Sample records for lifetime cancer risk

  1. CANCER RISKS AM I AT RISK?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    CANCER RISKS AM I AT RISK? It is often hard to explain why one person develops cancer and another does not. There are risk factors that could increase a person's likelihood of developing cancer, however, some people may have many of these risk factors and never get cancer. When thinking about your

  2. Estimating radiogenic cancer risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a revised methodology for EPA`s estimation of cancer risks due to low-LET radiation exposures in light of information that has become available since the publication of BIER III, especially new information on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. For most cancer sites, the risk model is one in which the age-specific relative risk coefficients are obtained by taking the geometric mean of coefficients derived from the atomic bomb survivor data employing two different methods for transporting risks from Japan to the U.S. (multiplicative and NIH projection methods). Using 1980 U.S. vital statistics, the risk models are applied to estimate organ-specific risks, per unit dose, for a stationary population.

  3. Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cigarette smoking, and the risk of breast cancer. Cancerand breast cancer risk. JAMA Ambrosone, C.B. , Kropp, S. ,genotypes, and breast cancer risk: pooled analysis and meta-

  4. Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms for Early Detection of Oral Epithelial Cancer Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joohyung

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the clinical potential of the endogenous multispectral Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was investigated to objectively detect oral cancer. To this end, in vivo FLIM imaging was performed on a hamster cheek pouch model...

  5. WON EXPOSURE AND LUNG CANCER RISK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    As information on indoor air quality accumulated * it became apparent that radon and its progeny are invariably present in indoor environments and that concentrations may reach unacceptably high levels. The lung cancer excess anong miners exposed to radon progeny raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also cause lung cancer in the general population. This presentation first provides an ovemiew of radon daughter carcinogenesis, and then reviews the recent BEIR IV report. The report described a statistical model * based on analysis of data from four studies of miners, for estimating the lung cancer risk associated with exposure to radon progeny. Tbe analyses showed that the risk of radon exposure declines with time since exposure and with increasing age. The BEIR IV committee concluded that radon progeny and cigarette smoking interact in a multiplicative fashion and that exposure-dose relationships are similar for exposure in homes and in mines.

  6. Sports activities and risk of testicular cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Coldman; J. M. Elwooda; R. P. Gallagher; Nottingham Nottingham

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary.-The relationship of testicular seminoma with several factors was explored using a case-control study. Previously recognized associations with cryptorchidism and infantile inguinal hernia were confirmed and relationships were also found with cycling and horse-riding. These findings represent the first relationships of testicular cancer with well-defined postnatal risk factors. TESTICULAR CANCER is now the most common neoplasm in men aged 25-34 in England and Wales (Davies, 1981) and follows only non-melanoma skin cancer in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1980). Mortality in young men has been rising during this century in a number of countries (Davies, 1981; Grumet & MacMahon, 1958). Similar increases in incidence have been reported by several cancer registries for the age range 15-30 (Muir & Nectoux, 1978; Schottenfeld et al., 1980; Clemmesen, 1969; Petersen & Lee, 1972). Current estimates of incidence in British Columbia indicate that approximately 1 in 400 males will develop testicular cancer (Cancer Registry, 1975). The majority of studies of the epidemiology of testicular tumours have used routinely collected data to analyse the effects of factors such as social class, marital status, geography, racial group and religious preference. Case-control studies have analysed factors such as cryptorchidism and other prenatal conditions. Where it was examined, these studies have shown that, while differences exist in the age-specific incidence, treatment and prognosis of seminoma compared to other types of testicular cancer, the relationship to known risk factors is similar (Morrison, 1976b; Graham et al., 1977). The present report examines a number of characteristics of childhood and adolescence in a case-control study of all patients treated for seminoma of the testis at a regional treatment centre in the period 1970-77.

  7. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States)] [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  8. Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Huidong "Warren"

    , abbreviated as CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States for both men to lung cancer in cause of cancer deaths. Despite the fact that it is highly preventable, approximately, colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of death from cancer in women (after breast and lung cancer

  9. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup ?5} to 837.4 × 10{sup ?5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup ?5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup ?5} and 110.3 × 10{sup ?5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup ?5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ site in respect to treatment volume and patient's gender and age. The presented risk estimates may be useful in the follow-up studies of irradiated patients.

  10. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare organ specific cancer incidence risks for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy (including cone beam CT verification) following breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer.Method: Doses from breast radiotherapy and kilovoltage cone beam CT (CBCT) exposures were obtained from thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom in which the positions of radiosensitive organs were delineated. Five treatment deliveries were investigated: (i) conventional tangential field whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT), (ii) noncoplanar conformal delivery applicable to accelerated partial beast irradiation (APBI), (iii) two-volume simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) treatment, (iv) forward planned three-volume SIB, and (v) inverse-planned three volume SIB. Conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy methods were used to plan the complex treatments. Techniques spanned the range from simple methods appropriate for patient cohorts with a low cancer recurrence risk to complex plans relevant to cohorts with high recurrence risk. Delineated organs at risk included brain, salivary glands, thyroid, contralateral breast, left and right lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and bladder. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII cancer incidence models were applied to the measured mean organ doses to determine lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for ages at exposure from 35 to 80 yr according to radiotherapy techniques, and included dose from the CBCT imaging. Results: All LAR decreased with age at exposure and were lowest for brain, thyroid, liver, and bladder (<0.1%). There was little dependence of LAR on radiotherapy technique for these organs and for colon and stomach. LAR values for the lungs for the three SIB techniques were two to three times those from WBRT and APBI. Uncertainties in the LAR models outweigh any differences in lung LAR between the SIB methods. Constraints in the planning of the SIB methods ensured that contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  11. Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Li Hua; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Clancy, Conor B.; Vetter, Richard J. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Radiation Safety, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range 75-150 MBq for Tc-99m sestamibi and 35 MBq-70 MBq for F-18 FDG in order to obtain benefit/risk ratios comparable to those of mammography in these age groups. These dose ranges should be achievable with enhancements to current technology while maintaining a reasonable examination time. Conclusions: The results of the dose estimates in this study clearly indicate that if molecular imaging techniques are to be of value in screening for breast cancer, then the administered doses need to be substantially reduced to better match the effective doses of mammography.

  12. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ?5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  13. RESEARCH Open Access Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    RESEARCH Open Access Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer from select US states , Michelle Chino3 , Karl Kingsley1* Abstract Objectives: To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in oral cancer incidence and mortality. Methods: Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity

  14. A New Formula for Prostate Cancer Lymph Node Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, James B., E-mail: james.b.yu@yale.ed [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States); Makarov, Danil V. [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Section of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT (United States); Gross, Cary [Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: The successful treatment of prostate cancer depends on the accurate estimation of the risk of regional lymph node (LN) involvement. The Roach formula (RF) has been criticized as overestimating LN risk. A modification of the RF has been attempted by other investigators using simplified adjustment ratios: the Nguyen formula (NF). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was investigated for patients treated in 2004 through 2006 for whom at least 10 LN were examined at radical prostatectomy, cT1c or cT2 disease, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <26 ng/ml (N = 2,930). The Yale formula (YF) was derived from half of the sample (n = 1,460), and validated in the other half (n = 1,470). Results: We identified 2,930 patients. Only 4.6% of patients had LN+, and 72.6% had cT1c disease. Gleason (GS) 8-10 histology was found in 14.4% of patients. The YF for prediction of %LN+ risk is [GS - 5]x [PSA/3 + 1.5 x T], where T = 0, 1, and 2 for cT1c, cT2a, and cT2b/cT2c. Within each strata of predicted %LN+ risk, the actual %LN+ was closest to the YF. Using a >15% risk as an indicator of high-risk disease, the YF had increased sensitivity (39.0% vs. 13.6%) compared with the NF, without a significant reduction in specificity (94.9% vs. 98.8%). The NF was overly restrictive of the high-risk group, with only 2% of patients having a >15% risk of LN+ by that formula. Conclusion: The YF performed better than the RF and NF and was best at differentiating patients at high risk for LN+ disease.

  15. Identifying Men Diagnosed With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Who are at High Risk for Death From Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ming-Hui

    Identifying Men Diagnosed With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Who are at High Risk for Death From Prostate Cancer Anthony V. D'Amico,* Ming Hui-Chen, Andrew A. Renshaw, Brenda Sussman, Kimberly A), Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, Department

  16. TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TP53 gene mutations of lung cancer patients in upper northern Thailand and environmental risk mutations are observed in about 40e70% of lung cancer tissues, and the hot spot codon mu- tations factors that influence TP53 gene mutation in lung cancer patients residing areas with high lung cancer

  17. EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    risk; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements INTRODUCTION THERE IS considerablePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses

  18. Clinical Investigation: Breast Cancer Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Clinical Investigation: Breast Cancer Predicting the Risk of Secondary Lung Malignancies Associated. Accepted for publication Sep 19, 2011 Summary The risk of secondary lung cancers after whole breast lower risk of secondary lung malignancy than treatment with the supine breast tech- nique. Breast

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Sharif Burgette

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and prevention of breast cancer: pooled analysis. AnticancerBray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002.CA-Cancer J Clin. 2005;55(2):74-108. American Cancer

  20. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk For millions of women whose lives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    their health history, past environmental exposures, and lifestyle. The participants will be given yearly follow Gene The impact of family history on breast cancer risk suggests that genetic factors play an importantEnvironmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk For millions of women whose lives have been affected

  1. Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raun, Loren, E-mail: raun@rice.edu [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States)] [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Pepple, Karl, E-mail: pepple.karl@epa.gov [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hoyt, Daniel, E-mail: hoyt.daniel@epa.gov [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States)] [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States); Richner, Donald, E-mail: Donald.Richner@houstontx.gov [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Blanco, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.blanco@houstontx.gov [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Li, Jiao, E-mail: jiao.li@rice.edu [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)] [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction and the number of shifts that could operate a year. Further study is warranted to better understand the metal air pollution levels in the community and if necessary, to evaluate the feasibility of emission controls and identify operational improvements and best management practices for this industry. This research adds two new aspects to the literature: identification of types and magnitude of metal particulate matter air pollutants associated with a previously unrecognized area source, metal recyclers and their potential risk to health. -- Highlights: • Air monitoring study in response to community complaints found metal contamination. • Metal recyclers found to potentially pose cancer from metal particulates • Chromium, nickel, cobalt and cadmium samples were detected in five metal recyclers. • These metals were not detected in background air samples. • Estimated increased cancer risk ranges from 1 in 1,000,000 to 8 in 10,000.

  2. Using mammographic density to predict breast cancer risk: dense area or percent dense area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Jennifer; Ding, Jane; Warren, Ruth M L; Duffy, Stephen; Hopper, John L

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    and dense area were strongly associated with breast cancer risk; however, inclusion of dense area in a PDA-adjusted model improved the pre- diction of breast cancer risk, but not vice versa. This suggests that, in terms of a single parameter, dense area... dense area alone. Conclusions: As a single parameter, dense area provides more information than PDA on breast cancer risk. Introduction A number of prospective, nested case control studies have shown that, for women of the same age, those with greater...

  3. Algorithms for Fluorescence Lifetime Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Data Analysis: Applications for Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis and Oral Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Paritosh

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    imaging (FLIM) with optical coherence tomography (OCT), for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and oral cancer. FLIM is a fluorescence imaging technique that is capable of providing information about auto fluorescent tissue biomolecules. OCT on the other...

  4. A stochastic approach to risk assessment of hazardous waste sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arangath, Vishwanathan Vasu

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    action at the site ~ modify preliminary remediation goals ~ help support the selection of the "no-action" remedial alternative, where appropriate ~ document the magnitude of risk at a site, and the primary causes of that risk Baseline risk... of the general approach for risk assessment at sites on the National Priority List (4, 5) This method recommends remedial action at the site when the calculated individual lifetime cancer risk at the site is above 1 in 10, 000. This calculated risk is assumed...

  5. Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in CaseControl Studies in Argentina and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case­Control Studies in Argentina and the United's susceptibility to bladder cancer. Methods: Urinary methylation products were measured in subjects from Argentina (114 cases and 114 controls) and the United States (23 cases and 49 controls). Results: In Argentina

  6. Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested ALLAN H. SMITHa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested or inhaled ALLAN H. SMITHa that inorganic arsenic was a human lung carcinogen based on studies involving exposure through inhalation. In 2004, IARC listed arsenic in drinking water as a cause of lung cancer, making arsenic the first

  7. Breast cancer risk associated with being treated for infertility: results from the French E3N cohort study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    countries and concern has been raised as to the possible impact of fertility treatments on breast cancer study showed no overall significant association between breast cancer risk and treatment for infertility-Chapelon, 2002) have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk. Likewise, hormonal treatments

  8. A comparative study on the risk of second primary cancers in out-of-field organs associated with radiotherapy of localized prostate carcinoma using Monte Carlo-based accelerator and patient models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Athar, Basit; Xu, X. George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02108 and Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A physician's decision regarding an ideal treatment approach (i.e., radiation, surgery, and/or hormonal) for prostate carcinoma is traditionally based on a variety of metrics. One of these metrics is the risk of radiation-induced second primary cancer following radiation treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of second cancer risks in out-of-field organs from 3D-CRT and IMRT treatments of prostate carcinoma compared to baseline cancer risks in these organs. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a detailed medical linear accelerator model and an anatomically realistic adult male whole-body phantom. A four-field box treatment, a four-field box treatment plus a six-field boost, and a seven-field IMRT treatment were simulated. Using BEIR VII risk models, the age-dependent lifetime attributable risks to various organs outside the primary beam with a known predilection for cancer were calculated using organ-averaged equivalent doses. Results: The four-field box treatment had the lowest treatment-related second primary cancer risks to organs outside the primary beam ranging from 7.3x10{sup -9} to 2.54x10{sup -5}%/MU depending on the patients age at exposure and second primary cancer site. The risks to organs outside the primary beam from the four-field box and six-field boost and the seven-field IMRT were nearly equivalent. The risks from the four-field box and six-field boost ranged from 1.39x10{sup -8} to 1.80x10{sup -5}%/MU, and from the seven-field IMRT ranged from 1.60x10{sup -9} to 1.35x10{sup -5}%/MU. The second cancer risks in all organs considered from each plan were below the baseline risks. Conclusions: The treatment-related second cancer risks in organs outside the primary beam due to 3D-CRT and IMRT is small. New risk assessment techniques need to be investigated to address the concern of radiation-induced second cancers from prostate treatments, particularly focusing on risks to organs inside the primary beam.

  9. EPA`s program for risk assessment guidelines: Cancer classification issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltse, J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues presented are related to classification of weight of evidence in cancer risk assessments. The focus in this paper is on lines of evidence used in constructing a conclusion about potential human carcinogenicity. The paper also discusses issues that are mistakenly addressed as classification issues but are really part of the risk assessment process. 2 figs.

  10. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Tara O., E-mail: thenderson@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)] [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)] [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Olive, Aliza [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)] [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Mertens, Ann [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meadows, Anna [Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hammond, Sue [Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Whitton, John [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)] [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Inskip, Peter D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)] [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Diller, Lisa [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children's Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)] [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children's Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  11. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for lung cancer among women in the women’s interagency HIV study (WIHS) and men in the multicenter AIDS cohort study (MACS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incidence and risk factors for lung cancer among women inan increased incidence of lung can- cer among people withis due to HIV or to other lung cancer risk factors such as

  13. Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Triangle Park, NC 27711; jOffice of Radiation and Indoor Air, Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonCancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know David J Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6ME, United Kingdom; dRadiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council

  14. Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidajat, Nico, E-mail: nico.hidajat@gmx.de; Wust, Peter; Felix, Roland; Schroeder, Ralf Juergen [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to determine the risks of radiation-induced cancer and deterministic effects for the patient and staff in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixty-five patients with HCC underwent the first cycle of TACE. Thermoluminescence dosemeters and conversion factors were used to measure surface doses and to calculate organ doses and effective dose. For the patient, the risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect was in the magnitude of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5}, respectively. Five patients showed surface doses over the first lumbar vertebra exceeding 2000 mSv and 45 patients showed doses over the spine or the liver region above 500 mSv. The risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect for the radiologist and assistant was in the magnitude of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}. They could exceed the threshold for lens opacity in the case of more than 490 and 1613 TACE yearly for a period of many years, respectively. Radiation dose could lead to local transient erythema and/or local depression of hematopoiesis in many patients after TACE. For the radiologist and assistant, risk of fatal cancer and genetic defect and lens opacity might arise when they perform interventions such as TACE intensively.

  15. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, L.M.; Hicks, A.M.; Peters, J.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any epidemiologic study, the potential sources of bias have to be considered. The selection of subjects, misclassification of exposure or outcome, and confounding from extraneous factors can contribute to a biased estimate of effect. Studies done to minimize these potential biases will be more valid, and these studies should be given the most weight when parental occupational exposures are evaluated as risk factors for childhood malignancy. We conclude that the preponderance of evidence supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure of parents to chemicals increases the risk of childhood malignancy. The parental occupational exposures implicated in childhood malignancy risk are exposure to chemicals including paints, petroleum products, solvents (especially chlorinated hydrocarbons) and pesticides, and exposure to metals. The available data do not allow the identification of specific etiologic agents within these categories of compounds. Future epidemiologic and toxicologic studies should be designed to pursue these leads. 49 references.

  16. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Risk Factors That Really Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alm El-Din, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hughes, Kevin S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Betts, Keith A. [Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Aisenberg, Alan C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ataghian@partners.org

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of breast cancer (BC) and the contributing risk factors in women after supradiaphragmatic irradiation (SDI) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 248 women 60 years of age or less who received SDI for stage I/II HL between 1964 and 2001 at Massachusetts General Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The median age at SDI was 26 years (range, 5.7-59.3). The median follow-up was 15.2 years (range, 0.1-41.3). In 36 patients, BC developed (bilaterally in 11 patients) at a median interval of 18.4 years (range, 4.3-33.8) after SDI. Based on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) for the first BC after SDI was 9.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.64-18.11, p < 0.0001). The SMR of patients who received radiation before age of 30 years was 19.05 (95% CI, 12.33-28.13) compared with 4.64 (95% CI, 2.31-8.30) for patients aged 30 years or more at the time of treatment (p < 0.00003). Risk for BC was significantly higher 15 years or more after SDI compared with the risk during the first 15 years (p = 0.0026). None of HL characteristics or treatment details was associated with higher risk of BC after adjusting for age and calendar time. Conclusions: Age at irradiation and time since therapy appear to be the only significant risk factors for development of BC after treatment of HL. The risk is significantly higher 15 years or more after radiation and for women treated before age 30 years. Long-term surveillance strategies are indicated for women at risk.

  17. Predicting the Risk of Pelvic Node Involvement Among Men With Prostate Cancer in the Contemporary Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Paul L. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu; Chen, M.-H. [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Katz, Matthew S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saints Medical Center, Lowell, MA (United States); D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The 'Roach formula' for the risk of pelvic lymph node metastases [(2/3) * PSA + (Gleason score - 6) * 10] was developed in the early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era. We examined the accuracy of this formula in contemporary patients. Methods: We included men in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry with a diagnosis of clinical T1c-T4 prostate cancer in 2004 who had a surgical lymph node evaluation, Gleason score (typically from prostatectomy), and baseline PSA level (n = 9,387). Expected and observed rates of node positivity were compared. Results: Ninety-eight percent were clinical T1c/T2, and 97% underwent prostatectomy. Overall, 309 patients (3.29%) had positive lymph nodes. Roach scores overestimated the actual rate of positive lymph nodes in the derivation set by 16-fold for patients with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, by 7-fold for scores greater than 10-20%, and by approximately 2.5-fold for scores greater than 20%. Applying these adjustment factors to Roach scores in the validation data set yielded accurate predictions of risk. For those with Roach score less than or equal to 10%, adjusted expected risk was 0.2% and observed risk was 0.2%. For Roach score greater than 10-20%, adjusted expected risk was 2.0% and observed risk was 2.1%. For Roach score greater than 20-30%, adjusted expected risk was 9.7% and observed risk was 6.5%. For Roach score greater than 30-40%, adjusted expected risk was 13.9% and observed risk was 13.9%. Conclusion: Applied to contemporary patients with mainly T1c/T2 disease, the Roach formula appears to overestimate pelvic lymph node risk. The adjustment factors presented here should be validated by using biopsy Gleason scores and extended lymphadenectomies.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Regions of Low and High Gastric Cancer Risk in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheh, Alexander

    The draft genome sequences of six Colombian Helicobacter pylori strains are presented. These strains were isolated from patients from regions of high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia and were characterized by ...

  19. Evidence for SMAD3 as a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Logan C; Fredericksen, Zachary S; Wang, Xianshu; Tarrell, Robert; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Lindor, Noralane M; Beesley, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; (kConFab), Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Tirapo, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Muller, Daniele; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Delnatte, Capucine; (gemo), Groupe Genetique et Cancer; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Schonbuchner, Ines; Deissler, Helmut; Meindl, Alfons; Hogervorst, Frans B; Verheus, Martijn; Hooning, Maartje J; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Nelen, Marcel R; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Gerrits, Monique M; Waisfisz, Quinten; (hebon), Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Research Group Netherlands; Szabo, Csilla I; ModSQuaD, The; Easton, Douglas F; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T; Frost, Debra; Harrington, Patricia; Evans, D Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-Ren; Cook, Jackie; Embrace, The; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Pfeiler, Georg; Godwin, Andrew K; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Liljegren, Annelie; Arver, Brita; Karlsson, Per; Melin, Beatrice; (swe-brca), Swedish Breast Cancer Study; Sinilnikova, Olga M; McGuffog, Lesley; Antoniou, Antonis C; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Evidence for SMAD3 as a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers Logan C Walker1, Zachary S Fredericksen2, Xianshu Wang2, Robert Tarrell2, Vernon S Pankratz2, Noralane M Lindor2, Jonathan Beesley1, Sue... Service, Birmingham (Trevor Cole, Carole McKeown, Kai-Ren Ong, Laura Boyes); South West Regional Genetics Service, Bristol (Alan Donaldson); East Anglian Regional Genetics Service, Cambridge (Joan Paterson); Medical Genetics Services for Wales, Cardiff...

  20. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Williams, Scott G. [Peter Maccallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ye Hong; McGrath, Samuel; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry L., E-mail: lkestin@comcast.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleason score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification. Conclusions: The PPC is an independent and powerful predictor of clinical outcomes of prostate cancer after RT. A risk model replacing T stage with the PPC to reduce subjectivity demonstrated potentially improved stratification.

  1. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Margin on Gross Tumor Volume and Risk of Local Recurrence in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Jimmy J.; Meredith, Ruby F.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Keene, Kimberley S.; Dobelbower, M. Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bonner, James A., E-mail: jabonner@uabmc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether the method or extent of construction of the high-dose clinical target volume (CTV) and high-dose planning target volume (PTV) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer are associated with an increased risk of locoregional failure. Materials and Methods: Patients with nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, oral cavity, hypopharyngeal, or laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas treated definitively with IMRT were included. All patients without local relapse had a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Median follow-up for all patients was 24 months. Treatment plans of 85 available patients were reviewed, and the gross tumor volume (GTV) to PTV expansion method was estimated. Results: The GTVs were expanded volumetrically in 71 of 85 patients, by a median of 15 mm (range, 4-25 mm). An anatomic component to the expansion of GTV was used in 14 of 85 patients. Eighteen patients failed locoregionally, for an actuarial locoregional control rate of 77.2% at 2 years. There was no significant difference in locoregional control between patients with GTVs expanded volumetrically vs. those with a component of anatomic expansion. In patients with GTVs expanded volumetrically, no increase in risk of local failure was seen in patients with a total GTV expansion of <=15 mm. Conclusion: In this retrospective study, there was not an increased risk of local failure using smaller margins or expanding GTVs volumetrically when treating head-and-neck cancer patients definitively with IMRT.

  3. Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Jennifer D., E-mail: brooksj@mskcc.org [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Reiner, Anne S. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Bernstein, Leslie [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States); John, Esther M. [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA, and Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA (United States); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Mellemkjaer, Lene [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knight, Julia A. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto and Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Thomas, Duncan C.; Haile, Robert W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Capanu, Marinela; Bernstein, Jonine L. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Shore, Roy E. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States) [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC. Results: Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to {>=}1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR = 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.

  4. Hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x ORIGINAL PAPER Hypertension, antihypertensive medicationthe association between hypertension, antihypertensive (AH)Information on history of hypertension and lifetime regular

  5. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 1 Silverstein Building (HUP), 3400 Spruce St., Philadelphia PA 19104 (United States); Trinity College, Department of Physics, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 (United States); Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 1 Silverstein Building (HUP), 3400 Spruce St., Philadelphia PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm{sup 3} were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm{sup 2} ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p<0.001) for contrast and r = -0.52 (p<0.001) for homogeneity; the corresponding DM correlations were r = 0.26 (p = 0.002) and r = -0.33 (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression of the texture features versus breast PD also demonstrated significantly stronger associations in DBT (R{sup 2} = 0.39) compared to DM (R{sup 2} = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  6. Lifetime and Reliability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A DOE Solid-State Lighting Program technology fact sheet on lifetime, reliability, and failure as related to LED-based products.

  7. Asbestos exposure--quantitative assessment of risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, J.M.; Weill, H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for deriving quantitative estimates of asbestos-associated health risks are reviewed and their numerous assumptions and uncertainties described. These methods involve extrapolation of risks observed at past relatively high asbestos concentration levels down to usually much lower concentration levels of interest today--in some cases, orders of magnitude lower. These models are used to calculate estimates of the potential risk to workers manufacturing asbestos products and to students enrolled in schools containing asbestos products. The potential risk to workers exposed for 40 yr to 0.5 fibers per milliliter (f/ml) of mixed asbestos fiber type (a permissible workplace exposure limit under consideration by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ) are estimated as 82 lifetime excess cancers per 10,000 exposed. The risk to students exposed to an average asbestos concentration of 0.001 f/ml of mixed asbestos fiber types for an average enrollment period of 6 school years is estimated as 5 lifetime excess cancers per one million exposed. If the school exposure is to chrysotile asbestos only, then the estimated risk is 1.5 lifetime excess cancers per million. Risks from other causes are presented for comparison; e.g., annual rates (per million) of 10 deaths from high school football, 14 from bicycling (10-14 yr of age), 5 to 20 for whooping cough vaccination. Decisions concerning asbestos products require participation of all parties involved and should only be made after a scientifically defensible estimate of the associated risk has been obtained. In many cases to date, such decisions have been made without adequate consideration of the level of risk or the cost-effectiveness of attempts to lower the potential risk. 73 references.

  8. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  9. Chapter 16: Log-linear regression for Poisson counts Exposure to ionizing radiation is recognized as a cancer risk. In the United States, EPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    as a cancer risk. In the United States, EPA sets guidelines specifying upper limits on the amount of exposure groups than low exposure. The objective of regression analysis is to estimate the rate of cancer deaths cases or deaths attributable to cancer) using a number of explanatory variables believed to be related

  10. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long-lasting breast pain compared to older women. Time since treatment may decrease the occurrence of pain.

  11. Causes of Mortality After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D., E-mail: tendulr@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hunter, Grant K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mahadevan, Arul [Seacoast Cancer Center New Hampshire, Dover, New Hampshire (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Health System, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Men with high-risk prostate cancer have other competing causes of mortality; however, current risk stratification schema do not account for comorbidities. We aim to identify the causes of death and factors predictive for mortality in this population. Methods and Materials: A total of 660 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with definitive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (?74 Gy) and androgen deprivation (AD) between 1996 and 2009 at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine factors predictive of survival. Results: The median radiation dose was 78 Gy, median duration of AD was 6 months, and median follow-up was 74 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 60.6%. Prostate cancer was the leading single cause of death, with 10-year mortality of 14.1% (95% CI 10.7-17.6), compared with other cancers (8.4%, 95% CI 5.7-11.1), cardiovascular disease (7.3%, 95% CI 4.7-9.9), and all other causes (10.4%, 95% CI 7.2-13.6). On multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.55, P=.002) and Charlson comorbidity index score (CS) ?1 (HR 2.20, P<.0001) were significant factors predictive of OS, whereas Gleason score, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, duration of AD, radiation dose, smoking history, and body mass index were not. Men younger than 70 years of age with CS = 0 were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other cause, whereas older men or those with CS ?1 more commonly suffered non-prostate cancer death. The cumulative incidences of prostate cancer-specific mortality were similar regardless of age or comorbidities (P=.60). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate cancer are more likely to die of causes other than prostate cancer, except for the subgroup of men younger than 70 years of age without comorbidities. Only older age and presence of comorbidities significantly predicted for OS, whereas prostate cancer- and treatment-related factors did not.

  12. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Amico, Anthony V., E-mail: adamico@partners.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  13. The Neutron Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. E. Wietfeldt

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The decay of the free neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino is the prototype semileptonic weak decay and the simplest example of nuclear beta decay. The nucleon vector and axial vector weak coupling constants G_V and G_A determine the neutron lifetime as well as the strengths of weak interaction processes involving free neutrons and protons that are important in astrophysics, cosmology, solar physics and neutrino detection. In combination with a neutron decay angular correlation measurement, the neutron lifetime can be used to determine the first element of the CKM matrix Vud. Unfortunately the two main experimental methods for measuring the neutron lifetime currently disagree by almost 4 sigma. I will present a brief review of the status of the neutron lifetime and prospects for the future.

  14. STOMACH CANCER 9. STOMACH CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    of association and strength of evidence Increases risk Decreases risk Convincing or probable Helicobacter pylori/obesity 9 1 Helicobacter and Cancer Collaborative Group, 2001; 2 International Agency for Research on Cancer

  15. Unilateral Prostate Cancer Cannot be Accurately Predicted in Low-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isbarn, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrikisbarn@gmail.co [Martiniclinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Urology, Hamburg (Germany); Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Karakiewicz, Pierre I. [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Vogel, Susanne [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Urology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage {<=}T2a, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <10 ng/ml, a biopsy-proven Gleason sum of {<=}6, and a maximum of 2 ipsilateral positive biopsy results out of 10 or more cores. All men underwent a radical prostatectomy, and pathology stage was used as the gold standard. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were tested for significant predictors of unilateral, organ-confined PCa. These predictors consisted of PSA, %fPSA (defined as the quotient of free [uncomplexed] PSA divided by the total PSA), clinical stage (T2a vs. T1c), gland volume, and number of positive biopsy cores (2 vs. 1). Results: Despite unilateral stage at biopsy, bilateral or even non-organ-confined PCa was reported in 64% of all patients. In multivariable analyses, no variable could clearly and independently predict the presence of unilateral PCa. This was reflected in an overall accuracy of 58% (95% confidence interval, 50.6-65.8%). Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients with unilateral low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT.

  16. Natural History of Clinically Staged Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Monotherapeutic Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taira, Al V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial seed implants as monotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and May 2005, 463 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent brachytherapy as the sole definitive treatment. Men who received supplemental external beam radiotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy were excluded. Dosimetric implant quality was determined based on the minimum dose that covered 90% of the target volume and the volume of the prostate gland receiving 100% of the prescribed dose. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: The 12-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates for the entire cohort were 97.1%, 99.7%, and 75.4%, respectively. Only pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, percent positive biopsy cores, and minimum dose that covered 90% of the target volume were significant predictors of biochemical recurrence. The bPFS, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 97.4%, 99.6%, and 76.2%, respectively, for low-risk patients and 96.4%, 100%, and 74.0%, respectively, for intermediate-risk patients. The bPFS rate was 98.8% for low-risk patients with high-quality implants versus 92.1% for those with less adequate implants (p < 0.01), and it was 98.3% for intermediate-risk patients with high-quality implants versus 86.4% for those with less adequate implants (p < 0.01). Conclusions: High-quality brachytherapy implants as monotherapy can provide excellent outcomes for men with clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For these men, a high-quality implant can achieve results comparable to high-quality surgery in the most favorable pathologically staged patient subgroups.

  17. Reference computations of public dose and cancer risk from airborne releases of plutonium. Nuclear safety technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, V.L.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of computations of doses and the associated health risks of postulated accidental atmospheric releases from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) of one gram of weapons-grade plutonium in a form that is respirable. These computations are intended to be reference computations that can be used to evaluate a variety of accident scenarios by scaling the dose and health risk results presented here according to the amount of plutonium postulated to be released, instead of repeating the computations for each scenario. The MACCS2 code has been used as the basis of these computations. The basis and capabilities of MACCS2 are summarized, the parameters used in the evaluations are discussed, and results are presented for the doses and health risks to the public, both the Maximum Offsite Individual (a maximally exposed individual at or beyond the plant boundaries) and the population within 50 miles of RFP. A number of different weather scenarios are evaluated, including constant weather conditions and observed weather for 1990, 1991, and 1992. The isotopic mix of weapons-grade plutonium will change as it ages, the {sup 241}Pu decaying into {sup 241}Am. The {sup 241}Am reaches a peak concentration after about 72 years. The doses to the bone surface, liver, and whole body will increase slightly but the dose to the lungs will decrease slightly. The overall cancer risk will show almost no change over this period. This change in cancer risk is much smaller than the year-to-year variations in cancer risk due to weather. Finally, x/Q values are also presented for other applications, such as for hazardous chemical releases. These include the x/Q values for the MOI, for a collocated worker at 100 meters downwind of an accident site, and the x/Q value integrated over the population out to 50 miles.

  18. Establishment of a bioassay system for cancer risk assessment in energy technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ts'o, P.O.P.; Bruce, S.A.; Brown, A. (eds.)

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 20 papers in this report. For several years the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), has supported a research program aimed at developing new experimental approaches for the improvement of cancer risk assessments. The central issue is to overcome the organizational, species and other barriers that make it difficult to extrapolate laboratory-based data to predict risk to man. Most of the participants at the meeting are involved in research aimed at understanding the mechanism(s) of chemical carcinogenesis. Complex mixtures of chemicals are associated with many energy technologies. DOE's initial program emphasis focused on semi-applied research aimed at quantitative evaluation of carcinogenic activity of complex materials. Since much progress has been made in DOE integrated technology-specific chemical-biological characterization studies, the number and kinds of chemicals of concern has been reduced to a relatively few well-defined classes. Although the classes of compounds seem to be unique to some of the synfuel technologies, they are quite similar to compounds of general interest, for example, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Special emphasis was placed on molecular and cellular dosimetry as one of the key requirements for quantitative comparison of effects at the cell level in vivo and in vitro. Although it is relatively easy to measure cell, tissue, organ and whole organism doses associated with radiation exposures, we are just learning how to do this for chemical agents. Several methods have been developed in the past several years which can be used.

  19. A TCP model for external beam treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Sean [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Connacht (Ireland); Putten, Wil van der [Department of Medical Physics and Bio-Engineering, Galway University Hospitals, Connacht, Ireland and School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Connacht (Ireland)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Biological models offer the ability to predict clinical outcomes. The authors describe a model to predict the clinical response of intermediate-risk prostate cancer to external beam radiotherapy for a variety of fractionation regimes. Methods: A fully heterogeneous population averaged tumor control probability model was fit to clinical outcome data for hyper, standard, and hypofractionated treatments. The tumor control probability model was then employed to predict the clinical outcome of extreme hypofractionation regimes, as utilized in stereotactic body radiotherapy. Results: The tumor control probability model achieves an excellent level of fit, R{sup 2} value of 0.93 and a root mean squared error of 1.31%, to the clinical outcome data for hyper, standard, and hypofractionated treatments using realistic values for biological input parameters. Residuals Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1.0% are produced by the tumor control probability model when compared to clinical outcome data for stereotactic body radiotherapy. Conclusions: The authors conclude that this tumor control probability model, used with the optimized radiosensitivity values obtained from the fit, is an appropriate mechanistic model for the analysis and evaluation of external beam RT plans with regard to tumor control for these clinical conditions.

  20. LUNG CANCER 6. LUNG CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    LUNG CANCER 47 6. LUNG CANCER 6.1. SUMMARY Lung cancer was the third most common cancer in Ireland (Table 6.1). The average number of new lung cancer cases diagnosed each year was 1,000 in women and 1 for women and 1% for men. The risk of developing lung cancer up to the age of 74 was 1 in 37 for women and 1

  1. Clinical Trial Report: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Reduces the Risk for Subsequent Gastric Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pisegna, Joseph R.; Surti, Bijal; Scott, David R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Reduces the RiskMeta-analysis: can Helicobacter pylori eradication treatmentet al. : Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with

  2. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    explain the higher US survival rate. Aggressive treatment may also be a factor. 5. Colorectal cancer Risks--22000000 28 Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Col orectal cancer Colorectal cancer Colorectal ca ncer Colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer Color ectal cancer

  3. Predicting risk for the appearance of melanoma.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyskens, Frank L Jr; Ransohoff, David F

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for projecting the absolute risk of breast cancer. J NatlD, Gail MH, et al: Cancer risk prediction models: A workshopal model of breast cancer risk prediction and implications

  4. Long-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Presti, Joseph C. [Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy has an intrinsically different normal tissue and tumor radiobiology. The results of a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer with long-term patient-reported toxicity and tumor control rates are presented. Methods and Materials: From 2003 through 2009, 67 patients with clinically localized low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using SBRT with the CyberKnife as the delivery technology. No patient received hormone therapy. Patient self-reported bladder and rectal toxicities were graded on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale (RTOG). Results: Median follow-up was 2.7 years. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3, 2, and 1 bladder toxicities were seen in 3% (2 patients), 5% (3 patients), and 23% (13 patients) respectively. Dysuria exacerbated by urologic instrumentation accounted for both patients with Grade 3 toxicity. Urinary incontinence, complete obstruction, or persistent hematuria was not observed. Rectal Grade 3, 2, and 1 toxicities were seen in 0, 2% (1 patient), and 12.5% (7 patients), respectively. Persistent rectal bleeding was not observed. Low-grade toxicities were substantially less frequent with QOD vs. QD dose regimen (p = 0.001 for gastrointestinal and p = 0.007 for genitourinary). There were two prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy-proven failures with negative metastatic workup. Median PSA at follow-up was 0.5 {+-} 0.72 ng/mL. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier PSA relapse-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 85%-102%). Conclusion: Significant late bladder and rectal toxicities from SBRT for prostate cancer are infrequent. PSA relapse-free survival compares favorably with other definitive treatments. The current evidence supports consideration of stereotactic body radiotherapy among the therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer.

  5. Updated Results and Patterns of Failure in a Randomized Hypofractionation Trial for High-risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arcangeli, Stefano [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Gomellini, Sara; Saracino, Biancamaria; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Pinnaro, Paola; Pinzi, Valentina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio, E-mail: arcangeli.gio@tiscali.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report long-term results and patterns of failure after conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This randomized phase III trial compared conventional fractionation (80 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction in 8 weeks) vs hypofractionation (62 Gy at 3.1 Gy per fraction in 5 weeks) in combination with 9-month androgen deprivation therapy in 168 patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), freedom from local failure (FFLF), and freedom from distant failure (FFDF) were analyzed. Results: In a median follow-up of 70 months, biochemical failure (BF) occurred in 35 of the 168 patients (21%) in the study. Among these 35 patients, local failure (LF) only was detected in 11 (31%), distant failure (DF) only in 16 (46%), and both LF and DF in 6 (17%). In 2 patients (6%) BF has not yet been clinically detected. The risk reduction by hypofractionation was significant in BF (10.3%) but not in LF and DF. We found that hypofractionation, with respect to conventional fractionation, determined only an insignificant increase in the actuarial FFBF but no difference in FFLF and FFDF, when considering the entire group of patients. However, an increase in the 5-year rates in all 3 endpoints-FFBF, FFLF, and FFDF-was observed in the subgroup of patients with a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (iPSA) level of 20 ng/mL or less. On multivariate analysis, the type of fractionation, iPSA level, Gleason score of 4+3 or higher, and T stage of 2c or higher have been confirmed as independent prognostic factors for BF. High iPSA levels and Gleason score of 4+3 or higher were also significantly associated with an increased risk of DF, whereas T stage of 2c or higher was the only independent variable for LF. Conclusion: Our results confirm the isoeffectiveness of the 2 fractionation schedules used in this study, although a benefit in favor of hypofractionation cannot be excluded in the subgroup of patients with an iPSA level of 20 ng/mL or less. The {alpha}/{beta} ratio might be more appropriately evaluated by FFLF than FFBF results, at least in high-risk disease.

  6. Pelvic Nodal Radiotherapy in Patients With Unfavorable Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Evidence, Rationale, and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morikawa, Lisa K. [The University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States); Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed [University of California San Francisco (UCSF), Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center (United States)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 15 years, there have been three major advances in the use of external beam radiotherapy in the management of men with clinically localized prostate made. They include: (1) image guided (IG) three-dimensional conformal/intensity modulated radiotherapy; (2) radiation dose escalation; and (3) androgen deprivation therapy. To date only the last of these three advances have been shown to improve overall survival. The presence of occult pelvic nodal involvement could explain the failure of increased conformality and dose escalation to prolong survival, because the men who appear to be at the greatest risk of death from clinically localized prostate cancer are those who are likely to have lymph node metastases. This review discusses the evidence for prophylactic pelvic nodal radiotherapy, including the key trials and controversies surrounding this issue.

  7. Runtime verification of object lifetime specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Zev (Zev A.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports on the implementation of a runtime verification system for object lifetime specifications. This system is used to explore and evaluate the expressiveness object lifetime specifications. Object lifetime ...

  8. Evidence That New Hypnotics Cause Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medication use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. , Hays, J. C. , Blazer,the likelihood of cancer causation is sufficiently strong

  9. Effect of induction chemotherapy on estimated risk of radiation pneumonitis in bulky non–small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amin, Neha P., E-mail: npamin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University and Karmanos Cancer Center, Detroit, MI (United States); Miften, Moyed; Thornton, Dale; Ryan, Nicole; Kavanagh, Brian; Gaspar, Laurie E [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patients with bulky non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be at a high risk for radiation pneumonitis (RP) if treated with up-front concurrent chemoradiation. There is limited information about the effect of induction chemotherapy on the volume of normal lung subsequently irradiated. This study aims to estimate the reduction in risk of RP in patients with NSCLC after receiving induction chemotherapy. Between 2004 and 2009, 25 patients with Stage IV NSCLC were treated with chemotherapy alone (no surgery or radiation therapy [RT]) and had computed tomography (CT) scans before and after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. Simulated RT plans were created for the prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy scans so as to deliver 60 Gy to the thoracic disease in patients who had either a >20% volumetric increase or decrease in gross tumor volume (GTV) from chemotherapy. The prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy scans were analyzed to compare the percentage of lung volume receiving?20 Gy (V20), mean lung dose (MLD), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Eight patients (32%) had a GTV reduction >20%, 2 (8%) had GTV increase >20%, and 15 (60%) had stable GTV. In the 8 responders, there was an absolute median GTV decrease of 88.1 cc (7.3 to 351.6 cc) or a 48% (20% to 62%) relative reduction in tumor burden. One had >20% tumor progression during chemotherapy, yet had an improvement in dosimetric parameters postchemotherapy. Among these 9 patients, the median decrease in V20, MLD, and NTCP was 2.6% (p<0.01), 2.1 Gy (p<0.01), and 5.6% (p<0.01), respectively. Less than one-third of patients with NSCLC obtain >20% volumetric tumor reduction from chemotherapy alone. Even with that amount of volumetric reduction, the 5% reduced risk of RP was only modest and did not convert previously ineligible patients to safely receive definitive thoracic RT.

  10. Whole-Pelvic Nodal Radiation Therapy in the Context of Hypofractionation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients: A Step Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit [Division of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa (Israel)] [Division of Oncology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa (Israel); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Créhange, Gilles, E-mail: gcrehange@cgfl.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georges-François Leclerc Cancer Center, Dijon (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Georges-François Leclerc Cancer Center, Dijon (France)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the low ?/? ratio of prostate cancer, prostate hypofractionation has been tested through numerous clinical studies. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that with high conformal radiation therapy and even with more sophisticated radiation techniques, such as high-dose-rate brachytherapy or image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, morbidity associated with shortening overall treatment time with higher doses per fraction remains low when compared with protracted conventional radiation therapy to the prostate only. In high-risk prostate cancer patients, there is accumulating evidence that either dose escalation to the prostate or hypofractionation may improve outcome. Nevertheless, selected patients who have a high risk of lymph node involvement may benefit from whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Although combining WPRT with hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy is feasible, it remains investigational. By combining modern advances in radiation oncology (high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy with an improved image guidance for soft-tissue sparing), it is hypothesized that WPRT could take advantage of recent results from hypofractionation trials. Moreover, the results from hypofractionation trials raise questions as to whether hypofractionation to pelvic lymph nodes with a high risk of occult involvement might improve the outcomes in WPRT. Although investigational, this review discusses the challenging idea of WPRT in the context of hypofractionation for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  11. Comparative pathophysiology, toxicology, and human cancer risk assessment of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radi, Zaher, E-mail: zaher.radi@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States); Bartholomew, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.m.bartholomew@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Elwell, Michael, E-mail: michael.elwell@covance.com [Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Vogel, W. Mark, E-mail: w.mark.vogel@pfizer.com [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Drug Safety R and D, 1 Burtt Rd., Andover, MA 01810 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In humans, hibernoma is a very rare, benign neoplasm of brown adipose tissue (BAT) that typically occurs at subcutaneous locations and is successfully treated by surgical excision. No single cause has been accepted to explain these very rare human tumors. In contrast, spontaneous hibernoma in rats is rare, often malignant, usually occurs in the thoracic or abdominal cavity, and metastases are common. In recent years, there has been an increased incidence of spontaneous hibernomas in rat carcinogenicity studies, but overall the occurrence remains relatively low and highly variable across studies. There have only been four reported examples of pharmaceutical-induced hibernoma in rat carcinogenicity studies. These include phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist; varenicline, a nicotine partial agonist; tofacitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor; and hydromorphone, an opiod analgesic. Potential non-genotoxic mechanisms that may contribute to the pathogenesis of BAT activation/proliferation and/or subsequent hibernoma development in rats include: (1) physiological stimuli, (2) sympathetic stimulation, (3) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonism, and/or (4) interference or inhibition of JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling. The evaluation of an apparent increase of hibernoma in rats from 2-year carcinogenicity studies of novel pharmaceutical therapeutics and its relevance to human safety risk assessment is complex. One should consider: the genotoxicity of the test article, dose/exposure and safety margins, and pathophysiologic and morphologic differences and similarities of hibernoma between rats and humans. Hibernomas observed to date in carcinogenicity studies of pharmaceutical agents do not appear to be relevant for human risk at therapeutic dosages. - Highlights: • Highly variable incidence of spontaneous hibernoma in carcinogenicity studies • Recent increase in the spontaneous incidence of hibernomas in Sprague–Dawley rats • Pharmaceutical-related hibernoma has been observed in rats, but not in humans. • Pathophysiologic and morphologic differences of hibernoma between rats and 7 humans. • Hibernomas are unlikely to be relevant to human risk assessment.

  12. E7 properties of mucosal human papillomavirus types 26, 53 and 66 correlate with their intermediate risk for cervical cancer development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, Mariam; Touka, Majid; Hasan, Uzma; Bellopede, Angelica; Smet, Anouk; Accardi, Rosita; Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Sylla, Bakary S. [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69008 Lyon (France); Tommasino, Massimo [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69008 Lyon (France)], E-mail: tommasino@iarc.fr

    2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that 15 different mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) types of the genus alpha of the HPV phylogetic tree are classified as high risk for cervical cancer development. Three additional HPV types of the same genus, HPV26, 53 and 66, are classified as probable high-risk types. In this study, we have characterized the biological properties of the E7 oncoproteins from these three HPV types. All of the corresponding E7 proteins were able to associate with retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and up-regulated the expression of several positive cell cycle regulators, i.e. CDK2, cyclin A and cylin E. However, HPV26 E7 appears to be more efficient than HPV53 and 66 E7 in up-regulating the transcription of cyclin A. Unlike E7 from the high-risk type HPV16 protein, HPV26, 53 and 66 did not efficiently promote pRb degradation. In addition, E7 from these viruses was able to promote proliferation of primary human keratinocytes and circumvent G1 arrest imposed by overexpression of p16{sup INK4a}, but with less efficiency than the high-risk HPV16 E7. Together, our data show that in vitro properties of these E7 proteins correlate with the epidemiological classification of HPV26, 53 and 66 as HPV types with an intermediate risk for cervical cancer development.

  13. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Sean E., E-mail: semcguir@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cerne, Jasmina Z. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  14. Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Survivors : : Risk Factors, Distress and Quality of Life, and Patient Compliance with a Physician Referral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominick, Sally Ann

    function in breast cancer. Ann Behav Med. 2002;24(4):336–44.lymph nodes and lymphedema. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:3278-86.of breast cancer survivors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17(7):1847–

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON ACCRETION DISK LIFETIMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillenbrand, Lynne

    of stellar mass. #12; METHODOLOGY Constraining disk lifetimes means measuring infrared excesses and stellar ages and masses for large samples of young stellar objects. #12; Infrared excesses: #15; A combination of stellar irradiative and viscous heating in circumstellar disks produces ux excesses at micro

  16. USING RISK-BASED CORRECTIVE ACTION (RBCA) TO ASSESS (THEORETICAL) CANCER DEATHS AVERTED COMPARED TO THE (REAL) COST OF ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M. L.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978, on the basis of existing health studies at the time, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project legislation was proposed that would authorize remedial action at inactive uranium processing sites and vicinity properties. The cost of the program to the Federal Government was expected to be $180 million. With the completion of this project, approximately 1300 theoretical cancer deaths were prevented in the next 100 years at a cost of $1.45 billion, based on the Fiscal Year 1998 Federal UMTRA budget. The individual site costs ranged from $0.2 million up to $18 billion spent per theoretical cancer death averted over the next 100 years. Resources required to sustain remediation activities such as this are subject to reduction over time, and are originally based on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public. This evaluation used a process incorporating risk-based corrective action (RBCA); a three-tiered, decision-making process tailoring corrective action activities according to site-specific conditions and risks. If RBCA had been applied at the start of the UMTRA Project, and using a criterion of >1 excess cancer death prevented as justification to remediate the site, only 50% of the existing sites would have been remediated, yielding a cost savings of $303.6 million to the Federal Government and affected States, which share 10% of the cost. This cost savings equates to 21% of the overall project budget. In addition, only 22% of the vicinity properties had structural contamination contributing to elevated interior gamma exposure and radon levels. Focusing only on these particular properties could have saved an additional $269.3 million, yielding a total savings of $573 million; 40% of the overall project budget. As operational experience is acquired, including greater understanding of the radiological and nonradiological risks, decisions should be based on the RBCA process, rather than relying on conservative assumptions that tend to overestimate risks to the general public.

  17. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  18. Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Outcomes in Modern Era With Short-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.ed [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stadler, Walter M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Correa, David B.S.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Jani, Ashesh B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Randomized data have supported the use of long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiotherapy (RT) for men with high-risk prostate cancer. The present study reviewed the outcomes of intermediate- and high-risk men treated with RT and short-term ADT. Materials and Methods: A total of 184 men with any single risk factor of prostate-specific antigen >=10 ng/mL, clinical Stage T2b or greater, or Gleason score >=7 were treated with primary external beam RT for nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The median radiation dose was 74 Gy; 55% were treated with intensity-modulated RT. All patients received ADT for 1 to 6 months (median, 4), consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed for risk factors, including T stage, Gleason score, radiation dose, and prostate-specific antigen level. Results: With a median follow-up of 51 months, the 4-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) using the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition was 83% for all patients. Clinical Stage T3 disease was the only variable tested associated with FFBF on univariate (4-year FFBF rate, 46% vs. 87% for Stage T1-T2c disease; p = .0303) and multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 3.9; p = .0016). On a subset analysis of high-risk patients (National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria), those with clinical Stage T3 disease (4-year FFBF rate, 46% vs. 80%; p = .0303) and a radiation dose <74 Gy (4-year FFBF rate, 64% vs. 80%) had a poorer outcome on univariate analysis. However, clinical Stage T3 disease and radiation dose were not significant on multivariable analysis, although a statistical multivariable trend was seen for both (p = .0650 and p = .0597, respectively). Conclusion: Short-term ADT and RT might be acceptable for men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, especially for clinically localized disease treated with doses of >=74 Gy.

  19. Breast cancer risk in relation to urinary and serum biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in the EPIC-Norfolk study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Heather A; Chapelais, Gaelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Sheila

    2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of breast cancer, but only a limited range of phytoestrogens has been examined in prospective cohort studies. Methods Serum and urine samples from 237 incident breast cancer cases and 952 control individuals (aged 45 to 75 years) in the European Prospective...

  20. Combination External Beam Radiation and Brachytherapy Boost With Androgen Suppression for Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Initial Report of CALGB 99809

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurwitz, Mark D. [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: mhurwitz@lroc.harvard.edu; Halabi, Susan [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ou, San-San [CALGB Statistical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); McGinnis, Lamar S. [Southeast Cancer Control Consortium, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Keuttel, Michael R. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); DiBiase, Steven J. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Small, Eric J. [University of California at San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Transperineal prostate brachytherapy (TPPB) can be used with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to provide a high-dose conformal boost to the prostate. The results of a multicenter Phase II trial assessing safety of combination of EBRT and TPPB boost with androgen suppression (AST) in treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer are present here. Materials and Methods: Patients had intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Six months of AST was administered. EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles was administered to 45Gy followed by TPPB using either {sup 125}I or {sup 103}Pd to deliver an additional 100Gy or 90Gy. Toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute CTC version 2 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring systems. Results: Sixty-three patients were enrolled. Median follow-up was 38 months. Side effects of AST including sexual dysfunction and vasomotor symptoms were commonly observed. Apart from erectile dysfunction, short-term Grade 2 and 3 toxicity was noted in 21% and 7%, primarily genitourinary related. Long-term Grade 2 and 3 toxicities were noted in 13% and 3%. Two patients had Grade 3 dysuria that resolved with longer follow-up. The most common Grade 2 long-term toxicity was urinary frequency (5%). No biochemical or clinical evidence of progression was noted for the entire cohort. Conclusions: In a cooperative group setting, combination EBRT and TPPB boost with 6 months of AST was generally well tolerated with expected genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities. Further follow-up will be required to fully assess long-term toxicity and cancer control.

  1. Dosimetric parameters as predictive factors for biochemical control in patients with higher risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orio, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Wallner, Kent [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States) and Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States) and Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: kent.Wallner@med.va.gov; Merrick, Gregory [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Herstein, Andrew [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Mitsuyama, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States); Thornton, Ken [Varian Medical Systems, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Butler, Wayne [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling, WV (United States); Sutlief, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To analyze the role of dosimetric quality parameters in maximizing cancer eradication in higher risk prostate cancer patients treated with palladium (Pd)-103 and supplemental beam radiation. Methods: One-hundred-seventy-nine patients treated with Pd-103 and supplemental beam radiation, with minimum 2 years follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and posttreatment computed tomography scans were analyzed. Dosimetric parameters included the V100 (percent of the postimplant volume covered by the prescription dose), the D90 (the minimum dose that covered 90% of the post implant volume), and the treatment margins (the radial distance between the prostatic edge and the prescription isodose). Treatment margins (TMs) were calculated using premarket software. Results: Freedom from biochemical failure was 79% at 3 years, with 92 of the 179 patients (51%) followed beyond 3 years. In comparing patients who did or did not achieve biochemical control, the most striking differences were in biologic factors of pretreatment PSA and Gleason score. The V100, D90, and average TM all showed nonsignificant trends to higher values in patients with biochemical control. In multivariate analysis of each of the three dosimetric parameters against PSA and Gleason score, TM showed the strongest correlation with biochemical control (p = 0.19). Conclusions: For patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer treated with Pd-103 brachytherapy and external beam radiation, biologic factors (PSA and Gleason score) were the most important determinants of cancer eradication. However, there is a trend to better outcomes among patients with higher quality implant parameters, suggesting that attention to implant quality will maximize the likelihood of cure.

  2. Androgen Deprivation Therapy Does Not Impact Cause-Specific or Overall Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Managed With Brachytherapy and Supplemental External Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)]. E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org; Butler, Wayne M. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Ohio University Eastern, St. Clairsville, OH (United States); Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Lief, Jonathan [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in high-risk prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and July 2002, 204 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score {>=}8 or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/mL or clinical stage {>=}T2c) underwent brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 7.0 years. The bPFS was defined by a PSA {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for the impact on survival. Results: The 10-year CSS, bPFS, and OS were 88.9%, 86.6%, and 68.6%, respectively. A statistically significant difference in bPFS was discerned between hormone naive, ADT {<=}6 months, and ADT >6 month cohorts (79.7% vs. 95.% vs. 89.9%, p = 0.032). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) did not impact CSS or OS. For bPFS patients, the median posttreatment PSA was <0.04 ng/mL. A Cox linear regression analysis demonstrated that Gleason score was the best predictor of CSS, whereas percent positive biopsies and duration of ADT best predicted for bPFS. The OS was best predicted by Gleason score and diabetes. Thirty-eight patients have died, with 26 of the deaths from cardiovascular/pulmonary disease or second malignancy. Eleven patients have died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: The ADT improved 10-year bPFS without statistical impact on CSS or OS. Death as a result of cardiovascular/pulmonary disease and second malignancies were more than twice as common as prostate cancer deaths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health should positively impact OS.

  3. Redefining High-Risk Prostate Cancer Based on Distant Metastases and Mortality After High-Dose Radiotherapy With Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D., E-mail: tendulr@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mahadevan, Arul [Seacoast Cancer Center New Hampshire, Dover, New Hampshire (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Health System, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Modern outcomes of high-dose external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for high-risk (HR) prostate cancer are not well described. Methods and Materials: We identified 585 patients who met HR criteria by 2010 National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, who were treated with EBRT consisting of {>=}74 Gy from 1996 to 2008 at Cleveland Clinic, of whom 95% received ADT. We analyzed biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: The median EBRT dose was 78 Gy, and median ADT duration was 6 months. At 10 years, the bRFS was 50.2%, the DMFS was 71.6%, and the PCSM was 14.4%. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of bRFS were biopsy Gleason score (bGS) of 8 to 10, stage T3, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration; predictors of DMFS were bGS of 8 to 10 and stage T3; the only predictor of PCSM was bGS of 8 to 10. The duration of ADT was not predictive of any endpoint. We identified an unfavorable high-risk (UHR) group of stage T1-T2 tumors consisting of bGS of 8 with PSA of >10 ng/ml or bGS of 9 to 10 with any PSA level; the remaining clinically localized cancers comprised the favorable high-risk (FHR) group. Comparing FHR, UHR, and stage T3 groups, the DMFS rates were 81.4%, 57.8%, and 59.1% (p < 0.0001), and the PCSM rates were 7.5%, 28.4%, and 20.6% at 10 years, respectively (p = 0.006). Conclusion: A bGS of 8 to 10 is the strongest predictor of bRFS, DMFS, and PCSM after high-dose EBRT with ADT. The duration of ADT did not correlate with outcome. Future studies should account for the heterogeneity in HR prostate cancer.

  4. Whole-Pelvis Radiotherapy in Combination With Interstitial Brachytherapy: Does Coverage of the Pelvic Lymph Nodes Improve Treatment Outcome in High-Risk Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bittner, Nathan [Tacoma/Valley Radiation Oncology Centers, Tacoma, Washington (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@UrologicResearchInstitute.or [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Radiation Oncology, Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, Washington (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert [Schiffler Cancer Center and Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Wheeling Hospital, Department of Pathology, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) rates among high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiation (EBRT) using either a mini-pelvis (MP) or a whole-pelvis (WP) field. Methods and Materials: From May 1995 to October 2005, 186 high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with brachytherapy and EBRT with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). High-risk prostate cancer was defined as a Gleason score of >=8 and/or a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >=20 ng/ml. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.7 years, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 91.7% vs. 84.4% (p = 0.126), 95.5% vs. 92.6% (p = 0.515), and 79.5% vs. 67.1% (p = 0.721), respectively. Among those patients who received ADT, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 93.6% vs. 90.1% (p = 0.413), 94.2% vs. 96.0% (p = 0.927), and 73.7% vs. 70.2% (p = 0.030), respectively. Among those patients who did not receive ADT, the 10-year bPFS, CSS, and OS rates for the WP vs. the MP arms were 82.4% vs. 75.0% (p = 0.639), 100% vs. 88% (p = 0.198), and 87.5% vs. 58.8% (p = 0.030), respectively. Based on multivariate analysis, none of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, while bPFS was best predicted by ADT and percent positive biopsy results. OS was best predicted by age and percent positive biopsy results. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients receiving brachytherapy, there is a nonsignificant trend toward improved bPFS, CSS, and OS rates when brachytherapy is given with WPRT. This trend is most apparent among ADT-naive patients, for whom a significant improvement in OS was observed.

  5. Is Biological Subtype Prognostic of Locoregional Recurrence Risk in Women With pT1-2N0 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truong, Pauline T., E-mail: ptruong@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Sadek, Betro T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lesperance, Maria F. [Radiation Therapy Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Alexander, Cheryl S. [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC (Canada); Shenouda, Mina; Raad, Rita Abi; Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine locoregional and distant recurrence (LRR and DR) in women with pT1-2N0 breast cancer according to approximated subtype and clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods and Materials: Two independent datasets were pooled and analyzed. The study participants were 1994 patients with pT1-2N0M0 breast cancer, treated with mastectomy without radiation therapy. The patients were classified into 1 of 5 subtypes: luminal A (ER+ or PR+/HER 2?/grade 1-2, n=1202); luminal B (ER+ or PR+/HER 2?/grade 3, n=294); luminal HER 2 (ER+ or PR+/HER 2+, n=221); HER 2 (ER?/PR?/HER 2+, n=105) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER?/PR?/HER 2?, n=172). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LRR were 1.8% in luminal A, 3.1% in luminal B, 1.7% in luminal HER 2, 1.9% in HER 2, and 1.9% in TNBC cohorts (P=.81). The 5-year KM DR was highest among women with TNBC: 1.8% in luminal A, 5.0% in luminal B, 2.4% in luminal HER 2, 1.1% in HER 2, and 9.6% in TNBC cohorts (P<.001). Among 172 women with TNBC, the 5-year KM LRR were 1.3% with clear margins versus 12.5% with close or positive margins (P=.04). On multivariable analysis, factors that conferred higher LRR risk were tumors >2 cm, lobular histology, and close/positive surgical margins. Conclusions: The 5-year risk of LRR in our pT1-2N0 cohort treated with mastectomy was generally low, with no significant differences observed between approximated subtypes. Among the subtypes, TNBC conferred the highest risk of DR and an elevated risk of LRR in the presence of positive or close margins. Our data suggest that although subtype alone cannot be used as the sole criterion to offer postmastectomy radiation therapy, it may reasonably be considered in conjunction with other clinicopathologic factors including tumor size, histology, and margin status. Larger cohorts and longer follow-up times are needed to define which women with node-negative disease have high postmastectomy LRR risks in contemporary practice.

  6. 10-Year Survival and Quality of Life in Patients With High-Risk {sub P}N{sub 0} Prostate Cancer Following Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Arne [Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: arne.berg@radiumhospitalet.no; Lilleby, Wolfgang [Department of Oncology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Oslo (Norway); Bruland, Oyvind Sverre; Fossa, Sophie Dorothea [Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Department of Oncology, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), clinical progression-free survival (cPFS), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following definitive radiotherapy (RT) given to T{sub 1-4p}N{sub 0}M{sub 0} prostate cancer patients provided by a single institution between 1989 and 1996. Methods and Materials: We assessed outcome among 203 patients who had completed three-dimensional conformal RT (66 Gy) without hormone treatment and in whom staging by lymphadenectomy had been performed. OS was compared with an age-matched control group from the general population. A cross-sectional, self-report survey of HRQoL was performed among surviving patients. Results: Median observation time was 10 years (range, 1-16 years). Eighty-one percent had high-risk tumors defined as T{sub 3-4} or Gleason score (GS) {>=}7B (4+3). Among these, 10-year OS, CSS, and cPFS rates were 52%, 66%, and 39%, respectively. The corresponding fractions in low-risk patients (T{sub 1-2} and GS {<=}7A [3+4]) were 79%, 95%, and 73%, respectively. Both CSS and cPFS were predicted by GS and T-classification; OS was associated with GS only. High-risk, but not low-risk, patients had reduced OS compared with the general population (p < 0.0005). When pelvis-related side effects were included in multivariate analyzes together with physical function and pain, sexual, urinary, and bowel function were not independently associated with self-reported global quality of life. Conclusions: Despite surgically proven {sub p}N{sub 0}, RT with dosage <70 Gy as monotherapy does not give satisfactory CSS rates after 10 years in patients with T{sub 3-4} or GS {>=}7B.

  7. Functional Promoter Variant rs2868371 of HSPB1 Is Associated With Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis After Chemoradiation for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Qingsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Lung Cancer Center, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Wei, Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Xu, Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Yuan, Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)] [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain)] [Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liu, Zhensheng [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Wang, Li-E. [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To date, no biomarkers have been found to predict, before treatment, which patients will develop radiation pneumonitis (RP), a potentially fatal toxicity, after chemoradiation for lung cancer. We investigated potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HSPB1 and risk of RP after chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Subjects were patients with NSCLC treated with chemoradiation at 1 institution. The training data set comprised 146 patients treated from 1999 to July 2004; the validation data set was 125 patients treated from August 2004 to March 2010. We genotyped 2 functional SNPs of HSPB1 (rs2868370 and rs2868371) from all patients. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to assess the risk of grade ?2 or ?3 RP in both data sets and a parametric log-logistic survival model to evaluate the association of HSPB1 genotypes with that risk. Results: Grade ?3 RP was experienced by 13% of those with CG/GG and 29% of those with CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 in the training data set (P=.028); corresponding rates in the validation data set were 2% CG/GG and 14% CC (P=.02). Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed the association of CC of HSPB1 rs2868371 with higher risk of grade ?3 RP than CG/GG after adjustment for sex, age, performance status, and lung mean dose. This association was validated both in the validation data set and with Harrell's C statistic. Conclusions: The CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with severe RP after chemoradiation for NSCLC.

  8. Nervous system cancer : analysis of historical mortality rates in the United States and Japan indicate sudden increases in environmental risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhassani, Ali K

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nervous System cancer age-specific mortality rates began being recorded for European and Non-European Americans in 1930 and for Japanese in 1952. All ethnic groups show significant historical increases in mortality rates. ...

  9. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Eur J Cancer. Author manuscript Social inequalities in cancer incidence and cancer survival: Lessons from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Eur J Cancer. Author manuscript Page /1 5 Social inequalities in cancer incidence and cancer ( ). With regards to cancer risk, a first comprehensive review of socioeconomic inequalities was1 published by IARC in 1997 ( ). This review covered inequalities in cancer mortality, incidence and survival and discussed

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: accelerated lifetime testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accelerated lifetime testing Sandia Solar Energy Test System Cited in National Engineering Competition On May 16, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage,...

  12. Twice-Weekly Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer With Low-Risk Nodal Involvement: Toxicity and Outcome From a Dose Escalation Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zilli, Thomas, E-mail: thomaszilli@inwind.it [Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Jorcano, Sandra [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Institut Oncologic Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Rouzaud, Michel; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Nouet, Philippe [Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Toscas, Jose Ignacio [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Institut Oncologic Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Casanova, Nathalie; Wang, Hui [Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Escude, Lluis; Molla, Meritxell; Linero, Dolors [Servei de Radio-oncologia, Institut Oncologic Teknon, Barcelona (Spain); Weber, Damien C. [Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Miralbell, Raymond [Service de Radio-oncologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Servei de Radio-oncologia, Institut Oncologic Teknon, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and preliminary outcome of patients with localized prostate cancer treated with twice-weekly hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 82 prostate cancer patients with a nodal involvement risk {<=}20% (Roach index) have been treated to the prostate with or without seminal vesicles with 56 Gy (4 Gy/fraction twice weekly) and an overall treatment time of 6.5 weeks. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading system. Median follow-up was 48 months (range, 9-67 months). Results: All patients completed the treatment without interruptions. No patient presented with Grade {>=}3 acute GU or GI toxicity. Of the patients, 4% presented with Grade 2 GU or GI persistent acute toxicity 6 weeks after treatment completion. The estimated 4-year probability of Grade {>=}2 late GU and GI toxicity-free survival were 94.2% {+-} 2.9% and 96.1% {+-} 2.2%, respectively. One patient presented with Grade 3 GI and another patient with Grade 4 GU late toxicity, which were transitory in both cases. The 4-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival was 91.3% {+-} 5.9%, 76.4% {+-} 8.8%, and 77.5% {+-} 8.9% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Conclusions: In patients with localized prostate cancer, acute and late toxicity were minimal after dose-escalation administering twice-weekly 4 Gy to a total dose of 56 Gy, with IMRT. Further prospective trials are warranted to further assess the best fractionation schemes for these patients.

  13. Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Presented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sensors still "max out" and the GDP is waiting on strain gauge drifters to be deployed for evaluation. #12Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Evaluation Presented by: Erik Valdes Drifter Data Assembly Center lifetime Evaluation All manufacturers except Pacific Gyre have changed to tether strain by early 2010

  14. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  15. EPA`s risk assessment guidelines: Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, D.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment guidelines for cancer, quantification, and exposure issues are discussed.

  16. Lack of benefit of pelvic radiation in prostate cancer patients with a high risk of positive pelvic lymph nodes treated with high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos Enrique [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Galalae, Razavan [Kiel University Hospital, Kiel (Germany); Demanes, Jeffrey [California Endocuritherapy Cancer Center, Oakland, CA (United States); Harsolia, Asif [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Meldolesi, Elisa [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Nuernberg, Nils [Municipal Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Schour, Lionel [California Endocuritherapy Cancer Center, Oakland, CA (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The use of pelvic radiation for patients with a high risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis (>15%) remains controversial. We reviewed the data at three institutions treating patients with a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy to address the prognostic implications of the use of the Roach formula and the benefit of pelvic treatment. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2003, 1,491 patients were treated with external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The Roach formula [2/3 prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score -6) x 10] could be calculated for 1,357 patients. Group I consisted of patients having a risk of positive LN {<=}15% (n = 761), Group II had a risk >15% and {<=}30% (n = 422), and Group III had a risk of LN disease >30% (n 174). A >15% risk of having positive LN was found in 596 patients and was used to determine the benefit of pelvic radiation. The pelvis was treated at two of the cancer centers (n = 312), whereas at the third center (n = 284) radiation therapy was delivered to the prostate and seminal vesicles alone. Average biologic effective dose was {>=}100 Gy ({alpha}{beta} = 1.2). Biochemical failure was as per the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition. Statistics included the log-rank test as well as Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: For all 596 patients with a positive LN risk >15%, median follow-up was 4.3 years, with a mean of 4.8 years. For all cases, median follow-up was 4 years and mean follow-up was 4.4 years. Five-year results for the three groups based on their risk of positive LN were significantly different in terms of biochemical failure (p < 0.001), clinical control (p < 0.001), disease-free survival excluding biochemical failure (p < 0.001), cause-specific survival (p < 0.001), and overall survival (p < 0.001). For all patients with a risk of positive LN >15% (n 596), Group II (>15-30% risk), or Group III (>30% risk), no benefit was seen in the 5-year rates of clinical failure, cause-specific survival, or overall survival with pelvic radiation. In the Cox multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival, Gleason score (p = 0.009, hazard ratio [HR] 3.1), T stage (p = 0.03, HR 1.8), and year of treatment (p = 0.05, HR 1.1) were significant. A log-rank test for cause-specific survival for all patients (n = 577) by the use of pelvic radiation was not significant (p = 0.99) accounting for high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose, neoadjuvant hormones, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, T stage, and year of treatment as covariates. Conclusions: The use of the Roach formula to stratify patients for clinical and biochemical outcomes is excellent. Pelvic radiation added to high prostate radiation doses did not show a clinical benefit for patients at a high risk of pelvic LN disease (>15%) selected using the Roach formula.

  17. Factors Affecting the Risk of Brain Metastasis in Small Cell Lung Cancer With Surgery: Is Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation Necessary for Stage I-III Disease?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Linlin; Wang, Q.I.; Zhao Lujun; Yuan Zhiyong; Li Ruijian [Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China); Wang Ping, E-mail: Doctorwang66@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin (China)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with surgical resection has not been fully identified. This study undertook to assess the factors affecting the risk of brain metastases in patients with stage I-III SCLC after surgical resection. The implications of PCI treatment for these patients are discussed. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-six patients treated with surgical resection for stage I-III SCLC from January 1998-December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the risk factors of brain metastases. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to determine the risk factors of brain metastases. Results: The median survival time for this patient population was 34 months, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 34.9%. For the whole group, 23.0% (29/126) of the patients had evidence of metastases to brain. Pathologic stage not only correlated with overall survival but also significantly affected the risk of brain metastases. The 5-year survival rates for patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 54.8%, 35.6%, and 14.1%, respectively (P=.001). The frequency of brain metastases in patients with pathologic stages I, II, and III were 6.25% (2/32), 28.2% (11/39), and 29.1% (16/55) (P=.026), respectively. A significant difference in brain metastases between patients with complete resection and incomplete resection was also observed (20.5% vs 42.9%, P=.028). The frequency of brain metastases was not found to be correlated with age, sex, pathologic type, induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, or adjuvant radiation therapy. Conclusions: Stage I SCLC patients with complete resection had a low incidence of brain metastases and a favorable survival rate. Stage II-III disease had a higher incidence of brain metastases. Thus, PCI might have a role for stage II-III disease but not for stage I disease.

  18. Early Lung Cancer Detection Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 2000, DOE has made screening for occupational lung cancer with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scans available to workers at high risk for lung cancer. Because former workers undertook essential activities to fulfill the Department's mission, many of them were at risk for lung cancer.

  19. Toxicity Assessment of Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Hypofractionated Simultaneous Integrated Boost to Prostate for Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCammon, Robert; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Kavanagh, Brian; Newell, Sherri B.S.; Newman, Francis M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: david.raben@uchsc.edu

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the prostate for patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective toxicity analysis was performed in 30 consecutive patients treated definitively with pelvic SIB-IMRT, all of whom also received androgen suppression. The IMRT plans were designed to deliver 70 Gy in 28 fractions (2.5 Gy/fraction) to the prostate while simultaneously delivering 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (1.8 Gy/fraction) to the pelvic lymph nodes. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to score toxicity. Results: The most common acute Grade 2 events were cystitis (36.7%) and urinary frequency/urgency (26.7%). At a median follow-up of 24 months, late toxicity exceeding Grade 2 in severity was uncommon, with two Grade 3 events and one Grade 4 event. Grade 2 or greater acute bowel toxicity was associated with signficantly greater bowel volume receiving {>=}25 Gy (p = .04); Grade 2 or greater late bowel toxicity was associated with a higher bowel maximal dose (p = .04) and volume receiving {>=}50 Gy (p = .02). Acute or late bladder and rectal toxicity did not correlate with any of the dosimetric parameters examined. Conclusion: Pelvic IMRT with SIB to the prostate was well tolerated in this series, with low rates of Grade 3 or greater acute and late toxicity. SIB-IMRT combines pelvic radiotherapy and hypofractionation to the primary site and offers an accelerated approach to treating intermediate- to high-risk disease. Additional follow-up is necessary to fully define the long-term toxicity after hypofractionated, whole pelvic treatment combined with androgen suppression.

  20. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Hormone-Naieve Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: A 7-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aluwini, Shafak, E-mail: s.aluwini@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rooij, Peter H. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kirkels, Wim J. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Jansen, Peter P.; Praag, John O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bangma, Chris H. [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report clinical outcomes and early and late complications in 264 hormone-naieve patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in combination with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Between February 2000 and July 2007, 264 patients underwent HDR-BT in combination with EBRT as a treatment for their low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The HDR-BT was performed using ultrasound-based implantation. The total HDR-BT dose was 18 Gy in 3 fractions within 24 h, with a 6-h minimum interval. The EBRT started 2 weeks after HDR-BT and was delivered in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy to 45 Gy within 5 weeks. Results: After a mean follow-up of 74.5 months, 4 patients (1.5%) showed prostate-specific antigen progression according to the American Society for Radiation Oncology definition and 8 patients (3%) according to the Phoenix definition. A biopsy-proven local recurrence was registered in 1 patient (0.4%), and clinical progression (bone metastases) was documented in 2 patients (0.7%). Seven-year actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was 97%, and 7-year disease-specific survival and overall survival were 100% and 91%, respectively. Toxicities were comparable to other series. Conclusions: Treatment with interstitial HDR-BT plus EBRT shows a low incidence of late complications and a favorable oncologic outcome after 7 years follow-up.

  1. The effect of gender on Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheh, Alexander

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death worldwide and the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the major risk factor of gastric cancer, and as such, this bacterium ...

  2. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment guidelines cancer Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the NYS Cancer Services Program Summary: cancer and should be referred to an appropriate health care provider for a full risk assessment which can... for risk assessment (http:...

  4. Global and local cancer risks after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident as seen from Chernobyl: A modeling study for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, Timothy A.

    Chernobyl: A modeling study for radiocaesium (134 Cs & 137 Cs) Nikolaos Evangeliou a, , Yves Balkanski risks, prior to epidemiology, and compare them with those occurred after the Chernobyl accident the accident of Chernobyl. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Accidental releases

  5. Breast cancer detection using automated whole breast ultrasound and mammography in radiographically dense breasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, KM; Dean, J; Comulada, WS; Lee, S-J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at high risk for breast cancer with MR imaging. Breast Can-Findings from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium:women undergoing biopsy after screening mammography. Cancer

  6. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation...

  7. Occupational Complexity and Lifetime Cognitive Abilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smart, Emily

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Associations were examined between complexity of main lifetime occupation and cognitive performance in later life. Occupational complexity ratings for data, people and things were collected from the Dictionary of Occupational ...

  8. Efficiency and lifetime of carbon foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab; Kostin, M.; /Michigan State U., NSCL; Tang, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge-exchange injection by means of carbon foils is a widely used method in accelerators. This paper discusses two critical issues concerning the use of carbon foils: efficiency and lifetime. An energy scaling of stripping efficiency was suggested and compared with measurements. Several factors that determine the foil lifetime--energy deposition, heating, stress and buckling--were studied by using the simulation codes MARS and ANSYS.

  9. Diffusion Simulation and Lifetime Calculation at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2009-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam lifetime is an important parameter for any storage ring. For protons in RHIC it is dominated by the non-linear nature of the head-on collisions that causes the particles to diffuse outside the stable area in phase space. In this report we show results from diffusion simulation and lifetime calculation for the 2006 and 2008 polarized proton runs in RHIC.

  10. Out-of-field organ doses and associated radiogenic risks from para-aortic radiotherapy for testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Berris, Theocharis; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Varveris, Charalambos; Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to (a) calculate the radiation dose to out-of-field organs from radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma and (b) estimate the associated radiogenic risks. Methods: Monte Carlo methodology was employed to model radiation therapy with typical anteroposterior and posteroanterior para-aortic fields on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating an average adult. The radiation dose received by all main and remaining organs that defined by the ICRP publication 103 and excluded from the treatment volume was calculated. The effect of field dimensions on each organ dose was determined. Additional therapy simulations were generated by introducing shielding blocks to protect the kidneys from primary radiation. The gonadal dose was employed to assess the risk of heritable effects for irradiated male patients of reproductive potential. The lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of radiotherapy-induced cancer were estimated using gender- and organ-specific risk coefficients for patient ages of 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old. The risk values were compared with the respective nominal risks. Results: Para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 5.0–538.6 mGy. Blocked field treatment led to a dose change up to 28%. The mean organ dose variation by increasing or decreasing the applied field dimensions was 18.7% ± 3.9% and 20.8% ± 4.5%, respectively. The out-of-field photon doses increased the lifetime intrinsic risk of developing thyroid, lung, bladder, prostate, and esophageal cancer by (0.1–1.4)%, (0.4–1.1)%, (2.5–5.4)%, (0.2–0.4)%, and (6.4–9.2)%, respectively, depending upon the patient age at exposure and the field size employed. A low risk for heritable effects of less than 0.029% was found compared with the natural incidence of these defects. Conclusions: Testicular cancer survivors are subjected to an increased risk for the induction of bladder and esophageal cancer following para-aortic radiotherapy. The probability for the appearance of any other malignant disease to out-of-field organs was slightly elevated in respect to the nominal cancer incidence rates.

  11. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients at Moderate or High Risk of Biochemical Recurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskin, Peter [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Rojas, Ana, E-mail: arc03@btconnect.com [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hughes, Rob; Milner, Jessica; Cladd, Helen [Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and biochemical control of disease in patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with escalating doses per fraction of high-dose rate brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 patients were treated with 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, 31.5 Gy in three fractions, or 26 Gy in two fractions. Median follow-up times were 60, 54, 36, and 6 months, respectively. Results: Incidence of early Grade {>=} 3 GU morbidity was 3% to 7%, and Grade 4 was 0% to 4%. During the first 12 weeks, the highest mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) value was 14, and between 6 months and 5 years it was 8. Grade 3 or 4 early GI morbidity was not observed. The 3-year actuarial rate of Grade 3 GU was 3% to 16%, and was 3% to 7% for strictures requiring surgery (4-year rate). An incidence of 1% Grade 3 GI events was seen at 3 years. Late Grade 4 GU or GI events were not observed. At 3 years, 99% of patients with intermediate-risk and 91% with high-risk disease were free of biochemical relapse (log-rank p = 0.02). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in urinary and rectal morbidity between schedules. Biochemical control of disease in patients with intermediate and high risk of relapse was good.

  12. The sensitivity of the statistical procedures utilizing the Hartley-Sielken models to do low dose cancer risk assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabbagh, Mayna

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is The value of R is known from the simulation procedure. The ratio R/R is considered as opposed to R/R, since R seldom exceeds R by very much but does tend to considerably underestimate R, especially in the case of low dose nonlinearity. The average ratio..., n ): (R/R. )/n i=1 is much more sensitive to this underestimation than n E (R. /R) /n i=1 i Even though most of the discussion in the body of the paper is in terms of the average ratios, the individual estimates of the summary risk...

  13. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corn, Paul G., E-mail: pcorn@mdanderson.org [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Song, Danny Y. [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heath, Elisabeth; Maier, Jordan [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States)] [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Meyn, Raymond [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); DePetrillo, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mathew, Paul, E-mail: pmathew@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles). A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily.

  14. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    --22000000 58 Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer Prostate cancer

  15. Interval to Biochemical Failure Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated by Combined-Modality Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilkrut, Mark; McLaughlin, P. William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States)] [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To validate the prognostic value of interval to biochemical failure (IBF) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (HiRPCa) treated with combined-modality radiation therapy (CMRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of HiRPCa (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, Gleason score [GS] 8-10, or clinical T stage T3-T4) treated with either dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or CMRT. Interval to biochemical failure was classified as ?18 or >18 months from the end of all therapy to the date of biochemical failure (BF). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the prognostic value of IBF ?18 months for distant metastasis (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: Of 958 patients with a median follow-up of 63.2 months, 175 patients experienced BF. In those with BF, there were no differences in pretreatment clinical characteristics between the EBRT and CMRT groups, except for a higher proportion of patients with GS 8-10 in the CMRT group (70% vs 52%, P=.02). Median IBF after all therapy was 24.0 months (interquartile range 9.6-46.0) in the EBRT group and 18.9 months (interquartile range 9.2-34.5) in the CMRT group (P=.055). On univariate analysis, IBF ?18 months was associated with increased risk of DM and PCSM in the entire cohort and the individual EBRT and CMRT groups. On multivariate analysis, only GS 9-10 and IBF ?18 months, but not the radiation therapy regimen or ADT use, predicted DM (hazard ratio [HR] 3.7, P<.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-10.3 for GS 9-10; HR 3.9, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-6.5 for IBF ?18 months) and PCSM (HR 14.8, P<.009, 95% CI 2.0-110 for GS 9-10; HR 4.4, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-8.1 for IBF ?18 months). Conclusions: Short IBF was highly prognostic for higher DM and PCSM in patients with HiRPCa. The prognostic value of IBF for DM and PCSM was not affected by the radiation therapy regimen or ADT use.

  16. Supercontinuum Stimulated Emission Depletion Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael; Bose, Sayantan; Petrich, Jacob; Smith, Emily

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercontinuum (SC) stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime imaging is demonstrated by using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) detection. The spatial resolution of the developed STED instrument was measured by imaging monodispersed 40-nm fluorescent beads and then determining their fwhm, and was 36 ± 9 and 40 ± 10 nm in the X and Y coordinates, respectively. The same beads measured by confocal microscopy were 450 ± 50 and 430 ± 30 nm, which is larger than the diffraction limit of light due to underfilling the microscope objective. Underfilling the objective and time gating the signal were necessary to achieve the stated STED spatial resolution. The same fluorescence lifetime (2.0 ± 0.1 ns) was measured for the fluorescent beads by using confocal or STED lifetime imaging. The instrument has been applied to study Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled F-actin-rich projections with dimensions smaller than the diffraction limit of light in cultured cells. Fluorescence lifetimes of the actin-rich projections range from 2.2 to 2.9 ns as measured by STED lifetime imaging.

  17. A study on planning organ at risk volume for the rectum using cone beam computed tomography in the treatment of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandran, E-mail: Ramachandran.Prabhakar@petermac.org [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Oates, Richard; Jones, Daryl [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Kron, Tomas [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Cramb, Jim [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Geso, Moshi [RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Gill, Suki [Radiation Therapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we analyzed planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for the rectum using a series of cone beam computed tomographies (CBCTs) acquired during the treatment of prostate cancer and evaluated the dosimetric effect of different PRV definitions. Overall, 21 patients with prostate cancer were treated radically with 78 Gy in 39 fractions had in total 418 CBCTs, each acquired at the end of the first 5 fractions and then every alternate fraction. The PRV was generated from the Boolean sum volume of the rectum obtained from first 5 fractions (PRV-CBCT-5) and from all CBCTs (PRV-CBCT-All). The PRV margin was compared at the superior, middle, and inferior slices of the contoured rectum to compare PRV-CBCT-5 and PRV-CBCT-All. We also compared the dose received by the planned rectum (Rectum-computed tomography [CT]), PRV-CBCT-5, PRV-CBCT-All, and average rectum (CBCT-AV-dose-volume histogram [DVH]) at critical dose levels. The average measured rectal volume for all 21 patients for Rectum-CT, PRV-CBCT-5, and PRV-CBCT-All was 44.3 ± 15.0, 92.8 ± 40.40, and 121.5 ± 36.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively. For PRV-CBCT-All, the mean ± standard deviation displacement in the anterior, posterior, right, and left lateral directions in centimeters was 2.1 ± 1.1, 0.9 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.8, and 1.1 ± 0.7 for the superior rectum; 0.8 ± 0.5, 1.1 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.5, and 1.0 ± 0.5 for the middle rectum; and 0.3 ± 0.3; 0.9 ± 0.5; 0.4 ± 0.2, and 0.5 ± 0.3 for the inferior rectum, respectively. The first 5 CBCTs did not predict the PRV for individual patients. Our study shows that the PRV margin is different for superior, middle, and the inferior parts of the rectum, it is wider superiorly and narrower inferiorly. A uniform PRV margin does not represent the actual rectal variations during treatment for all treatment fractions. The large variation in interpatient rectal size implies a potential role for adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  18. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy Delivered in Two Fractions Within One Day for Favorable/Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Toxicity Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghilezan, Michel, E-mail: mghilezan@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Martinez, Alvaro; Gustason, Gary; Krauss, Daniel; Antonucci, J. Vito; Chen, Peter; Fontanesi, James; Wallace, Michelle; Ye Hong; Casey, Alyse; Sebastian, Evelyn; Kim, Leonard; Limbacher, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital and Rose Cancer Institute, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report the toxicity profile of high-dose-rate (HDR)-brachytherapy (BT) as monotherapy in a Human Investigation Committee-approved study consisting of a single implant and two fractions (12 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) for a total dose of 24 Gy, delivered within 1 day. The dose was subsequently increased to 27 Gy (13.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2) delivered in 1 day. We report the acute and early chronic genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 173 patients were treated between December 2005 and July 2010. However, only the first 100 were part of the IRB-approved study and out of these, only 94 had a minimal follow-up of 6 months, representing the study population for this preliminary report. All patients had clinical Stage T2b or less (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 5th edition), Gleason score 6-7 (3+4), and prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}12 ng/mL. Ultrasound-guided HDR-BT with real-time dosimetry was used. The prescription dose was 24 Gy for the first 50 patients and 27 Gy thereafter. The dosimetric goals and constraints were the same for the two dose groups. Toxicity was scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3. The highest toxicity scores encountered at any point during follow-up are reported. Results: The median follow-up was 17 months (range, 6-40.5). Most patients had Grade 0-1 acute toxicity. The Grade 2 acute genitourinary toxicity was mainly frequency/urgency (13%), dysuria (5%), hematuria, and dribbling/hesitancy (2%). None of the patients required a Foley catheter at any time; however, 8% of the patients experienced transient Grade 1 diarrhea. No other acute gastrointestinal toxicities were found. The most common chronic toxicity was Grade 2 urinary frequency/urgency in 16% of patients followed by dysuria in 4% of patients; 2 patients had Grade 2 rectal bleeding and 1 had Grade 4, requiring laser treatment. Conclusions: Favorable-risk prostate cancer patients treated with a single implant HDR-BT to 24-27 Gy in two fractions within 1 day have excellent tolerance with minimal acute and chronic toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm these encouraging early results.

  19. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  20. B lifetimes and mixing at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedeschi, Franco; /INFN, Pisa

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present recent results on b-hadron lifetimes and mixing obtained from the analysis of the data collected at the Tevatron Collider by the CDF and D0 Collaborations in the period 2002-2004. Many lifetime measurements have been updated since the Summer 2004 conferences, sometimes improving significantly the accuracy. Likewise the measurement of the B{sub d} oscillation frequency has been updated. New limits on the B{sub s} oscillation frequency have been determined using for the first time Run II data.

  1. Activation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and risk of lung cancer among rural women in India who cook with biomass fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Mondal, Nandan Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayali; Dutta, Anindita; Siddique, Shabana; Ray, Manas Ranjan, E-mail: manasrray@rediffmail.com

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel burning on the risk of carcinogenesis in the airways has been investigated in 187 pre-menopausal women (median age 34 years) from eastern India who cooked exclusively with biomass and 155 age-matched control women from same locality who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas. Compared with control, Papanicolau-stained sputum samples showed 3-times higher prevalence of metaplasia and 7-times higher prevalence of dysplasia in airway epithelial cell (AEC) of biomass users. Immunocytochemistry showed up-regulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt{sup ser473} and p-Akt{sup thr308}) proteins in AEC of biomass users, especially in metaplastic and dysplastic cells. Compared with LPG users, biomass-using women showed marked rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating oxidative stress. There were 2–5 times more particulate pollutants (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), 72% more nitrogen dioxide and 4-times more particulate-laden benzo(a)pyrene, but no change in sulfur dioxide in indoor air of biomass-using households, and high performance liquid chromatography estimated 6-fold rise in the concentration of benzene metabolite trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine of biomass users. Metaplasia and dysplasia, p-Akt expression and ROS generation were positively associated with PM and t,t-MA levels. It appears that cumulative exposure to biomass smoke increases the risk of lung carcinogenesis via oxidative stress-mediated activation of Akt signal transduction pathway. -- Highlights: ? Carcinogenesis in airway cells was examined in biomass and LPG using women. ? Metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelial cells were more prevalent in biomass users. ? Change in airway cytology was associated with oxidative stress and Akt activation. ? Biomass users had greater exposure to respirable PM, B(a)P and benzene. ? Cooking with biomass increases cancer risk in the airways via Akt activation.

  2. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  3. Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer and Paolo Boffetta, MD, MPH3 In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified wood dust as a human carcinogen, based on very strong evidence of a carcinogenic risk of sino-nasal cancer

  4. Skin cancer is the most com-mon form of cancer in the United

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skin cancer is the most com- mon form of cancer in the United States. Excessive and unprotected exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UV light) is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Howev- er, skin cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer! The damaging and cumulative effects

  5. Gleason Pattern 5 Is the Greatest Risk Factor for Clinical Failure and Death From Prostate Cancer After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Hormonal Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Daignault-Newton, Stephanie [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Division of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Phelps, Laura [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Olson, Karin B. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The division of Gleason score (GS) into three categories (2-6, 7, 8-10) may not fully use its prognostic power, as revealed by recent reports demonstrating the presence of Gleason Pattern 5 (GP5) as a strong predictor for biochemical recurrence. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical outcomes in patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) based on the presence or absence of GP5. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 718 men treated for localized prostate cancer with external-beam RT to a minimum planning target volume dose of at least 75 Gy. We assessed the impact of GP5 and that of pretreatment- and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: At biopsy, 89% of patients had no GP5, and 11% (76/718) had GP5. There were no differences in age, comorbid illness, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, or the use or duration of androgen deprivation therapy between GS8 without GP5 and GS8-10 with GP5. The presence of GP5 predicted lower FFM (p < 0.002; hazard ratio [HR] 3.4 [1.7-7.1]); CSS (p < 0.0001; HR 12.9 [5.4-31]); and OS (p < 0.0001; HR 3.6 [2.0-6.5]) in comparison with GS8 (without GP5). The 8-year FFM, CSS, and OS were 89%, 98%, and 57%, respectively, for those with Gleason 8 prostate cancer without GP5 in comparison with 61%, 55%, and 31%, respectively, for those with GP5. In addition, both FFM and CSS were strongly influenced by androgen deprivation therapy given concurrently with RT. On multivariate analysis, GP5 was the strongest prognostic factor for all clinical endpoints, including OS. Conclusion: The presence of GP5 predicts for worse clinical behavior, which therefore needs to be accounted for by risk stratification schemes. Further intensification of local and/or systemic therapy may be appropriate for such patients.

  6. High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8-10 and PSA Level {<=}15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, L. Christine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Veterans Affairs Hospital, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) {>=}8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS {>=}8 and a PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS {>=}8 and PSA level {<=}15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

  7. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  8. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  9. Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance Nicholas R. Wheeler, Laura data from Underwriter Labs, featuring measurements taken on 18 identical photovoltaic (PV) modules in modules and their effects on module performance over lifetime. Index Terms--photovoltaics, statistical

  10. LUMINESCENCE LIFETIME INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-DYE ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadfan, Adam

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Start Time of Window 4 ?1 Shorter Lifetime in Two Dye System ?2 Longer Lifetime in Two Dye System LED Light Emitting Diode PMT Photomultiplier Tube DAQ Data Acquisition Board SD Standard Deviation 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval SNR Signal...

  11. LUMINESCENCE LIFETIME INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-DYE ANALYSIS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadfan, Adam

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Start Time of Window 4 ?1 Shorter Lifetime in Two Dye System ?2 Longer Lifetime in Two Dye System LED Light Emitting Diode PMT Photomultiplier Tube DAQ Data Acquisition Board SD Standard Deviation 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval SNR Signal...

  12. On Models for Object Lifetime Distributions Darko Stefanovi c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ---memory management (garbage collection); G.3 [Mathematics of Computing]: Probability and Statistics---survival in salient shape characteristics with the gamma distribution family used in statistical survival analysis analysis General Terms Measurement Keywords Object lifetimes, lifetime distributions, garbage collection

  13. Aging behavior and lifetime modeling for polycarbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahlen, S. [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Roseggerstrasse 12, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Wallner, G.M. [Institute of Materials Science and Testing of Plastics, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef Strasse 18, Leoben 8700 (Austria); Lang, R.W. [Institute for Polymeric Materials and Testing, University of Linz, Altenbergerstrasse 69, Linz 4040 (Austria)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, polycarbonate (PC) as a material candidate for solar absorber applications is investigated as to the aging behavior at different temperatures in air and water. The aging conditioning was performed in air in the temperature range from 120 to 140 C and in water between 70 and 95 C. Tensile tests were performed on unaged and aged PC film specimens at ambient temperature using strain-to-break values as a performance indicator for the degree of aging. For PC the effect of aging was found to strongly depend on the aging conditions. Activation energy based lifetime prediction models according to various methods described in the literature were applied. The activation energies and corresponding lifetime predictions for the temperature range from 40 to 60 C in water and from 90 to 110 C in air derived from these models are compared and interpreted as to their practical relevance. (author)

  14. Neutrinos and cosmology: a lifetime relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the example of neutrino decays to illustrate the profound relation between laboratory neutrino physics and cosmology. Two case studies are presented: In the first one, we show how the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE, when combined with Lab data, have greatly changed bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime. In the second case, we speculate on the consequence for neutrino physics of the cosmological detection of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a detection at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on some models of neutrino secret interactions.

  15. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol.8, 1999, Corpet & Gerber, Energy balance and cancer 77 European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1999, 8, 77-89 Author's version

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol.8, 1999, Corpet & Gerber, Energy balance and cancer 77 European Journal of Cancer Prevention 1999, 8, 77-89 Author's version REVIEW Energy balance and cancers M overweight, have been recognized as risk factors for the development of cancers. Human epidemiological

  16. Radiation dose delivered to the proximal penis as a predictor of the risk of erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Valicenti, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)]. E-mail: richard.valicenti@mail.tju.edu; DiEva, Kelly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Houser, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pequignot, Ed [Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose/objective: In this study, we evaluated in a serial manner whether radiation dose to the bulb of the penis is predictive of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory difficulty (EJ), and overall satisfaction with sex life (quality of life) by using serial validated self-administered questionnaires. Methods and materials: Twenty-nine potent men with AJCC Stage II prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy alone to a median dose 72.0 Gy (range: 66.6-79.2 Gy) were evaluated by determining the doses received by the penile bulb. The penile bulb was delineated volumetrically, and the dose-volume histogram was obtained on each patient. Results: The median follow-up time was 35 months (range, 16-43 months). We found that for D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75} (doses to a percent volume of PB: 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75%), higher than the corresponding median dose (defined as high-dose group) correlated with an increased risk of impotence (erectile dysfunction firmness score = 0) (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 8.6, p = 0.008; and OR = 6.9, p = 0.015, respectively). Similarly, for EJD D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75}, doses higher than the corresponding median ones correlated with worsening ejaculatory function score (EJ = 0 or 1) (OR = 8, p = 0.013; OR = 8, p 0.013; OR = 9.2, p = 0.015; and OR = 8, p = 0.026, respectively). For quality of life, low ({<=}median dose) dose groups of patients improve over time, whereas high-dose groups of patients worsen. Conclusions: This study supports the existence of a penile bulb dose-volume relationship underlying the development of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Our data may guide the use of inverse treatment planning to maximize the probability of maintaining sexual potency after radiation therapy.

  17. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G. [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH; Terrill, Edward R. [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH; Borowczak, Marc [Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  18. Inherited risk for common disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banava, Helen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linkage disequilibrium studies have discovered few gene-disease associations for common diseases. The explanation has been offered that complex modes of inheritance govern risk for cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ...

  19. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  20. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  1. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISMS AND ABNORMAL RPFNA CYTOMORPHOLOGY IN HIGH-RISK POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN TAKING HRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaels, Whitney Lee

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is an effective treatment option for women experiencing symptoms of menopause but long-term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. HRT-related breast cancer risk is dependent...

  2. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CdTe SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE UNIVERSITY June 21, 2007 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE DISSERTATION PREPARED UNDER OUR SUPERVISION BY JUN PAN Department Head #12;iii ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION Impact of Lifetime Variations and Secondary Barriers on Cd

  3. Prolonging Network Lifetime for Target Coverage in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    limits the network lifetime and impairs the network quality. To prolong the network lifetime, energy-efficiency network used for monitoring targets. One efficient method of reducing the energy consumption of sensors Department of Computer Science, The Australian National University Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia Abstract

  4. On Nodems for Object Lifetime Distributions Darko Stefanovi6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    in salient shape characteristics with the gamma distribution family used in statistical survival analysis]:Processors--memorymanagement (garbagecollection);G.3 [Mathematicsof Computing]:Probability and Statistics--survival analysis General Terms Measurement Keywords Object lifetimes, lifetime distributions, garbage collection modelling 1. INTRODUCTION

  5. Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, battery recharge count, etc.), and ­ portable so that a varietyOnline Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices Ye Wen, Rich Wolski,rich,ckrintz}@cs.ucsb.edu Abstract. This paper presents a novel, history-based, statistical tech- nique for online battery lifetime

  6. WSN Lifetime Optimization through Controlled Sink Mobility and Packet Bufferization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    delay. One solution to trade-off energy and latency is to consider hybrid routing schemes which combineWSN Lifetime Optimization through Controlled Sink Mobility and Packet Bufferization Tifenn Rault 20529 60205 Compiègne, France Abstract--Maximizing the lifetime of energy constrained wire- less sensor

  7. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  8. Experimental Investigation of Excited-State Lifetimes in Atomic Ytterbium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, C.J.; Budker, D.; Commins, E.D.; DeMille, D.; Freedman, S.J.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Shang, S.-Q.; /UC, Berkeley; Zolotorev, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of 21 excited states in atomic Yb were measured using time-resolved fluorescence detection following pulsed laser excitation. The lifetime of the 4f{sup 14}5d6s {sup 3}D{sub 1} state, which is of particular importance for a proposed study of parity nonconservation in atoms, was measured to be 380(30) ns.

  9. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  10. QUANTITATIVE SONOGRAPHIC PROSTATE CANCER CHARACTERIZTION A Thesis Presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huston, Dryver R.

    QUANTITATIVE SONOGRAPHIC PROSTATE CANCER CHARACTERIZTION A Thesis Presented by Zhi He are at risk for developing prostate cancer, and as a man ages, his risk of developing prostate cancer acquiring the ultrasound data, the specimen is sectioned for histological analysis at 2 mm intervals

  11. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  12. Potential for Cardiovascular Exercise Dosing to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnett, Dave

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increase in early detection and curative treatment for breast cancer, there is a growing number of breast cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are at greater risk than their age matched peers for long-term health ...

  13. Lifetime Measurement of the 2+1 state in 20C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petri, Marina-Kalliopi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetime Measurement of the 2 1+ state in 20 C M. Petri,of California. Lifetime Measurement of the 2 + state in C M.Here we report the ?rst measurement of the lifetime of the 2

  14. Risk Assessment of Diesel-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    65 20 3.4 Direct Mortality Risk 21 3.5 Ambient PM10 Concentrations 21 4.0 Low Wind Speed (Calm Risk Zones Table 2-7: Emission Factor Sensitivity Analysis Appendix 3: Low Wind Speed (Calm) Conditions Cancer Risk Spreadsheet 4-2: PM Mortality Table 4-3: Engine Size Distribution Table 4-4: Permitted vs

  15. "Skin Cancer-What to Look For" Rochester Recreation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    "Skin Cancer- What to Look For" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf May 20, 2010 #12;Supporters for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview Skin Overview What is skin cancer? Who is at risk? How common is skin cancer? Signs of skin cancer Prevention Treatments #12;Skin Overview Skin is the largest organ in your body

  16. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.02.044 INDUCED SECOND CANCERS AFTER PROSTATE-CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.02.044 EDITORIAL INDUCED SECOND CANCERS AFTER PROSTATE-CANCER University Medical Center, New York, NY The absolute risks of a radiation-induced second cancer among long concern, expressed by Kendal et al. (5) in this issue, that prostate cancer patients may be unduly

  17. The Lifetime of a beautiful and charming meson: B_c lifetime measured using the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; /Indiana U.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the lifetime of the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is studied in the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{mu}{sup {+-}} + X final state. Using an unbinned likelihood simultaneous fit to J/{psi} + {mu} invariant mass and lifetime distributions, a signal of 810 {+-} 80(stat.) candidates is estimated and a lifetime measurement made of: {tau}(B{sub c}{sup {+-}}) = 0.448{sub -0.036}{sup +0.038}(stat) {+-} 0.032(sys) ps.

  18. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas emissions over the full fuel cycle and vehicle lifetime.are estimated over the full fuel cycle and entire vehicleoperation and maintenance, full fuel-cycle air-pollutant and

  19. Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, R., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch; Sigg, H., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frigerio, J.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Süess, M. J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (SCOPEM), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, R. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The excess charge carrier lifetimes in Ge layers grown on Si or germanium-on-insulator are measured by synchrotron based pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. We observe that the lifetimes do not strongly depend on growth parameters and annealing procedure, but on the doping profile. The defect layer at the Ge/Si interface is found to be the main non-radiative recombination channel. Therefore, the longest lifetimes in Ge/Si (2.6?ns) are achieved in sufficiently thick Ge layers with a built-in field, which repels electrons from the Ge/Si interface. Longer lifetimes (5.3?ns) are obtained in overgrown germanium-on-insulator due to the absence of the defective interface.

  20. annihilation lifetime study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photons andor other similar pairs 7 Bounds on Cross-sections and Lifetimes for Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay into Charged Leptons from Gamma-ray Observations of Dwarf...

  1. Measurement of the lifetimes of B meson mass eigenstates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anikeev, Konstantin

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, we present the results of the average lifetime measurements in ..., ..., and ... decays, as well as the results of a time-dependent angular analysis of ... and ... decays. The time-dependent angular ...

  2. Diabetes and breast cancer : the women's healthy eating & living study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kirsten Diann

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and their effects on diabetes risk, randomized controlledQiao Q, Zethelius B, et al: Diabetes, prediabetes and cancerS, Lopez A, et al: Diabetes, obesity and survival in a large

  3. Nutrition and Cancer 1998, 32 (3) 165 NUTRITION AND CANCER 1998, 32 (3),165-173.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat, France. Introduction Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer

  4. Influence of egocentrism, future time perspective, and health locus of control on risk-takeing in adolescents diagosed with cancer and their siblings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Nancy Ann

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    & Hobbie, 1996). Adolescents treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and brain tumors may be at greater risk foz pooz- quality decision making leading to risky behaviors. Cognitive impairment, including attentional problems and difficulties.... 9 years, SD = 1. 7), with mean age at diagnosis being 6. 5 years (SD = 4. 1). Although 47'-, of the sample had been diagnosed with leukemia, other disease types were also represented (i. e. , Wilm's tumoz, neuroblastoma, osteo/Swing's sarcoma...

  5. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  6. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    --22000000 34 Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung c ancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer L ung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung can cer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lun g cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cance r Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer Lung cancer

  7. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  8. DYNAMIC ILM AN APPROACH TO INFRARED-CAMERA BASED DYNAMICAL LIFETIME IMAGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measurements in measurement times as fast as 1 sec per wafer. Keywords: carrier lifetime, imaging, thermography

  9. Assessing the feasibility of volumetric-modulated arc therapy using simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-VMAT): An analysis for complex head-neck, high-risk prostate and rectal cancer cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Deodato, Francesco; Digesù, Cinzia; Macchia, Gabriella; Picardi, Vincenzo; Ferro, Marica [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Sallustio, Giuseppina [Radiology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); De Spirito, Marco; Piermattei, Angelo [Physics Institute, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); Morganti, Alessio G. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Fondazione di ricerca e cura “Giovanni Paolo II,” Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allowed the simultaneous delivery of different doses to different target volumes within a single fraction, an approach called simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). As consequence, the fraction dose to the boost volume can be increased while keeping low doses to the elective volumes, and the number of fractions and overall treatment time will be reduced, translating into better radiobiological effectiveness. In recent years, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has been shown to provide similar plan quality with respect to fixed-field IMRT but with large reduction in treatment time and monitor units (MUs) number. However, the feasibility of VMAT when used with SIB strategy has few investigations to date. We explored the potential of VMAT in a SIB strategy for complex cancer sites. A total of 15 patients were selected, including 5 head-and-neck, 5 high-risk prostate, and 5 rectal cancer cases. Both a double-arc VMAT and a 7-field IMRT plan were generated for each case using Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning system for an Elekta Precise linac. Dosimetric indexes for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared based on dose-volume histograms. Conformity index, homogeneity index, and dose-contrast index were used for target analyses. The equivalent uniform doses and the normal tissue complication probabilities were calculated for main OARs. MUs number and treatment time were analyzed to score treatment efficiency. Pretreatment dosimetry was performed using 2-dimensional (2D)-array dosimeter. SIB-VMAT plans showed a high level of fluence modulation needed for SIB treatments, high conformal dose distribution, similar target coverage, and a tendency to improve OARs sparing compared with the benchmark SIB-IMRT plans. The median treatment times reduced from 13 to 20 minutes to approximately 5 minutes for all cases with SIB-VMAT, with a MUs reduction up to 22.5%. The 2D-array ion-chambers' measurements reported an agreement of more than 95% for a criterion of 3% to 3 mm. SIB-VMAT was able to combine the advantages of conventional SIB-IMRT with its highly conformal dose distribution and OARs sparing and the advantages of 3D-conformal radiotherapy with its fast delivery.

  10. A Treatment Planning and Acute Toxicity Comparison of Two Pelvic Nodal Volume Delineation Techniques and Delivery Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Hypofractionated High-Risk Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrehaug, Sten [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, Gordon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Weinberg, Vivian [Biostatistics Core, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cheng, Chun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To perform a comparison of two pelvic lymph node volume delineation strategies used in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk prostate cancer and to determine the role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods and Materials: Eighteen consecutive patients accrued to an ongoing clinical trial were identified according to either the nodal contouring strategy as described based on lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technology (9 patients) or the current Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) consensus guidelines (9 patients). Radiation consisted of 45 Gy to prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, with a simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate alone, to a total dose of 67.5 Gy delivered in 25 fractions. Prospective acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were compared at baseline, during radiotherapy, and 3 months after radiotherapy. Each patient was retrospectively replanned using the opposite method of nodal contouring, and plans were normalized for dosimetric comparison. VMAT plans were also generated according to the RTOG method for comparison. Results: RTOG plans resulted in a significantly lower rate of genitourinary frequency 3 months after treatment. The dosimetric comparison showed that the RTOG plans resulted in both favorable planning target volume (PTV) coverage and lower organs at risk (OARs) and integral (ID) doses. VMAT required two to three arcs to achieve adequate treatment plans, we did not observe consistent dosimetric benefits to either the PTV or the OARs, and a higher ID was observed. However, treatment times were significantly shorter with VMAT. Conclusion: The RTOG guidelines for pelvic nodal volume delineation results in favorable dosimetry and acceptable acute toxicities for both the target and OARs. We are unable to conclude that VMAT provides a benefit compared with IMRT.

  11. Measurement of the KL meson lifetime with the KLOE detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The KLOE collaboration

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a measurement of the KL lifetime using the KLOE detector. From a sample of 4 x 10^8 KS KL pairs following the reaction e+ e- -> phi -> KS KL we select 15 x 10^6 KL -> p0 p0 p0 decays tagged by KS -> pi+ pi- events. From a fit of the proper time distribution we find tau_L = (50.92 +- 0.17{stat} +- 0.25{syst})$ ns. This is the most precise measurement of the KL lifetime performed to date.

  12. Infrared-Active Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Ultralong Carrier Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh C.; Robel, Istvan; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the synthesis of composite PbSe/CdSe/CdS nanocrystals with two distinct geometries: core/shell/shell structures and tetrapods. These novel nanostructures exhibit extremely long carrier decay times up to 20 ?s that are combined with high emission efficiencies in the infrared. The increase in carrier lifetimes is attributed to the reduction of the electron?hole overlap as a result of delocalization of the electron wave function into the outer CdS shell or arms. The ultralong carrier lifetimes and controlled geometry render these nanocrystals attractive for a variety of applications from lasing to photocatalysis and photovoltaics.

  13. On an additional realization of supersymmetry in orthopositronium lifetime anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Levin; V. I. Sokolov

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansion of Standard Model for the quantitative description of the orthopositronium lifetime anomalies (from QED to supersymmetric QED) allows to formulate experimental tests of supervision of additional realization of the supersymmetry in final state of the positron beta-decay of the nuclei such as Na-22, Ga-68. The expermentum crucis program is based on supervision of the orthopositronium "isotope anomaly", on the quantitative description of the "lifetime anomaly", and will allow to resolve the alternative as results of the last Michigan work (2003).

  14. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. AIAA-2001-0025 SPECTRUM FATIGUE LIFETIME AND RESIDUAL STRENGTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a typical fiberglass laminate configuration turbine blade fiberglass material has been undertaken under at various fractions of the lifetime turbine blade materials.. are consistent with the residual strength of fiberglass spectrum have been studied. Data have been obtained for materials produce results that may

  16. MAJOR, LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD FOR POET, PROF. PAUL MARIANI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    MAJOR, LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD FOR POET, PROF. PAUL MARIANI CHESTNUT HILL, MA (February 2009) -- University Prof. of English Paul Mariani, a noted Catholic poet and essayist who is one of America's foremost regarded biographies of twentieth-century American poets": William Carlos Williams: A New World Naked (1981

  17. General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required

  18. Precision measurement of the Lambda_b baryon lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LHCb collaboration; R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; C. Adrover; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; S. Ali; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; S. Amerio; Y. Amhis; L. Anderlini; J. Anderson; R. Andreassen; J. E. Andrews; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; M. Baalouch; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; C. Baesso; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; J. Beddow; F. Bedeschi; I. Bediaga; S. Belogurov; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; A. Berezhnoy; R. Bernet; M. -O. Bettler; M. van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; T. Bird; A. Bizzeti; P. M. Bj\\ornstad; T. Blake; F. Blanc; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; T. J. V. Bowcock; E. Bowen; C. Bozzi; T. Brambach; J. van den Brand; J. Bressieux; D. Brett; M. Britsch; T. Britton; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; I. Burducea; A. Bursche; G. Busetto; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; P. Campana; D. Campora Perez; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; H. Carranza-Mejia; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; L. Castillo Garcia; M. Cattaneo; Ch. Cauet; R. Cenci; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; P. Chen; N. Chiapolini; M. Chrzaszcz; K. Ciba; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; E. Cogneras; P. Collins; A. Comerma-Montells; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; S. Coquereau; G. Corti; B. Couturier; G. A. Cowan; D. C. Craik; S. Cunliffe; R. Currie; C. D'Ambrosio; P. David; P. N. Y. David; A. Davis; I. De Bonis; K. De Bruyn; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; W. De Silva; P. De Simone; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; L. Del Buono; N. Déléage; D. Derkach; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; A. Di Canto; H. Dijkstra; M. Dogaru; S. Donleavy; F. Dordei; A. Dosil Suárez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; F. Dupertuis; P. Durante; R. Dzhelyadin; A. Dziurda; A. Dzyuba; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; D. van Eijk; S. Eisenhardt; U. Eitschberger; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; I. El Rifai; Ch. Elsasser; A. Falabella; C. Färber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; D. Ferguson; V. Fernandez Albor; F. Ferreira Rodrigues; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; M. Fiore; C. Fitzpatrick; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; O. Francisco; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; S. Furcas; E. Furfaro; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J. Garofoli; P. Garosi; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; R. Gauld; E. Gersabeck; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V. Gibson; L. Giubega; V. V. Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; P. Gorbounov; H. Gordon; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; E. Greening; S. Gregson; P. Griffith; O. Grünberg; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; C. Hadjivasiliou; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; S. Hall; B. Hamilton; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; N. Harnew; S. T. Harnew; J. Harrison; T. Hartmann; J. He; T. Head; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; A. Hicheur; E. Hicks; D. Hill; M. Hoballah; C. Hombach; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; N. Hussain; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; V. Iakovenko; M. Idzik; P. Ilten; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; E. Jans; P. Jaton; A. Jawahery; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; C. Joram; B. Jost; M. Kaballo; S. Kandybei; W. Kanso; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; I. R. Kenyon; T. Ketel; A. Keune; B. Khanji; O. Kochebina; I. Komarov; R. F. Koopman; P. Koppenburg; M. Korolev; A. Kozlinskiy; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; M. Kucharczyk; V. Kudryavtsev; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; E. Lanciotti; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; C. Lazzeroni; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J. -P. Lees; R. Lefèvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; S. Leo; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; B. Leverington; Y. Li; L. Li Gioi; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; S. Lohn; I. Longstaff; J. H. Lopes; N. Lopez-March; H. Lu; D. Lucchesi; J. Luisier; H. Luo; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; S. Malde; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; J. Maratas; U. Marconi; P. Marino; R. Märki; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; A. Martín Sánchez; M. Martinelli; D. Martinez Santos; D. Martins Tostes; A. Massafferri; R. Matev; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; E. Maurice; A. Mazurov; B. Mc Skelly; J. McCarthy; A. McNab; R. McNulty; B. Meadows; F. Meier; M. Meissner; M. Merk; D. A. Milanes; M. -N. Minard; J. Molina Rodriguez; S. Monteil; D. Moran; P. Morawski; A. Mordà; M. J. Morello; R. Mountain; I. Mous; F. Muheim; K. Müller; R. Muresan

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ratio of the \\Lambda b baryon lifetime to that of the B0 meson is measured using 1.0/fb of integrated luminosity in 7 TeV center-of-mass energy pp collisions at the LHC. The \\Lambda b baryon is observed for the first time in the decay mode \\Lambda b -> J/\\psi pK-, while the B0 meson decay used is the well known B0 -> J/\\psi pi+K- mode, where the pi+ K- mass is consistent with that of the K*0(892) meson. The ratio of lifetimes is measured to be 0.976 +/- 0.012 +/- 0.006, in agreement with theoretical expectations based on the heavy quark expansion. Using previous determinations of the B0 meson lifetime, the \\Lambda b lifetime is found to be 1.482 +/- 0.018 +/- 0.012 ps. In both cases the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  19. Design of the Muon Lifetime Experiment By Steve Kliewer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    the lifetime of the Muon particle. This planned device will use 4, low voltage, classroom safe scintillator detectors and a data acquisition electronics board developed by Quarknet of FermiLab. Analysis, low voltage, classroom safe, detectors 2. DAQ: use the electronics developed by Quarknet (QNET2) 3

  20. Lifetime Prediction for Supercapacitor-powered Wireless Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    Lifetime Prediction for Supercapacitor-powered Wireless Sensor Nodes Christian Renner, J step towards reaching this goal: It explores discharging-characteristics of supercapacitors, discusses-ion polymers, supercapacitors can last for 10 years or even more. Superca- pacitors do not need a complex

  1. Genetic Susceptibility and Survival: Application to Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Genetic Susceptibility and Survival: Application to Breast Cancer Edwin S. IVERSEN, JR., Giovanni are known to confer an elevated risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. The effect of carrying such a mutation on survival after developing breast or ovarian cancer is less well understood. We investigate

  2. Lung Cancer . Author manuscript p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lung Cancer . Author manuscript Page /1 10 p16INK4A inactivation mechanisms in non-small-cell lung occupational risk factor and that asbestos acts synergistically with tobacco smoking to induce lung cancer. Although some somatic gene alterations in lung cancer have been linked to tobacco smoke, few data

  3. Helical Tomotherapy vs. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Whole Pelvis Irradiation in High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients: Dosimetric, Normal Tissue Complication Probability, and Generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widesott, Lamberto, E-mail: widesott@yahoo.it [Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, Trento (Italy); Pierelli, Alessio; Fiorino, Claudio [Department of Medical Physics, St. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Lomax, Antony J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Amichetti, Maurizio [Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, Trento (Italy); Cozzarini, Cesare [Department of Radiotherapy, St. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Soukup, Martin [Section for Biomedical Physics, Universitatsklinik fur Radioonkologie, Tubingen (Germany); Schneider, Ralf; Hug, Eugen [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Di Muzio, Nadia [Department of Radiotherapy, St. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Calandrino, Riccardo [Department of Medical Physics, St. Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Schwarz, Marco [Agenzia Provinciale per la Protonterapia, Trento (Italy)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and helical tomotherapy (HT) treatment plans for high-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) patients. Methods and Materials: The plans of 8 patients with HRPCa treated with HT were compared with IMPT plans with two quasilateral fields set up (-100{sup o}; 100{sup o}) and optimized with the Hyperion treatment planning system. Both techniques were optimized to simultaneously deliver 74.2 Gy/Gy relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) in 28 fractions on planning target volumes (PTVs)3-4 (P + proximal seminal vesicles), 65.5 Gy/Gy(RBE) on PTV2 (distal seminal vesicles and rectum/prostate overlapping), and 51.8 Gy/Gy(RBE) to PTV1 (pelvic lymph nodes). Normal tissue calculation probability (NTCP) calculations were performed for the rectum, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) was estimated for the bowel cavity, penile bulb and bladder. Results: A slightly better PTV coverage and homogeneity of target dose distribution with IMPT was found: the percentage of PTV volume receiving {>=}95% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 95%}) was on average >97% in HT and >99% in IMPT. The conformity indexes were significantly lower for protons than for photons, and there was a statistically significant reduction of the IMPT dosimetric parameters, up to 50 Gy/Gy(RBE) for the rectum and bowel and 60 Gy/Gy(RBE) for the bladder. The NTCP values for the rectum were higher in HT for all the sets of parameters, but the gain was small and in only a few cases statistically significant. Conclusions: Comparable PTV coverage was observed. Based on NTCP calculation, IMPT is expected to allow a small reduction in rectal toxicity, and a significant dosimetric gain with IMPT, both in medium-dose and in low-dose range in all OARs, was observed.

  4. UIUC Collector Erosion and Optical Lifetime Project Results: Time Dependent Exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spila, Timothy P.

    UIUC Collector Erosion and Optical Lifetime Project Results: Time Dependent Exposures Darren A is the lifetime of collector optics. Frequent replacement of the mirror system will detract from the economic

  5. Detection of counterfeit U.S. paper money using intrinsic fluorescence lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levene, Michael J.

    -photon spectral and lifetime fluorescence microscopy," Appl. Opt. 43(27), 5173­5182 (2004). #118121 - $15.00 USD

  6. Measurement and model assessment of fluorescence lifetime sensing in multiply scattering media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuwana, Eddy

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    fluorescence sensor and the reliability of fluorescence lifetime measurement verify the prospect of this technology for implantable purposes....

  7. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  8. Measurement of the Lambda_b lifetime using semileptonic decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewin, M; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a measurement of the Lambda_b lifetime using a sample corresponding to 1.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the D0 experiment in 2002--2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The Lambda_b baryon is reconstructed via the decay Lambda_b -> mu nu Lambda_c X. Using $4437 \\pm 329$ signal candidates, we measure the Lambda_b lifetime to be $\\tau(Lambda_b)$ = 1.290^{+0.119}_{-0.110}(stat) ^{+0.087}_{-0.091} (syst) ps, which is among the most precise measurements in semileptonic Lambda_b decays. This result is in good agreement with the world average value.

  9. Reaching 10 ms single photon lifetimes for superconducting aluminum cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Reagor; Hanhee Paik; G. Catelani; L. Sun; C. Axline; E. Holland; I. M. Pop; N. A. Masluk; T. Brecht; L. Frunzio; M. H. Devoret; L. I. Glazman; R. J. Schoelkopf

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional microwave cavities have recently been combined with superconducting qubits in the circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. These cavities should have less sensitivity to dielectric and conductor losses at surfaces and interfaces, which currently limit the performance of planar resonators. We expect that significantly (>10^3) higher quality factors and longer lifetimes should be achievable for 3D structures. Motivated by this principle, we have reached internal quality factors greater than 0.5x10^9 and intrinsic lifetimes of 0.01 seconds for multiple aluminum superconducting cavity resonators at single photon energies and millikelvin temperatures. These improvements could enable long lived quantum memories with submicrosecond access times when strongly coupled to superconducting qubits.

  10. Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Falco, A.; Krauss, T. F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Fratalocchi, A. [PRIMALIGHT, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.

  11. Orientation-Dependent Entanglement Lifetime in a Squeezed Atomic Clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leroux, Ian D.; Schleier-Smith, Monika H.; Vuletic, Vladan [Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally the application of a class of entangled states, squeezed spin states, to the improvement of atomic-clock precision. In the presence of anisotropic noise, the entanglement lifetime is strongly dependent on squeezing orientation. We measure the Allan deviation spectrum of a clock operated with a phase-squeezed input state. For averaging times up to 50 s the squeezed clock achieves a given precision 2.8(3) times faster than a clock operating at the standard quantum limit.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME of this work. Explicit thanks to Mark A. Schuetz, Kara Shell and Dave Hollingshead for their diligence 1 Lifetime and Degradation Science: Applicability to Renewable energy 1 Lifetime and Degradation

  13. A Precise measurement of the B0(s) lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime in the semileptonic decay channel B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{nu}X (and its charge conjugate), using approximately 0.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2004. They have reconstructed 5176 D{sub s}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} signal events, where the D{sub s}{sup -} is identified via the decay D{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup -}, followed by {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. Using these events, they have measured the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime to be {tau}(B{sub s}{sup 0}) = 1.398 {+-} 0.044 (stat){sub -0.025}{sup +0.028}(syst) ps. This is the most precise measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime to date.

  14. Mechanisms of Action of Metformin as an Anti-cancer Agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran Nair Vasanthakum, Vijayalekshmi

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and epidemiological studies suggest the association of diabetes mellitus with an enhanced risk for multiple cancers. Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) is the most widely prescribed...

  15. Gestational and Early Life Exposures as Risk Factors for Childhood Lymphoma, Leukemia, and Wilms' Tumors: an Exploration of Birth Characteristics, Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, and Pesticide Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcotte, Erin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    risk factors for acute leukemia in the Jerusalem PerinatalRisk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review.of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Cancer,

  16. Lifetimes of negative parity states in {sup 168}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genilloud, L. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland); Jolie, J. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland)] [Institut de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Perolles, CH-1700 Fribourg, (Switzerland); Boerner, H. G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France); Lehmann, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, (France); Becvar, F. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic); Krticka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, (Czech Republic); Zamfir, N. V. [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States) [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 (United States); Casten, R. F. [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] [WNSL, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the GRID method the lifetimes of 12 states belonging to four negative parity bands in {sup 168}Er were measured at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL). For K{sup {pi}}=0{sub 1}{sup -} and K{sup {pi}}=2{sub 1}{sup -} bands the absolute E1 transitions are in agreement with those obtained within the framework of the sdf IBA-1 model and their octupole vibrational character is confirmed. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  17. Lifetimes of N = Z Nuclei As-66 and Br-70

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burch, R. H.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 38, NUMBER 3 Lifetimes of N =Z nuclei As and Br SEPTEMBER 1988 R. H. Burch Jr., C. A. Gagliardi, and R. E. Tribble Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 5 May 1988) We have... of the target wheel, the detector telescope, and the detector shielding. 1988 The American Physical Society 1366 R. H. BURCH, JR., C. A. GAGLIARDI, AND R. E. TRIBBLE 38 indexer with an antibacklash circuit drove the stepping motor. After each irradiation...

  18. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  19. Cosmological Neutrino Mass Detection: The Best Probe of Neutrino Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence, on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi)massless particles as in Majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way out to explain a discrepancy < or approx. 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and lab data.

  20. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  1. Positron lifetime spectrometer using a DC positron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Moxom, Jeremy

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An entrance grid is positioned in the incident beam path of a DC beam positron lifetime spectrometer. The electrical potential difference between the sample and the entrance grid provides simultaneous acceleration of both the primary positrons and the secondary electrons. The result is a reduction in the time spread induced by the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. In addition, the sample, sample holder, entrance grid, and entrance face of the multichannel plate electron detector assembly are made parallel to each other, and are arranged at a tilt angle to the axis of the positron beam to effectively separate the path of the secondary electrons from the path of the incident positrons.

  2. Emission lifetimes of europium-doped pyrochlores for phosphor thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansel, Rachael A [ORNL; Desai, Saunak [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Heyes, Andrew [Imperial College, London; Walker, D. Greg [Vanderbilt University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The luminescent lifetime of La2Zr2O7 and La2Hf2O7 has been determined as a function of temperature. We have shown that the luminescence of both materials can be used to determine the temperature of a surface up to 1073 K. The results are qualitatively explained via multiphonon emission. Phonon energies and the number of phonons needed to cross the energy gap are estimated. The results are useful in the design of phosphors for noncontact thermometry in high-temperature applications.

  3. NREL: Energy Storage - Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool Suite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNRELPowerNewsletterAcademy AlumniNewsLifetime

  4. CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM 2010 ANNUAL REPORT WITH STATISTICAL DATA FROM 2009 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MEDICAL CENTER #12;2 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 2 #12;3 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 3 UIMC CANCER PROGRAM CHANGING MULTIDISCIPLINARY CARE. FOR GOOD. #12;4 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT

  5. The Differential Lifetimes of Protostellar Gas and Dust Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taku Takeuchi; C. J. Clarke; D. N. C. Lin

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a protostellar disk model that takes into account the combined effect of viscous evolution, photoevaporation and the differential radial motion of dust grains and gas. For T Tauri disks, the lifetimes of dust disks that are mainly composed of millimeter sized grains are always shorter than the gas disks' lifetimes, and become similar only when the grains are fluffy (density 10 AU), without strong signs of gas accretion nor of millimeter thermal emission from the dust. For Herbig AeBe stars, the strong photoevaporation clears the inner disks in 10^6 yr, before the dust grains in the outer disk migrate to the inner region. In this case, the grains left behind in the outer gas disk accumulate at the disk inner edge (at 10-100 AU from the star). The dust grains remain there even after the entire gas disk has been photoevaporated, and form a gas-poor dust ring similar to that observed around HR 4796A. Hence, depending on the strength of the stellar ionizing flux, our model predicts opposite types of products around young stars. For low mass stars with a low photoevaporation rate, dust-poor gas disks with an inner hole would form, whereas for high mass stars with a high photoevaporation rate, gas-poor dust rings would form. This prediction should be examined by observations of gas and dust around weak line T Tauri stars and evolved Herbig AeBe stars.

  6. Extending the lifetime of fuel cell based hybrid systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianli Zhuo; Chaitali Chakrabarti; Naehyuck Chang; Sarma Vrudhula

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are clean power sources that have much higher energy densities and lifetimes compared to batteries. However, fuel cells have limited load following capabilities and cannot be efficiently utilized if used in isolation. In this work, we consider a hybrid system where a fuel cell based hybrid power source is used to provide power to a DVFS processor. The hybrid power source consists of a room temperature fuel cell operating as the primary power source and a Li-ion battery (that has good load following capability) operating as the secondary source. Our goal is to develop polices to extend the lifetime of the fuel cell based hybrid system. First, we develop a charge based optimization framework which minimizes the charge loss of the hybrid system (and not the energy consumption of the DVFS processor). Next, we propose a new algorithm to minimize the charge loss by judiciously scaling the load current. We compare the performance of this algorithm with one that has been optimized for energy, and demonstrate its superiority. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the hybrid system under different system configurations and show how to determine the best combination of fuel cell size and battery capacity for a given embedded application.

  7. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  8. Enterprise Risk Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Enterprise Risk Management Program DRAFT Introduction to Enterprise Risk Management at UVM 1 #12;Enterprise Risk Management Program DRAFT What is Enterprise Risk Management? Enterprise risk management governance, and accountability · Facilitates effective management of the uncertainty and associated risks

  9. Risk Assessment Risk communication 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    · 1 1997 2003 WHO #12;6060 NTU Alumni Bimonthly No.87 Fault tree Event tree [2] Nuclear reactor of nuclear power plants. Reliability Engineering and Safety System, 52:297-314. [4] Jonas Hagmann. 2012. Fukushima: probing the analytical and epistemological limits of risk analysis. Journal of Risk Research. 15

  10. Market Based Risk Mitigation: Risk Management vs. Risk Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market Based Risk Mitigation: Risk Management vs. Risk Avoidance Shmuel Oren University of the critical infrastructures in our society. Risk assessment and systematic consideration of risk in the design knowledge for engineers, like physics for instance, consideration of risk has penetrated all engineering

  11. Cancer Imaging Clinical Cancer Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Near Ir; Heptamethine Cyanine Dye–mediated; Xiaojian Yang; Chunmeng Shi; Rong Tong; Weiping Qian; Haiyen E. Zhau; Ruoxiang Wang; Guodong Zhu; Jianjun Cheng; Vincent W. Yang; Tianmin Cheng; Maged Henary; Lucjan Strekowski; W. K. Chung

    Purpose: Near-IR fluorescence imaging has great potential for noninvasive in vivo imaging of tumors. In this study, we show the preferential uptake and retention of two hepatamethine cyanine dyes, IR-783 and MHI-148, in tumor cells and tissues. Experimental Design: IR-783 and MHI-148 were investigated for their ability to accumulate in human cancer cells, tumor xenografts, and spontaneous mouse tumors in transgenic animals. Time- and concentration-dependent dye uptake and retention in normal and cancer cells and tissues were compared, and subcellular localization of the dyes and mechanisms of the dye uptake and retention in tumor cells were evaluated using organelle-specific tracking dyes and bromosulfophthalein, a competitive inhibitor of organic anion transporting peptides. These dyes were used to detect human cancer metastases in a mouse model and differentiate cancer cells from normal cells in blood. Results: These near-IR hepatamethine cyanine dyes were retained in cancer cells but not normal cells, in tumor xenografts, and in spontaneous tumors in transgenic mice. They can be used to detect cancer metastasis and cancer cells in blood with a high degree of sensitivity. The dyes were found to concentrate in the mitochondria and lysosomes of cancer cells, probably through organic anion transporting peptides,

  12. “It’s Not If I Get Cancer, It’s When I Get Cancer”: Exploring Previvors’ Management of Uncertainty for Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Encounters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Marleah Lynn

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    decisions affect their subsequent sense of uncertainty. A previvor is an individual who is highly predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer due to a genetic mutation called BRCA1/2. Previvors have a 44 to 87 percent risk of developing cancer during...

  13. Measurements of ultracold neutron lifetimes in solid deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Morris; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; B. W. Filippone; P. Geltenbort; R. E. Hill; M. Hino; S. Hoedl; G. E. Hogan; T. M. Ito; T. Kawai; K. Kirch; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; L. J. Marek; J. W. Martin; R. N. Mortensen; A. Pichlmaier; A. Saunders; S. J. Seestrom; D. Smith; W. Teasdale; B. Tipton; M. Utsuro; A. R. Young; J. Yuan

    2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first measurements of the survival time of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in solid deuterium SD2. This critical parameter provides a fundamental limitation to the effectiveness of superthermal UCN sources that utilize solid ortho-deuterium as the source material. Superthermal UCN sources offer orders of magnitude improvement in the available densities of UCNs, and are of great importance to fundamental particle-physics experiments such as searches for a static electric dipole moment and lifetime measurements of the free neutron. These measurements are performed utilizing a SD2 source coupled to a spallation source of neutrons, providing a demonstration of UCN production in this geometry and permitting systematic studies of the influence of thermal up-scatter and contamination with para-deuterium on the UCN survival time.

  14. Measurement of the B hadron lifetime at the SLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujino, D.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the average B hadron lifetime from Z{sup 0} {r arrow} b{bar b} events using the Mark II detector at the SLC. We use an impact parameter tag, requiring two or more tracks with significant impact parameter ({delta}) in a hemisphere, to obtain a 40% efficiency and an 80% B-purity. The {Sigma}{delta} distribution from charged tracks in the hemisphere opposite the tag is used to fit for {tau}{sub b}. From 53 tagged B decays we find {tau}{sub b} = 1.63{sub {minus}0.40}{sup +0.64}(stat) {plus minus}0.16(syst) psec (preliminary), consistent with the world average. This method can be competitive with {tau}{sub b} measurements using high P{sub T} leptons and has a different sensitivity to {tau}(B{sup +})/{tau}(B{sup 0}).

  15. Measurement of the B hadron lifetime at the SLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujino, D.; The MARK II Collaboration.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the average B hadron lifetime from Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} b{bar b} events using the Mark II detector at the SLC. We use an impact parameter tag, requiring two or more tracks with significant impact parameter ({delta}) in a hemisphere, to obtain a 40% efficiency and an 80% B-purity. The {Sigma}{delta} distribution from charged tracks in the hemisphere opposite the tag is used to fit for {tau}{sub b}. From 53 tagged B decays we find {tau}{sub b} = 1.63{sub {minus}0.40}{sup +0.64}(stat) {plus_minus}0.16(syst) psec (preliminary), consistent with the world average. This method can be competitive with {tau}{sub b} measurements using high P{sub T} leptons and has a different sensitivity to {tau}(B{sup +})/{tau}(B{sup 0}).

  16. Proton lifetime bounds from chirally symmetric lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Aoki; P. Boyle; P. Cooney; L. Del Debbio; R. Kenway; C. M. Maynard; A. Soni; R. Tweedie

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results for the matrix elements relevant for proton decay in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). The calculation is performed at a fixed lattice spacing a^{-1}=1.73(3) GeV using 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions on lattices of size 16^3\\times32 and 24^3\\times64 with a fifth dimension of length 16. We use the indirect method which relies on an effective field theory description of proton decay, where we need to estimate the low energy constants, \\alpha = -0.0112(25) GeV^3 and \\beta = 0.0120(26) GeV^3. We relate these low energy constants to the proton decay matrix elements using leading order chiral perturbation theory. These can then be combined with experimental bounds on the proton lifetime to bound parameters of individual GUTs.

  17. Measuring beam intensity and lifetime in BESSY II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakker, R; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the intensity of the beam in the transfer lines and the storage ring are based on current transformers. The pulsed current in the transfer lines is measured with passive Integrating Beam Current Transformers (ICT). The bunch charge is transferred to a DC-voltage and sampled with a multifunction I/O-board of a PC. The beam current of the storage ring is measured with a high precision Parametric Current Transformer (PCT) and sampled by a high quality digital volt meter (DVM). A stand alone PC is used for synchronisation, real-time data acquisition and signal processing. Current and lifetime data are updated every second and send via CAN- bus to the BESSY II control system. All PC programs are written in LabVIEW.

  18. Theoretical update of $B$-Mixing and Lifetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Lenz

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the current status of theoretical predictions for mixing quantities and lifetimes in the $B$-sector. In particular, due to the first non-zero measurement of the decay rate difference in the neutral $B_s$-system, $\\Delta \\Gamma_s/ \\Gamma_s = 17.6 % \\pm 2.9 %$ by the LHCb collaboration and very precise data for $\\tau_{B_s}$ from TeVatron and LHCb our theoretical tools can now be rigorously tested and it turns out that the Heavy Quark Expansion works in the $B$-system to an accuracy of at least 30% for quantities like $\\Gamma_{12}$, which is most sensitive to hypothetical violations of quark hadron duality. This issue that gave rise in the past to numerous theoretical papers, has now been settled experimentally. Further data will even allow to shrink this bound. For total inclusive quantities like lifetimes the compliance is even more astonishing: $\\tau_{B_s}^{\\rm LHCb}/ \\tau_{B_d}^{\\rm HFAG} = 1.001 \\pm 0.014$ is in perfect agreement with the theory expectation of $\\tau_{B_s}/\\tau_{B_d} = 0.996 ... 1.000$. Despite the fact that the new data show no deviations from the standard model expectations, there is still some sizable room for new physics effects. Model-independent search strategies for these effects are presented with an emphasis on the interconnection with many different observables that have to be taken into account. In that respect a special emphasis is given to the large value of the di-muon asymmetry measured by the D0 collaboration.

  19. The lifetime problem of evaporating black holes: mutiny or resignation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Barceló; Raúl Carballo-Rubio; Luis J. Garay; Gil Jannes

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    It is logically possible that regularly evaporating black holes exist in nature. In fact, the prevalent theoretical view is that these are indeed the real objects behind the curtain in astrophysical scenarios. There are several proposals for regularizing the classical singularity of black holes so that their formation and evaporation do not lead to information-loss problems. One characteristic is shared by most of these proposals: these regularly evaporating black holes present long-lived trapping horizons, with absolutely enormous evaporation lifetimes in whatever measure. Guided by the discomfort with these enormous and thus inaccessible lifetimes, we elaborate here on an alternative regularization of the classical singularity, previously proposed by the authors in an emergent gravity framework, which leads to a completely different scenario. In our scheme the collapse of a stellar object would result in a genuine time-symmetric bounce, which in geometrical terms amounts to the connection of a black-hole geometry with a white-hole geometry in a regular manner. The two most differential characteristics of this proposal are: i) the complete bouncing geometry is a solution of standard classical general relativity everywhere except in a transient region that necessarily extends beyond the gravitational radius associated with the total mass of the collapsing object; and ii) the duration of the bounce as seen by external observers is very brief (fractions of milliseconds for neutron-star-like collapses). This scenario motivates the search for new forms of stellar equilibrium different from black holes. In a brief epilogue we compare our proposal with a similar geometrical setting recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli.

  20. Investigating Upper Bounds on Network Lifetime Extension for Cell-Based Energy Conservation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santi, Paolo

    Investigating Upper Bounds on Network Lifetime Extension for Cell-Based Energy Conservation either for a base network (one without any energy conservation technique) or for one using cooperative energy conservation strategies. In this paper, we investigate the lifetime/density tradeoff under

  1. Dry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    assessment of dry chamber wall based on ion and photon spectra from a new direct-drive target proposed by NRLDry Chamber Wall Thermo-Mechanical Behavior and Lifetime under IFE Cyclic Energy Deposition Lifetime is a key issue for the IFE dry chamber wall configuration. Past studies, such as SOMBRERO

  2. Ris-R-1515(EN) Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1515(EN) Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries Henrik Bindner, Tom Cronin, Per Lundsager Baring-Gould Title: Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries Department: VEA, VES Risø-R-1515 April 2005 storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries

  3. Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.

  4. Throughput-Lifetime Tradeoffs in Multihop Wireless Networks under an SINR-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Catherine P.

    1 Throughput-Lifetime Tradeoffs in Multihop Wireless Networks under an SINR-based Interference crucial design objectives for a number of multihop wireless network applica- tions. As these two this tradeoff between the network throughput and lifetime, for the case of fixed wireless networks where link

  5. Post-Doctoral Research Associate Position in Photovoltaic Lifetime and Degradation Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Post-Doctoral Research Associate Position in Photovoltaic Lifetime and Degradation Science A Post and environmental durability of photovoltaic materials, elements and systems. The research associate will help establish a facility for PV lifetime and degradation studies, including solar and environmental exposures

  6. A near optimal algorithm for lifetime optimization in wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A near optimal algorithm for lifetime optimization in wireless sensor networks Karine Deschinkel1.deschinkel, mourad.hakem}@univ-fcomte.fr Keywords: target coverage, wireless sensor networks, centralized method in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is lifetime optimization. Indeed, in WSN each sensor node is battery powered

  7. SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuah, Chen-Nee

    SENSOR PLACEMENT FOR MAXIMIZING LIFETIME PER UNIT COST IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Yunxia Chen in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Analyzing the lifetime per unit cost of a linear WSN, we find that deploying of sensors deployed in the network, can be used to measure the utilization efficiency of sensors

  8. Maximum-Lifetime Multi-Channel Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    Maximum-Lifetime Multi-Channel Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal and Asis Nasipuri and routing problem in multi-channel wireless sensor networks for maximizing the worst case network lifetime solution for the problem. Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, multi-channel rout- ing, distributed

  9. SCHEDULING ABOVE MAC TO MAXIMIZE BATTERY LIFETIME AND THROUGHPUT IN WLANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    SCHEDULING ABOVE MAC TO MAXIMIZE BATTERY LIFETIME AND THROUGHPUT IN WLANS Edoardo Regini, Daeseob Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 {eregini, dalim, tajana}@ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Maximizing battery lifetime. This is because in heavy traffic conditions, the chance of nodes to successfully transmit a packet decreases

  10. NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    NEUTRON DAMAGE IN REACTOR PRESSURE-VESSEL STEEL EXAMINED WITH POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME-vessel steels. We irradiated samples ofASTM A508 nuclear reactor pressure-vessel steel to fast neutron 17 2 (PALS) to study the effects of neutron damage in the steels on positron lifetimes. Non

  11. SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

  12. Novel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    acceptance; o power and energy capability; o reliability; o lifetime and life cycle cost. ThereofNovel Battery Thermal Management System for Greater Lifetime Ratifying Current Quality and Safety,Denmark. Temperature excursions and non-uniformity of the temperature inside the battery systems are the main concern

  13. Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nutr Cancer . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin and red meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Meta-analyses have suggested that the risk associated with processed meat is higher. Most processed meats are cured and cooked, which leads

  14. New Directions and Approached to Cancer Treatment: Dr Mike Partridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Directions and Approached to Cancer Treatment: Imaging Dr Mike Partridge STFC Workshop, Birmingham, 28th January 2010 Joint Department of Physics The Institute of Cancer Research / The Royal to treatment to determine anatomical targets and organs-at-risk. · A clear next step is to use biological

  15. LIFETIME PREDICTION FOR MODEL 9975 O-RINGS IN KAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently storing plutonium materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and transported and stored in KAMS in Model 9975 shipping packages, which include double containment vessels sealed with dual O-rings made of Parker Seals compound V0835-75 (based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT). The outer O-ring of each containment vessel is credited for leaktight containment per ANSI N14.5. O-ring service life depends on many factors, including the failure criterion, environmental conditions, overall design, fabrication quality and assembly practices. A preliminary life prediction model has been developed for the V0835-75 O-rings in KAMS. The conservative model is based primarily on long-term compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments and Arrhenius accelerated-aging methodology. For model development purposes, seal lifetime is defined as a 90% loss of measurable sealing force. Thus far, CSR experiments have only reached this target level of degradation at temperatures {ge} 300 F. At lower temperatures, relaxation values are more tolerable. Using time-temperature superposition principles, the conservative model predicts a service life of approximately 20-25 years at a constant seal temperature of 175 F. This represents a maximum payload package at a constant ambient temperature of 104 F, the highest recorded in KAMS to date. This is considered a highly conservative value as such ambient temperatures are only reached on occasion and for short durations. The presence of fiberboard in the package minimizes the impact of such temperature swings, with many hours to several days required for seal temperatures to respond proportionately. At 85 F ambient, a more realistic but still conservative value, bounding seal temperatures are reduced to {approx}158 F, with an estimated seal lifetime of {approx}35-45 years. The actual service life for O-rings in a maximum wattage package likely lies higher than the estimates due to the conservative assumptions used for the model. For lower heat loads at similar ambient temperatures, seal lifetime is further increased. The preliminary model is based on several assumptions that require validation with additional experiments and longer exposures at more realistic conditions. The assumption of constant exposure at peak temperature is believed to be conservative. Cumulative damage at more realistic conditions will likely be less severe but is more difficult to assess based on available data. Arrhenius aging behavior is expected, but non-Arrhenius behavior is possible. Validation of Arrhenius behavior is ideally determined from longer tests at temperatures closer to actual service conditions. CSR experiments will therefore continue at lower temperatures to validate the model. Ultrasensitive oxygen consumption analysis has been shown to be useful in identifying non-Arrhenius behavior within reasonable test periods. Therefore, additional experiments are recommended and planned to validate the model.

  16. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE 49:709718 (2006) Smoking Imputation and Lung Cancer in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Nancy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE 49:709­718 (2006) Smoking Imputation and Lung Cancer exhaust exposure and lung cancer mortality in a large retrospective cohort study of US railroad workers­1996. Mortality analyses incorporated the effect of smoking on lung cancer risk. Results The smoking adjusted

  17. The Energetics and Lifetimes of Local Radio Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Ross J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model describing the evolution of Fanaroff-Riley type I and II radio AGN, and the transition between these classes. We quantify galaxy environments using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model, and apply our model to a volume-limited low redshift ($0.03 \\leqslant z \\leqslant 0.1$) sample of observed AGN to determine the distribution of jet powers and active lifetimes at the present epoch. Radio sources in massive galaxies are found to remain active for longer, spend less time in the quiescent phase, and inject more energy into their hosts than their less massive counterparts. The jet power is independent of the host stellar mass within uncertainties, consistent with maintenance-mode AGN feedback paradigm. The environments of these AGN are in or close to long-term heating-cooling balance. We also examine the properties of high- and low-excitation radio galaxy sub-populations. The HERGs are younger than LERGs by an order of magnitude, whilst their jet powers are greater by a factor of four. The Edd...

  18. Ecological Risk Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological risk assessment is the appraisal of potential adverse effects of exposure to contaminants on plants and animals....

  19. Risk Without Return

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Lisa R.; Mahmoud, Ola

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mitra, I. (2010). Extreme risk analysis. The Journal offrom the fact that the risk parity strategy was diversifiedboth in capital and in risk weights. Further research into

  20. First working group meeting on the minority carrier diffusion length/lifetime measurement: Results of the round robin lifetime/diffusion length tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B. [comp.] [comp.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As was noted in the cover letter that accompanied the samples, the eleven bare silicon samples were from various manufacturers. Table I lists the codes for the samples and the manufacturer of each sample. It also notes if the sample was single or poly-crystalline. The samples had been polished on one side before being sent out for measurements, but no further processing was done. The participants of the study were asked to measure either the lifetime or diffusion length of each of the samples using their standard procedure. Table II shows the experimental conditions used by the groups who measured diffusion length. All the diffusion length measurements were performed using the Surface Photovoltage method (SPV). Table M shows the experimental conditions for the lifetime measurements. All the lifetime measurements were made using the Photoconductance Decay method (PCD) under low level injection. These tables show the diameter of the spot size used during the measurement (the effective sampling area), the locations where measurements were taken, and the number of measurements taken at each location. Table N shows the results of the measurements. The table is divided into diffusion length and lifetime measurements for each sample. The values listed are the average values reported by each group. One of the immediate artifacts seen in the data is the large variation in the lifetime measurements. The values from MIT and Mobil are generally close. However, the measurements from NCSU are typically an order of magnitude lower.

  1. Josephine Ford Cancer Center Cancer Research Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Josephine Ford Cancer Center Cancer Research Programs presented to WSU SOM PAD January 10, 2012 presented by Sandra A. Rempel, Ph.D. Associate Director of Research, JFCC #12;JFCC Cancer Research Programs Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program Members: Gwen Alexander, Andrea Cassidy

  2. Laser spectroscopic studies of state-dependent collisional quenching of the lifetimes of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hori, M; Torii, H A; Ishikawa, T; Maas, F E; Yamazaki, T; Eades, John; Widmann, E; Kumakara, M; Morita, N; Sugai, I; Horváth, D; Ketzer, B; Hartmann, F J; Maierl, C; Hasinoff, M D; Von Egidy, T; Tamura, H

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser spectroscopic studies of state-dependent collisional quenching of the lifetimes of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms

  3. Bulk Tungsten in the JET Divertor: Potential Influence of the Exhaustion of Ductility and Grain Growth on the Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulk Tungsten in the JET Divertor: Potential Influence of the Exhaustion of Ductility and Grain Growth on the Lifetime

  4. Risk Dynamics?An Analysis for the Risk of Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Tailin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Is Quantitative Risk Assessment?" Risk Analysis, Aubrey,quantitative methods of how people do science, engineering and risk analysisthe Quantitative Definition of Risk." Risk Analysis, 1(1),

  5. Reflections in Mutation Research Electric light causes cancer?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ]. And on a population level, there is a strong international correlation between estimates of per capita fat consumption dismayed by the recent reports that dietary fat consumption was unrelated to risk of breast cancer in women prospective cohort studies, estimates of fat consumption for individual women and risk to those women

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, Terri G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

  7. Strength and Lifetime Analysis of SMT Solder Joints: An Exemplary Study of the MiniMELF Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    626 Strength and Lifetime Analysis of SMT Solder Joints: An Exemplary Study of the Mini, ZT ME 7, Berlin ABSTRACT The reliability and lifetime of SMT solder joints obtained by reflow or wave Since the appearance of surface mount technology (SMT) the reliability and lifetime of solder joints has

  8. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Youhei Yamaji; Masatoshi Imada

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  9. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  10. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  11. Calculation of the extinction cross section and lifetime of a gold nanoparticle using FDTD simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhakrishnan, Archana, E-mail: anju.archana@gmail.com [B.Tech, Engineering Physics, National Institute Of Technology, Calicut (India); Murugesan, Dr V., E-mail: murugesh@serc.iisc.in [Assistant Professor, Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic theory of light explains the behavior of light in most of the domains quite accurately. The problem arises when the exact solution of the Maxwell's equation is not present, in case of objects with arbitrary geometry. To find the extinction cross-section and lifetime of the gold nanoparticle, the software FDTD solutions 8.6 by Lumerical is employed. The extinction cross-sections and lifetimes of Gold nanospheres of different sizes and arrangements are studied using pulse lengths of the order of femtoseconds. The decay constant and other properties are compared. Further, the lifetimes are calculated using frequency and time domain calculations.

  12. Measurement of the B-cmeson lifetime in the decay B-c?J/???

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetime of the B-c meson is measured using 272 exclusive B-c?J/?(?????)?? decays reconstructed in data from proton-antiproton collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 fb?¹ recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The lifetime of the B-cmeson is measured to be ?(B-c)=0.452±0.048(stat)±0.027(syst) ps. This is the first measurement of the B-c meson lifetime in a fully reconstructed hadronic channel, and it agrees with previous results and has comparable precision.

  13. LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID INTAKE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RED BLOOD CELL AND SERUM LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN WOMEN AT HIGH RISK FOR BREAST CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Katherine

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    questionnaire (DHQ). The mean age of the subjects was 47 ± 9.9 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 25 ± 4.4. The mean 5-year Gail risk was 2.7 ± 2.2%. Twenty-two (48%) of the subjects were premenopausal and 24 (52%) were postmenopausal. Fifteen (33...

  14. Regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in human breast cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngwenya, Sharon Khethiwe

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    among women in the Western world, second to lung cancer. And in 2003, approximately 39,800 women died as a result of breast cancer (10). The reported incidence of breast cancer has risen during recent years due to the increase of mammography... likely to be initiated, i.e. early adulthood and reproductive years, and increased breast cancer risk (17). However, other studies have reported that estrogens are able to induce direct and indirect free radical-mediated DNA damage, genetic...

  15. Hurricane wind fields needed to assess risk to offshore wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    LETTER Hurricane wind fields needed to assess risk to offshore wind farms In their paper in PNAS losses attributable to hurricane activity at four hypothetical offshore wind farm sites. We found one a 20-y typical wind farm lifetime. They combined a county annual landfall frequency probability density

  16. What is the probability that radiation caused a particular cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Courts, lawyers, health physicists, physicians, and others are searching for a credible answer to the question posed in the title of this paper. The cases in which the question arises frequently stem from an individual that has cancer and they, or their next-of-kin, are convinced that a past radiation exposure - usually small - is responsible for causing it. An arithmetic expression of this problem is simple: the probability of causation by the radiation dose in question is equal to the risk of cancer from the radiation dose divided by the risk of cancer from all causes. The application of risk factors to this equation is not so simple. It must involve careful evaluation of the reliability of and variations in risk coefficients for development of cancer due to radiation exposure, other carcinogenic agents, and natural causes for the particular individual. Examination of our knowledge of these various factors indicates that a large range in the answers can result due to the variability and imprecision of the data. Nevertheless, the attempts to calculate and the probability that radiation caused the cancer is extremely useful to provide a gross perspective on the probability of causation. It will likely rule in or out a significant number of cases despite the limitations in our understandings of the etiology of cancer and the risks from various factors. For the remaining cases, a thoughtful and educated judgment based on selected data and circumstances of the case will also be needed before the expert can develop and support his opinion.

  17. Enterprise Risk Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Enterprise Risk Management Program Guide to Risk Assessment & Response August 16, 2012 #12; i ...........26 List of Figures Figure 1: The Risk Management Process.......................................................................................................12 #12; 1 Overview The risk management process--of identifying, analyzing, evaluating

  18. Credit Risk Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The incumbent in this position will serve as a Credit Risk Analyst in the Transacting and Credit Risk Management department of the Office of Risk Management. The Transacting and Credit Risk...

  19. 1 888 939 3333 | cancer.ca Cancer Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    1 888 939 3333 | cancer.ca Canadian Cancer Statistics 2013 Special topic: Liver cancer Produced by Canadian Cancer Society, Statistics Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Provincial/Territorial Cancer Registries cancer.ca/statistics #12;2Canadian Cancer Society n Canadian Cancer Statistics 2013 Citation

  20. Sacrificial high-temperature phosphorus diffusion gettering for lifetime improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Stephanie Morgan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron is among the most deleterious lifetime-limiting impurities in crystalline silicon solar cells. In as-grown material, iron is present in precipitates and in point defects. To achieve conversion efficiencies in excess ...

  1. Norwegian National Program for Lifetime Commissioning and Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakovic, V.; Djuric, N.; Holst, J.; Frydenlund, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project “Life-Time Commissioning for Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings” is actually a network of industrial companies, private and public entities, and R&D organizations. The overall objective of the project is to contribute...

  2. Norwegian National Program for Lifetime Commissioning and Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakovic, V.; Djuric, N.; Holst, J.; Frydenlund, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project “Life-Time Commissioning for Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings” is actually a network of industrial companies, private and public entities, and R&D organizations. The overall objective of the project is to contribute...

  3. The Application of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy to Quantitatively Map Mixing and Temperature in Microfluidic Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Emmelyn M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been employed to quantitatively and spatially map the fluid composition and temperature within microfluidic systems. A molecular probe with a ...

  4. Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Matthew Bede

    Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade ...

  5. Maximum Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks with Adjustable Sensing Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Maximum Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks with Adjustable Sensing Ranges Mihaela problem in wireless sensor networks with adjustable sensing range. Communication and sensing consume Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) constitute the foundation of a broad range of applications related

  6. A Method to Quantify FRET Stoichiometry with Phasor Plot Analysis and Acceptor Lifetime Ingrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, WeiYue; Avezov, Edward; Schlachter, Simon C.; Gielen, Fabrice; Laine, Romain F.; Harding, Heather P.; Hollfelder, Florian; Ron, David; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    pixel. The method makes use of fluorescence lifetime information from both donor and acceptor molecules and takes advantage of the linear properties of the phasor plot approach. We demonstrate the capability of our method in vitro in a microfluidic...

  7. Comparison of spatially resolved carrier lifetimes in mc-Si with solar cell and material characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glunz, S.W.; Hebling, C.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors introduce a novel application of modulated free carrier absorption (MFCA) for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in multicrystalline silicon with high spatial resolution. The improved lateral resolution compared to other contactless techniques allows the correlation between these lifetime maps and solar cell characteristics as well as microscopic properties, like dislocations, precipitates, oxygen concentration, etc. Comparisons of the lifetime maps measured on the starting material and light beam induced current (LBIC) maps exhibit a very good qualitative correlation of the structures observed in both cases. In addition, correlations to microscopic characteristics like high dislocation density in regions with low lifetimes are investigated and a comparison with spatially resolved FT-IR measurements of the interstitial oxygen concentration is performed.

  8. Lifetime measurements of high-lying short lived states in {sup 69}As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matejska-Minda, M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Fornal, B.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Krzysiek, M.; Maj, A.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Angelis, G. de; Huyuk, T.; Michelagnoli, C.; Sahin, E.; Aydin, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Recchia, F.; Ur, C. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e INFN Milano (Italy); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw (Poland); University of York (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 69}As have been measured using Doppler shift attenuation technique with the GASP and RFD setup. The determined transition probabilities indicate large deformation associated with some rotational bands in this nucleus.

  9. Measurement and model assessment of fluorescence lifetime sensing in multiply scattering media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuwana, Eddy

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    fluorescent dyes, 3,3-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI) and Indocynanine Green (ICG), which exhibit distinctly different lifetimes and each exhibits single-exponential decay kinetics, were employed. Measurements of phase-modulation as a function...

  10. Effective lifetimes exceeding 300 ?s in gettered p-type epitaxial kerfless silicon for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, D. M.

    We evaluate defect concentrations and investigate the lifetime potential of p-type single-crystal kerfless silicon produced via epitaxy for photovoltaics. In gettered material, low interstitial iron concentrations (as low ...

  11. Risk Management, Mar 2012 Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risk Management, Mar 2012 Risk Management Conditions of Volunteer Service (Please send completed form to the Office of Risk Management) riskmanagement@uoregon.edu Fax: 541-346-7008 As a volunteer Tort Claims Act, ORS 30.260-300, and Oregon Department of Administrative Services Risk Management

  12. A portable time-domain LED fluorimeter for nanosecond fluorescence lifetime measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongtao; Salthouse, Christopher D., E-mail: salthouse@ecs.umass.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Qi, Ying; Mountziaris, T. J. [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States) [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescence lifetime measurements are becoming increasingly important in chemical and biological research. Time-domain lifetime measurements offer fluorescence multiplexing and improved handling of interferers compared with the frequency-domain technique. In this paper, an all solid-state, filterless, and highly portable light-emitting-diode based time-domain fluorimeter (LED TDF) is reported for the measurement of nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes. LED based excitation provides more wavelengths options compared to laser diode based excitation, but the excitation is less effective due to the uncollimated beam, less optical power, and longer latency in state transition. Pulse triggering and pre-bias techniques were implemented in our LED TDF to improve the peak optical power to over 100 mW. The proposed pulsing circuit achieved an excitation light fall time of less than 2 ns. Electrical resetting technique realized a time-gated photo-detector to remove the interference of the excitation light with fluorescence. These techniques allow the LED fluorimeter to accurately measure the fluorescence lifetime of fluorescein down to concentration of 0.5 ?M. In addition, all filters required in traditional instruments are eliminated for the non-attenuated excitation/emission light power. These achievements make the reported device attractive to biochemical laboratories seeking for highly portable lifetime detection devices for developing sensors based on fluorescence lifetime changes. The device was initially validated by measuring the lifetimes of three commercial fluorophores and comparing them with reported lifetime data. It was subsequently used to characterize a ZnSe quantum dot based DNA sensor.

  13. Ratio of D/sup 0/ and D/sup +/ lifetimes from their semileptonic decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, G.J.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional expectation for the decays of D mesons assumes that the charm quark decays in the presence of light, spectator quarks and thus the lifetimes of both charged and uncharged states are equal. In this article, evidence is presented from DELCO (at SPEAR) that the D lifetimes are quite different for neutral and charged mesons, and the results which have also become available from other experiments are reviewed.

  14. Methodologies to assess potential lifetime limits for extended burnup nuclear fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vore, Curtis Vincent

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODOLOGIES TO ASSESS POTENTIAL LIFETIME LIMITS FOR EXTENDED BURNUP NUCLEAR FUEL A Thesis by CURTIS VINCENT DE VORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering METHODOLOGIES TO ASSESS POTENTIAL LIFETIME LIMITS FOR EXTENDED BURNUP NUCLEAR FUEL A Thesis by CURTIS VINCENT DE VORE Approved as to style and content by: K. L. Peddicord (Chair...

  15. Cascade Problems in Some Atomic Lifetime Measurements at a Heavy-Ion Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Hoffmann, J; Krantz, C; Wolf, A; Ishikawa, Y; Santana, J

    2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k} ground configuration levels of Al-, Si-, P-, and S-like ions of Be, Co, and Ni have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. Some of the observed decay curves show strong evidence of cascade repopulation from specific 3d levels that feature lifetimes in the same multi-millisecond range as the levels of the ground configuration.

  16. Risk Management Strategy Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Risk Management Strategy Introduction 1. The risk of adverse consequences is inherent in all activity. Dynamic enterprise will inevitably create new risks. Risk management is about ensuring that all significant relevant risks are understood and prioritised as part of normal management

  17. 18 Abstracts, 10th Nottingham International Breast Cancer Conference, 18-20 September 2007 O-56 Quality assurance issues in breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    to the outside and vice versa. This is called the exchange time. The exchange time is related to the permeability for screening women at high risk of developing breast cancer due to a genetic disposition. This results led

  18. CANCER BIOLOGY Infectioustumourcells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Martin A.

    CANCER BIOLOGY Infectioustumourcells David Dingli and Martin A. Nowak Cancer cells are generally infectious agents and be transmitted between individuals. The current view of cancer development is that normal cells are transformed into tumour cells by sequential mutations that activate cancer- promoting

  19. The National Cancer Institute,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Cancer Institute, International Cancer Information Center Bldg. 82, Rm 123 Bethesda, MD 20892 The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the Federal Government. NCI coordinates the government's cancer research program. It is the largest of the 17 biomedical research institutes and centers

  20. Robust Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Allocation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Wu, Ruomin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the maximum lifetime routing problem in wireless sensor networks in two settings: (a) when nodes’ initial energy is given and (b) when it is subject to optimization. The optimal solution and objective value provide optimal flows and the corresponding predicted lifetime, respectively. We stipulate that there is uncertainty in various network parameters (available energy and energy depletion rates). In setting (a) we show that for specific, yet typical, network topologies, the actual network lifetime will reach the predicted value with a probability that converges to zero as the number of nodes grows large. In setting (b) the samemore »result holds for all topologies. We develop a series of robust problem formulations, ranging from pessimistic to optimistic. A set of parameters enable the tuning of the conservatism of the formulation to obtain network flows with a desirably high probability that the corresponding lifetime prediction is achieved. We establish a number of properties for the robust network flows and energy allocations and provide numerical results to highlight the tradeoff between predicted lifetime and the probability achieved. Further, we analyze an interesting limiting regime of massively deployed sensor networks and essentially solve a continuous version of the problem.« less

  1. Sudden Lifetime Drop Phenomena and their Effective Cures in PF-ring and PF-AR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanimoto, Yasunori; Honda, Tohru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nogami, Takashi [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In PF-ring and PF-AR, sudden drops in the electron beam lifetime, which are attributed to dust trapping, were frequently observed after extensive renewals of the storage rings. The reduced-lifetime state sometimes lasts for a few hours, and the mitigation of this problem was strongly demanded for stable user operations. Since a major source of dust particles was thought to be a distributed ion pump (DIP), we attempted switching the DIPs off during user operations in both the rings. As a result, occurrence of the lifetime drops was almost completely suppressed during single-bunch mode in PF-ring, while the occurrence frequency was reduced by only 38% in PF-AR. We found that the lifetime drops were sometimes accompanied by a transient increase in the vacuum pressure at some discharge-prone devices. Based on the hypothesis that the harmful dust could be generated by an electric discharge in vacuum, we attempted the conditioning of these devices in PF-AR by storing 25% higher current than usual. By combination of the DIP-OFF operation and the high-current conditioning, the occurrence frequency of the lifetime drops in PF-AR was reduced by no less than 67%.

  2. Simulation free measurement of the B+ lifetime using decays selected using displaced tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malde, Sneha; /Oxford U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetime of the B{sup {+-}} meson is measured using the decay channel B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}. The measurement is made using approximately 1.0 fb{sup -1} of Tevatron proton-anti-proton collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF detector. The data were collected using impact parameter based triggers that were designed to select events with a secondary vertex. The trigger selection criteria result in data rich in a variety of B hadron decays, but intrinsically bias the lifetime distribution of the collected signal events. The traditional way to compensate for the bias is to use information from simulation. Presented here is a new method for correction of the lifetime bias using an analytical technique that uses information from the data only. This eliminates measurement uncertainty due to data and simulation agreement, ultimately resulting in a smaller systematic measurement uncertainty. The B{sup {+-}} lifetime measurement is the first measurement using this new technique and demonstrates its potential for use in future measurements. The B{sup {+-}} lifetime is measured to be {tau}(B{sup {+-}}) = 1.662 {+-} 0.023(stat) {+-} 0.015(syst)ps.

  3. Metastable lifetimes from electron-shelving measurements with ion clouds and single ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knoop, M; Hagel, G; Houssin, M; Lisowski, C; Vedel, M; Vedel, F; Knoop, Martina; Champenois, Caroline; Hagel, Ga\\"etan; Houssin, Marie; Lisowski, Caroline; Vedel, Michel; Vedel, Fernande

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetime of the 3d^2D_{5/2}-level in singly-ionized calcium has been measured by the electron-shelving technique on different samples of rf trapped ions. The metastable state has been directly populated by exciting the dipole-forbidden 4S_{1/2} - 3D_{5/2} transition. In ion clouds, the natural lifetime of this metastable level has been measured to be (1095+-26) ms. For a single ion, we determined a lifetime of (1152+-17) ms. The 1sigma-error bars at the 2%-level have different origins for the two kinds of experiments: data fitting methods for lifetime measurements in an ion cloud and control of experimental parameters for a single ion. De-shelving effects are extensively discussed. The influence of differing approaches for the processing of the single-ion quantum jump data on the lifetime values is shown. Comparison with recent measurements shows excellent agreement when evaluated from a given method.

  4. Dispersion in the lifetime and accretion rate of T Tauri discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip J. Armitage; Cathie J. Clarke; Francesco Palla

    2003-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare evolutionary models for protoplanetary discs that include disc winds with observational determinations of the disc lifetime and accretion rate in Taurus. Using updated estimates for stellar ages in Taurus, together with published classifications, we show that the evolution of the disc fraction with stellar age is similar to that derived for ensembles of stars within young clusters. Around 30 percent of stars lose their discs within 1 Myr, while the remainder have disc lifetimes that are typically in the 1-10 Myr range. We show that the latter range of ages is consistent with theoretical models for disc evolution, provided that there is a dispersion of around 0.5 in the log of the initial disc mass. The same range of initial conditions brackets the observed variation in the accretion rate of Classical T Tauri stars at a given age. We discuss the expected lifetime of discs in close binary systems, and show that our models predict that the disc lifetime is almost constant for separations exceeding 10 au. This implies a low predicted fraction of binaries that pair a Classical T Tauri star with a Weak-lined T Tauri star, and is in better agreement with observations of the disc lifetime in binaries than disc models that do not include disc mass loss in a wind.

  5. BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PL LDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PL LDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A R RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDIN T PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEM

  6. Enterprise Risk Management Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Framework The Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) framework includes four steps: identify the risks, determine the probability and impact of each one, identify controls that are...

  7. CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, S. Murray

    CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER PROGRESS REPORT 2014 TRA NSFO RMING LIVES THRO UG H RE SE ARC H #12;CancerProgressReport.org // AACR.org // #CancerProgress14 AACR CANCER PROGRESS REPORT 2014 TRANSFORMING LIVES THROUGH RESEARCH #12;II AACR Cancer Progress Report 2014

  8. Precision lifetime measurements of a single trapped ion with ultrafast laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Moehring; B. B. Blinov; D. W. Gidley; R. N. Kohn Jr.; M. J. Madsen; T. D. Sanderson; R. S. Vallery; C. Monroe

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report precision measurements of the excited state lifetime of the $5p$ $^2P_{1/2}$ and $5p$ $^2P_{3/2}$ levels of a single trapped Cd$^+$ ion. The ion is excited with picosecond laser pulses from a mode-locked laser and the distribution of arrival times of spontaneously emitted photons is recorded. The resulting lifetimes are 3.148 $\\pm$ 0.011 ns and 2.647 $\\pm$ 0.010 ns for $^2P_{1/2}$ and $^2P_{3/2}$ respectively. With a total uncertainty of under 0.4%, these are among the most precise measurements of any atomic state lifetimes to date.

  9. Dependence of nuclear spin singlet lifetimes on RF spin-locking power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. DeVience; Ronald L. Walsworth; Matthew S. Rosen

    2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the lifetime of long-lived nuclear spin singlet states as a function of the strength of the RF spin-locking field and present a simple theoretical model that agrees well with our measurements, including the low-RF-power regime. We also measure the lifetime of a long-lived coherence between singlet and triplet states that does not require a spin-locking field for preservation. Our results indicate that for many molecules, singlet states can be created using weak RF spin-locking fields: more than two orders of magnitude lower RF power than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that in many biomolecules, singlets and related states with enhanced lifetimes might be achievable in vivo with safe levels of RF power.

  10. Phonon lifetime in SiSn and its suitability for hot-carrier solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levard, Hugo; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-François [Institute for Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), UMR 7174, EDF R and D/CNRS/Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a phononic and electronic study of SiSn in the zinc-blende phase. A detailed description of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon decay in a three-phonon process is presented together with the corresponding lifetime. The necessity to go beyond the zone center phonon approximation in this case is highlighted as it reveals a steep dependence of the lifetime on the initial phonon wavenumber, which differs from usual semiconductors. The electronic band structure is calculated within the GW formalism and shows a small direct band gap. It is shown that the LO-phonon resulting from electron cooling has a lifetime four to eight orders of magnitude above all the known value in semiconductors for this process. We finally show the suitability of SiSn for hot-carrier solar cells, as it is endowed with ultra-slow cooling of hot carriers.

  11. Photosystem II fluorescence lifetime imaging in avocado leaves: Contributions of the lutein-epoxide and violaxanthin cycles to fluorescence quenching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    Photosystem II fluorescence lifetime imaging in avocado leaves: Contributions of the lutein a fluorescence were made on leaves of avocado plants to study whether rapidly reversible Dp

  12. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Graziano, Joe [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  13. The Effective Lifetime of ACSR Full Tension Splice Connector Operated at Higher Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL] [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; Graziano, Joe [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Goodwin, Tip [PBS& J] [PBS& J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is to address the issues related to integrity of ACSR full tension splice connectors operated at high temperatures. A protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature was developed. Based on the developed protocol the effective lifetime evaluation was demonstrated with ACSR Drake conductor SSC systems. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  14. Assessing node risk and vulnerability in epidemics on networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Tim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Which nodes are most vulnerable to an epidemic spreading through a network, and which carry the highest risk of causing a major outbreak if they are the source of the infection? Here we show how these questions can be answered to good approximation using the cavity method. Several curious properties of node vulnerability and risk are explored: some nodes are more vulnerable than others to weaker infections, yet less vulnerable to stronger ones; a node is always more likely to be caught in an outbreak than it is to start one, except when the disease has a deterministic lifetime; the rank order of node risk depends on the details of the distribution of infectious periods.

  15. The Protective Effects of Estradiol on Sporadic and Inflammation-associated Colon Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Cameron Michelle

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Epidemiological studies suggest pre-menopausal women have a reduced risk for sporadic and inflammation-associated colon cancer compared to post-menopausal women and men. The studies presented herein aim to determine the protective mechanisms...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome, Vitamin D Status, and the Incidence of Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rorabaugh, Joseph Randall

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Background: Epidemiologic data on the role of metabolic syndrome on prostate cancer risk is inconsistent, and only one case-control trial has examined the combined relationship of metabolic syndrome and vitamin D deficiency. Objective...

  17. Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Todd

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors.1 To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we ...

  18. RADTRAN3. Radioactive Material Transport Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, M.M.; Taylor, J.M.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Reardon, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RADTRAN3 is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, ingestion, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN3 can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  19. Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Global Climate & Catastrophic Risk Forum 2012 A Joint Program with LA RIMS Education Day Rethinking Catastrophic Risk in Risk Management: Earthquake-Related Challenges Featuring: Keynote Speaker Dr. Frank Beuthin, Willis Group Holdings Plc. Yohei Miyamoto, Aon Risk Solutions Curtis deVera, Marsh

  20. Paul Workman Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Workman Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden Hospital Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG UK ian.collins@icr.ac.uk Drugging the cancer genome: The challenges therapeutic agents Personalised diagnosis and treatment Exploiting cancer biology and the cancer genome

  1. Markets with random lifetimes and private values: mean-reversion and option to trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvitanic, Jaksa

    Markets with random lifetimes and private values: mean-reversion and option to trade Jaksa Cvitani values for the single traded asset. A trader's optimal trading decision is formulated in terms of exercising the option to trade one unit of the asset at the optimal stopping time. We solve the optimal

  2. Paul Sellin, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Mobility and lifetime mapping in wide bandgap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellin, Paul

    Paul Sellin, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Mobility and lifetime mapping in wide bandgap1. Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Department of Physics University of Surrey www, Hungary. #12;Paul Sellin, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics Introduction r Development of compound

  3. Kinetics of the photoreactions of some organic free radicals and lifetimes of electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oginets, V.Ya.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetimes of electronically excited states of the antraquinone radical anion and of the stable 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (DPPA) radical during their photoreactions with organic solvents have been evaluated by analyzing kinetic curves. The results obtained suggest that the anthraquinone radical anion undergoes a photoreaction in a quartet state, while DPPA does so in one of the higher doublet states.

  4. Electron attachment to SF6 and lifetimes of SF6 negative ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gribakin, Gleb

    Electron attachment to SF6 and lifetimes of SF6 - negative ions L. G. Gerchikov1,* and G. F capture by the SF6 molecule. Our approach is based on the model of Gauyacq and Herzenberg J. P. Gauyacq provides a limit on the characteristic time of intramolecular vibrational relaxation in highly excited SF6

  5. Environmental effects on fatigue and lifetime predictions for silica optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Environmental effects on fatigue and lifetime predictions for silica optical fibers M. John optical fiber on the environmental parameters temperature, humidity and pH. It is shown that the stress used by the fiber optics industry provides a good fit to fatigue data for high strength fiber

  6. TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME A thesis submitted Masters of Science In Engineering: Embedded System by Bin Wu San Francisco, California May, 2012 #12;CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read Time dependent Breakdown of Gate Oxide and Prediction

  7. Lifetimes of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules in vibrational ground and excited state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Björn Butscher; Vera Bendkowsky; Johannes Nipper; Jonathan B. Balewski; Ludmila Kukota; Robert Löw; Tilman Pfau; Weibin Li; Thomas Pohl; Jan Michael Rost

    2011-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Since their first experimental observation, ultralong-range Rydberg molecules consisting of a highly excited Rydberg atom and a ground state atom have attracted the interest in the field of ultracold chemistry. Especially the intriguing properties like size, polarizability and type of binding they inherit from the Rydberg atom are of interest. An open question in the field is the reduced lifetime of the molecules compared to the corresponding atomic Rydberg states. In this letter we present an experimental study on the lifetimes of the ^3\\Sigma (5s-35s) molecule in its vibrational ground state and in an excited state. We show that the lifetimes depends on the density of ground state atoms and that this can be described in the frame of a classical scattering between the molecules and ground state atoms. We also find that the excited molecular state has an even more reduced lifetime compared to the ground state which can be attributed to an inward penetration of the bound atomic pair due to imperfect quantum reflection that takes place in the special shape of the molecular potential.

  8. A Hybrid Solid-State Storage Architecture for the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Lifetime Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    A Hybrid Solid-State Storage Architecture for the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Lifetime-place updating so that it significantly im- proves the usage efficiency of log pages by eliminating out- of results show that our proposed methods can substantially improve the perfor- mance, energy consumption

  9. Extending the Lifetime of Media Recorders Constrained by Battery and Flash Memory Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    balancing the energy consumption and the flash memory usage. The proposed method can be effectively employed recorders that signifi- cantly enhances their lifetime while minimizing the flash memory usage.3 [Microcomputers]: Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants) General Terms Design, Performance

  10. Lifetime of the Bose Gas with Resonant Interactions B. S. Rem,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lifetime of the Bose Gas with Resonant Interactions B. S. Rem,1 A. T. Grier,1 I. Ferrier-Barbut,1 U at and around unitarity using a Feshbach resonance in lithium 7. At unitarity, we measure the temperature length a describing two-body interactions becomes infinite. It has been demonstrated both experimentally

  11. Alternative Size and Lifetime Measurements for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott Pratt; Silvio Petriconi

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-Particle correlations based on the interference of identical particles has provided the chief means for determining the shape and lifetime of sources in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, Strong and Coulomb induced correlations are shown to provide equivalent information.

  12. Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology Michael L) In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground contributor to climate change (1). One promising technology to mitigate CO2 emissions is carbon cap- ture

  13. Life-Add: Lifetime Adjustable Design for WiFi Networks with Heterogeneous Energy Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Prasun

    Life-Add: Lifetime Adjustable Design for WiFi Networks with Heterogeneous Energy Supplies Shengbo Chen§, Tarun Bansal§, Yin Sun§, Prasun Sinha and Ness B. Shroff Department of ECE, The Ohio State University Department of CSE, The Ohio State University Email: {chens,shroff}@ece.osu.edu, {bansal,prasun}@cse.ohio

  14. Lifetime Behavior and its Impact on Web Caching Xiangping Chen and Prasant Mohapatra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohapatra, Prasant

    Lifetime Behavior and its Impact on Web Caching Xiangping Chen and Prasant Mohapatra Department@iastate.edu Abstract The exponential growth of the World Wide Web has made it the most popular information on the web to al­ leviate the web server load, conserve the network band­ width, and reduce the retrieval

  15. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  16. MODELING OF DAMAGE AND LIFETIME ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING COMPONENTS DURING PLASMA INSTABILITIES IN TOKAMAKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    MODELING OF DAMAGE AND LIFETIME ANALYSIS OF PLASMA FACING COMPONENTS DURING PLASMA INSTABILITIES of the damage will essentially depend on the intensity and duration of energy deposited on PFC. Both bulk and surface damages can take place depending on these parameters. For this reason different deposition times

  17. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingyan

    Analysis of Energy Consumption and Lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Enrique J-- The paper examines the performance as well as energy con- sumption issues of a wireless sensor network to be deployed in large quantities to form wireless sensor networks for a wide variety of purposes, e.g., im- age

  18. Prolonging Network Lifetime Through the Use of Mobile Base Station in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    , and transmitting ca- pabilities, that are powered by small batteries. Therefore energy efficiency in the design University Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia oday.jerew@anu.edu.au Weifa Liang Department of Computer Science, Australia wliang@cs.anu.edu.au ABSTRACT Prolonging network lifetime is one of the most important design

  19. An Interactive Context-aware Power Management Technique for Optimizing Sensor Network Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    An Interactive Context-aware Power Management Technique for Optimizing Sensor Network Lifetime an important event with desired fidelity). To that end, in this paper we propose a novel interactive power sensor data and system specifications (battery and solar panel specs, sensing and communication costs

  20. A METHODOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF THE RESIDUAL LIFETIMES OF CARBON FIBRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    on composite materials, France (2005)" #12;carbon fibre composites are considered by these authors as beingA METHODOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF THE RESIDUAL LIFETIMES OF CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE of their loading history with precision. KEYWORDS: pressure vessels, carbon fibre composites, life time prediction

  1. Photoconductive Decay Lifetime and Suns-Voc Diagnostics of Efficient Heterojunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, M. R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Xu, Y.; Roybal L.; Bauer, R.; Yan, H.-C.; Wang, Q.; Meier, D. L.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report results of minority carrier lifetime measurements for double-sided p-type Si heterojunction devices and compare Suns-Voc results to Light I-V measurements on 1 cm2 solar cell devices measured on an AM1.5 calibrated XT-10 solar simulator.

  2. Measurement of the ?(0)(b) lifetime in pp collisions at s?=7 TeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny, R. P. III; Murray, Michael J.; Noonan, Danny; Sanders, Stephen J.; Stringer, Robert W.; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement of the ?(0)(b) lifetime using the decay ?(0)(b)?J/?? in protonproton collisions at s?=7 TeV is presented. The data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 5 fb(?1), was recorded with the CMS ...

  3. LIFETIME OF THE EXCITED STATE IN VIVO I. CHLOROPHYLL a IN ALGAE, AT ROOM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    LIFETIME OF THE EXCITED STATE IN VIVO I. CHLOROPHYLL a IN ALGAE, AT ROOM AND AT LIQUID NITROGEN decay of chloro- phyll (Chl) a in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the red alga Porphyridium cruentum, and the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans was measured by the phase- shift method under

  4. Precision lifetime measurements of exotic nuclei based on Doppler-shift techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwasaki, Hironori [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent progress in precision lifetime measurements of exotic nuclei at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University is presented. The Recoil Distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) technique has been applied to nuclear reactions involving intermediate-energy rare isotope (RI) beams, to determine absolute transition strengths between nuclear states model independently from level lifetimes of interest. As such an example, recent lifetime measurements of the first 2{sup +} states in the neutron-rich {sup 62,64,66}Fe isotopes at and around N=40 are introduced. The experiment was performed at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL using a unique combination of several experimental instruments; the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA), the plunger device, and the S800 spectrograph. The reduced E2 transition probabilities B(E2) are determined directly from the measured lifetimes. The observed trend of B(E2) clearly demonstrates that an enhanced collectivity persists in {sup 66}Fe despite the harmonic-oscillator magic number N=40. The present results are also discussed in comparison with the large-scale shell model calculations, pointing to a possible extension of the deformation region beyond N=40.

  5. Extending the Lifetime of Portable Video Communication Devices Using Power-Rate-Distortion Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Zhihai "Henry"

    -Rate-Distortion Optimization Zhihai He, Wenye Cheng, and Xi Chen £ Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University framework to save the data processing energy and extend the operational lifetime of portable video communication devices. Video compression is computationally intensive and energy-consuming. However, portable

  6. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  7. A LIFETIME PREDICTION MODEL FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL SUPERALLOYS SUBJECTED TO THERMOMECHANICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    materials tensile, creep and LCF test data at different temperatures. Some parameters, independentA LIFETIME PREDICTION MODEL FOR SINGLE CRYSTAL SUPERALLOYS SUBJECTED TO THERMOMECHANICAL CREEP for Single Crystal Superalloys operated at high temperatures and subjected to creep, fatigue and oxidation

  8. Final Report DOE Grant# DE-FG02-98ER62592: Second Cancers, Tumor p53, and Archaea Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel M. Lesko, MD, MPH

    2006-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute conducted cancer surveillance in Northeast Pennsylvania using data from the instituteâ??s population-based regional cancer registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. The results of this surveillance have been used to set priorities for research and outreach activities at the Cancer Institute and selected results have been reported to medical professionals at member hospitals and in the community. One consistent observation of this surveillance was that colorectal cancer was unusually common in Northeast Pennsylvania; incidence was approximately 25% higher than the rate published for NCIâ??s Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. In addition, death rates form colorectal cancer in several counties in this region were above the 90Th percentile for colorectal cancer mortality in the United States. As a result of these observations, several activities have been developed to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and the value of screening for this cancer in both the lay and medical communities. Funding from this grant also provided support for a population-based study of cancer risk factors, screening practices, and related behaviors. This project continues beyond the termination of the present grant with funding from other sources. This project gathers data from a representative sample of adults residing in a six county area of Northeast Pennsylvania. Analyses conducted to date of the established risk factors for colorectal cancer have not revealed an explanation for the high incidence of this cancer in this population.

  9. Extending the Lifetime of Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Systems* Jianli Zhuo1, Chaitali Chakrabartil, Naehyuck Chang2, Sarma Vrudhula3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    34.1 Extending the Lifetime of Fuel Cell Based Hybrid Systems* Jianli Zhuo1, Chaitali Chakrabartil@asu.edu ABSTRACT for portable applications. Fuel cells have very high energy densities Fuel cells are clean power densities and lifetimes compared to batteries. However, fuel cells

  10. Lifetime of high-k gate dielectrics and analogy with strength of quasibrittle Jia-Liang Le,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    , Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA 2 Department of Materials Science to breakdown i.e., the integral of the tunneling current over the lifetime .2,4 Re- cently, histogram testingLifetime of high-k gate dielectrics and analogy with strength of quasibrittle structures Jia

  11. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ?60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  12. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martineau, Rebecca M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, one in eight women will be affected by breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed - as well as the second most fatal - cancer in American women. It is estimated that there will be nearly 200,000 diagnoses of breast cancer this year; more than 40,000 of these will be fatal. Although advances in medical technologies have greatly increased the odds of surviving the disease, the increase in screenings has not resulted in a significant reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate. Moreover, recent studies have even suggested that an increase in these methods might, in itself, cause cancer. A new tool for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, supported by an award from the Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs of Department of Defense, could give women a new advantage in the fight against breast cancer. This LANL-led project will integrate ultrasound tomography (UST) with recent discoveries in the field of cell and tissue biomechanics to improve breast cancer detection and characterization. UST uses ultrasound waves instead of X-rays to identify and characterize breast tumors. This technology reveals small mechanical-property changes within the breast. These changes are often the earliest signs of breast cancer. Additionally, UST is effective for women with dense breast tissue, who have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Because the technology does not use radiation, UST can also be used as frequently as needed for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer. In contrast, mammography, the only routine breast-cancer screening tool currently available, is not effective for women with dense breast tissue and may come with unwanted side-effects caused by ionizing radiation. UST has great potential to become an alternative breast-cancer screening tool because of UST's advantages and benefits over mammography. Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to surrounding tissues. Thus, high-resolution breast images obtained using LANL's novel UST algorithms ha

  13. Cancer Research Beckman Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Cancer Research Beckman Institute FOR ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY #12;T The medical and scientific worlds have known for many years that in order to truly understand and treat cancer, the fight has and cancerous tumors have to first be visualized at the smallest scales possible, and then treated in the most

  14. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Types of Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Types of risk associated with range ecosystems include climatic, biological, financial and political risks. These risks are explained so that managers can know how to handle them....

  15. Risk Dynamics?An Analysis for the Risk of Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Tailin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bookstaber, R. (1999). "Risk Management in ComplexG. E. (2004). "How Useful Is Quantitative Risk Assessment?"Risk Analysis, Aubrey, A. (2010). "Preventing Diabetes:

  16. Analysis of Assembly Bill 1000: Cancer Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of recurrent cancers, and treatment of cancers that cannotNeill VJ, Twelves CJ. Oral cancer treatment: Developments inchanging paradigm in cancer treatment: Oral chemotherapy.

  17. Analysis of Senate Bill 961: Cancer Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of recurrent cancers, and treatment of cancers that cannotNeill VJ, Twelves CJ. Oral cancer treatment: Developments inchanging paradigm in cancer treatment: Oral chemotherapy.

  18. Risk Perception and Willingness to Pay for Removing Arsenic in Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sihong

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , THMs, radon as Ill as PCBs, are similar. First, they can cause many diseases (the effects on the probability of mortality and morbidity are confounded) and the latency of diseases is long (this suggests a discount rate should be elicited). Second... of uncer- tainty in risk assessment. They got the results based on a multiplicative model for cancer risk from ingestion of radon in drinking water, where the risk R was the product of n risk 16 factors. These risk factors were assumed to follow a...

  19. Finance and Risk & ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aronov, Boris

    Finance and Risk & ENGINEERING Charles S. Tapiero Department Head and Morton and Angela Topfer · Corporate Finance and Financial Markets · Computational Finance · Risk Finance · Technology and Algorithmic Finance A Collective Leadership Students participation #12;RESEARCH STRENGTHS · Black Swans and Fragility

  20. Lymphatic and Angiogenic Candidate Genes Predict the Development of Secondary Lymphedema following Breast Cancer Surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    following breast cancer treatment. Cancer Epidemiollymphedema after breast cancer treatment. Cancer Epidemiolfollowing breast cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res 18: 232–

  1. Sandia Energy - Security Risk Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Risk Assessment Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Security Risk Assessment Security Risk Assessmentcwdd2015-05-04T21:...

  2. Subjective Risk, Confidence, and Ambiguity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traeger, Christian P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper 1103) Subjective Risk, Confidence, and Ambiguityby author(s). Subjective Risk, Con?dence, and Ambiguity ?567. Ellsberg, D. (1961), ‘Risk, ambiguity and the savage

  3. Essays in time and risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprenger, Charles

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.4.1 Risk Attitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3.1 Additional Risk Preference Measures . . . . . . . .An Endowment Effect for Risk: Experimental Tests of

  4. Learning and risk aversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyarzun, Carlos

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation contains three essays on learning and risk aversion. In the first essay we consider how learning may lead to risk averse behavior. A learning rule is said to be risk averse if it is expected to add more probability to an action...

  5. Livestock Risk Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Bill; Bennett, Blake; Jones, Diana

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    risk insurance with an ending date of coverage that meets their risk management objectives. Feeder cattle producers may want the end date of coverage to match the William Thompson, Blake Bennett and DeDe Jones* Figure 1: Livestock Risk Protection...

  6. Recombination Lifetime of InxGa1-xAs Alloys Used in Thermophotovoltaic Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Ellingson, R.; Johnston, S.; Webb, J.; Carapella, J.; Wanlass, M.

    1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The family of ternary compounds of composition InxGa1-xAs are of considerable interest for thermophotovoltaic energy converters. The recombination lifetimes of the various compositions are critical to the successful application of these materials as efficient converters. Here we will describe experimental results on the composition. In0.53Ga0.47 that is lattice-matched to InP. We will also describe lifetime results on the compositions In0.68Ga0.32As, with bandgap of 0.60 eV to compositions In0.78Ga0.22As with a bandgap of 0.50 eV. Double heterostructure confinement devices have been made over a range of both n- and p-type doping. These results are preliminary, but the goal is to obtain the radiative and Auger recombination coefficients for the alloys in this composition range.

  7. Apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO); Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearity for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  8. Gamma-ray induced Doppler broadening and the determination of lifetimes of excited nuclear states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, H.G.; Jolie, J.; Robinson, S.J. (Institut Laue-Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Kessler, E.G.; Dewey, S.M.; Greene, G.; Deslattes, R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Ulbig, S.; Lieb, K.P. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Casten, R.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Krusche, B. (Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Cizewski, J.A. (Rutgers--the

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of lifetimes of excited states in nuclei yield crucial information for sensitive tests of nuclear models. Here a novel method will be discussed which involves the GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) technique, in which Doppler broadening is observed in a transition from a nucleus recoiling from the emission of a previous gamma ray. As the recoil energy is extremely small, ultra-high energy resolving power has to be used. To date all such experiments have been carried out at ILL using the GAMS4 double flat crystal spectrometer which is operated in a NIST-ILL collaboration. The method can be used for all lifetimes below a few picoseconds. The wide range of applicability, together with the very exhaustive set of data often obtained, is an advantage with respect to many other methods. The characteristic features of GRID will be discussed using some selected examples. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  10. Measurement of the Lifetime of the B(±)(c) Meson in the Semileptonic Decay Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ; published 2 March 2009) Using approximately 1:3 fb#2;1 of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, we measure the lifetime of the B#1;c meson in the B#1;c ! J=c#1;#1; þ X final state. A simultaneous unbinned likelihood fit to the J=c þ#1... weakly-decaying b hadrons. Examples of final states where the c quark acts as a spectator while the b quark decays weakly are B#1;c ! J=c#3;#1;, B#1;c ! J=cD#1;s , and B#1;c ! J=c ‘#1;#4;. In this Letter we present a measurement of the lifetime of the B#1...

  11. Carrier-lifetime-controlled selective etching process for semiconductors using photochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minority carrier lifetime is significantly much shorter in semiconductor materials with very high impurity concentrations than it is in semiconductor materials with lower impurity concentration levels. This phenomenon of reduced minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor materials having high impurity concentration is utilized to advantage for permitting highly selective semiconductor material etching to be achieved using a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. Various means may be employed for increasing the local impurity concentration level in specific near-surface regions of a semiconductor prior to subjecting the semiconductor material to a carrier-driven photochemical etching reaction. The regions having the localized increased impurity concentration form a self-aligned mask inhibiting photochemical etching at such localized regions while the adjacent regions not having increased impurity concentrations are selectively photochemically etched. Liquid- or gas-phase etching may be performed.

  12. Theory of SEI Formation in Rechargeable Batteries: Capacity Fade, Accelerated Aging and Lifetime Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinson, Matthew B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mechanism, we show that a simple single-particle model can accurately explain experimentally observed capacity fade in commercial cells with graphite anodes, and predict future fade based on limited accelerated aging data for short times and elevated temperatures. The theory is extended to porous electrodes, predicting that SEI growth is essentially homogeneous throughout the electrode, even at high rates. The lifetime distribution for a sample of batteries is found to be consistent with Gaussian statistics, as predicted by th...

  13. An experimental study of spatial effects on mean neutron lifetime measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooke, William Bruce

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE May, 1966 Major Subject Nuclear Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPATIAL EFFECTS ON MEAN NEUTRON LIFETIME MEASUREMENT A Thesis By William Bruce Hooks Approved as to style and content by: airman o ommx tee ea o epar men e er e er e er... Showing Pertinent Dimensions Transfer Function Magnitude versus Oscillator Frequency 20 Transfer Function Phase versus Oscillator 21 Frequency CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A particularly useful way of describing the kinetic behavior of a nuclear reactor...

  14. S and 4 Reactor: Operating Lifetime and Estimates of Temperature and Burnup Reactivity Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The S and 4 reactor has a sectored, Mo-14%Re solid core for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The reactor is loaded with UN fuel, cooled with a He-Xe gas mixture at {approx}1200 K and operates at steady thermal power of 550 kW. Following a launch abort accident, the axial and radial BeO reflectors easily disassemble upon impact so that the bare reactor is subcriticial when submerged in wet sand or seawater and the core voids are filled with seawater. Spectral Shift Absorber (SSA) additives have been shown to increase the UN fuel enrichment and significantly reduce the total mass of the reactor. This paper investigates the effects of SSA additions on the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients and the operational lifetime of the S and 4 reactor. SSAs slightly decrease the temperature reactivity feedback coefficient, but significantly increase the operating lifetime by decreasing the burnup reactivity coefficient. With no SSAs, fuel enrichment is only 58.5 wt% and the estimated operating lifetime is the shortest (7.6 years) with the highest temperature and burnup reactivity feedback coefficients (-0.2709 cent /K and -1.3470 $/atom%). With europium-151 and gadolinium-155 additions, the enrichment (91.5 and 94 wt%) and operating lifetime (9.9 and 9.8 years) of the S and 4 reactor are the highest while the temperature and burnup reactivity coefficients (-0.2382 and -0.2447 cent /K; -0.9073 and 0.8502 $/atom%) are the lowest.

  15. Spontaneous fission modes and lifetimes of super-heavy elements in the nuclear density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Staszczak; A. Baran; W. Nazarewicz

    2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of super-heavy (SH) nuclei are primarily governed by alpha decay and spontaneous fission (SF). Here we study the competing decay modes of even-even SH isotopes with 108 cold fusion" and "hot fusion" reactions. The region of long-lived SH nuclei is expected to be centered on $^{294}$Ds with a total half-life of ?1.5 days.

  16. Comparison of Accelerated Testing with Modeling to Predict Lifetime of CPV Solder Layers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell assemblies can fail due to thermomechanical fatigue in the die-attach layer. In this presentation, we show the latest results from our computational model of thermomechanical fatigue. The model is used to estimate the relative lifetime of cell assemblies exposed to various temperature histories consistent with service and with accelerated testing. We also present early results from thermal cycling experiments designed to help validate the computational model.

  17. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  18. Risk & QualityRisk & Quality ManagementManagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    liability."" [Balsaono RR, Brown[Balsaono RR, Brown MK, Risk ManagementMK, Risk Management inin Legal

  19. Measurement of the B-cmeson lifetime in the decay B-c?J/???

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Dell’Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; Devoto, F.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, M.; Dorigo, T.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Eppig, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Funakoshi, Y.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamaguchi, A.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Hocker, A.; Hopkins, W.; Horn, D.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussain, N.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Klimenko, S.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lin, C.-J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Martínez, M.; Mastrandrea, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagan Griso, S.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Pranko, A.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Rahaman, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Riddick, T.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetime of the B-c meson is measured using 272 exclusive B-c?J/?(?????)?? decays reconstructed in data from proton-antiproton collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 fb?¹ recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The lifetime of the B-cmeson is measured to be ?(B-c)=0.452±0.048(stat)±0.027(syst) ps. This is the first measurement of the B-c meson lifetime in a fully reconstructed hadronic channel, and it agrees with previous results and has comparable precision.

  20. Stress-temperature-lifetime response of nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC composites in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Hua-Tay; Becher, P.F.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-to-failure tests were conducted in four-point flexure and in air as a function of stress levels and temperatures to study the lifetime response of various Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC (designated as Nic/SiC) composites with a graphitic interfacial coating. The results indicated that all of the Nic/SiC composites exhibit a similar stress-dependent failure at applied stress greater than a threshold value. In this case, the lifetimes of the composites increased with decrease in both stress level and test temperature. The lifetime of the composites appeared to be relatively insensitive to the thickness of graphitic interface layer and was enhanced somewhat by the addition of oxidation inhibitors. Electron microscopy and oxidation studies indicated that the life of the Nic/SiC composites was governed by the oxidation of the graphitic interfaces and the on of glass(es) in composites due to the oxidation of the fiber and matrix, inhibitor phases.

  1. Effects of impurity atoms and molecules on the lifetime of antiprotonic helium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widmann, E; Yamazaki, T; Hayano, R S; Iwasaki, M; Nakamura, S N; Tamura, H; Ito, T M; Kawachi, A; Nishida, N; Higemoto, M; Ito, Y; Morita, N; Hartmann, F J; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Schmid, W; Hoffmann, J; Eades, John

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotons (DATS) in room temperature helium gas have been studied as a function of the concentration of admixed noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) as well as molecular gases (N_2,O_2,H_2) at the low energy antiproton ring (LEAR) at CERN. The DATS were a superposition of two exponential components, one with lifetime of several 100 ns and the other with lifetime 1 to 3 \\mus. They showed a shorter average lifetime (T_{av}) than DATS of pure helium. Ne, Ar, and Kr were found to affect T_{av} only slightly even in concentrations up to 20\\%, while Xe showed a much stronger influence. In the case of molecular gases the presence of N_2 influenced the DATS much less than O_2 and H_2 which destroyed the metastability almost completely in concentrations of 100 ppm and less. The decay rate of the slow component of DATS was found to exhibit a linear relation to the number density of the admixture. From this a collisional destruction (``quenching'') cross section \\sigma_q was extracted. No ...

  2. Measurement of the B ? lifetime using a simulation free approach for trigger bias correction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; d’Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; De Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; De Lorenzo, G.; Dell’Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; d’Errico, M.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D’Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Huffman, B. T.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; LeCompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collection of a large number of B-hadron decays to hadronic final states at the CDF II Detector is possible due to the presence of a trigger that selects events based on track impact parameters. However, the nature of the selection requirements of the trigger introduces a large bias in the observed proper-decay-time distribution. A lifetime measurement must correct for this bias, and the conventional approach has been to use a Monte Carlo simulation. The leading sources of systematic uncertainty in the conventional approach are due to differences between the data and the Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper, we present an analytic method for bias correction without using simulation, thereby removing any uncertainty due to the differences between data and simulation. This method is presented in the form of a measurement of the lifetime of the B? using the mode B??D???. The B? lifetime is measured as ?B?=1.663±0.023±0.015 ps, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This new method results in a smaller systematic uncertainty in comparison to methods that use simulation to correct for the trigger bias.

  3. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li{sup +} ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of {approx}1275 deg. C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of {approx}40 h at {approx}1275 deg. C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of {approx}6 {mu}s each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  4. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li{sup +} ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenway, W. G.; Kwan, J. W.

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of ?1275{degrees}C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J ? 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A source with an alumino-silicate coating 6.35 mm in diameter and ?0.25 mm thick, has a lifetime of ?40 hours at ?1275{degrees}C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of ?6 ?s each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. Furthermore, the source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  5. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  6. Measurement of the $B^-$ lifetime using a simulation free approach for trigger bias correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collection of a large number of B hadron decays to hadronic final states at the CDF II detector is possible due to the presence of a trigger that selects events based on track impact parameters. However, the nature of the selection requirements of the trigger introduces a large bias in the observed proper decay time distribution. A lifetime measurement must correct for this bias and the conventional approach has been to use a Monte Carlo simulation. The leading sources of systematic uncertainty in the conventional approach are due to differences between the data and the Monte Carlo simulation. In this paper they present an analytic method for bias correction without using simulation, thereby removing any uncertainty between data and simulation. This method is presented in the form of a measurement of the lifetime of the B{sup -} using the mode B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}. The B{sup -} lifetime is measured as {tau}{sub B{sup -}} = 1.663 {+-} 0.023 {+-} 0.015 ps, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This new method results in a smaller systematic uncertainty in comparison to methods that use simulation to correct for the trigger bias.

  7. Constraining the Lifetime of QSOs with Present-day Mass Function of Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Hosokawa

    2002-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the theoretical models of the QSO formation, we can reproduce optical QSO luminosity functions (LFs) at high redshifts (z > 2.2). Two different models can reproduce LFs successfully, though the lifetime of QSOs, t_Q, and the relation between the black hole mass and the host halo mass are different each other; t_Q = 10^6yr, in one model, t_Q > 10^7yr, in other models. Here, we propose a method to break this degeneracy. We calculate the mass function of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z=2.5, and compare the result with the current mass function obtained by Salucci et al.(1999). In the shorter lifetime model, the mass function at z=2.5 exceeds that of z=0.0 by one order of magnitude, then it should be ruled out. We conclude that the lifetime is at least t_Q > 10^7yr. Next, we examine the difference of the formation epoch of SMBHs existing at z=3.0 for each model under the model assumptions. We simply discuss the difference of formation epoch as another possible model-discriminator.

  8. Measurement of D0 lifetime with the BaBar detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simi, Gabriele; /Pisa U. /SLAC

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is the result of the researchers carried out during a three years Ph.D. period in the BABAR experiment. The first chapter consists in an introduction to the theoretical aspects of the D{sup 0} meson lifetime determination and CP violation parameters, as well as an overview of the CP violation in the B sector, which is the main topic of the experiment. The description of the experimental apparatus follows with particular attention to the Silicon Vertex Tracker detector, the most critical detector for the determination of decay vertices and thus of lifetimes and time dependent CP violation asymmetries. In the fourth chapter the operation and running of the vertex detector is described, as a result from the experience as Operation Manager of the SVT, with particular attention to the safety of the device and the data quality assurance. The last chapter is dedicated to the determination of the D{sup 0} meson lifetime with the BABAR detector, which is the main data analysis carried out by the candidate. The analysis is characterized by the selection of an extremely pure sample of D{sup 0} mesons for which the decay flight length and proper time is reconstructed. The description of the unbinned maximum likelihood fit follows, as well as the discussion of the possible sources of systematic uncertainties. In the appendix is also presented a preliminary study of a possible development regarding the determination of mixing and CP violation parameters for the D{sup 0} meson.

  9. Nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction cancer detection method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belinsky, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmisano, William A. (Edgewood, NM)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A molecular marker-based method for monitoring and detecting cancer in humans. Aberrant methylation of gene promoters is a marker for cancer risk in humans. A two-stage, or "nested" polymerase chain reaction method is disclosed for detecting methylated DNA sequences at sufficiently high levels of sensitivity to permit cancer screening in biological fluid samples, such as sputum, obtained non-invasively. The method is for detecting the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene, Death-associated protein kinase gene, RAS-associated family 1 gene, or other gene promoters. The method offers a potentially powerful approach to population-based screening for the detection of lung and other cancers.

  10. Risk Policy and Risk Management Procedures The University's Risk Policy sets out The University's approach to risk and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Risk Policy and Risk Management Procedures Preface The University's Risk Policy sets out The University's approach to risk and its management together with the means for identifying, analysing and managing risk in order to minimise its frequency and impact. The risks considered significant

  11. Professional Certificate in Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carleton University

    Professional Certificate in Risk Management 2010 Program 3 Part-time Courses CRM01: Essentials of Risk Management ­ Next Session Fall 2010 CRM02: Risk Control ­ Jan. 12 - April 26, 2010 CRM03: Risk to apply for the Canadian Risk Management (CRM) designation. #12;Professional Certificate in Risk

  12. Cumulative exposure to arsenic and its relationship to respiratory cancer among copper-smelter employees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee-Feldstein, A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To explore the role of arsenic as a human carcinogen, the respiratory cancer-mortality experience (1938 to 1977) of 8045 white-male smelter employees in Montana was examined relative to cumulative exposure to arsenic trioxide and was compared with that of the white male population of the same region. Exposure to arsenic was estimated for various work areas from industrial-hygiene reports of average concentrations present in the smelter. Respiratory cancer mortality was analyzed further by time period of first employment and maximum lifetime exposure to arsenic trioxide. When exposure was estimated with arithmetic means of measured concentrations among men first employed prior to 1925, respiratory cancer mortality increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group, ranging from two to nine times expected; among those first employed in the period 1925 to 1947 it also increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group.

  13. Cumulative exposure to arsenic and its relationship to respiratory cancer among copper smelter employees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee-Feldstein, A.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To explore the role of arsenic as a human carcinogen, the respiratory cancer mortality experience (1938 to 1977) of 8,045 while male smelter employees in Montana was examined relative to cumulative exposure to arsenic trioxide and was compared with that of the white male population of the same region. Exposure to arsenic was estimated for various work areas from industrial hygiene reports of average concentrations present in the smelter. Respiratory cancer mortality was analyzed further by time period of first employment and maximum lifetime exposure to arsenic trioxide. When exposure was estimated with arithmetic means of measured concentrations among men first employed prior to 1925, respiratory cancer mortality increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group, ranging from two to nine times expected; among those first employed in the period 1925 to 1947 it also increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure group.

  14. Cancer Due to Prolonged Inflammation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Werb J. Inflammation and cancer. Nature. 2002 December 19;J.T. , Szabo E. , et al. Cancer and inflammation: PromiseInflammation, a Key Event in Cancer Development. Molecular

  15. Bismuth 213 Cancer Treatment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    See how INL scientists are increasing supplies of radioactive medical isotopes to treat cancer. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Lifetime Tests on a High Ohms/Square Metalized High Crystalline Polypropylene Film Capacitor with Application to a Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Burkhart, Craig; Tang, Tao; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents accelerated lifetime tests on a polypropylene film capacitor. Experimental parameters (20% droop, 5 Hz repetition rate) simulate anticipated operating conditions encountered in the SLAC P2 Marx. Elevated film electric field stress is utilized as the acceleration parameter. Results indicate that, for the particular film of interest, a film stress of {approx}290 V/{mu}m corresponds to a 10{sup 5} hour lifetime. In addition, the voltage scaling exponent for this film is 13.1.

  17. Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. , Kropp, S. , Jager, B. , Bartsch, H. , Risch, A. 2002.13, 399-407. Vineis, P. , Bartsch, H. , Caporaso, N. ,

  18. Cancer risk in childhood-onset systemic lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D, Kesler RW, Levien MG: Acute leukemia with features ofPage 4 of 4 and acute lymphocytic leukemia: An unusual case.phoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The first

  19. Cancer risk in childhood-onset systemic lupus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phoma, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The firstALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; CI: Confidence interval;

  20. Lifetime Response of a Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, P.F.; Lin, H.T.; Singh, M.

    1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetime studies in four-point flexure were performed on a Hi-NicalonTM fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite over a temperature range of 700 degrees to 1150 degrees C in air. The composite consisted of ~40 vol. % Hi-NicalonTM fiber (8-harness weave) with a 0.5 Mu-m BN fiber coating and a melt-infiltration SiC matrix wand was tested with as-machined surfaces. Lifetime results indicated that the composite exhibited a stress-dependent lifetime at stress levels above an apparent fatigue limit, similar to the trend observed in CG-NicalonTM fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. At less than or equal to 950 degrees C, the lifetimes of Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composites decreased with increasing applied stress level and test temperature. However, the lifetimes were extended as test temperature increased from 950 degees to 1150 degrees C as a result of surface crack sealing due to glass formation by the oxidation of Mi SiC matrix. The lifetime governing processes were, in general, attributed to the progressive oxidation of BN fiber coating and formation of glassy phase, which formed a strong bond between fiber and matrix, resulting in embrittlement of the composite with time.

  1. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both are consistent, but the latter are much less constraining). We present empirical fits to the lifetime distribution and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place tight limits on AGN lifetimes at various luminosities. We use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN lightcurve, and provide simple analytic fits. Given independent constraints on episodic lifetimes, most local BHs must have gained their mass in no more than a couple of bright episodes, in agreement with merger-driven fueling models.

  2. Skin metastases from lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mollet, Todd W; Garcia, Carlos A; Koester, Glenn

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cutaneous metastases from the lung frequently indicate aof skin metastases from lung cancer. Intern Med. 1996; 35:9. Coslett LM, Katlic MR. Lung cancer with skin metastasis.

  3. Conditional Risk Mappings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megiddo

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Key words: Risk; Conjugate Duality; Stochastic Optimization; Dynamic ... MSC2000 Subject Classification: Primary: 90C15,90C48; Secondary: 91B30,

  4. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  5. Inflammation & Inflammation & cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beimel, Amos

    Tam & tnf dc cytokines metastasis metabolism #12;22 chemokine gradient in cancer (Balkwill et al. 2004 1861) Wound healing dc Tam & tnf cytokines metastasis therapeutics metabolism inflammation The end #12 & tnf cytokines metastasis metabolism #12;4 Motivation Cancer as an overhealing wound Lets Go! Wound

  6. Development of time projection chamber for precise neutron lifetime measurement using pulsed cold neutron beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arimoto, Y; Igarashi, Y; Iwashita, Y; Ino, T; Katayama, R; Kitahara, R; Kitaguchi, M; Matsumura, H; Mishima, K; Oide, H; Otono, H; Sakakibara, R; Shima, T; Shimizu, H M; Sugino, T; Sumi, N; Sumino, H; Taketani, K; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Toyoda, A; Yamada, T; Yamashita, S; Yokoyama, H; Yoshioka, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new time projection chamber (TPC) was developed for neutron lifetime measurement using a pulsed cold neutron spallation source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Managing considerable background events from natural sources and the beam radioactivity is a challenging aspect of this measurement. To overcome this problem, the developed TPC has unprecedented features such as the use of polyether-ether-ketone plates in the support structure and internal surfaces covered with $^6$Li-enriched tiles to absorb outlier neutrons. In this paper, the design and performance of the new TPC are reported in detail.

  7. Photo-degradation of Lexan polycarbonate studied using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hareesh, K.; Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri-574199 (India); Pandey, A. K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Meghala, D.; Ranganathaiah, C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri-570006 (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The free volume properties of pristine and UV irradiated Lexan polycarbonate have been investigated using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS). The decrease in o-Ps life time and free volume size of irradiated sample is attributed to free volume modification and formation of more stable free radicals. These free radicals are formed due to the breakage of C-O bonds in Lexan polycarbonate after irradiation. This is also supported by the decrease in the intensity of C-O bond after exposure to UV-radiation as studied from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and it also shows that benzene ring does not undergo any changes after irradiation.

  8. Addressing Inter-set Write-Variation for Improving Lifetime of Non-Volatile Caches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL] [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a technique which minimizes inter-set write variation in NVM caches for improving its lifetime. Our technique uses cache coloring scheme to add a software-controlled mapping layer between groups of physical pages (called memory regions) and cache sets. Periodically, the number of writes to different colors of the cache is computed and based on this result, the mapping of a few colors is changed to channel the write traffic to least utilized cache colors. This change helps to achieve wear-leveling.

  9. An experimental study of spatial effects on mean neutron lifetime measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooke, William Bruce

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactor by means of a rotating neutron absorber located in an access port. The AGN-201 is a low power, graphite reflected, homogeneous training reactor. It operates at a power level of 100 milli- watts with 20$ enriched fuel. Several measurements were... to the two, access port measurements being made in the graphite reflector region. The neutron lifetime in graphite is considerably longer than its life- time in the core region. In addition to the core diameter, 24 there was slightly more than six inches...

  10. Development of time projection chamber for precise neutron lifetime measurement using pulsed cold neutron beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Arimoto; N. Higashi; Y. Igarashi; Y. Iwashita; T. Ino; R. Katayama; R. Kitahara; M. Kitaguchi; H. Matsumura; K. Mishima; H. Oide; H. Otono; R. Sakakibara; T. Shima; H. M. Shimizu; T. Sugino; N. Sumi; H. Sumino; K. Taketani; G. Tanaka; M. Tanaka; K. Tauchi; A. Toyoda; T. Yamada; S. Yamashita; H. Yokoyama; T. Yoshioka

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new time projection chamber (TPC) was developed for neutron lifetime measurement using a pulsed cold neutron spallation source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Managing considerable background events from natural sources and the beam radioactivity is a challenging aspect of this measurement. To overcome this problem, the developed TPC has unprecedented features such as the use of polyether-ether-ketone plates in the support structure and internal surfaces covered with $^6$Li-enriched tiles to absorb outlier neutrons. In this paper, the design and performance of the new TPC are reported in detail.

  11. Receipt of Guideline-Concordant Treatment in Elderly Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Carpenter, William R. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bainbridge, John [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wang, Andrew Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nielsen, Matthew E. [Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Department of Urology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the proportion of elderly prostate cancer patients receiving guideline-concordant treatment, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Methods and Materials: A total of 29,001 men diagnosed in 2004-2007 with localized prostate cancer, aged 66 to 79 years, were included. We characterized the proportion of men who received treatment concordant with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, stratified by risk group and age. Logistic regression was used to examine covariates associated with receipt of guideline-concordant management. Results: Guideline concordance was 79%-89% for patients with low- or intermediate-risk disease. Among high-risk patients, 66.6% of those aged 66-69 years received guideline-concordant management, compared with 51.9% of those aged 75-79 years. Discordance was mainly due to conservative management—no treatment or hormone therapy alone. Among the subgroup of patients aged ?76 years with no measured comorbidity, findings were similar. On multivariable analysis, older age (75-79 vs 66-69 years, odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.57) was associated with a lower likelihood of guideline concordance for high-risk prostate cancer, but comorbidity was not. Conclusions: There is undertreatment of elderly but healthy patients with high-risk prostate cancer, the most aggressive form of this disease.

  12. Essays on risk aversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindapon, Paan

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the preferred distribution by a simple mean-preserving spread and the cost is a utility cost. Higher-order increases in risk lead to higher-order generalizations, and the com- parative statics method yields a unified approach to the problem of comparative risk...

  13. Health risk assessment of environmental exposure to trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.P.; Farrar, D.G.; de Rooij, C.G. (Epidemiology Unit, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (England))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the animal data showed trichloroethylene (TRI) to be of low acute toxicity. Repeated exposure showed that the target organs were the liver, and to a lesser extent, the kidney. TRI is not mutagenic or only marginally mutagenic. There is no evidence of fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. TRI is judged not to exhibit chronic neurotoxicity. Lifetime bioassays resulted in tumors in both the mouse and the rat. However, because of qualitative and quantitative metabolic differences between rodent and human, no one suitable tumor site can be chosen for human health risk assessment. In addition, of the several epidemiology studies, none has demonstrated a positive association for increased tumor incidence. A review of the health effects in humans shows TRI to be of low acute toxicity and, following chronic high doses, to be hepatotoxic. Environmental exposure to TRI is mainly via the atmosphere, while the contribution from exposure to drinking water and foodstuffs is negligible. The total body burden was calculated as 22 micrograms/day. The safety margin approach based on human health effects showed that TRI levels are well within the safety margin for the human no-observable-effect level (10,000 times lower). The total body burden represents a risk of 1.4 X 10(-5) by linearized multistage modeling. Therefore, by either methodological approach to risk assessment, the environmental occurrence of TRI does not represent a significant health risk to the general population or to the population in areas close to industrial activities. 66 references.

  14. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  15. Lung cancer...115 Chapter 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    NICR/NCRI Lung cancer...115 Chapter 11: Lung cancer (including trachea, bronchus and lung; C33-C34 of lung cancer diagnosed each year in Ireland during 2000-2004. o Male incidence rates decreased by 1 by 2.7%. o Higher levels of treatment occurred among those with small cell lung cancer (compared to non

  16. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

  17. Measurement of the B+- lifetime and top quark identification using secondary vertex b-tagging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartzman, Ariel G

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents a preliminary measurement of the B{sup {+-}} lifetime through the full reconstruction of its decay chain, and the identification of top quark production in the electron plus jets channel using the displaced vertex b-tagging method. Its main contribution is the development, implementation and optimization of the Kalman filter algorithm for vertex reconstruction, and of the displaced vertex technique for tagging jets arising from b quark fragmentation, both of which have now become part of the standard D0 reconstruction package. These two algorithms fully exploit the new state-of-the-art tracking detectors, recently installed as part of the Run 2 D0 upgrade project. The analysis is based on data collected during Run 2a at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} Hadron Collider up to April 2003, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 60 pb{sup -1}. The measured B meson lifetime of {tau} = 1.57 {+-} 0.18 ps is in agreement with the current world average, with a competitive level of precision expected when the full data sample becomes available.

  18. Work at FNAL to achieve long electron drift lifetime in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, D.; Jaskierny, W.; Kendziora, C.; Krider, J.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Tope, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note records some of the work done between July 2005 and July 2006 to achieve long (many milliseconds) electron drift lifetimes in liquid argon at Fermilab. The work is part of a process to develop some experience at Fermilab with the technology required to construct a large liquid argon TPC. This technology has been largely developed by the ICARUS collaboration in Europe and this process can be seen as technology transfer. The capability to produce liquid argon in which electrons have drift lifetimes of several milliseconds is crucial to a successful device. Liquid argon calorimeters have been successfully operated at Fermilab; their electro-negative contaminants are at the level of 10{sup -7} while the TPC we are considering requires a contamination level at the level of 10{sup -11}, tens of parts per trillion (ppt). As well as demonstrating the ability to produce liquid argon at this level of purity, the work is part of a program to test the effect on the electron drift time of candidate materials for the construction of a TPC in liquid argon.

  19. A Modification of the Inner and Outer Core for Reactor Pressure Vessel Lifetime Extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae Je [Nuclear Fuel Company (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of nuclear power plant lifetime extension was examined by reducing the fast neutron fluence at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and relieving irradiation embrittlement of materials, and thus ensuring enough structural integrity beyond the design lifetime. Two fluence reduction options, peripheral assembly replacement and additional shield installation in the outer core structures, were applied to the Kori Unit-1 reactor, and the fluence reduction effect was carefully analyzed. For an accurate estimate of the neutron fluence at the RPV and a reasonable description of the modified peripheral assemblies, a full-scope explicit modeling of a Monte Carlo simulation was employed in all calculations throughout this study. The Kori Unit-1 cycle-16 core was modeled on a three-dimensional representation by using the MCNP4B code, and the fluence distribution was estimated at the inner wall beltline around the circumferential weld of the RPV. On the basis of fracture toughness requirements of the RPV, the two modified cases were predicted to have an additional life of 7 to 10 effective full-power years. Throughout the core nuclear characteristics analyses, it was confirmed that the critical peaking factors for safe reactor operation were satisfied with the design limits.

  20. Lifetime Prediction of IGBT in a STATCOM Using Modified-Graphical Rainflow Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopi Reddy, Lakshmi Reddy [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rainflow algorithms are one of the best counting methods used in fatigue and failure analysis [17]. There have been many approaches to the rainflow algorithm, some proposing modifications. Graphical Rainflow Method (GRM) was proposed recently with a claim of faster execution times [10]. However, the steps of the graphical method of rainflow algorithm, when implemented, do not generate the same output as the four-point or ASTM standard algorithm. A modified graphical method is presented and discussed in this paper to overcome the shortcomings of graphical rainflow algorithm. A fast rainflow algorithm based on four-point algorithm but considering point comparison than range comparison is also presented. A comparison between the performances of the common rainflow algorithms [6-10], including the proposed methods, in terms of execution time, memory used, and efficiency, complexity, and load sequences is presented. Finally, the rainflow algorithm is applied to temperature data of an IGBT in assessing the lifetime of a STATCOM operating for power factor correction of the load. From 5-minute data load profiles available, the lifetime is estimated to be at 3.4 years.

  1. Preliminary Chemical Aging and Lifetime Assessment for High Density S5370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S

    2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary lifetime assessment of S5370 stress cushions has been performed. Data from three sources were obtained and reviewed to perform this assessment. The sources were the following: (1) the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant's 2-year and 9-year accelerated aging studies; (2) a large selection of weapon surveillance return data; (3) laboratory experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Honeywell FM&T Kansas City Plant on artificially aged material. The general conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) There is an inherently large degree of structural and chemical heterogeneity in S5370 cushions that complicates lifetime assessments; (2) Current surveillance testing procedures are inadequate for providing insight into aging trends; (3) LANL PMAP data suggests a 60 year load retention of greater than 40%; however, this is for low density versions and extrapolation to high density must be performed with caution and a new set of testing is recommended; (4) Results of chemical aging assessments suggest that radiation damage is minimal at stockpile relevant doses, thermal degradation leads to compression set due to disentanglement of the network structure over time and a negligible amount of chain scissioning at relevant temperatures. The compression set is accelerated by exposure to radiation; (5) In the absence of further testing, a 60-year load retention of greater than 40% is estimated.

  2. Molecular Markers of Lung Cancer in MAYAK Workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Belinsky, PhD

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular mechanisms that result in the elevated risk for lung cancer associated with exposure to radiation have not been well characterized. Workers from the MAYAK nuclear enterprise are an ideal cohort in which to study the molecular epidemiology of cancer associated with radiation exposure and to identify the genes targeted for inactivation that in turn affect individual risk for radiation-induced lung cancer. Epidemiology studies of the MAYAK cohort indicate a significantly higher frequency for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in workers than in a control population and a strong correlation between these tumor types and plutonium exposure. Two hypotheses will be evaluated through the proposed studies. First, radiation exposure targets specific genes for inactivation by promoter methylation. This hypothesis is supported by our recent studies with the MAYAK population that demonstrated the targeting of the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter methylation in adenocarcinomas from workers (1). Second, genes inactivated in tumors can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer risk in a cancer-free population of workers exposed to plutonium. Support for this hypothesis is based on exciting preliminary results of our nested, case-control study of persons from the Colorado cohort. In that study, a panel of methylation markers for predicting lung cancer risk is being evaluated in sputum samples from incident lung cancer cases and controls. The first hypothesis will be tested by determining the prevalence for promoter hypermethylation of a panel of genes shown to play a critical role in the development of either adenocarcinoma and/or SCC associated with tobacco. Our initial studies on adenocarcinoma in MAYAK workers will be extended to evaluate methylation of the PAX5 {alpha}, PAX5 {beta}, H-cadherin, GATA5, and bone morphogenesis 3B (BMP3B) genes in the original sample set described under Preliminary studies. In addition, studies will be initiated in SCC from workers and controls to identify genes targeted for inactivation by plutonium in this other common histologic form of lung cancer. We will examine methylation of the p16, O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyl-transferase (MGMT), and death associated protein kinase genes ([DAP-K], evaluated previously in adenocarcinomas) as well as the new genes being assessed in the adenocarcinomas. The second hypothesis will be tested in a cross-sectional study of cancer-free workers exposed to plutonium and an unexposed population. A cohort of 700 cancer-free workers and 700 unexposed persons is being assembled, exposures are being defined, and induced sputum collected at initial entry into the study and approximately 1-year later. Exposed and unexposed persons will be matched by 5-year age intervals and smoking status (current and former). The frequency for methylation of four genes that show the greatest difference in prevalence in tumors from workers and controls will be determined in exfoliated cells within sputum. These studies will extend those in primary tumors to determine whether difference in prevalence for individual or multiple genes are detected in sputum samples from high-risk subjects exposed to plutonium. Follow-up of this cohort offers the opportunity to validate these endpoints and future biomarkers as true markers for lung cancer risk.

  3. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP (Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter) instrument on Spacelab 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flight of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction-limited (0.5 arc second) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc second jitter RMS) and freedom from the distortion that plagues ground-based images. The solar 5 minute oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, the authors show that these dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When the oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 410 and 890 seconds, respectively, in quiet and magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are common. It is hard to find that neither explodes nor is unaffected by a nearby explosion. A significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Local correlation-tracking techniques are used to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the intensity field. In the quiet sun it is possible to detect both super- and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s quiet sun, and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions, horizontal velocities are much less, about 200 m/s. These flows effect the measured lifetime. A lower limit to the lifetime in quiet and magnetic sun is estimated to be 440 and 950 seconds respectively.

  4. Risk Management in Biopharmaceutical Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Chain Risk Managementof Recent Work on Supply Chain Risk Management . . . . .M. , Supply chain risk management: Outlining an agenda for

  5. Systemic risk in consumer finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poon, Martha

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systemic risk in consumer finance Uncertain about risk HowComplexity, Ecology, Finance The Pre-History of ResilienceSystemic risk in consumer finance Martha Poon, NYU At the

  6. (Energy Risk Professional, ERP), (GARP),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexander

    · ­ Dragana Pilipovic. Energy Risk: Valuing and Managing Energy Derivatives,2nd Edition (New York: Mc). 9: Risk Management of Energy Derivatives · ­ Alexander Triantis. Handbook of Modern Finance (New 1 ( ) : . (Energy Risk Professional, ERP

  7. Risk in the Weapons Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

  8. Cancer Therapies: A Bane and a Boon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neogi, Sushrita

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative Medicine in Cancer Treatment. (2012). Retrievedcancertopics/pdq/cam/cam-cancer-treatment/patient/page2 8.and alternative (CAM) cancer treatments in use, including

  9. A Reanalysis of Curvature in the Dose Response for Cancer and Modifications by Age at Exposure Following Radiation Therapy for Benign Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, Mark P., E-mail: mark.little@nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints and modifiers by age and time. Methods and Materials: Reanalysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results: There are statistically significant (P<.05) excess risks for all cancer and for lung cancer and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (P=.07), and leukemia (P=.06), with excess relative risks Gy{sup -1} of 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI -0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI -0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (P=.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (P<.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer, and all other cancers (ie, other than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with age at exposure. If a linear-exponential dose response is used, there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response among the 5 endpoints considered or in the speed of variation of relative risk with age at exposure. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions: There are excess risks for various malignancies in this data set. Generally there is a marked downward curvature in the dose response and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  10. Arsenic exposure, smoking, and lung cancer in smelter workers--a case-control study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaerup, L.P.; Pershagen, G. (Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cohort of 3,916 Swedish copper smelter workers employed for at least 3 months between 1928 and 1967 was followed up through 1981. Arsenic exposure was estimated for different time periods at each workplace within the smelter. Detailed job records were linked to the exposure matrix, thus forming individual cumulative arsenic exposure measures for each smelter worker. Smoking history was collected for 107 lung cancer cases and 214 controls from the cohort. Lung cancer risks were positively related to cumulative arsenic exposure with smoking standardized relative risks ranging from 0.7 to 8.7 in different exposure groups. A negative confounding by smoking was suggested in the higher exposure categories. The interaction between arsenic and smoking for the risk of developing lung cancer was intermediate between additive and multiplicative and appeared less pronounced among heavy smokers.

  11. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davoli, E., E-mail: enrico.davoli@marionegri.i [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M. [Progress S.r.l., Via Nicola A. Porpora 147, 20131 Milano (Italy); Fanelli, R. [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche 'Mario Negri', Environmental Health Sciences Department, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated risk assessment study has been performed in an area within 5 km from a landfill that accepts non hazardous waste. The risk assessment was based on measured emissions and maximum chronic population exposure, for both children and adults, to contaminated air, some foods and soil. The toxic effects assessed were limited to the main known carcinogenic compounds emitted from landfills coming both from landfill gas torch combustion (e.g., dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) and from diffusive emissions (vinyl chloride monomer, VCM). Risk assessment has been performed both for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results indicate that cancer and non-cancer effects risk (hazard index, HI) are largely below the values accepted from the main international agencies (e.g., WHO, US EPA) and national legislation ( and ).

  12. ORISE: Crisis and Risk Communication

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crisis and Risk Communication Crisis and Risk Communication Because a natural disaster, act of terrorism or other public emergency can happen without notice, having a planned,...

  13. RISK-INFORMED SAFETY MARGIN CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam Dinh; Ronaldo Szilard

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of safety margins has served as a fundamental principle in the design and operation of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). Defined as the minimum distance between a system’s “loading” and its “capacity”, plant design and operation is predicated on ensuring an adequate safety margin for safety-significant parameters (e.g., fuel cladding temperature, containment pressure, etc.) is provided over the spectrum of anticipated plant operating, transient and accident conditions. To meet the anticipated challenges associated with extending the operational lifetimes of the current fleet of operating NPPs, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a collaboration to conduct coordinated research to identify and address the technological challenges and opportunities that likely would affect the safe and economic operation of the existing NPP fleet over the postulated long-term time horizons. In this paper we describe a framework for developing and implementing a Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to evaluate and manage changes in plant safety margins over long time horizons.

  14. Risk Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides non-mandatory risk management approaches for implementing the requirements of DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Cancels DOE G 413.3-7.

  15. RISK ASSESSMENT CLOUD COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    SECURITY RESEARCH PRIVACY RISK ASSESSMENT AMC DATA FISMA CLOUD COMPUTING MOBILE DEVICES OPERATIONS application hosted in the cloud · Alaska DHHS fined $1.7M ­ Portable device stolen from vehicle · Mass Eye

  16. Aneuploidy: Cancer's Fatal Flaw?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Bret R.

    Aneuploidy is a characteristic of cancer, with greater than 90% of all solid tumors in humans carrying an aberrant karyotype. Yet, whether or how this condition contributes to tumorigenesis is not understood. Here we ...

  17. Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both ...

  18. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: Benzene–benzene vs benzene–rare gas atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Li, Zhiying [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atom–molecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atom–benzene calculations with those for benzene–benzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  19. Use of groundwater lifetime expectancy for the performance assessment of a deep geologic waste repository: 1. Theory, illustrations, and implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornaton, F J; Normani, S D; Sudicky, E A; Sykes, J F

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term solutions for the disposal of toxic wastes usually involve isolation of the wastes in a deep subsurface geologic environment. In the case of spent nuclear fuel, if radionuclide leakage occurs from the engineered barrier, the geological medium represents the ultimate barrier that is relied upon to ensure safety. Consequently, an evaluation of radionuclide travel times from a repository to the biosphere is critically important in a performance assessment analysis. In this study, we develop a travel time framework based on the concept of groundwater lifetime expectancy as a safety indicator. Lifetime expectancy characterizes the time that radionuclides will spend in the subsurface after their release from the repository and prior to discharging into the biosphere. The probability density function of lifetime expectancy is computed throughout the host rock by solving the backward-in-time solute transport adjoint equation subject to a properly posed set of boundary conditions. It can then be used to defi...

  20. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

  1. Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

  2. Photosynthesis: Research for Food, Fuel and Future--15th International Conference on Photosynthesis518 FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) of Avocado Leaves during Slow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    518 FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) of Avocado Leaves during Slow Fluorescence avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill.) during the slow part of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence transient

  3. Evaluation of Lifetime of High Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-379

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of this joint work, Solarmer and NREL will investigate the lifetime and stability of Organic Photovoltaic Devices based on Solarmer high efficiency active layer materials.

  4. Risk Perceptions and Risk Management Strategies in French

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 Risk Perceptions and Risk Management Strategies in French Oyster Farming Véronique le Bihan Perceptions and Risk Management Strategies in French Oyster Farming Véronique Le Bihan, Sophie Pardo, Patrice and their businesses contribute to defining their degree of risk perception and reliance on management tools. Beyond

  5. THE FUNDAMENTAL RISK QUADRANGLE IN RISK MANAGEMENT, OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uryasev, Stanislav

    THE FUNDAMENTAL RISK QUADRANGLE IN RISK MANAGEMENT, OPTIMIZATION AND STATISTICAL ESTIMATION1 R be confronted in numerous situations. Dealing with them systematically for purposes in risk management Statistical estimation is inevitably a partner with risk management in handling hazards, which may be known

  6. 17(lowercase beta)-estradiol and Tamoxifen prevent gastric cancer by modulating leukocyte recruitment and oncogenic pathways in Helicobacter pylori-infected INS-GAS male mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheh, Alexander

    Helicobacter pylori infection promotes male predominant gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Estrogens reduce gastric cancer risk and previous studies showed that prophylactic 17?-estradiol (E2) in INS-GAS mice decreases H. ...

  7. Study of behavior and determination of customer lifetime value(CLV) using Markov chain model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Dony, E-mail: donypermana@students.itb.ac.id [Statistics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia and Statistics Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padang State University (Indonesia); Indratno, Sapto Wahyu; Pasaribu, Udjianna S. [Statistics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Customer Lifetime Value or CLV is a restriction on interactive marketing to help a company in arranging financial for the marketing of new customer acquisition and customer retention. Additionally CLV can be able to segment customers for financial arrangements. Stochastic models for the fairly new CLV used a Markov chain. In this model customer retention probability and new customer acquisition probability play an important role. This model is originally introduced by Pfeifer and Carraway in 2000 [1]. They introduced several CLV models, one of them only involves customer and former customer. In this paper we expand the model by adding the assumption of the transition from former customer to customer. In the proposed model, the CLV value is higher than the CLV value obtained by Pfeifer and Caraway model. But our model still requires a longer convergence time.

  8. Electron attachment to SF6 and lifetimes of SF6- negative ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerchikov, L G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the process of low-energy electron capture by the SF6 molecule. Our approach is based on the model of Gauyacq and Herzenberg [J. Phys. B 17, 1155 (1984)] in which the electron motion is coupled to the fully symmetric vibrational mode through a weakly bound or virtual s state. By tuning the two free parameters of the model, we achieve an accurate description of the measured electron attachment cross section and good agreement with vibrational excitation cross sections of the fully symmetric mode. An extension of the model provides a limit on the characteristic time of intramolecular vibrational relaxation in highly-excited SF6-. By evaluating the total vibrational spectrum density of SF6-, we estimate the widths of the vibrational Feshbach resonances of the long-lived negative ion. We also analyse the possible distribution of the widths and its effect on the lifetime measurements, and investigate nonexponential decay features in metastable SF6-.

  9. PREDICTION OF DISSOLVER LIFETIMES THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Woodsmall, T.; Hinz, W.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-destructive evaluation was used as the primary method of monitoring the corrosion degradation of nuclear material dissolvers and assessing the remaining lifetimes. Materials were typically processed in nitric acid based (4-14M) solutions containing fluoride concentrations less than 0.2 M. The primary corrosion issue for the stainless steel dissolvers is the occurrence of localized corrosion near the tank bottom and the heat affected zones of the welds. Laboratory data for a range of operational conditions, including solution chemistry and temperature, was used to assess the impact of processing changes on the dissolver corrosion rate. Experimental and NDE-based general corrosion rates were found to be in reasonable agreement for standard dissolution chemistries consisting of nitric acid with fluorides and at temperatures less than 95 C. Greater differences were observed when chloride was present as an impurity and temperatures exceeded 100 C.

  10. Theory and models of material erosion and lifetime during plasma instabilities in a tokamak environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface and structural damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) due to the frequent loss of plasma confinement remains a serious problem for the tokamak reactor concept. The deposited plasma energy causes significant surface erosion, possible structural failure, and frequent plasma contamination. Surface damage consists of vaporization, spallation, and liquid splatter of metallic materials. Structural damage includes large temperature increases in structural materials and at the interfaces between surface coatings and structural members. To evaluate the lifetimes of plasma-facing materials and nearby components and to predict the various forms of damage that they experience, comprehensive models (contained in the HEIGHTS computer simulation package) are developed, integrated self-consistently, and enhanced. Splashing mechanisms such as bubble boiling and various liquid magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and brittle destruction mechanisms of nonmelting materials are being examined. The design requirements and implications of plasma-facing and nearby components are discussed, along with recommendations to mitigate and reduce the effects of plasma instabilities on reactor components.

  11. Lifetime Measurement of the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state in {sup 20}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petri, Marina-Kalliopi; Fallon, Paul; Macchiavelli, Augusto; Paschalis, Stephanos; Starosta, Krzysztof; Baugher, Travis; Bazin, Daniel; Cartegni, Lucia; Clark, Roderick; Crawford, Heather; Cromaz, Mario; Dewald, Alfred; Gade, Alexandra; Grinyer, Geoff; Gros, Sebastian; Hackstein, Matthias; Jeppesen, Hendrick; Lee, I-Yang; McDaniel, Sean; Miller, Doug; Rajabali, Mustafa; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Rother, Wolfram; Voss, Phillip; Walsh, Kathleen Ann; Weisshaar, Dirk; Wiedeking, Mathis; Brown, Boyd Alex

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishing how and when large N/Z values require modified or new theoretical tools is a major quest in nuclear physics. Here we report the first measurement of the lifetime of the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state in the near-dripline nucleus {sup 20}C. The deduced value of {tau}{sub #28;2{sup +}{sub 1}} = 9.8 ± 2.8(stat){sup +0.5}{sub ?1.1}(syst) ps gives a reduced transition probability of B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1}{yields}0{sup +}{sub g.s.}) = 7.5{sup +3.0}{sub ?1.7}(stat){sup +1.0}{sub ?0.4}(syst) e{sup 2}fm{sup 4} in good agreement with a shell model calculation using isospin-dependent effective charges.

  12. An overview of the US Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonka, A.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Harrison, D.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a brief summary of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (USDOE`s) cooperative effort with the nuclear industry to develop technology to manage the effects of material degradation in systems, structures and components (SSCs) that impact plant safety or can significantly improve plant performance/economics and to establish and demonstrate the license renewal process. Also included are efforts to reduce decontamination/decommission costs, and reduce the uncertainty in long-term service-life decision making. During 1995, the Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program was renamed the Commercial Operating Light Water Reactor (COLWR) Program activities are focused on sustaining the LWR option for domestic electricity generation by supporting operation of existing LWRs as long as they are safe, efficient, and economical. The status of the key projects is discussed in this paper.

  13. Stochastic Boundary, Diffusion, Emittance Growth and Lifetime calculation for the RHIC e-lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy electron beam with proper Gaussian transverse profiles was proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, using a modified version of SixTrack [1], we investigate stability of the single particle in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. The Lyapunov exponent and action diffusion are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation for two different working points and various bunch intensities. Using the action diffusion results the emittance growth rate and lifetime of the proton beam is also estimated for the different scenarios.

  14. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  15. Progress on Establishing Guidelines for National Ignition Facility (NIF) Experiments to Extend Debris Shield Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, M; Eder, D; Braun, D; MacGowan, B

    2000-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The survivability and performance of the debris shields on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are a key factor for the successful conduct and affordable operation of the facility. The improvements required over Nova debris shields are described. Estimates of debris shield lifetimes in the presence of target emissions with 4 - 5 J/cm{sup 2} laser fluences (and higher) indicate lifetimes that may contribute unacceptably to operations costs for NIF. We are developing detailed guidance for target and experiment designers for NIF to assist in minimizing the damage to, and therefore the cost of, maintaining NIF debris shields. The guidance limits the target mass that is allowed to become particulate on the debris shields (300 mg). It also limits the amount of material that can become shrapnel for any given shot (10 mg). Finally, it restricts the introduction of non-volatile residue (NVR) that is a threat to the sol-gel coatings on the debris shields to ensure that the chamber loading at any time is less than 1 pg/cm{sup 2}. We review the experimentation on the Nova chamber that included measuring quantities of particulate on debris shields by element and capturing shrapnel pieces in aerogel samples mounted in the chamber. We also describe computations of x-ray emissions from a likely NIF target and the associated ablation expected from this x-ray exposure on supporting target hardware. We describe progress in assessing the benefits of a pre-shield and the possible impact on the guidance for target experiments on NIF. Plans for possible experimentation on Omega and other facilities to improve our understanding of target emissions and their impacts are discussed. Our discussion of planned future work provides a forum to invite possible collaboration with the IFE community.

  16. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  17. An overview of the United States Department of Energy plant lifetime improvement program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Clauss, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrison, D.L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US. The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: (1) establishment of the regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; (2) development, verification, and validation of the various technical criteria and bases for needed monitoring, refurbishment, or replacement of plant equipment; and (3) demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation of long-lived components, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement management approaches, and analytical methodologies to characterize RPV integrity.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE LIFETIMES OF DISKS RESULTING FROM TIDALLY DESTROYED ROCKY PLANETARY BODIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girven, J.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Brinkworth, C. S.; Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Farihi, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Koester, D., E-mail: j.m.girven@warwick.ac.uk [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Kiel, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Spitzer IRAC observations of 15 metal-polluted white dwarfs reveal infrared excesses in the spectral energy distributions of HE 0110-5630, GD 61, and HE 1349-2305. All three of these stars have helium-dominated atmospheres, and their infrared emissions are consistent with warm dust produced by the tidal destruction of (minor) planetary bodies. This study brings the number of metal-polluted, helium and hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs surveyed with IRAC to 53 and 38, respectively. It also nearly doubles the number of metal-polluted helium-rich white dwarfs found to have closely orbiting dust by Spitzer. From the increased statistics for both atmospheric types with circumstellar dust, we derive a typical disk lifetime of log [t{sub disk}(yr)] = 5.6 {+-} 1.1 (ranging from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} yr). This assumes a relatively constant rate of accretion over the timescale where dust persists, which is uncertain. We find that the fraction of highly metal-polluted helium-rich white dwarfs that have an infrared excess detected by Spitzer is only 23%, compared to 48% for metal-polluted hydrogen-rich white dwarfs, and we conclude from this difference that the typical lifetime of dusty disks is somewhat shorter than the diffusion timescales of helium-rich white dwarf. We also find evidence for higher time-averaged accretion rates onto helium-rich stars compared to the instantaneous accretion rates onto hydrogen-rich stars; this is an indication that our picture of evolved star-planetary system interactions is incomplete. We discuss some speculative scenarios that can explain the observations.

  19. Rethinking Risk: Aspiration as Pure Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Greg B

    2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of an environmental decision problem where di¤erent investment packages (acts) lead to di¤erent possible levels of global wealth and overall levels of global warming. Avoiding the all too easy economic assumption that the global wealth levels can simply be adjusted... by some amount to re‡ect the e¤ect of the global temperature levels, we are now left with two numerical components in this problem. There are thus separate measures of risk aversion that deal with wealth and temperature, and therefore two di¤erent concepts...

  20. Measurement of the B meson Lifetimes with the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uozumi, Satoru; /Tsukuba U.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lifetimes of the B{sup -}, B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons are measured using partially reconstructed semileptonic decays. Following semileptonic decay processes and their charge conjugates are used for this analysis: B{sup -}/B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{nu}D{sup 0}X; B{sup -}/B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{nu}D*{sup +}X; B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup -}{nu}D{sub s}{sup +}x, where {ell}{sup -} denotes either a muon or electron. The data are collected during 2002-2004 by the 8 GeV single lepton triggers in CDF Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Corresponding integrated luminosity is about 260 and 360 pb{sup -1} used for the B{sup -}/B{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime analyses, respectively. With the single lepton triggers, events which contain a muon or electron with a transverse momentum greater than 8 GeV/c are selected. For these lepton candidates, further lepton identification cuts are applied to improve purity of the B semileptonic decay signal. After the lepton selection, three types of charm mesons associated with the lepton candidates are reconstructed. Following exclusive decay modes are used for the charm meson reconstruction: D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}; D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sub s}{sup +}, followed by D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}; D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup +}, followed by {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. Here {pi}{sub s}{sup +} denotes a slow pion from D*{sup +} decay. Species of the reconstructed charm meson identify the parent B meson species. However in the B{sup -}/B{sup 0} semileptonic decays, both mesons decay into the identical lepton + D{sup 0} final state. To solve this mixture of the B components in the D{sup 0} sample, they adopt the following method: First among the inclusive D{sup 0} sample, they look for the D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0} {pi}{sub s}{sup +} signal. The inclusive D{sup 0} sample is then split into the two samples of D{sup 0} mesons which are from the D*{sup +} meson and not from D*{sup +}. They use the fact that D*{sup +} sample is dominated by the B{sup 0} component, and the D{sup 0} sample after excluding the D*{sup +} events is dominated by the B{sup -} component. Fraction of remaining mixture of B{sup -}/B{sup 0} components in each sample is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation. From the lepton + charm meson pairs, they measure the B meson decay lengths to extract the lifetimes. Since the B meson momentum, necessary to calculate the B meson decay time, is not fully reconstructed in semileptonic decays, the missing momentum is corrected using a Monte Carlo simulation during lifetime fits. Also, contributions of various kinds of backgrounds are considered and subtracted. As a result of the fit, the B meson lifetimes are measured to be c{tau}(B{sup -}) = 495.6 {+-} 8.6 {sub -12.8}{sup +13.3} {micro}m; c{tau}(B{sup 0}) = 441.5 {+-} 10.9 {+-} 17.0 {micro}m; c{tau}(B{sub s}{sup 0}) = 414.0 {+-} 16.6 {sub -13.8}{sup +15.6} {micro}m or {tau}(B{sup 0}) = 1.653 {+-} 0.029 {sub -0.031}{sup +0.033} ps; {tau}(B{sup 0}) = 1.473 {+-} 0.036 {+-} 0.054 ps; {tau}(B{sub s}{sup 0}) = 1.381 {+-} 0.055 {sub -0.046}{sup +0.052} ps, and the lifetime ratios to be {tau}(B{sup 0})/{tau}(B{sup 0}) = 1.123 {+-} 0.040 {sub -0.039}{sup +0.041}; {tau}(B{sub s}{sup 0})/{tau}(B{sup 0}) = 0.938 {+-} 0.044 {sub -0.046}{sup +0.049} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  1. Colorectal cancer and diet in Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodoratou, Evropi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is a cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon and/ or rectum and more than 95% of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas. It is the third most common cancer in incidence and mortality ...

  2. Rethinking diagnostic delay in cancer: how difficult is the diagnosis?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Wardle, Jane; Rubin, Greg

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    for Health Services Research, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0SR, UK; 2Health Behaviour Research Centre, University College London, London, UK; 3School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, University... U. Evaluation of risk assessment tools for suspected cancer in general practice: a cohort study. Br J Gen Pract 2013;63:e30-6. 23 Guldbrandt LM, Rasmussen TR, Rasmussen F, Vedsted P. Implementing direct access to low-dose computed tomography...

  3. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT January 2008 OFFICE OF UNIVERSITY RISK MANAGEMENT CP-320 714-278-7346 #12;2006 ­ 2007 Risk Management Annual Report Page 2 I. Executive Summary A. Program Cost One method to assess the effectiveness of the University's risk management

  4. Eighth Annual Risk Management Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Eighth Annual Risk Management Conference Risk Management Amidst Global Rebalancing 10 ­ 11 July 2014, Singapore The Risk Management Institute (RMI) at the National University of Singapore invites submissions for its 8th annual conference on risk management in Singapore on 10 and 11 July 2014. We

  5. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT November 2006 OFFICE OF UNIVERSITY RISK MANAGEMENT LH-806C 714-278-7346 #12;2005 ­ 2006 Risk Management Annual Report Page 2 I. Executive Summary A. Program Cost One method to assess the effectiveness of the University's risk management

  6. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT ANNUAL REPORT November 2005 OFFICE OF UNIVERSITY RISK MANAGEMENT LH-806C 714-278-7346 #12;2004 ­ 2005 Risk Management Annual Report Page 2 I. Introduction The Office of University Risk Management provides resources, advice and training that allow

  7. Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus for the UK and the Republic of Ireland #12;2 PRA for Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus C.E. Sansford 23rd May 2013 Pest Risk Analysis Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus (Kowalski and Holdenrieder, 2009). 1 Please cite this document as: Sansford, CE (2013). Pest Risk Analysis

  8. Evaluation of the {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} terminal level lifetime for several neodymium-doped laser crystals and glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibeau, C.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    All models of lasing action require knowledge of the physical parameters involved, of which many can be measured or estimated. The value of the terminal level lifetime is an important parameter in modeling many high power laser systems since the terminal level lifetime can have a substantial impact on the extraction efficiency of the system. However, the values of the terminal level lifetimes for a number of important laser materials such as ND:YAG and ND:YLF are not well known. The terminal level lifetime, a measure of the time it takes for the population to drain out of the terminal (lower) lasing level, has values that can range from picoseconds to microseconds depending on the host medium, thus making it difficult to construct one definitive experiment for all materials. Until recently, many of the direct measurements of the terminal level lifetime employed complex energy extraction or gain recovery methods coupled with a numerical model which often resulted in large uncertainties in the measured lifetimes. In this report we demonstrate a novel and more accurate approach which employs a pump-probe technique to measure the terminal level lifetime of 16 neodymium-doped materials. An alternative yet indirect method, which is based on the ``Energy Gap Law,`` is to measure the nonradiative lifetime of another transition which has the same energy gap as the transition of the terminal level lifetime. Employing this simpler approach, we measured the lifetime for 30 neodymium-doped materials. We show for the first time a direct comparison between the two methods and determine that the indirect method can be used to infer the terminal level lifetime within a factor of two for most neodymium-doped glasses and crystals.

  9. Risk assessment in the DOE Assurance Program for Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, S.; Cross, F.T.; Denham, D.H.; Kennedy, W.E.; Stenner, R.D.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information obtained during the performance of risk assessment tasks in support of the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) sponsored by the Office of Operational Safety of the Department of Energy. We have presented a method for the estimation of projected health effects at properties in the vicinity of uranium mill tailing piles due to transported tailings or emissions from the piles. Because radon and radon daughter exposure is identified as the principal factor contributing to health effects at such properties, the basis for estimating lung cancer risk as a result of such exposure is discussed in detail. Modeling of health risk due to a secondary pathway, ingestion of contaminated, home-grown food products, is also discussed since it is a potentially important additional source of exposure in certain geographic locations. Risk assessment methods used in various mill tailings reports are reviewed. The protocols for radiological surveys conducted in DOE-sponsored remedial action programs are critically reviewed with respect to their relevance to the needs of health risk estimation. The relevance of risk assessment to the APRA program is discussed briefly.

  10. ITER risk workshop facilitator guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, Patricia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of planning risk management is to make everyone involved in a program aware that risk should be a consideration in the design, development, and fielding of a system. Risk planning is a tool to assess and mitigate events that might adversely impact the program. Therefore, risk management increases the probability/likelihood of program success and can help to avoid program crisis management and improve problem solving by managing risk early in the acquisition cycle.

  11. ITER risk workshop participant guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, Patricia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of planning risk management is to make everyone involved in a program aware that risk should be a consideration in the design, development, and fielding of a system. Risk planning is a tool to assess and mitigate events that might adversely impact the program. Therefore, risk management increases the probability/likelihood of program success and can help to avoid program crisis management and improve problem solving by managing risk early in the acquisition cycle.

  12. Measurement of the Lambda(b) lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda(b) ---> J / psi Lambda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime using the exclusive decay {lambda}{sub b}{yields}J/{psi}{lambda}, based on 1.2 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2006. From 171 reconstructed {lambda}{sub b} decays, where the J/{psi} and {lambda} are identified via the decays J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {lambda}{yields}p{pi}, we measured the {lambda}{sub b} lifetime to be {tau}({lambda}{sub b})=1.218{sub -0.115}{sup +0.130}(stat){+-}0.042(syst) ps. We also measured the B{sup 0} lifetime in the decay B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})K{sub S}{sup 0}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) to be {tau}(B{sup 0})=1.501{sub -0.074}{sup +0.078}(stat){+-}0.050(syst) ps, yielding a lifetime ratio of {tau}({lambda}{sub b})/{tau}(B{sup 0})=0.811{sub -0.087}{sup +0.096}(stat){+-}0.034(syst = )

  13. Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014 Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from to produce electricity from fuels. To speed the search for why fuel cell performance decreases over time fuels more efficiently and with fewer emissions per watt than burning fossil fuels. But as fuel cells

  14. Dependence of nuclear spin singlet lifetimes on RF spin-locking power Stephen J. DeVience a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Matthew S

    Dependence of nuclear spin singlet lifetimes on RF spin-locking power Stephen J. DeVience a: Received 6 January 2012 Revised 14 March 2012 Available online 28 March 2012 Keywords: Nuclear singlet of long-lived nuclear spin singlet states as a function of the strength of the RF spin-locking field

  15. Prediction of the Creep-Fatigue Lifetime of Alloy 617: An Application of Non-destructive Evaluation and Information Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Richard Wright; Timothy Roney

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A relatively simple method using the nominal constant average stress information and the creep rupture model is developed to predict the creep-fatigue lifetime of Alloy 617, in terms of time to rupture. The nominal constant average stress is computed using the stress relaxation curve. The predicted time to rupture can be converted to number of cycles to failure using the strain range, the strain rate during each cycle, and the hold time information. The predicted creep-fatigue lifetime is validated against the experimental measurements of the creep-fatigue lifetime collected using conventional laboratory creep-fatigue tests. High temperature creep-fatigue tests of Alloy 617 were conducted in air at 950°C with a tensile hold period of up to 1800s in a cycle at total strain ranges of 0.3% and 0.6%. It was observed that the proposed method is conservative in that the predicted lifetime is less than the experimentally determined values. The approach would be relevant to calculate the remaining useful life to a component like a steam generator that might fail by the creep-fatigue mechanism.

  16. An analysis of the lifetime of OLSR networks Jan-Maarten Verbree, Maurits de Graaf and Johann Hurink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    our results describe the structure of connected sets dominating the 2-hop neighborhood of a node. Key describe the structure of connected dominating sets covering the 2-hop neighborhood of a node. This paper of Service or to maximize the network lifetime (the time until the first node runs out of energy

  17. Hydrogen Bond Lifetimes and Energetics for Solute/Solvent Complexes Studied with 2D-IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Lifetimes and Energetics for Solute/Solvent Complexes Studied with 2D-IR Vibrational@stanford.edu Abstract: Weak hydrogen-bonded solute/solvent complexes are studied with ultrafast two the dissociation and formation rates of the hydrogen-bonded complexes. The dissociation rates of the weak hydrogen

  18. Measurements and calculations of metastable level lifetimes in Fe X, Fe XI, Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehs, D. P.; Bhatti, M. I.; Church, David A.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of metastable levels in the ground term of Fe ions within the 3s(2)3p(k), k=1-5, isoelectronic sequences have been measured. These measurements were performed utilizing ions that were selected by mass to charge ratio while transported from...

  19. Abstract -In wireless sensor networks where deployment is expected to surpass the lifetime of batteries, a major part of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreenan, Cormac J.

    Abstract - In wireless sensor networks where deployment is expected to surpass the lifetime propose a maintenance model to explain sources of maintenance costs in wireless sensor networks. We also. Keywords - Sensor networks, maintenance, routing, GPSR. I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Wireless sensor

  20. Fast evaluation of the fatigue lifetime of rubber-like materials based on a heat build-up protocol and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fast evaluation of the fatigue lifetime of rubber-like materials based on a heat build-up protocol Cedex, France Abstract The temperature of rubber-like materials increases under cyclic loadings, due results. Key words: rubber-like materials, heat build-up, infrared thermography, X-ray micro

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the 3d {sup 2}D-level lifetimes of {sup 40}Ca{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuter, A.; Becher, C.; Lancaster, G.P.T.; Mundt, A.B.; Russo, C.; Haeffner, H.; Roos, C.; Haensel, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Blatt, R.; Safronova, M.S. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report measurements of the lifetimes of the 3d {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} and 3d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} metastable states of a single laser-cooled {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion in a linear Paul trap. We introduce a measurement technique based on high-efficiency quantum state detection after coherent excitation to the D{sub 5/2} state or incoherent shelving in the D{sub 3/2} state, and subsequent free, unperturbed spontaneous decay. The result for the natural lifetime of the D{sub 5/2} state of 1168(9) ms agrees excellently with the most precise published value. The lifetime of the D{sub 3/2} state is measured with a single ion and yields 1176(11) ms which improves the statistical uncertainty of previous results by a factor of four. We compare these experimental lifetimes to high-precision ab initio all order calculations [D{sub 3/2} state: 1196(11) ms; D{sub 5/2} state: 1165(11) ms] and find a very good agreement. These calculations represent an excellent test of high-precision atomic theory and will serve as a benchmark for the study of parity nonconservation in Ba{sup +} which has similar atomic structure.

  2. Measurements and calculations of metastable level lifetimes in Fe X, Fe XI, Fe XII, Fe XIII, and Fe XIV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehs, D. P.; Bhatti, M. I.; Church, David A.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lifetimes of metastable levels in the ground term of Fe ions within the 3s(2)3p(k), k=1-5, isoelectronic sequences have been measured. These measurements were performed utilizing ions that were selected by mass to charge ratio while transported from...

  3. Lifetime studies of 130nm nMOS transistors intended for long-duration, cryogenic high-energy physics experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoff, J.R.; /Fermilab; Arora, R.; Cressler, J.D.; /Georgia Tech; Deptuch, G.W.; /Fermilab; Gui, P.; /Southern Methodist U.; Lourenco, N.E.; /Georgia Tech; Wu, G.; /Southern Methodist U.; Yarema, R.J.; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future neutrino physics experiments intend to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. To increase performance, integrated readout electronics should work inside the cryostat. Due to the scale and cost associated with evacuating and filling the cryostat, the electronics will be unserviceable for the duration of the experiment. Therefore, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is via hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. The results show that the difference in lifetime for room temperature operation and cryogenic operation for this process are not great and the lifetimes at both 300K and at 77K can be projected to more than 20 years at the nominal voltage (1.5V) for this technology.

  4. Radiative recombination and ultralong exciton photoluminescence lifetime in GaN freestanding film via two-photon excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiative recombination and ultralong exciton photoluminescence lifetime in GaN freestanding film of a freestanding GaN film using one-photon and two-photon excitations to demonstrate the dramatic difference at 295 K is observed from a GaN freestanding film using two-photon excitation, whereas less than 100 ps

  5. Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks is a fundamental issue in terms of functionality and network lifetime. Minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

    ABSTRACT Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks is a fundamental issue in terms of functionality and network lifetime. Minimization of energy consumption by applying optimization techniques setup. Application driven profiling of energy consumption at the node level is a useful tool for optimal

  6. 306 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 25, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Lifetime Maximization via Cooperative Nodes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    locations and energy levels among distributed nodes. First, a lifetime maximization problem via cooperative is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineer- ing and the Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 USA (email: kjrliu@eng.umd.edu). Z. Han is with the Department

  7. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Collins; John M. Beck

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Risk Management System (RMS) is a database used to maintain the project risk register. The RMS also maps risk reduction activities to specific identified risks. Further functionality of the RMS includes mapping reactor suppliers Design Data Needs (DDNs) to risk reduction tasks and mapping Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRTs) to associated risks. This document outlines the basic instructions on how to use the RMS. This document constitutes Revision 1 of the NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk. It incorporates the latest enhancements to the RMS. The enhancements include six new custom views of risk data - Impact/Consequence, Tasks by Project Phase, Tasks by Status, Tasks by Project Phase/Status, Tasks by Impact/WBS, and Tasks by Phase/Impact/WBS.

  8. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  9. Cell Senescence: Aging and Cancer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campisi, Judith

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists have identified a molecular cause behind the ravages of old age and in doing so have also shown how a natural process for fighting cancer in younger persons can actually promote cancer in older individuals.

  10. Inhibition of Aurora-kinases for Tailored Risk Adapted Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Inhibition of Aurora-kinases for Tailored Risk Adapted Treatment of Multiple Myeloma Dirk Hose1 associated with Aurora-kinase expression in several cancer entities, including multiple myeloma. Therefore, the expression of Aurora-A, -B and -C was determined by Affymetrix DNA-microarrays in 784 samples including two

  11. Radiation risk to low fluences of particles may be greater than we thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was significantly eliminated in cells pretreated with a 1 mM dose of octanol, which inhibits gap junction-mediated intercellular communication, or in cells carrying a dominant negative connexin 43 vector. The data imply in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. These data provide the best estimate of human cancer risk over the dose

  12. In the Proceedings of The 32nd International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA'05), June 2005. Exploiting Structural Duplication for Lifetime Reliability Enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adve, Sarita

    reliability benefit. £This work is supported in part by an equipment donation from AMD and the National 2005. Exploiting Structural Duplication for Lifetime Reliability Enhancement £ Jayanth Srinivasan of device scaling are predicted to cause significant lifetime reliability problems in the near future

  13. Extending the Lifetime of a Network of Battery-Powered Mobile Devices by Remote Processing: A Markovian Decision-based Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Extending the Lifetime of a Network of Battery-Powered Mobile Devices by Remote Processing the lifetime of a battery- powered mobile host in a client-server wireless network by using task migration-line adaptive policy is proposed, which dynamically monitors the channel conditions and the server behavior

  14. Unilateral and Bilateral Breast Cancer in Women Surviving Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Swati K. [Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Schwartz, Cindy [Department of Hematology-Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fisher, Susan G. [Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Hudson, Melissa M. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Tarbell, Nancy [Department of Pediatric Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Muhs, Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Marcus, Karen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Department of Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)], E-mail: louis_constine@urmc.rochester.edu

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To define demographic and therapeutic associations with the risk of breast cancer in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD), particularly the frequency and interval to the development of contralateral breast cancer. Methods and Materials: All 398 female patients (<19 years) treated for HD in five institutions during the accrual period were evaluated. Mean follow-up was 16.9 years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated as the ratio of the observed number of cases to the expected number of cases, estimated using age-matched controls from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Results: A total of 29 women developed breast cancer (25 invasive, 4 ductal carcinoma in situ; SIR, 37.25; 95% confidence interval, 24.96-53.64). Time to diagnosis was 9.4 to 36.1 years. Cumulative incidence was 24% at 30 years. Ten patients (34%) had bilateral disease (9 metachronous, 1 synchronous). The interval to contralateral breast cancer was 12 to 34 months. On univariate analysis, significant variables included stage of HD, mantle radiation dose, pelvic radiation (protective), and follow-up time. On multivariate analysis, early stage and older age at diagnosis of HD ({<=}12 vs. >12 years) were significant predictors of secondary breast cancer. Conclusions: Women surviving pediatric HD were found to have a 37-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer and a high likelihood of rapidly developing bilateral disease. Early-stage HD and age greater than 12 years at diagnosis of HD were independent risk factors. Higher radiation doses may augment risk, and pelvic radiation may be protective. Breast cancer screening methodology and frequency, plus the role of prophylaxis in patients with unilateral disease, require definition.

  15. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children's Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  16. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Hongshik

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation Prostate Cancer Volume 2011, Article ID 176164, 7 pages doi:10.1155/2011/176164 Clinical Study Effect of Zoledronic Acid on Bone Mineral Density in Men with Prostate Cancer Receiving cancer is well recognized. We assessed the effects of quarterly infusion of zoledronic acid on bone

  17. Risk Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides a framework for identifying and managing key technical, schedule, and cost risks through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, dated 7-28-06. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-7A, dated 1-12-11. Does not cancel other directives.

  18. Pomegranate Juice and Pomegranate Derived Natural Products as Alternative Treatment for Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prostate cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews 36, Sternlicht,prostate cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews 36, Steiner, H. ,prostate cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews 36, Sureban,

  19. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben [MIT

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  20. ROTATIONAL EXCITATION AND RADIATIVE LIFETIMES OF N{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, Bruce H.; O'Keefe, Anthony

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative system (B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} - X{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) has been recorded by laser induced fluorescences of N{sub 2}{sup +} ions confined in an rf trap. The ions were produced by electron impact and had an initial rotational distribution close to the room temperature distribution of the target N{sub 2} gas. By admitting Ar gas at pressures 10 to 100 times in excess of the N{sub 2} pressure, variable numbers of N{sub 2}{sup +} - Ar collisions were allowed to occur before the N{sub 2}{sup +} distribution was interrogated by the laser. Since the N{sub 2}{sup +} was translationally energetic, being driven by the trap fields, a rapid and extensive T to R energy transfer was observed. In this way, high rotational states of N{sub 2}{sup +} were populated and the radiative lifetimes of These states was measured. No evidence for a perturbation by a {sup 4}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state was found in the region (N = 31, 32) where previous studies had indicated a possible perturbation. Evidence for enhanced charge transfer from N{sub 2}{sup +} X{sup 2} {Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} to Ar was found for N{sub 2}{sup +} in its first vibrational level.

  1. Radio frequency coupling apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Steven W. (Golden, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference signal and a sample signal. The sample signal is transmitted into a sample branch circuit where it passes through a tuning capacitor and a coaxial cable prior to reaching the antenna. The antenna is radio-frequency coupled with the adjacent sample and transmits the sample signal, or electromagnetic radiation corresponding to the sample signal, to the sample and receives reflected power or a sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal back. To lower impedance and speed system response, the impedance is controlled by limiting impedance in the coaxial cable and the antenna reactance. In one embodiment, the antenna is a waveguide/aperture hybrid antenna having a central transmission line and an adjacent ground flange. The sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal is then transmitted to a mixer which also receives the reference signal. To enhance the sensitivity of the measuring apparatus, the mixer is operated to phase match the reference signal and the sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal.

  2. Clustering and lifetime of Lyman Alpha Emitters in the Epoch of Reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutter, Anne; Müller, Volker

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) angular correlation functions (ACFs) at $z\\simeq6.6$ and the fraction of lifetime (for the 100 Myrs preceding $z\\simeq6.6$) galaxies spend as Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with/without Lyman Alpha (Ly\\alpha) emission using a model that combines SPH cosmological simulations (GADGET-2), dust attenuation and a radiative transfer code (pCRASH). The ACFs are a powerful tool that significantly narrows the 3D parameter space allowed by LAE Ly$\\alpha$ and UV luminosity functions (LFs) alone. With this work, we simultaneously constrain the escape fraction of ionizing photons $f_{esc}=0.05-0.5$, the mean fraction of neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) $\\leq 0.01$ and the dust-dependent ratio of the escape fractions of Ly$\\alpha$ and UV continuum photons $f_\\alpha/f_c=0.6-1.2$. Our results show that reionization has the largest impact on the amplitude of the ACFs, and its imprints are clearly distinguishable from those of $f_{esc}$ and $f_\\alpha/f_c$. We also show that...

  3. Lifetime Prediction for Degradation of Solar Mirrors using Step-Stress Accelerated Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Kennedy, C.; Gray, M.; Jones, W.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is to illustrate the use of statistical inference techniques in order to quantify the uncertainty surrounding reliability estimates in a step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) scenario. SSADT can be used when a researcher is faced with a resource-constrained environment, e.g., limits on chamber time or on the number of units to test. We apply the SSADT methodology to a degradation experiment involving concentrated solar power (CSP) mirrors and compare the results to a more traditional multiple accelerated testing paradigm. Specifically, our work includes: (1) designing a durability testing plan for solar mirrors (3M's new improved silvered acrylic "Solar Reflector Film (SFM) 1100") through the ultra-accelerated weathering system (UAWS), (2) defining degradation paths of optical performance based on the SSADT model which is accelerated by high UV-radiant exposure, and (3) developing service lifetime prediction models for solar mirrors using advanced statistical inference. We use the method of least squares to estimate the model parameters and this serves as the basis for the statistical inference in SSADT. Several quantities of interest can be estimated from this procedure, e.g., mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) and warranty time. The methods allow for the estimation of quantities that may be of interest to the domain scientists.

  4. Lifetime, turnover time, and fast magnetic field regeneration in random flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, S. E. M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast dynamo is thought to be relevant in the regeneration of magnetic fields in astrophysics where the value of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is immense. The fast dynamo picture is one in which chaotic flows provide a mechanism for the stretching of magnetic field lines. Furthermore, a cascade of energy down to small scales results in intermittent regions of a small-scale, intense magnetic field. Given this scenario it is natural to invoke the use of kinematic random flows in order to understand field regeneration mechanisms better. Here a family of random flows is used to study the effects that L, the lifetime of the cell, and {tau}, the turnover time of the cell, may have on magnetic field regeneration. Defining the parameter {gamma}=L/{tau}, it has been varied according to {gamma}>1, {gamma}<1, {gamma}{approx}O(1). In the kinematic regime, dynamo growth rates and Lyapunov exponents are examined at varying values of Rm. The possibility of fast dynamo action is considered. In the nonlinear regime, magnetic and kinetic energies are examined. Results indicate that there does appear to be a relationship between {gamma} and dynamo efficiency. In particular, the most efficient dynamos seem to operate at lower values of {gamma}.

  5. Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Risks and Risk Governance in Unconventional Shale Gas Development Mitchell J. Small,*, Paul C, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89512, United States 1. INTRODUCTION The recent U.S. shale gas Issue: Understanding the Risks of Unconventional Shale Gas Development Published: July 1, 2014 A broad

  6. www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ted

    and cooking.2 Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution from solid-fuel use are the most important global risk an independent risk factor for tuberculosis5­7 and suggested a positive association between indoor air pollution COPD, lung cancer, and tuberculosis will be a ected by trends in smoking and indoor air pollution

  7. Lung cancer mortality among men living near an arsenic-emitting smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pershagen, G.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Etiologic factors for lung cancer were studied by the case-control technique among 636 men, including 212 with pulmonary carcinoma, who had died between 1961 and 1979 in a county in northern Sweden. Data on smoking habits, occupation, and residence were obtained from a next of kin to each study subject. Validation against data from other sources indicated that the exposure information was of high quality. A relative risk of 2.0 for lung cancer was seen among men who had lived within approximately 20 km from a large copper smelter. The increased risk, which is statistically significant (p less than 0.05), could not be explained by smoking habits or occupational background. Smelter workers and miners had relative risks for lung cancer of 3.0 and 4.1, respectively. No firm conclusions can be drawn on the cause of excess lung cancer risk in the smelter area, but it seems plausible that the very substantial emissions to air from the smelter, especially of arsenic, may have played a role.

  8. Information Security Office Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    or Approved) 6/01/2013 CISO Jason Pufahl, CISO Approved 6/01/2013 RMAC Risk Management Advisory Council

  9. Post-diagnosis weight gain and breast cancer recurrence in women with early stage breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunter DJ, Willett WC (1996): Nutrition and breast cancer.Cancer Causes Control 7:56- 37. Weiderpass E, Braaten T,of premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers

  10. Environmental epidemiology: risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prentice, R.L.; Whittemore, A.S. (eds.)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers presented at the symposium are in the disciplines of biometry, environmental medicine, epidemiology, mathematics, and statistics. Attention is given to assessing risk due to environmental agents, particularly those known to be carcinogenic; both the complex medical issues involved and the mathematical and statistical methodologies used in analysis are presented. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 15 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  11. DRAFT NISTIR 8023 Risk Management for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with replication devices. Keywords 3D printers; 3D scanners; copiers; countermeasures; exploits; mitigation; multifunction devices; printers; replication devices; risk; risk assessment; risk management; scanners; security

  12. Sandia Energy - Risk and Safety Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Risk and Safety Assessment Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Risk and Safety AssessmentTara...

  13. Risk Management Process Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    risk management process The cybersecurity risk management process explained in the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process (RMP) Guideline has two primary...

  14. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fields of energy management and risk management are thusand Renewable Energy Options For Risk Management andbarriers to energy efficiency projects: risk of under-

  15. Equity Risk Premium and Insecure Property Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magin, Konstantin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper # 2009 -01 Equity Risk and Insecure Property Rightsof California Berkeley Equity Risk Premium and InsecureHow much of the equity risk premium puzzle can be attributed

  16. Risk-Averse Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Václav Kozmík

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2013 ... Abstract: We formulate a risk-averse multi-stage stochastic program using conditional value at risk as the risk measure. The underlying random ...

  17. Vulnerability, Risk Management, and Agricultural Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. (1980). “Attitudes Towards Risk: Experimental MeasurementIncentive Flexibility, and Risk. ” Americal Journal ofCaria, A. S. (2009), Risk Attitudes and The Formation of

  18. Risk Taking and Gender in Hierarchies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scotchmer, Suzanne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Investors’ Attitudes toward Risk. ” forthcoming (2003)in attitudes toward ?nancial risk. ” Evolution and HumanGrossman. 2005a. “Sex and Risk: Experimen- tal Evidence. ” (

  19. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON RISK MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & INSTRUCTIONAL SAFETY 2009 ANNUAL REPORTS #12;2009 Annual Report Page 2 RISK MANAGEMENT I. Program Cost One method to assess the effectiveness of the University's risk management program is to compare the annual cost

  20. Algorithmic Aspects of Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    Algorithmic Aspects of Risk Management Ashish Gehani1 , Lee Zaniewski2 , and K. Subramani2 1 SRI International 2 West Virginia University Abstract. Risk analysis has been used to manage the security of sys configuration. This allows risk management to occur in real time and reduces the window of exposure to attack