focused by a solenoid and is bent toward the combiner. The combiner with rotating bending field bends all bunches arriving the combiner with a rotational pattern to the same axis. The energy of each bunch is modified by a bunching cavity (112MHz) and a 3rd harmonic cavity (336MHz). The bunch length is compressed ballistically in the drift space and is frozen after energy has been boosted to 10 MeV by the Booster linac. Each beam bunch contains 3.5 nC charge. The space charge is very strong at energy of 200 keV. A long bunch, {sigma} of 250 ps, is adopted to reduce the space charge on cathode. To compress the beam to final length of 3 mm (10 ps) can be achieved by ballistic compression with a 3rd harmonic cavity.

  4. Fiber optic coupled multipass gas minicell, design assembly thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Bora, Mihail; Engel, Michael A.; McCarrick, James F.; Moran, Bryan D.

    2016-01-12

    A method directs a gas of interest into a minicell and uses an emitting laser to produce laser emission light that is directed into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. The laser emission light is reflected within the cell to make multipasses through the gas of interest. After the multipasses through the gas of interest the laser light is analyzed to produces gas spectroscopy data. The minicell receives the gas of interest and a transmitting optic connected to the minicell that directs a beam into the minicell and onto the gas of interest. A receiving optic connected to the minicell receives the beam from the gas of interest and directs the beam to an analyzer that produces gas spectroscopy data.

  5. W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorods decorated with Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as highly-sensitive gas-sensing material and visible-light-driven photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Shibin; Chang Xueting; Dong Lihua; Zhang Yidong; Li Zhenjiang; Qiu Yanyan

    2011-08-15

    A novel gas-sensing material and photocatalyst was successfully obtained by decorating Ag/AgCl nanoparticles on the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorods through a clean photochemical route. The as-prepared samples were characterized using combined techniques of X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Gas-sensing measurements indicate that the Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs sensors exhibit superior reducing gas-sensing properties to those of bare W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs, and they are highly selective and sensitive to NH{sub 3}, acetone, and H{sub 2}S with short response and recovery times. The Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs photocatlysts also possess higher photocatalytic performance than bare W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs for degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight irradiation. Possible mechanisms concerning the enhancement of gas-sensing and photocatalytic activities of the Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs composite were proposed. - Graphical Abstract: The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles adhered well to the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} nanorod. The Ag could act as transfer center of the photoexcited carriers, prohibiting their recombinations in both W{sub 18}O{sub 49} and AgCl. Highlights: > Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs were successfully obtained via a clean photochemical route. > The Ag/AgCl nanoparticles decorated on the W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs possessed cladding structure. > The Ag/AgCl/W{sub 18}O{sub 49} NRs exhibited excellent gas-sensing and photocatalytic properties.

  6. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Choices to Save You Money Lighting Choices to Save You Money This Energy 101 video explores the different lighting options available to consumers. Light your home using the same amount of light for less money. By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY STAR, you can save $75 each year. New lighting standards took effect in 2012, and money-saving options such as halogen incandescent, CFL, and LED lightbulbs are

  7. solid state lighting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to address the urgent challenges of revitalizing America's economy, strengthening our national energy security, and reducing our country's greenhouse gas emissions. SSL will mean greener homes and businesses that use substantially less electricity, making them less dependent on fossil fuels. In the coming decade, SSL will become a key to affordable high-performance buildings - buildings that consume less

  8. Electron gun for a multiple beam klystron with magnetic compression of the electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Tran, Hien T; Bui, Thuc; Attarian, Adam; Tallis, William; David, John; Forstall, Virginia; Andujar, Cynthia; Blach, Noah T; Brown, David B; Gadson, Sean E; Kiley, Erin M; Read, Michael

    2013-10-01

    A multi-beam electron gun provides a plurality N of cathode assemblies comprising a cathode, anode, and focus electrode, each cathode assembly having a local cathode axis and also a central cathode point defined by the intersection of the local cathode axis with the emitting surface of the cathode. Each cathode is arranged with its central point positioned in a plane orthogonal to a device central axis, with each cathode central point an equal distance from the device axis and with an included angle of 360/N between each cathode central point. The local axis of each cathode has a cathode divergence angle with respect to the central axis which is set such that the diverging magnetic field from a solenoidal coil is less than 5 degrees with respect to the projection of the local cathode axis onto a cathode reference plane formed by the device axis and the central cathode point, and the local axis of each cathode is also set such that the angle formed between the cathode reference plane and the local cathode axis results in minimum spiraling in the path of the electron beams in a homogenous magnetic field region of the solenoidal field generator.

  9. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  10. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  11. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... Analysis of Technology and Policy Tradeoffs, Energy Policy, ...

  12. Gas magnetometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  13. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  14. Prospects for LED lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Gee, James Martin; Simmons, Jerry Alvon

    2003-08-01

    Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has the potential to reduce energy consumption for lighting by 50% while revolutionizing the way we illuminate our homes, work places, and public spaces. Nevertheless, substantial technical challenges remain in order for solid-state lighting to significantly displace the well-developed conventional lighting technologies. We review the potential of LED solid-state lighting to meet the long-term cost goals.

  15. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Tungsten halogen lamps are more energy-efficient than standard incandescent lamps. They ... Fluorescent lights are about 3 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent lighting and last ...

  16. Exciting White Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Windows that emit light and are more energy efficient? Universal Display’s PHOLED technology enables windows that have transparent light-emitting diodes in them.

  17. Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... HomeSolid-State Lighting Permalink ECIS-Veeco: Research Driving Down the Costs of Efficient LED Lighting Energy, Energy Efficiency, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & ...

  18. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lighting will be examined here: * replacing incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent lamps * replacing incandescent exit signs with those lit by light emitting diodes (LED) * ...

  19. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    light by passing electricity through mercury vapor, which causes the fluorescent coating to glow or fluoresce. High-Efficiency Ballast (HEB): A lighting conservation feature...

  20. Leavenworth Tree Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Join HERO for our annual Leavenworth Tree Lighting Ceremony & Shopping SATURDAY DECEMBER 12, 2015 Leavenworth Christmas Lighting Festival Visitors return year after year for some...

  1. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  2. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  3. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    are also under consideration. Outside the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program promotes energy-efficient lighting as a means to reducing...

  4. residential-lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Progress Report Evaluation Utility Toolkit Residential Lighting Market Research The Residential Lighting Market Research Project will estimate market savings from...

  5. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    light gas gun (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Authors: Akin, M C ; Chau, R ; Jenei, Z ; Lipp, M J ; Evans, W J Publication Date: 2013-09-06 OSTI Identifier: 1104519 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-644650 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical

  6. Cree LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cree LED Lighting Solutions (Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF)) Place: Morrisville,...

  7. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  8. Probe characterization of high-current driven metal plasma in a vacuum-arc rail gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayan, T.; Roychowdhury, P.; Venkatramani, N.

    2004-10-15

    The characteristics of metal plasma launched by high-current electric arc in a vacuum-arc rail gun are determined by employing electrical and magnetic probes. These measurements are validated by results from theoretical simulations. The arc coupled nonlinear circuit equations are solved simultaneously with the Newtonian arc motion and revealed the undercritically damped behavior of the arc current identical to the arc-current signal recorded by the Rogowski magnetic probe. Similarly the arc velocity and displacement derived from the signatures of B-dot probes are shown to concur closely with the results of JxB propulsion from simulation. The heating of plasma is formulated in a three-electron population regime with direct arc energy coupling through magnetohydrodynamic, ion-acoustic, Coulomb, and neutral interactions. This results in high temperature (T{sub e}) of hundreds of eV in the arc as revealed by the simulation. Hence T{sub e} of the rapidly cooling and equilibrating plasma that emerged from the muzzle is high around 80-90 eV, which is confirmed by Langmuir electric probe measurements. Density n{sub e} of this metal plasma is shown to be in the range 4x10{sup 21}-6x10{sup 21} m{sup -3} and includes multiple ion charge states. The exit velocity of the plasma measured by a pair of Langmuir probes is close to 2.2x10{sup 6} cm/s and matched well with the arc velocity determined by the B-dot probes and the results from simulation.

  9. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    solar-powered LED lights that replaced natural gas-powered streetlights in the city of Deming, New Mexico. | DOE photo EECBG Success Story: Energy Efficiency in New Mexico Frees ...

  11. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Koltai, R. N.; McGowan, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  12. Rare earth gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  13. LED Lighting Facts Snapshot: Indoor Ambient Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    LED Lighting Facts Snapshot reports reveal how today's products really perform, drawing on analysis of verified performance data from the program's online product list.

  14. lighting in the library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The amount and quality of light around us affects our health, safety, comfort, and productivity. Our country spends more than $37 billion each year on electricity for lighting, but technologies developed during the past 10 years can help us cut lighting costs by 30% to 60% while enhancing lighting quality and reducing environmental impacts. In a typical indoor lighting system, 50 percent or more of the energy supplied to the lamp can be wasted by obsolete equipment, poor maintenance, or

  15. Experimental and numerical study of gas dynamic window for electron beam transport into the space with increased pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.

    2014-12-09

    The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the gas jet technical device for obtaining axisymmetric flow with low pressure in its near axis region. The studied geometry of the device is typical of that used in the plasma generator consisting of an electron gun with a hollow (plasma) cathode and a double supersonic ring nozzle. The geometry of the nozzles as well as the relation between the gas flow rates through the nozzles providing the electron beam extraction into the region with increased pressure are tested both experimentally and numerically. The maximum external pressure of about 0.25 bar that does not disturb the electron beam is achieved.

  16. Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Effective White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Document details lighting technologies that provide low-maintenance alternatives to high-pressure sodium lighting. PDF icon white_light_parking_area..pdf More Documents & Publications LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at the NAVFAC Engineering Service Center Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report

  17. Method for mapping a natural gas leak

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2009-02-03

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formatted into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimposed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  18. Combined raman and IR fiber-based sensor for gas detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, Jerry C; Chan, James W; Trebes, James E; Angel, Stanley M; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-06-24

    A double-pass fiber-optic based spectroscopic gas sensor delivers Raman excitation light and infrared light to a hollow structure, such as a hollow fiber waveguide, that contains a gas sample of interest. A retro-reflector is placed at the end of this hollow structure to send the light back through the waveguide where the light is detected at the same end as the light source. This double pass retro reflector design increases the interaction path length of the light and the gas sample, and also reduces the form factor of the hollow structure.

  19. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. Themore » system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.« less

  20. A high-current electron gun for the electron beam ion trap at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, S. Baumann, T. M.; Kittimanapun, K.; Lapierre, A.; Snyder, A.

    2014-02-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) in NSCL’s reaccelerator ReA uses continuous ion injection and accumulation. In order to maximize capture efficiency and minimize breeding time into high charge states, the EBIT requires a high-current/high current-density electron beam. A new electron gun insert based on a concave Ba-dispenser cathode has been designed and built to increase the current transmitted through the EBIT’s superconducting magnet. With the new insert, stable EBIT operating conditions with 0.8 A of electron beam have been established. The design of the electron gun is presented together with calculated and measured perveance data. In order to assess the experimental compression of the electron beam, a pinhole CCD camera has been set up to measure the electron beam radius. The camera observes X-rays emitted from highly charged ions, excited by the electron beam. Initial tests with this camera setup will be presented. They indicate that a current density of 640 A/cm{sup 2} has been reached when the EBIT magnet was operated at 4 T.

  1. Laser-free RF-gun as a combined source of THz and ps-sub-ps X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agustsson, R.; Boucher, S.; Finn, O.; Hartzell, J.; Ruelas, M.; Smirnov, A. V.; Storms, S.; Ning, Z.; Murokh, A.; Campese, T.; Faillace, L.; Verma, A.; Kim, Y.; Buaphad, P.; Andrews, A.; Berls, B.; Eckman, C.; Folkman, K.; Knowles-Swingle, A.; O’Neill, C.; Smith, M.; Grandsaert, T.; van der Geer, B.; de Loos, M.; Berg, W. J.; Sereno, N. S.; Sun, Y.; Zholents, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    A coherent, mm-sub-mm-wave source driven by a RF electron gun is proposed for wide research applications as well as auxiliary inspection and screening, safe imaging, cancer diagnostics, surface defectoscopy, and enhanced time-domain spectroscopy. It allows generation of high peak and average THz-sub-THz radiation power provided by beam pre-bunching and chirping in the RF gun followed by microbunching in magnetic compressor, and resonant Cherenkov radiation of an essentially flat beam in a robust, ~inch-long, planar, mm-sub-mm gap structure. The proof-of-principle has been successfully demonstrated in Phase I on a 5 MeV beam of L-band thermionic injector of Idaho Accelerator Center. The system can also deliver an intense, ps-sub-ps bursts of low-to-moderate dose of relativistic electrons and X-ray radiation produced by the same beam required for pulsed radiolysis as well as to enhance screening efficiency, throughput and safety.

  2. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tips: Lighting Tips: Lighting Lighting choices save you money. Energy-efficient light bulbs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Lighting choices save you money....

  3. Natural Gas Regulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Natural Gas Act of 1938, as amended, requires any person who wishes to import and/or export natural gas, (including liquefied natural gas, compressed natural gas, compressed gas liquids, etc.)...

  4. Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 400 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, national laboratories, manufacturing, energy efficiency organizations, utilities and municipalities gathered in San Francisco, CA to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting Workshop on February 3-5, 2009. The workshop, hosted by DOE, with sponsors BetaLED, Echelon, Pacific Gas & Electric, and Southern California Edison, was the sixth annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products. The workshop brought together a diverse gathering of participants - from the R&D community to lighting designers and architects - to share insights, ideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSL market.

  5. Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Lighting & Daylighting » Lighting Basics Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:12pm Addthis Text Version There are many different types of artificial lights (formally called "lamps" in the lighting industry,) which have different applications and uses. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Lighting High-intensity Discharge Lighting Incandescent Lighting LED Lighting. New lamp designs that use energy-efficient technology are now readily available in the

  6. Connected Lighting Systems Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  7. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS MEETING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  8. Compact, high energy gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Stapleton, Robert E.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1976-08-03

    An electrically pumped gas laser amplifier unit having a disc-like configuration in which light propagation is radially outward from the axis rather than along the axis. The input optical energy is distributed over a much smaller area than the output optical energy, i.e., the amplified beam, while still preserving the simplicity of parallel electrodes for pumping the laser medium. The system may thus be driven by a comparatively low optical energy input, while at the same time, owing to the large output area, large energies may be extracted while maintaining the energy per unit area below the threshold of gas breakdown.

  9. Outdoor Lighting Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE offers a variety of resources to guide municipalities, utilities, and others in their evaluation of LED street lighting products.

  10. Commercial / Industrial Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Commercial & Industrial Lighting Efficiency Program The Commercial & Industrial...

  11. 2013 Fact Sheet 2013-4930P

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    make safe IEDs, radiological dispersal devices, and improvised nuclear devices. Mobile Guns Complex Trailer-mounted recoilless Davis Guns (8", 12" or 16" barrels) and Gas Guns (6"...

  12. SSQ V3 N3_Final_4oct13.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... pressure, density, and energy we have imparted to a ... A large two- stage light-gas gun, like the one at the Joint ... The organization provides management oversight, policy ...

  13. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-09

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  14. Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research - JASPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-31

    Commonly known as JASPER the Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research facility is a two stage light gas gun used to study the behavior of plutonium and other materials under high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates.

  15. HD/H{sub 2} AS A PROBE OF THE ROLES OF GAS, DUST, LIGHT, METALLICITY, AND COSMIC RAYS IN PROMOTING THE GROWTH OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN THE DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszt, H. S.

    2015-01-20

    We modeled recent observations of UV absorption of HD and H{sub 2} in the Milky Way and toward damped/subdamped Lyα systems at z = 0.18 and z >1.7. N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) ratios reflect the separate self-shieldings of HD and H{sub 2} and the coupling introduced by deuteration chemistry. Locally, observations are explained by diffuse molecular gas with 16 cm{sup –3} ≲ n(H) ≲ 128 cm{sup –3} if the cosmic-ray ionization rate per H nucleus ζ {sub H} =2 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}, as inferred from H{sub 3} {sup +} and OH{sup +}. The dominant influence on N(HD)/N(H{sub 2}) is the cosmic-ray ionization rate with a much weaker downward dependence on n(H) at solar metallicity, but dust extinction can drive N(HD) higher as with N(H{sub 2}). At z > 1.7, N(HD) is comparable to the Galaxy but with 10 times smaller N(H{sub 2}) and somewhat smaller N(H{sub 2})/N(H I). Comparison of our Galaxy with the Magellanic Clouds shows that smaller H{sub 2}/H is expected at subsolar metallicity, and we show by modeling that HD/H{sub 2} increases with density at low metallicity, opposite to the Milky Way. Observations of HD would be explained with higher n(H) at low metallicity, but high-z systems have high HD/H{sub 2} at metallicity 0.04 ≲ Z ≲ 2 solar. In parallel, we trace dust extinction and self-shielding effects. The abrupt H{sub 2} transition to H{sub 2}/H ≈ 1%-10% occurs mostly from self-shielding, although it is assisted by extinction for n(H) ≲ 16 cm{sup –3}. Interior H{sub 2} fractions are substantially increased by dust extinction below ≲ 32 cm{sup –3}. At smaller n(H), ζ {sub H}, small increases in H{sub 2} triggered by dust extinction can trigger abrupt increases in N(HD)

  16. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  17. Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again July 27, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis John Lippert Induction lighting is one of the best kept secrets in energy-efficient lighting. Simply stated, induction lighting is essentially a fluorescent light without electrodes or filaments, the items that frequently cause other bulbs to burn out quickly. Thus, many induction lighting units have an extremely long life of up

  18. Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts Presenter: Marc Ledbetter, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The LED Lighting Facts program provides credible, verified performance ...

  19. Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2014-07-22

    The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

  20. Light-storing photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Junying; Pan Feng; Hao Weichang; Ge Qi; Wang Tianmian

    2004-12-06

    Light-storing photocatalyst was prepared by coating light-storing phosphor and TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst in sequence on ceramic. The light-storing photocatalyst can store light irradiation and emit slowly. Consequently, the photocatalyst remains active when the irradiation source is cut off. Rhodamine B (RhB) can be decomposed efficiently by this photocatalyst in the dark after it absorbs light irradiation. This photocatalyst is photoreactive in an outdoor environment or can save energy by supplying irradiation intermittently for the photocatalyst.

  1. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  2. Evaluation Project 4492

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    25-2011 NNSA-B-11-0103 Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM), proposes to continue operating the single-stage, compressed three-inch light gas gun and the small pulser in the existing Dynamic Integrated Compression Experimental (DICE) Facility. ✖ Sandia Site Office DICE Facility: Three-Inch Light Gas Gun & Small Pulser - Operations Sandia National Laboratories - New Mexico LACY,SUSAN DOYLENE 05/25/2011 ✖

  3. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ...

  4. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Follow Us followontwitter.png followonfacebook.png Lighting Blogs Buying the Perfect Energy-Efficient Light Bulb in 5 Easy Steps Big Savings on Outdoor Lighting ...

  5. Fact #724: April 23, 2012 Gas Guzzler Tax Levied on New Cars with Low Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Gas Guzzler Tax" is collected from the public for each new car purchased with fuel economy less than 22.5 miles per gallon (mpg). The Gas Guzzler Tax does not apply to light trucks, only cars....

  6. GAS SEAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  7. Tips: Saving Money on Gas | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Vehicles & Fuels » Tips: Saving Money on Gas Tips: Saving Money on Gas Tips: Saving Money on Gas In 2014, Americans drove 3.02 trillion miles-the equivalent of 6.2 million round-trips to the moon. With light-duty vehicles accounting for more than 40% of U.S. oil use, most people want to use less gas to save them money, helping reduce pollution and improve energy security. Luckily, there are plenty of ways to improve your gas mileage or avoid using gas altogether.

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  9. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  10. Wisconsin Business Sheds Light on Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Business Sheds Light on Lighting Wisconsin Business Sheds Light on Lighting April 29, 2010 - 4:59pm Addthis When this photograph was taken, the upper floors of ...

  11. Effect of composition changes on the structure and properties of W-Cr-Ni-C detonation gun coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavros, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Changes in the microstructure and wear behavior of W-Cr-Ni-C coatings as a function of the composition of the starting powder were studied. The experimental powder compositions were chosen so that the results could be analyzed statistically as a mixture problem with the extreme vertices design. All coatings were deposited by identical detonation gun operating conditions. Although the variation of powder chemistry resulted in distinctively different powder morphologies, all coatings were found to be composed of the same 4 (possibly more) complex carbides. The amount and, to some degree, morphology of a particular carbide was found to change with composition. However, neither amount nor morphology could be correlated to microhardness or wear test results. Predictive equations based on powder composition were obtained which fit the wear test results very well.

  12. High quality single shot ultrafast MeV electron diffraction from a photocathode radio-frequency gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Feichao; Liu, Shengguang; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jianming

    2014-08-15

    A compact ultrafast electron diffractometer, consisting of an s-band 1.6 cell photocathode radio-frequency gun, a multi-function changeable sample chamber, and a sensitive relativistic electron detector, was built at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. High-quality single-shot transmission electron diffraction patterns have been recorded by scattering 2.5 MeV electrons off single crystalline gold and polycrystalline aluminum samples. The high quality diffraction pattern indicates an excellent spatial resolution, with the ratio of the diffraction ring radius over the ring rms width beyond 10. The electron pulse width is estimated to be about 300 fs. The high temporal and spatial resolution may open new opportunities in various areas of sciences.

  13. A double-beam magnetron-injection gun for third-harmonic continuous wave 1-THz gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glyavin, M.; Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Nizhny Novgorod 603600; Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region, University of Fukui , Fukui-shi 910-8507 ; Manuilov, V.; Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region, University of Fukui , Fukui-shi 910-8507 ; Idehara, T.

    2013-12-15

    The concept of a continuous wave 1-kW/1-THz gyrotron operated at the third cyclotron harmonic of the transverse electric TE{sub 9,7} operating mode has been developed. To suppress the mode competition effects in a terahertz gyrotron, we propose a scheme with two generating helical electron beams (HEBs) formed in a double-beam triode magnetron-injection gun (MIG), where both emitters of the electron beams are located on a common cathode of the conventional MIG. An optimal geometry of the MIG electrodes is found. It is shown that in a proposed scheme two HEBs having close pitch factors and a moderate velocity spread can be formed. This makes them suitable for high-efficiency single-mode generation in the high frequency gyrotron at high harmonic.

  14. Verification Test Suite (VERTS) For Rail Gun Applications using ALE3D: 2-D Hydrodynamics & Thermal Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najjar, F M; Solberg, J; White, D

    2008-04-17

    A verification test suite has been assessed with primary focus on low reynolds number flow of liquid metals. This is representative of the interface between the armature and rail in gun applications. The computational multiphysics framework, ALE3D, is used. The main objective of the current study is to provide guidance and gain confidence in the results obtained with ALE3D. A verification test suite based on 2-D cases is proposed and includes the lid-driven cavity and the Couette flow are investigated. The hydro and thermal fields are assumed to be steady and laminar in nature. Results are compared with analytical solutions and previously published data. Mesh resolution studies are performed along with various models for the equation of state.

  15. Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm{sup 2} sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Niraj Narayan Pal, Udit; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram; Kumar Pal, Dharmendra

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm{sup 2} from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.

  16. Bimodality - a 'Smoking Gun' Signal for a First Order Phase Transition?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Fevre, A.

    2007-10-26

    The recently discovered coexistence of multifragmentation and residue production for the same total transverse energy of light charged particles can be well reproduced in numerical simulations of the heavy ion reactions. We investigate here in detail the origin of the observed sudden transition between the two reaction reaction scenarios and show that another mechanism than a first order phase transition can produce such a phenomenon.

  17. Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) ... Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Texas Underground Natural Gas ...

  18. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  19. Brief History of Artificial Lighting Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Artificial Lighting Technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  20. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Mills, Evan; Jacobson, Arne

    2011-01-25

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fuel-based lighting are substantial given the paltry levels of lighting service provided to users, leading to a great opportunity for GHG mitigation byencouraging the switch from fuel-based to rechargeable LED lighting. However, as with most new energy technology, switching to efficient lighting requires an up-front investment of energy(and GHGs) embedded in the manufacture of replacement components. We studied a population of off-grid lighting users in 2008-2009 in Kenya who were given the opportunity to adopt LEDlighting. Based on their use patterns with the LED lights and the levels of kerosene offset we observed, we found that the embodied energy of the LED lamp was"paid for" in only one month for grid charged products and two months for solar charged products. Furthermore, the energyreturn-on investment-ratio (energy produced or offset over the product's service life divided by energy embedded) for off-grid LED lighting ranges from 12 to 24, which is on par with on-gridsolar and large-scale wind energy. We also found that the energy embodied in the manufacture of a typical hurricane lantern is about one-half to one-sixth of that embodied in the particular LEDlights that we evaluated, indicating that the energy payback time would be moderately faster if LEDs ultimately displace the production of kerosene lanterns. As LED products improve, weanticipate longer service lives and more successful displacement of kerosene lighting, both of which will speed the already rapid recovery of embodied energy in these products. Our studyprovides a detailed appendix with embodied energy values for a variety of components used to construct off-grid LED lighting, which can be used to analyze other products.

  1. Light metal production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  2. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: light; diffusing; fiber; optic; chamber; light; diffusion; transmitting; light; target; light; transmitted; ...

  3. Separation of gas mixtures by thermoacoustic waves.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G. W.; Geller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  4. SEPARATION OF GAS MIXTURES BY THERMOACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. SWIFT; D.A. GELLER; P.S. SPOOR

    2001-06-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  5. Lighting in the Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lores

    hires

    The purpose of the Lighting in the Library Activity is to calculate the electricity used to provide lighting in the school library and determine the feasibility of saving energy and money by using energy efficient lighting fixtures. Your students will assume the role of an energy auditor assigned the task of assessing the current situation and making a recommendation for energy-efficient improvements. This activitity requires a trip to the library, an examination of the

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  7. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  8. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  9. Extragalactic Background Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Yoshiyuki Inoue 1 , Susumu Inoue...

  10. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illuminance Assignments for CBECS Building Activity Categories Illuminance ranges were adopted from the 1987 Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Lighting Handbook. The IES...

  11. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from the engineering literature, based on CBECS building activity.) 4. Efficacy: an energy efficiency measure. Technically, the amount of light produced per unit of energy...

  12. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (CEC), March 1990. Advanced Lighting Technologies Application Guidelines (ALTAG), Building and Appliance Efficiency Office. 3. Dubin, F.S., Mindell, H.L., and Bloome, S., 1976....

  13. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    energy are presented in this section. Statistics are presented by subgroups based on building characteristics, and by subgroups based on lighting equipment. The three sets of...

  14. Light-Source Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Canada CTST - UCSB Center for Terahertz Science and Technology, USA DFELL - Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, USA Jlab - Jefferson Lab, USA LCLS - Linear Coherent Light...

  15. Light Duty Vehicle Pathways

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010.

  16. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Lighting Technologies, Costs, and Energy Demand: Global Developments to 2030 View Slides: ...

  17. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Partners: Auburn University Cree SAS Institute PPG Industries State of North Carolina ... Consortium Auburn University SAS Institute Cree Lighting PPG Industries State of North ...

  18. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    model; Sept. 2013 Auburn University Cree SAS Institute PPG Industries LED Systems ... Consortium Auburn University SAS Institute Cree Lighting PPG Industries Communications: ...

  19. And there was light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2015-02-24

    I discuss the use of light as a collection of real and virtual photons to study some lingering questions in particle and nuclear physics.

  20. Comparing Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this exercise, students will use a light to demonstrate the difference between being energy-efficient and energy-wasteful, and learn what energy efficiency means.

  1. Lighting Test Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting-Test-Facilities Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology &...

  2. Incandescent Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting » Incandescent Lighting Incandescent Lighting Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lighting is the most common, and least energy efficient, type of lighting used in homes. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/TokenPhoto. Incandescent lamps are often considered the least energy efficient type of electric lighting commonly found in residential buildings. Although

  3. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  4. Louisville Gas & Electric- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE) offers rebates to all commercial customers who pay a DSM charge on monthly bills. Rebates are available on lighting measures, sensors, air conditioners, heat pumps...

  5. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  6. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  7. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » LED Lighting LED Lighting LED Lighting The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting technologies. Quality LED light bulbs last longer, are more durable, and offer comparable or better light quality than other types of lighting. Check out the top 8 things you didn't know about LEDs to learn more. Energy Savings LED is a highly energy efficient lighting technology, and has the potential to fundamentally

  8. Natural Gas Engine Development Gaps (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigler, B.T.

    2014-03-01

    A review of current natural gas vehicle offerings is presented for both light-duty and medium- and heavy-duty applications. Recent gaps in the marketplace are discussed, along with how they have been or may be addressed. The stakeholder input process for guiding research and development needs via the Natural Gas Vehicle Technology Forum (NGVTF) to the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission is reviewed. Current high-level natural gas engine development gap areas are highlighted, including efficiency, emissions, and the certification process.

  9. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  10. Narragansett update: from Washington Gas Light to Nantahala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ercolano, A.J.; Lesch, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    In recent contests over regulatory jurisdiction between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and local utility commissions, the courts have defended the FERC's exclusive regulatory authority over interstate rates against state commission encroachment. Moreover, in Nantahala, the Court applied an expansive interpretation of what constitutes an impermissible interference with the FERC's jurisdiction. By not limiting the holding to rates per se the Court drove home the message that local public utility commissions have a duty not to interfere, in any manner, in the area of the FERC's exclusive domain - regulation of interstate wholesale rates.

  11. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas) - Business Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Food Service Equipment: Varies widely Drain water heat transfer system: 400 Outdoor Swimming Pool Cover: 0.50sq.ft. Outdoor SpaHot Tub Cover: 7sq.ft. Steam Trap: 100 Duct...

  12. Albany Water Gas & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    albanywgl Outage Hotline: 229-883-8330 ext. 506 Green Button Access: None References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form 861 Data...

  13. Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    restoration times and the need for truck rolls for grid maintenance, improving reliability and reducing operating costs and pollutant emissions.3 Equipment Distribution...

  14. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas) - Business Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dollar Savings Clothes Washer: 50 - 100 Dishwasher: 15 Freezer: 25 Refrigerator: 50 Room Air Conditioner: 25 Desktop and integrated computers: 5 Computer Equipment: 4 -...

  15. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas) - Residential...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the home receives heating andor cooling energy from Alliant Energy-IPL. Bonus rebates reward customers for installing premium-efficiency heating and cooling equipment, clothes...

  16. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    be prorated for homes less than 1,800 square feet in size. Incentive payment for the base reward can be paid to the builder or the homeowner but cannot be split. Additional rebates...

  17. Lighting fundamentals handbook: Lighting fundamentals and principles for utility personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, C.; Tolen, T. Associates, San Francisco, CA ); Benya, J.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Lighting accounts for approximately 30% of overall electricity use and demand in commercial buildings. This handbook for utility personnel provides a source of basic information on lighting principles, lighting equipment, and other considerations related to lighting design. The handbook is divided into three parts. Part One, Physics of Light, has chapters on light, vision, optics, and photometry. Part Two, Lighting Equipment and Technology, focuses on lamps, luminaires, and lighting controls. Part Three, Lighting Design Decisions, deals with the manner in which lighting design decisions are made and reviews relevant methods and issues. These include the quantity and quality of light needed for visual tasks, calculation methods for verifying that lighting needs are satisfied, lighting economics and methods for evaluating investments in efficient lighting systems, and miscellaneous design issues including energy codes, power quality, photobiology, and disposal of lighting equipment. The handbook contains a discussion of the role of the utility in promoting the use of energy-efficient lighting. The handbook also includes a lighting glossary and a list of references for additional information. This convenient and comprehensive handbook is designed to enable utility lighting personnel to assist their customers in developing high-quality, energy-efficient lighting systems. The handbook is not intended to be an up-to-date reference on lighting products and equipment.

  18. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  19. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  20. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  1. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  2. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  3. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  4. Commissioning of the 112 MHz SRF Gun and 500 MHz bunching cavities for the CeC PoP Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J. C.; Litvinenko, V.; McIntosh, P.; Moss, A.; Narayan, G.; Orfin, P.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Skaritka, J.; Smith, K.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, E.; Wheelhouse, A.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B.; Xin, T.; Xu, W.; Zaltsman, A.

    2015-05-03

    The Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment at BNL includes a short electron linac. During Phase 1, a 112 MHz superconducting RF photo-emission gun and two 500 MHz normal conducting bunching cavities were installed and are under commissioning. The paper describes the Phase1 linac layout and presents commissioning results for the cavities and associated RF, cryogenic and other sub-systems

  5. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  6. Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Energy Department Invests to Save on Heating, Cooling and Lighting August 14, 2013 - 1:39pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's efforts to reduce energy bills for American families and businesses and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the Energy Department today announced 12 projects to develop innovative heating, cooling and insulation technologies as well as open source

  7. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Controls Lighting Controls Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Of course you can save energy by turning off lights when they're not needed, but sometimes we forget or don't notice that we've left them on. The most common types of lighting controls include: Dimmers

  8. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Lighting Controls Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Of course you can save energy by turning off lights when they're not needed, but sometimes we forget or don't notice that we've left them on. The most common types of lighting controls include: Dimmers

  9. Natural Gas Storage Research at Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton, Don; Sulic, Martin; Tamburello, David A.

    2015-05-04

    As an alternative to imported oil, scientists at the Department of Energy’s Savannah River National Laboratory are looking at abundant, domestically sourced natural gas, as an alternative transportation fuel. SRNL is investigating light, inexpensive, adsorbed natural gas storage systems that may fuel the next generation of automobiles.

  10. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Myer, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    A U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Gateway Report on a Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting in Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon.

  11. (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Topics cover the basics of light-emitting diode (LED) operation; a 200-year history of lighting technology; the importance of white light and color vision to the evolutionary ...

  12. Lakeview Light and Power- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeview Light and Power offers a commercial lighting rebate program. Rebates apply to the installation of energy efficient lighting retrofits in non-residential buildings. The rebate program is...

  13. Peninsula Light Company PenLight | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company PenLight Jump to: navigation, search Name: Peninsula Light Company (PenLight) Place: Gig Harbor, Washington State Zip: 98335-0078 Product: Member-owned electric cooperative...

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  15. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.2 152.6 160.5 54.6 Assembly Health Care Lodging Office 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Energy Information Administration Energy Consumption Series: Lighting in Commercial...

  16. Lighting in the Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... If it is impossible to inspect the fixtures themselves, try to determine the wattage of ... PLAN a new approach n SOLVE equations to compare the current light design with your new ...

  17. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Bechinger, Clemens S.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material's optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment.

  18. Fiber optic device for sensing the presence of a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Bechinger, C.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-01-13

    A fiber-optic device for sensing the presence of a gas in an environment is provided. The device comprises a light source for directing a light beam to a layer system having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. The first surface is exposable to the light beam and the second surface is exposable to the environment. A first light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence free from optical wave guide resonance phenomenon and the second light portion encounters and reflects from the first surface at an angle of incidence enabling an optical wave guide resonance phenomenon. The layer system is selected to reversibly react with the gas to be detected. The reaction between the gas and the material changes the material`s optical properties and the wavelength at which the optical wave guide resonance occurs. Furthermore, a mechanism for measuring the intensity of the reflected first light portion relative to the reflected second light portion is provided with the ratio of the first and second light portions indicating the concentration of the gas presence in the environment. 5 figs.

  19. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  20. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  1. Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies, LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Cost Share: $250,000 Project Term: 9/10/2014 - 8/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design to improve the light

  2. Peninsula Light Company- Commercial Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Peninsula Light Company (PLC) offers a rebate program for commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient lighting. Participating customers must be served by PLC commercial service....

  3. Columbia Water & Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  4. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Roadway Lighting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: LEDs; light-emitting diodes; ...

  5. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... flashlights, machine vision, museum or art gallery display lighting, architectural ... shaped neon-tube channel letter signs, reverse channel letters, and border lighting. ...

  6. American Gas Association Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication American Gas Association Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication On October 9, 2014, a workshop was hosted by the American Gas Association and Washington Gas Light (WGL) at WGLs Training Facility in Springfield, VA. PDF icon AGA Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication PDF icon Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Agenda PDF icon October 9th Workshop Presentation - Melissa Adams PDF icon October

  7. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  8. Improved Ion Resistance for III-V Photocathodes in High Current Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, Gregory, A.

    2012-11-16

    The two photocathode test systems were modified, baked and recommissioned. The first system was dedicated to ion studies and the second to electron stimulated recovery (ESR) work. The demonstration system for the electron beam rejuvenation was set up, tested and demonstrated to one of the SSRL team (Dr. Kirby) during a site visit. The requisite subsystems were transferred to SSRL, installed and photoemission studies conducted on activated surfaces following electron beam exposure. Little surface chemistry change was detected in the photoemission spectra following the ESR process. The yield mapping system for the ion (and later, the electron beam rejuvenation) studies was implemented and use made routine. Ion species and flux measurements were performed for H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ions at energies of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kV. Gas induced photoyield measurements followed each ion exposure measurement. These data permit the extraction of photoyield induced change per ion (by species) at the measured energies. Electron beam induced rejuvenation was first demonstrated in the second chamber with primary electron beam energy and dependency investigations following. A Hiden quadrupole mass spectrometer for the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) measurements was procured. The UHV test systems needed for subsequent measurements were configured, baked, commissioned and utilized for their intended purposes. Measurements characterizing the desorption products from the ESD process and secondary electron (SE) yield at the surfaces of negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes have been performed. One US Utility Patent was granted covering the ESR process.

  9. Energy Efficiency through Lighting Upgrades

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Neon to LED conversion * All neon lights at Madill Gaming Center was upgraded to LED lighting * The neon lights had created a safety hazard and caused maintenance cost to increase ...

  10. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focusing light in ways that are useful in homes and commercial settings. The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting...

  11. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of this resource was considered uneconomical to produce. But Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research helped refine cost-effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, protective environmental practices and data development, making hundreds of trillions of cubic feet of gas technically recoverable where

  12. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  13. Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Natural Gas Modernization Clearinghouse provides information about the implications of natural gas infrastructure modernization, including strategies and technologies that increase public safety, improve environmental performance and enhance natural gas deliverability.

  14. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts * ...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  16. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  17. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design Lighting Design Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of lighting. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/chandlerphoto. Energy-efficient indoor and outdoor lighting design focuses on ways to improve both the quality and efficiency of

  18. Another Side of Light - D

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D. Three quantum phenomena In fluorescence, matter absorbs light waves of a high frequency and then emits light of the same or lower frequency. This process was studied and named by George Gabriel Stokes in the mid-19th century. Today, fluorescence is familiar to us from fluorescent light bulbs. A fluorescent bulb's filament produces ultraviolet light, which is absorbed by the bulb's inner coating, which then emits lower-frequency visible light-more visible light than an incandescent bulb

  19. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  20. Outdoor Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outdoor Lighting Outdoor Lighting Outdoor lighting consumes a significant amount of energy-about 1.3 quadrillion Btu annually-costing about $10 billion per year. In the last five years, a number of municipalities have switched to new LED technologies that can reduce energy costs by approximately 50% over conventional lighting technologies and provide additional savings of 20 to 40% with advance lighting controls. Beyond cost and energy savings, the higher efficiency of LED lights provides other

  1. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  2. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson; Shackelford, Jordan; Pang, Terrance Pang

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes an assessment project conducted to study the performance of light emitting diode (LED) luminaires in a street lighting application in San Francisco, CA.

  3. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fluorescent lighting fixtures rather than replace them. Dimmers and LEDs Some light-emitting diode (LED) lightbulbs can be used with dimmers. LED bulbs and fixtures must be...

  4. Lighting in Commercial Buildings, 1986

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lighting in Commercial Buildings --1986 Overview Full Report and Tables Detailed analysis of energy consumption for lighting for U.S. commercial buildings. previous page...

  5. Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Shedding Light on Nanocrystal Defects Print Thursday, 20 June 2013 10:41 Nanocrystals have been the focus of much scientific interest lately,...

  6. 2010 US Lighting Market Characterization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... second largest lighting energy consumer, at 175 TWh per year. Ranked by technology, linear fluorescent lighting ... sensing, daylight harvesting, and individual occupant ...

  7. LED Lighting Facts®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NGLIA PG&E NEMA Efficiency Vermont Grainger Acuity Brands Home Depot Philips Lighting Lowes Cree Lighting Project Goal: To ensure accurate and consistent reporting of SSL product ...

  8. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Tips: Lighting Lighting choices save you money. Energy-efficient light bulbs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Lighting choices save you money. Energy-efficient light bulbs are available in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. An average household dedicates about 5% of its energy budget to lighting. Switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest ways to cut your energy bills. Timers and motion sensors save you even more money by reducing the amount of

  9. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Royer, M. P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, R.

    2013-06-01

    GATEWAY program and Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium report on a demonstration of LED street lighting in Kansas City, MO.

  10. Lighting Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as part of your whole-house design -- an approach for building an energy-efficient home. Indoor Lighting Design When designing indoor lighting for energy efficiency,...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  12. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  13. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  16. Natural Gas Citygate Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas ... Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports ...

  17. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas ... Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports ...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  2. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  5. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  6. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  7. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  12. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  15. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  16. Sneaky light stop

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-02-20

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore » to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  17. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M.; Jewett, Don L.

    1991-01-01

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  18. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2002-01-01

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  19. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  20. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES The following resources provide information about outdoor lighting control systems. 2014 Presentation:...