National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lifestage sex effect

  1. Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, Fredric

    Effective heritability of targets of sex-ratio selection under environmental sex determination S. E, 2008; Robinson et al., 2009). In many organisms, sex of the offspring is determined by environmental-by-environment interaction; nest-site choice; phenotypic plasticity; sex ratio; temperature-dependent sex determination

  2. Sex as a response to oxidative stress: the effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nedelcu, Aurora M.

    Sex as a response to oxidative stress: the effect of antioxidants on sexual induction@unb.ca). Recd 29.05.03; Accptd 10.06.03; Online 31.07.03 The evolution of sex is one of the long-standing unsolved problems in biology. Although in many lin- eages sex is an obligatory part of the life cycle

  3. NOTE / NOTE Effects of constrained females on offspring sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Bethia H.

    NOTE / NOTE Effects of constrained females on offspring sex ratios of Nasonia vitripennis constrained females affect sex ratio are few. Constrained females are those that can produce only sons (e the probability of a female being constrained and thus affected sex ratio directly. Local mate competition theory

  4. Effect of Sex of Subject and Experimenter on Hemispheric Balance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Joan; Wilkes, Chris; Crissman, Sue; Barchas, Pat

    2015-08-15

    stream_source_info #61 Effect of Sex of Subject and Experimenter on Hemispheric Balance.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28922 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name #61 Effect of Sex of Subject and Experimenter... on Hemispheric Balance.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 A TECHNICAL REPORT The Laboratory for Social Research STANFORD, CALIFORNIASTANFORD UNIVERSITY EFFECT OF SEX OF SUBJECT AMD EXPERIMENTER OH HEMISPHERIC BALANCE Joan Ford Chris...

  5. Sex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badyaev, Alex

    logistic growth parasites sexual dimorphism Developmental periods, such as incubation and nestling stagesSex-biased maternal effects reduce ectoparasite-induced mortality in a passerine bird Alexander V of developmental periods is ex- pected to be slow. In birds, maternal effects on egg-laying order and offspring

  6. Sex and Death: The Effects of Innate Immune Factors on the Sexual Reproduction of Malaria Parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    Sex and Death: The Effects of Innate Immune Factors on the Sexual Reproduction of Malaria Parasites by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies. Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex

  7. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: II. Contrasting sex-specific oocyte clustering in native and recently established

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badyaev, Alex

    Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: II. Contrasting sex-specific oocyte clustering). In particular, sex differences in growth costs or requirements in viviparous species set the stage for the evolution of sex-biased parental strategies and sibling competition (Drummond et al., 1991; Lessells, 2002

  8. Effects of density dependent sex allocation on the dynamics of a simultaneous hermaphroditic population: Modelling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    Effects of density dependent sex allocation on the dynamics of a simultaneous hermaphroditic Available online 22 December 2009 Keywords: Sex-allocation model Sex-structured population dynamics Density model describing the dynamics of a population where sex allocation remains flexible throughout adult

  9. Independent Effects of Incubation Temperature and Gonadal Sex on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crews, David

    of the hypothalamus are determined primarily by incubation temperature, not by gonadal sex. However, incubation hypothalamus, external amygdala, dorsal lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsal lateral nucleus of the thalamus, dorsal ventricular ridge, habenula, lateral hypothalamus, nucleus rotundus, nucleus sphericus

  10. The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crews, D.; Bergeron, J.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); McLachlan, J.A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gonadal sex is fixed at fertilization by specific chromosomes, a process known as genotypic sex determination (GSD). Only after the gonad is formed do hormones begin to exert an influence that modifies specific structures that eventually will differ between the sexes. Many egg-laying reptiles do not exhibit GSD but rather depend on the temperature of the incubating egg to determine the gonadal sex of the offspring, a process termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research on TSD indicates that gonadal sex is not irrevocably set by the genetic composition inherited at fertilization but depends ultimately on which genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes and hormone receptors are activated during the midtrimester of embryonic development by temperature. Incubation temperature modifies the activity as well as the temporal and spatial sequence of enzymes and hormone receptors to determine gonad type. Estrogen is the physiologic equivalent of incubation temperature and the proximate cue that initiates female sex determination. increasing evidence indicates some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. Reproductive disorders resulting from exposure to these xenobiotic compounds may include reductions in fertility, hatch rate in fish and birds, and viability of offspring, as well as alterations in hormone levels or adult sexual behaviors. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds may be acting to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, by which the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. In TSD turtles, the estrogenic effect of some PCBs reverses gonadal sex in individuals incubating at an otherwise male-producing temperature. Furthermore, certain PCBs are synergistic in their effect at very low concentrations. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sex-specific tissue weighting factors for effective dose equivalent calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X.G. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Reece, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent was defined in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 26 in 1977 and later adopted by the U.S. Nuclear REgulatory Commission. To calculate organ doses and effective dose equivalent for external exposures using Monte Carlo simulations, sex-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and sex-specific weighting factors are always employed. This paper presents detailed mathematical derivation of a set of sex-specific tissue weighting factors and the conditions which the weighting factors must satisfy. Results of effective dose equivalent calculations using female and male phantoms exposed to monoenergetic photon beams of 0.08, 0.3, and 1.0 MeV are provided and compared with results published by other authors using different sex-specific weighting factors and phantoms. The results indicate that females always receive higher effective dose equivalent than males for the photon energies and geometries considered and that some published data may be wrong due to mistakes in deriving the sex-specific weighting factors. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effect of Age, Sex, and Fertility of Angora Goats on the Quality and Quantity of Mohair. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, J. M. (John Mckinley)

    1935-01-01

    10 N A. B. CONNER, D'IRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUIVTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 516 NOVEMBEYR, 1935 DIVISION OF RANGE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EFFECT OF AGE, SEX, AND FERTILITY OF ANGORA GOATS ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF MOHAIR ? - .. - ,, mm... due to pregnancy. Maturity in females considered from the body weight stand- point for goats produced under range conditions, is not reached until the animals are 8 years old. RZaximum diameter of fiber is also reached at 8 years, but maximum...

  13. Sex Effect in the Temporal Perception of Faces Expressing Anger and Shame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laflamme, Vincent; Grondin, Simon; Bienvenue, Philippe; Labonté, Katherine; Roy, Mei-Li

    2015-01-01

    need to take into account the sex of participants and of the2001). Emotion and motivation II: Sex differences in pictureand Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Sex differences in the neural

  14. Minute Effects of Sex on the Aging Brain: A Multisample Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fjell, Anders M.

    Age is associated with substantial macrostructural brain changes. While some recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported larger age effects in men than women, others find no sex differences. As brain morphometry ...

  15. Effects of sex steroids on spatial cognition in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggis, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    It is well established in mammals that chronic, long-term elevations in sex steroids are associated with improvements in spatial cognition. It is less clear the extent to which short to medium term elevations in sex ...

  16. Population consequences of maternal effects: sex-bias in egg-laying order facilitates divergence in sexual dimorphism between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badyaev, Alex

    in sexual dimorphism between bird populations A. V. BADYAEV,* G. E. HILL & L. A. WHITTINGHAMà *Division Keywords: egg-laying order; growth; maternal effects; population divergence; sex-ratio; sexual dimorphism of these maternal adjustments was fast phenotypic change in sexual size dimorphism within and between populations

  17. Effect of housing conditions on sex differences in spatial cognition in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Anjanette Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Male mammals typically outperform females in tests of spatial ability. However, in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus), from which the majority of data in support of this difference come, sex differences are not consistently ...

  18. sdx?? sex??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sex?? H G(d). G(g). H. G(e). commutes. In other words, an H-clone of F is another diagram in the homotopy category which is. built from essentially the same ...

  19. Volunteer Bias in Sex Research: The effect of recruitment material on demographics, personality, impression management, sociosexuality, sexual desire and preoccupation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hope, David

    2008-11-10

    The study investigated volunteer bias in sex research across different measures in an online anonymous environment. 108 participants (79 female, 29 male) participated, completing one of two versions. Version A participants were recruited to a...

  20. Long-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on Spatial Memory of Mice: Role of Sex and Apolipoprotein E Isoform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villasana, Laura E.; Benice, Theodore S. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Raber, Jacob, E-mail: raberj@ohsu.ed [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the effects of cranial {sup 56}Fe irradiation on the spatial memory of mice in the water maze are sex and apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoform dependent and whether radiation-induced changes in spatial memory are associated with changes in the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Methods and Materials: Two-month-old male and female mice expressing human apoE3 or apoE4 received either a 3-Gy dose of cranial {sup 56}Fe irradiation (600 MeV/amu) or sham irradiation. Mice were tested in a water maze task 13 months later to assess effects of irradiation on spatial memory retention. After behavioral testing, the brain tissues of these mice were analyzed for synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Results: After irradiation, spatial memory retention of apoE3 female, but not male, mice was impaired. A general genotype deficit in spatial memory was observed in sham-irradiated apoE4 mice. Strikingly, irradiation prevented this genotype deficit in apoE4 male mice. A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in apoE4 female mice. Although there was no change in MAP-2 immunoreactivity after irradiation, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was increased in irradiated female mice, independent of genotype. Conclusions: The effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on the spatial memory retention of mice are critically influenced by sex, and the direction of these effects is influenced by apoE isoform. Although in female mice synaptophysin immunoreactivity provides a sensitive marker for effects of irradiation, it cannot explain the apoE genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on the spatial memory retention of the mice.

  1. The Emerging Criminal War on Sex Offenders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2010-01-01

    Act (“AWA”) in combination with other sex offender laws triggered a transition to a criminal war on sex criminals? Third, if such a criminal war is emerging, what will be the likely effects of such a transition? Fourth, if such a criminal war...

  2. Sex GENOTYPING PROTOCOL PCR PROTOCOL NAME: Sex1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Sex GENOTYPING PROTOCOL GENE NAME: PCR PROTOCOL NAME: Sex1 PCR REAGENTS: 10X NEB THERMOPOL PCR) PRIMERS: Sex1 Forward (20uM Standard Working Concentration) Sex1 Reverse (20uM Standard Working CONDITIONS: Sex (or Sex1) 95 C for 3 min 95 C for 30 sec 60 C for 1 min 35 cycles

  3. Why Sex and Recombination? N. H. Barton and B. Charlesworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Mark

    Why Sex and Recombination? N. H. Barton and B. Charlesworth R E V I E W Most higher organisms, at ei- ther the population or individual level. The effect of sex and recombination in breaking down). As defined in this way, sex is an almost universal phenomenon: there are few groups of higher eukaryotes

  4. The Effect of Environmental Contaminants on Mating Dynamics and Population Viability in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, Charlyn G.

    2010-07-14

    of time, therefore, the effect the exposed phenotype has on mating dynamics and sexual selection could be carried to non-contaminated sites if exposed individuals move to new populations. On the other hand, immigration of individuals from non...

  5. Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Tony

    Cues to the sex ratio of the local population influence women's preferences for facial symmetry-00762 Keywords: attraction dominance fluctuating asymmetry mate preference sex ratio within-sex competition intensifies within-sex competition. In two experiments, we tested for analogous effects in humans

  6. Tax Implications for Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Naomi G; Badgett, M V Lee

    2009-01-01

    of Inequality for Same-Sex Partners in Employer Retirementit from recognizing same-sex marriages. Legally marriedDisadvantages for Same-Sex Couples. The Williams Institute .

  7. SexEd : : Pedagogy, Pornography, Precocity, and Adolescent Sexual Subjectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, Carl Lee

    2014-01-01

    Porn Star .. 190 Chapter 3: Overexposed: The Science of Media Sex and the Abstract Adolescent .. 197 Movie Made Children ..

  8. Postnatal penile growth concurrent with mini-puberty predicts later sex-typed play behavior: Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasterski, Vickie; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.; Ong, Ken K.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Thankamony, Ajay; Hines, Melissa

    2015-01-15

    Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp. 863–894. Berenbaum, S.A., Hines, M., 1992. Early androgens are related to childhood sex-typed toy preferences. Psychol. Sci. 3, 203–206. Boas, M., Boisen, K.A., Virtanen, H.E., Kaleva, M., Suomi, A., Schmidt, I...

  9. Anti-Sex Trafficking Movement of Bangladesh and the Theories of Transnational Social Movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwary, Afroza

    2007-01-01

    Using reports, interview data, and participant observation, this research examines the anti-sex trafficking movement in Bangladesh, analyzing the effects of internationalization and the growth of regional and transnational efforts to curb sex...

  10. Liberating genetic variance through sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Sarah

    Liberating genetic variance through sex Andrew D. Peters and Sarah P. Otto* Summary Genetic of reproduction. Indeed, it has long been thought that sex enhances fitness variation and that this explains that sex need not always increase genetic variation in fitness. In particular, if fitness interactions

  11. The SW Sex enigma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R

    2012-01-01

    The SW Sex stars are a class of cataclysmic variables, originally identified because they shared a number of enigmatic properties - most notably, single-peaked emission lines instead of the double-peaked lines one would expect from their high-inclination accretion discs. We present high time-resolution spectrophotometry of the eclipsing nova-like variables SW Sex and DW UMa, two of the founding members of the SW Sex class. Both systems show single-peaked Balmer and HeII 4686A emission lines that appear to originate from a region in the disc that lies close to, but downstream of, the bright spot. The emission-line light curves are consistent with the finding from X-ray and ultraviolet observations that we predominantly see the flared disc rim and the unobscured back portion of the disc in these systems. In DW UMa, the HeII 4686A emission line originates from close to the white dwarf and exhibits flaring. Such flares have been used to argue for magnetically-channelled accretion, as in the intermediate polars, b...

  12. Field effect transistors with layered two-dimensional SnS22xSex conduction channels: Effects of selenium substitution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Haibing

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4819072] Sustaining Moore's Law beyond silicon-based elec- tronic devices has drawn ever for wide range of applications in areas like field effect devices,10,11 memory devices,12 and energy storage.13,14 Among this class of mate- rials, SnS2, a semiconductor with a band gap of 2.1 e

  13. Age, sex, and vowel dependencies of acoustic measures related to the voice sourcea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alwan, Abeer

    Age, sex, and vowel dependencies of acoustic measures related to the voice sourcea) Markus Iseli 2007; accepted 24 January 2007 The effects of age, sex, and vocal tract configuration on the glottal-source interaction. All talkers show a dependency of F0 on sex and on F3, and of H1 * -A3 * on vowel type. For low

  14. ARTICLE IN PRESS Sex influences on material-sensitive functional lateralization in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ARTICLE IN PRESS Sex influences on material-sensitive functional lateralization in working 19 January 2006 Research investigating the effects of sex on the lateralization of language functions has produced mixed results to date, with some studies finding sex differences and others not (Shaywitz

  15. Same Sex and Different Sex Couples in the American Community Survey: 2005-2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    of the miscoded different-sex couples. About the author GarySame-sex andDifferent-sex Couples in the American Community Survey:

  16. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities

  17. Sex Differences in Otoacoustic Emissions to Examine Underlying Cochlear Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Joshua

    2011-04-01

    the cochlear mechanism contributing to the DPOAE to the distortion mechanism using an approach we have used previously (Johnson et al., 2006, 2007). Analyses Analysis of variance was used to interpret the data statistically for the main effect of sex... the cochlear mechanism contributing to the DPOAE to the distortion mechanism using an approach we have used previously (Johnson et al., 2006, 2007). Analyses Analysis of variance was used to interpret the data statistically for the main effect of sex...

  18. Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellott, Daniel W.

    Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

  19. Transactional sex: A client's perspective from Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davtyan, Mariam; Munoz, Karen; Urada, Lianne; Brown, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    partner violence among sex workers in Mongolia: ImplicationsShah, M. Compensated for life: Sex work and disease risk inin young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national

  20. Occult Sex as a Conversational Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly Thompson, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    Books. Mutch, Thembi. 2008. Sex in Zanzibar. Woman’s Hour.shtml. Pichler, Pia. 2007. “This sex thing is sucha big issue now”: Sex talk and identities in three groups of

  1. Sex Cells Elijah Wolfson Newsweek

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sex Cells Elijah Wolfson Newsweek August 12, 2015 4:00 p.m. The media, of course, likes a big headline - the First something in history, the Biggest something of all time, the Only...

  2. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubinsky, M.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children`s Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Local mate competition and transmission bottlenecks: A new model for understanding malaria parasite and other sex ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    and other sex ratios Allison T. Neal a,n , Peter D. Taylor b a Department of Biology, University of Vermont model the effect of a non-linear female-transmission relationship on sex ratio. Decreasing fitness: Sex ratio theory Local resource competition Plasmodium a b s t r a c t The local mate competition

  4. Sex Recognition via Chemical Cues in the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Adam

    Sex Recognition via Chemical Cues in the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli to elicit receiver responses (Rowe 1999; Partan & Marler 2005; Chenoweth & Blows 2006). Sex experience stronger sexual selection, except that the constraints on the sexes differ in sex

  5. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Moral Values and Ideological Differences in Evidence-based Judgments on Adolescent Sex and Sex Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Alice X

    2008-01-01

    80 3. purity a. teen sex/ condom education promotes “M. (2006). Public opinion on sex education in US schools.J:/Joo/: Waning Vina/.r on sex and .rcx education Jinte t/

  7. Same-Sex vs. Mixed-Sex Playgroup Participation in Young Children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, Jaboa

    2013-01-01

    C. (1974). The psychology of sex dz?erences. Stanford, CA. :of school playground games: Sex and ethnic differences, andL. , & Caygill, L. (2002). Sex-typed preferences in three

  8. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: Sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    based participants identified as sex workers, had no otherYes, we only need to have sex. [How much do you get per1,3,6,8,27,28], street- based sex workers reported

  9. Sex Hormones Genotypes and Phenotypes and Determinants of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in relation to Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GOTO, ATSUSHI

    2012-01-01

    Consumption in Relation to Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin andin Relation to Circulating Sex Hormone-binding GlobulinReferences 4. Genes in Sex Hormone Pathways and Diabetes

  10. Sex releases the speed limit on evolution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colegrave, Nick

    2002-12-12

    Explaining the evolutionary maintenance of sex remains a key problem in evolutionary biology (1–3). One potential benefit of sex is that it may allow a more rapid adaptive response when environmental conditions change, ...

  11. Book Review Sex Allocation. Stuart West.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    of sex allocation (i.e., the allocation of resources to male and female reproductive function in sexualBook Review Sex Allocation. Stuart West. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009. xii þ 466, however, the explosion of research on sex allocation (ever since Charnov's [1982] landmark contribution

  12. Molecular Mechanisms in Male Sex Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arboleda, Valerie Anne

    2012-01-01

    2: Protection from C57BL/6-Y POS Sex Reversal is conferred2: Protection from C57BL/6-Y POS Sex Reversal is conferredas the cause of C57BL/6J-Y(POS) sex reversal and defines the

  13. Do humans adjust offspring sex according to the local operational sex ratio?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helle, Samuli

    Do humans adjust offspring sex according to the local operational sex ratio? Samuli Helle, 1 Pekka-Zürich), Zürich, Switzerland ABSTRACT Question: Do humans overproduce the rarer sex in response to skews in the local operational sex ratio (OSR)? And how should one define the OSR in humans? Hypothesis: We predicted

  14. Facultative Sex Allocation and Sex-Specific Offspring Survival in Barrow's Goldeneyes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Facultative Sex Allocation and Sex-Specific Offspring Survival in Barrow's Goldeneyes Kim Jaatinen Final acceptance: November 22, 2012 (J. Wright) doi: 10.1111/eth.12048 Abstract Sex allocation theory predicts that females should bias their reproductive investment towards the sex generating the greatest

  15. The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

    The species, sex, and stage specificity of a Caenorhabditis sex pheromone J. R. Chasnov*, W. K. So chemotaxis assays, we demonstrate that females secrete a potent sex pheromone that attracts males from a distance, whereas hermaphrodites do not. The female sex pheromone is not species-specific, with males

  16. Same-sex Couples in Census 2010: Race and Ethnicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    sex unmarried couples Same-sex couples interracial or24%). Less than 10% of same-sex couples are interracial orFigure 6. Percent of same-sex couples who are interracial or

  17. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have turned out to be of fundamental importance both for our understanding human sociality and for the design of digital communication technology. However, social networks are themselves based on dyadic relationships and we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide us with a unique window into the structure of relationships and the way these change across the lifespan. We here use data from a large national mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the pattern in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of the two sexes change across the lifespan: these differences mainly reflect women's shifting pattern...

  18. Why abstain from sex? building and psychometric testing of the Sexual Abstinence Motivation Scale (SAMS). 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunsmore, Sarah Catherine

    2009-05-15

    An understanding of both sexual activity and sexual abstinence among young people is crucial in preventing the negative consequences of early sex initiation. The study of motivation is essential for health educators to be effective in persuading...

  19. Variations in the Retention and Excretion of {sup 137}Cs with Age and Sex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boni, A.L.

    2001-08-29

    This report discusses the effects of age and sex on the retention and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in the body in a cross section of the general population over a four-year period.

  20. Abstract Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should bias investment toward the offspring sex that con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casto, Joseph M.

    Abstract Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should bias investment toward the offspring sex that con- fers higher relative fitness on the parents. When variance in reproductive success reproductive allocation toward sons. Modification of the primary sex ratio is one mechanism by which avian

  1. Meiotic drive and sex determination: molecular and cytological mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutkowska, Joanna

    Review Meiotic drive and sex determination: molecular and cytological mechanisms of sex ratio across ecological and social environments should favour the evolution of sex-determining mechanisms that enable adjustment of brood sex ratio to the context of breeding. Despite the expectation that genetic sex

  2. Spatial dynamics of adaptive sex ratios According to Fisherian sex allocation theory, parents that can adjust their offspring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Spatial dynamics of adaptive sex ratios Abstract According to Fisherian sex allocation theory, parents that can adjust their offspring sex ratio in response to skews in population sex ratio will maximize their fitness over parents lacking this ability. There is good evidence that adaptive sex ratio

  3. Sex in an Evolutionary Perspective: Just Another Reaction Norm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ah-King, Malin; Nylin, Sören

    2010-01-01

    we can and can’t learn about sex from animals. Berkeley:2004). Unusually dynamic sex roles in a ?sh. Nature, 429,T. , & Charnov, E. L. (1980). Sex change in plants: Old and

  4. The Economic Value of Marriage for Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2010-01-01

    a statute prohibiting same-sex marriage). C AL . C ONST .VALUE OF MARRIAGE FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES M.V. Lee Badgett * Tfor Marriage by Same-Sex Couples

  5. Secondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culled cohorts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim

    2006-01-01

    9. Lazarus, J. (2002) in Sex Ratios: Concepts and ResearchSecondary sex ratios and male lifespan: Damaged or culledreduce the human secondary sex ratio (i.e. , the odds of a

  6. Federal Estate Tax Disadvantages for Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Men, Lesbians, and Same-Sex Couples. ? Journal of Financial10-Year Age Group, Race, and Sex: United States, 1979-98. ?DISADVANTAGES FOR SAME-SEX COUPLES Michael D. Steinberger

  7. Identifying Sex Differences in Spatial Cognition in Laboratory Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettis, Tania

    2011-01-01

    4 1.3 The inconsistency of sex differences in laboratory31 3.5 Discussion of sex differences in objectEHAVIOR AND L AB M ICE . 1 1.1 Sex differences in home range

  8. Family Formation and Raising Children Among Same-sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary

    2012-01-01

    program page F13 Older same-sex Family stress and risk inRelationship education with same-sex couples page F13 Childraising children among same-sex couples by Gary J. Gates,

  9. Transgender Female Youth and Sex Work: HIV Risk and a Comparison of Life Factors Related to Engagement in Sex Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Perceived risks and bene?ts of sex work among transgenderfemale youth engage in sex work. However, the cluster or co-2008). Drug use, high-risk sex behaviors, and increased risk

  10. Sequence of the chicken sex chromosomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellott, Daniel Winston

    2010-01-01

    In birds, as in mammals, the chromosome complement determines sex. Male birds are designated ZZ, female ZW. Mammals have the opposite system; males are XY and females XX. Both the avian ZW and mammalian XY pair are believed ...

  11. Molecular Mechanisms in Male Sex Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arboleda, Valerie Anne

    2012-01-01

    184 The Role of the Human Genome Project on Disorders of SexThe Role of the Human Genome Project on Disorders of Sexto be feasible. The Human Genome project had its roots in an

  12. Anisogamy, chance and the evolution of sex roles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Anisogamy, chance and the evolution of sex roles Lukas Scha¨rer1 , Locke Rowe2 and Go¨ ran Arnqvist challenged the view that anisogamy, the defining feature of the sexes, is an impor- tant determinant of the evolution of sex roles. Sex roles are instead suggested to result from chance, or from non- heritable

  13. Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Mike

    Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in the Stickleback Fishes (Gasterosteidae) Joseph A. Ross1,2¤ , James R, United States of America Abstract Diverse sex-chromosome systems are found in vertebrates, particularly been proposed for the rapid turnover of sex chromosomes, including the transposition of an existing sex

  14. Sex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willig, Michael

    Sex-based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats STEVEN J. PRESLEY* Center by multiple evolutionary and ecological mechanisms, with natural selection affecting sex ratios as well as the distributions of each sex throughout the environment. To address sex-based aspects of population structure, I

  15. Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Nature © Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 The advantage of sex in evolving yeast populations Clifford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sex is a general feature of the life cycle of eukaryotes. It is not universal, however, as many organisms seem to lack sex entirely1 . The widespread occurrence of sex is puzzling, both because meiotic

  16. The evolution of sex-determining mechanisms: lessons from temperature-sensitive mutations in sex determination genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janzen, Fredric

    The evolution of sex-determining mechanisms: lessons from temperature-sensitive mutations in sex taxonomically conserved traits, but, paradoxically, the mechanisms that determine sex are incredibly diverse (Haag & Doty, 2005). These sex-determining mechanisms (SDMs) can be broadly grouped into two main

  17. Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually fluctuating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laaksonen, Toni

    Sex-specific recruitment and brood sex ratios of Eurasian kestrels in a seasonally and annually-ordinating editor: J. Tuomi Abstract. Timing of birth and food availability may select for biased offspring sex in brood sex ratio during the breeding season in a long-term data from 8 years. As far as we know

  18. The candidate sex-reversing DAX1 gene is autosomal in marsupials: Implications for the evolution of sex determination in mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pask, A.; Toder, R.; Wilcox, S.A. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia)] [and others] [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne (Australia); and others

    1997-05-01

    The human X-linked DAX1 gene was cloned from the region of the short arm of the human X found in duplicate in sex-reversed X{sub dup}Y females. DAX1 is suggested to be required for ovarian differentiation and to play an important role in mammalian sex determination or differentiation pathways. Its proposed dose-dependent effect on sexual development suggests that DAX1 could represent an evolutionary link with an ancestral sex-determining mechanism that depended on the dosage of an X-linked gene. Furthermore, DAX1 could also represent the putative X-linked switch gene, which independently controls sexual dimorphisms in marsupial mammals in an X-dose-dependent manner. If DAX1 has a present role in marsupial sexual differentiation or had an ancestral role in mammalian sex determination, it would be expected to lie on the marsupial X chromosome, despite the autosomal localization of other human Xp genes. We therefore cloned and mapped the DAX1 gene in the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). DAX1 was located on wallaby chromosome 5p near other human Xp genes, indicating that it was originally autosomal and that it is not involved in X-linked dose-dependent sex determination in an ancestral mammal nor in marsupial sexual differentiation. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Sex chromosomes and genetic association studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, David G.

    2009-11-24

    , but, if sex and disease status are truly related, omission of sex means that the model is mis-specified and it is necessary to use robust variance estimates for coefficients. An attraction of this method of analysis is that it allows several... . discussed inclusion of an additional parameter in the model, but were concerned about possible model mis-specification and advocated omission of such sib pairs, as have later authors [24,25]. More general pedigrees The above methods can be generalized...

  20. Risky Business: Sex-work and Young Southeast Asian American Women in Oakland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U, Nicol

    2008-01-01

    Press. ——— (b). 2001. Sex Crimes, Predators, Perpetrators,treat and “protect” young sex-workers as “victims”, how isfalling into the business of sex-work. References Bromberg,

  1. Sex, Gender, and Decisions Exploring the Cognitions and Choices that Result in Differential Outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieland, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: Aand Grossman, P. J. (2002). Sex differences and statisticalMartell, R. F. (1995). Sex stereotypes: Do they influence

  2. Sex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alford, Simon

    females do not sing songs (just make calls) canary zebra finch #12;Sexually dimorphic nuclei in songbird organizational and activational roles in this system #12;Sexually dimorphic nuclei in rat · Sexually dimorphicSex Differences and Steroid Hormone Receptors NEUS 501 October 24, 2014 #12;Sexual Differentiation

  3. Avian sex chromosomes: dosage compensation matters. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQueen, Heather A; Clinton, Michael

    2009-01-01

    of such dosage compensated genes can be found on the short arm of the Z chromosome. The implications of this new picture of avian dosage compensation for avian sex determination are discussed, along with a possible mechanism of avian dosage compensation....

  4. Sex ratios in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reece, S E; Duncan, Alison B; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2003-01-01

    The sex ratios of malaria and related Apicomplexan parasites play a major role in transmission success. Here, we address 2 fundamental issues in the sex ratios of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. First we ...

  5. In Search of Pleasure: An Exploration of Teenage Recreational Sex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichstein, Lauren

    2012-02-14

    This thesis utilizes a qualitative method to investigate recreational sex among teenagers as recounted by current college-aged students. As defined for the purposes of this thesis, recreational sex is any consensual sexual ...

  6. Selection on Gamete Recognition Proteins Depends on Sex, Density,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Selection on Gamete Recognition Proteins Depends on Sex, Density, and Genotype Frequency Don R but high binding rates in males. Polyspermy is costly to both sexes, but it never pays to be the second

  7. Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandini, Giulio

    Sex Chromosome Complement Affects Nociception and Analgesia in Newborn Mice Laura Gioiosa, Xuqi, whereas males are often more sensitive to analgesia induced by -agonists. Sex differences are found even the contribution of the direct action of sex chromosome genes in hotplate and tail withdrawal tests. We used the 4

  8. Misclassification bias: diversity in conceptualisations about having `had sex'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misclassification bias: diversity in conceptualisations about having `had sex' Stephanie A. SandersA,C,F and Robin R. MilhausenA,C,G A The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Morrison of the word `sex' has implications for both medical research and clinical practice. Little is known about how

  9. Sex differences in indirect aggression Psychological evidence from young adults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sex differences in indirect aggression Psychological evidence from young adults Nicole H. Hessa theories of sex differences in indirect aggression propose selection pressures that would have acted on older teenagers and adults. Evidence for sex differences in indirect aggression in adults, however

  10. Differentiation in sex investment by clones and populations of Daphnia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cáceres, Carla E.

    REPORT Differentiation in sex investment by clones and populations of Daphnia Alan J. Tessier1, conditions that favour dormancy are predicted to select for more sex, which should increase clonal diversity-round, and quantified the extent to which they have differentiated in their investment in dormancy and sex

  11. RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Juli

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Yolk Testosterone Varies With Sex in Eggs of the Lizard, Anolis carolinensis), a lizard with genotypic sex determination, yolk testosterone (T) concentration is greater in male previous studies. If yolk T levels are also sex-specific before eggs are laid, a period during which

  12. Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    ARTICLES Sex ratio adjustment and kin discrimination in malaria parasites Sarah E. Reece1. These parasites must undergo sexual reproduction to transmit from vertebrate hosts to vectors, and their sex ratios are consistently female-biased. Sex allocation theory, a cornerstone of evolutionary biology

  13. Is sex categorization from faces really parallel to face recognition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossion, Bruno

    Is sex categorization from faces really parallel to face recognition? Bruno Rossion Department of face processing (Bruce & Young, 1986), sex processing on faces is a parallel function to individual face recognition. One consequence of the model is thus that sex categorization on faces

  14. Offspring sex ratios correlate with pairmale condition in a cooperatively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomerie, Bob

    Offspring sex ratios correlate with pair­male condition in a cooperatively breeding fairy We examined sex allocation patterns in island and mainland populations of cooperatively breeding, provided a unique situation in which we could investigate different predictions from sex allocation theory

  15. On Sex, Evolution, and the Multiplicative Weights Update Reshef Meir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    On Sex, Evolution, and the Multiplicative Weights Update Algorithm Reshef Meir Harvard University, USA rmeir@seas.harvard.edu David Parkes Harvard University, USA parkes@eecs.harvard.edu "Sex innovative theory by Chastain et al. on the role of sex in evolution [10]. In short, the theory suggests

  16. SEX DIFFERENCES IN INTEREST IN INFANTS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maestripieri, Dario

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN INTEREST IN INFANTS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN A Biological Adaptation for Parenting? Dario Maestripieri and Suzanne Pelka The University of Chicago This study investigated sex differences responses to questionnaires. Clear sex differences, irrespective of age, emerged in all visual and verbal

  17. The Operational Sex Ratio, theThe Operational Sex Ratio, the Potential Reproductive Rate, andPotential Reproductive Rate, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    of each sex willing (or able) to mate at any given time (Kemp & Macedonia 2006) The "Operational Sex Ratio 1999; Kemp & Macedonia 2007) Mate selection and choosiness: (Rosenqvist 1993; Berglund 1994; Kokko

  18. SYMPOSIUM: SEX DIFFERENCES IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE AND SCIENCE b-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    SYMPOSIUM: SEX DIFFERENCES IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE AND SCIENCE b-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes Weiwei Dai PhD, HongLiang Zhang MD, PhD, Zhendong A. Zhong PhD, Li Jiang MD to investigate sex differences in terms of bone development and structure after bEcd administration. Methods Two

  19. Balanced Olfactory Antagonism as a Concept for Understanding Evolutionary Shifts in Moth Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a species-specific blend of several components emitted by females that strongly attracts and otherwise mediates the behavior of conspecific males. In such systems, the components of the sex pheromone blends effect individually or as part of the blend, are not pheromone components, but rather, should be called

  20. Same-Sex Couples and Marriage: Model Legislation for Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry or All Couples to Form a Civil Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pizer, Jennifer; Kuehl, Sheila James

    2012-01-01

    as of this writing). Same-Sex Couples and Marriage ModelPolicy Context different-sex married couples to file jointwith state law against sex discrimination in employment).

  1. The genetics and epigenetics of sex differences in the brain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghahramani, Negar

    2012-01-01

    modifications during brain sexual differentiation. (Arnold, and E. Vilain. (2012). Brain and behavior phenotypesThe genetics of sex differences in brain and behavior. Front

  2. Panel Review: "After the Sex Wars: Pornography and Feminism"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangwand, T-Kay

    2009-01-01

    reached beyond the anti-porn/sex-positive dichotomy tonoticeably absent within queer porn. Instead of a clear orColor, Hypersexuality, and Porn. ” Opening her presentation,

  3. Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens Richard E. Michod a,*, Harris Bernstein b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens Richard E. Michod a,*, Harris Bernstein b , Aurora M Available online 16 January 2008 Abstract Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex

  4. Sex differences and similarities in the neuroendocrine regulation of social behavior in an African cichlid fish,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Sex differences and similarities in the neuroendocrine regulation of social behavior in an African and within the social states or sexes. We aimed to determine sex-specific attributes of social status by comparing circulating sex steroid hormones and neural gene expression of sex steroid receptors in dominant

  5. Sex-based differences in gene expression in hippocampus following postnatal lead exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, J.S., E-mail: jay.schneider@jefferson.edu; Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-10-15

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning.Blood lead levels were 26.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g/dl and 27.1 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. - Highlights: > Postnatal lead exposure has a significant effect on hippocampal gene expression patterns. > At least one set of genes was affected in opposite directions in males and females. > Differentially expressed genes were associated with diverse biological pathways.

  6. bethegeneration.nih.gov Men Who Have Sex With Men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    /AIDS affecting Men who have Sex with Men? The HIV/AIDS crisis is not over. In the United States, Men who have Sex of all new HIV infections in the United States are in MSM* Nearly 1 in 3 African Americans living, particularly for MSM of color, and can contribute to the high number of AIDS-related deaths. Nearly one third

  7. Johnny Walks to School - Does Jane? Sex Differences in Children's Active Travel to School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMillan, Tracy; Day, Kristen; Boarnet, Marlon; Alfonzo, Mariela; Anderson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Johnny Walks to School—Does Jane? Sex Differences… Osborne,at Johnny Walks to School—Does Jane? Sex Differences… theBehavior Johnny Walks to School—Does Jane? Sex Differences…

  8. Advocacy Coalitions in East European Sex Tourism: The Case of Latvia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Laura A.

    2011-12-31

    of sex tourism. East European destinations such as Riga have become more prevalent and accessible for sex tourists particularly from Western Europe. Despite this influx of sex tourists, the Latvian government has not formulated a policy response to manage...

  9. Where Are the Voices? Moving Beyond HIV in the Lives of Female Sex Workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Shonali M.

    2009-01-01

    working in the commercial sex industry in Tijuana, Mexico.Establish- ment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana. toc CSWwe find women working in the sex industry in order to give

  10. Same-Sex couples in US Census Bureau Data: Who Gets Counted and Why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Gary J.  2009.   Same?sex Spouses and Unmarried  Partners Policies on  Incomes of Same?Sex Couples,”  Journal of Consequences of Legalizing Same?Sex Marriage,”   National 

  11. Separate and Not Equal: Bi-National Same–Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Change: How the Road to Same-Sex Marriage Got Paved in theIn Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Partnerships: A Study ofNot Equal: Binational Same-Sex Couples Author(s): M. V. Lee

  12. Sex in the City: Prostitution in the Age of Global Migrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Lillian S.

    2012-01-01

    Robinson. 1998. Night Market: Sex- ual Cultures and the ThaiNight Mar- ket: Tourism, Sex, and Commerce in ContemporaryJo Doezma (eds. ), Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resis- tance,

  13. FAQ: Same-Sex Couples in the 2008 American Community Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    It is possible that many same-sex couples may not understandand especially to same-sex couples to provide educationSame-Sex Couples in the 2008 American Community Survey

  14. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    of African-American same-sex couples are raising children.African-American same-sex couples raising children reportAfrican- American different-sex couples ($47,300 vs. $

  15. Demographics of Married and Unmarried Same-sex Couples: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    children being raised by same-sex couples are identified asTable 5). Among different-sex couples, approximately 9 inSteinberger, MD. 2009. Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Couples in

  16. Same-Sex Spouses and Unmarried Partners in the American Community Survey, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary

    2009-01-01

    in California were likely same- sex couples. For moreL. The Measurement of Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Couples inGeographic Trends Among Same-Sex Couples in the U.S. Census

  17. LGBT Asian and Pacific Islander Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    gender matters. Female same-sex couples report a meanthan $25,000 less than male same-sex couples ($88,500 vs. $children. Overall, API same-sex couples are more likely than

  18. The sex chromosome complement is an important determinant in obesity and related diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Jenny Chen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of XX versus XY sex chromosomes is associatedThe presence of XX versus XY sex chromosomes is associatedReue K. Metabolic impact of sex chromosomes. Adipocyte 2, 3.

  19. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenmai, A.K.; Nielsen, F.K.; Pedersen, M.; Hadrup, N.; Trier, X.; Christensen, J.H.; Vinggaard, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17?-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ? Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ? Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ? Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited synthesis of male sex hormones. ? Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ? The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.

  20. The Constitutionality of Kansas Laws Targeting Sex Offenders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    Kansas, like many States, has enacted various laws in the past several years responding to concerns about sex offenders and public safety. Most prominent are state laws that substantially increase the criminal punishment ...

  1. Sex offender Exceptionalism and Preventive Detention (Symposium: Preventive Detention)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2011-01-01

    The emerging war on sex offenders, as typical of wartime mentality, has been marked by substantial deviations from established legal doctrine, constitutional protections, and the rule of law. Because of a high level of panic among the general...

  2. Banishment By a Thousand Laws: Residency Restrictions on Sex Offenders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2007-01-01

    Across America, states, localities, and private communities are debating and implementing laws to limit the places of residence of convicted sex offenders. Twenty states and hundreds, if not thousands, of local communities have adopted statutes...

  3. Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart A; Smith, Todd G; Read, Andrew F

    2000-01-01

    Establishing the selfing rate of parasites is important for studies in clinical and epidemiological medicine as well as evolutionary biology. Sex allocation theory offers a relatively cheap and easy way to estimate selfing ...

  4. Adaptive sex ratio variation in pre-industrial human (Homo sapiens) populations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummaa, Virpi

    Adaptive sex ratio variation in pre-industrial human (Homo sapiens) populations? Virpi Lummaa-20014 Turku, Finland Sex allocation theory predicts that in a population with a biased operational sex ratio (OSR), parents will increase their ¢tness by adjusting the sex ratio of their progeny towards

  5. The sex difference in jealousy has more to do with a sex difference in emotional jealousy due to socialisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baillie, Sarah

    2008-06-27

    Objectives: Various studies have reported mixed results during their investigation of the sex difference in jealousy. The debate rages as to whether men do in fact respond more jealous to sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity compared...

  6. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2?) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2? levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  7. 05/08/2008 15:36Malaria Parasites and Sex Ratios Nimravid's Weblog Page 1 of 4http://nimravid.wordpress.com/2008/06/03/malaria-sex-rati/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    05/08/2008 15:36Malaria Parasites and Sex Ratios « Nimravid's Weblog Page 1 of 4http://nimravid.wordpress.com/2008/06/03/malaria-sex-rati/ Malaria Facts Online Learn About Malaria Symptoms & Prevention. Essential Parasites and Sex Ratios June 3, 2008 in Evolution | Tags: sex, sex ratio, malaria, parasite, mate

  8. Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowlands, J.C. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674 (United States); Budinsky, R.A. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674 (United States)]. E-mail: RABudinsky@dow.com; Aylward, L.L. [Summit Toxicology, L.L.P., 6343 Carolyn Drive, Falls Church, VA 22044 (United States); Faqi, A.S. [MPI Research, Department of Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology, 54943 N. Main Street, Mattawan, MI 49071 (United States); Carney, E.W. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland, MI 48674 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f{sub 1} sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f{sub 2} generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out.

  9. Sex- and dose-dependency in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of (+)-methamphetamine and its metabolite (+)-amphetamine in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milesi-Halle, Alessandra [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham 611, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hendrickson, Howard P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham 611, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Laurenzana, Elizabeth M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham 611, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gentry, W. Brooks [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham 611, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Owens, S. Michael [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham 611, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)]. E-mail: mowens@uams.edu

    2005-12-15

    These studies investigated how (+)-methamphetamine (METH) dose and rat sex affect the pharmacological response to METH in Sprague-Dawley rats. The first set of experiments determined the pharmacokinetics of METH and its pharmacologically active metabolite (+)-amphetamine (AMP) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats after 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg METH doses. The results showed significant sex-dependent changes in METH pharmacokinetics, and females formed significantly lower amounts of AMP. While the area under the serum concentration-time curve in males increased proportionately with the METH dose, the females showed a disproportional increase. The sex differences in systemic clearance, renal clearance, volume of distribution, and percentage of unchanged METH eliminated in the urine suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics in female rats. The second set of studies sought to determine the behavioral implications of these pharmacokinetic differences by quantifying locomotor activity in male and female rats after saline, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg METH. The results showed sex- and dose-dependent differences in METH-induced locomotion, including profound differences in the temporal profile of effects at higher dose. These findings show that the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile of METH (slower METH clearance and lower AMP metabolite formation) plays a significant role in the differential pharmacological response to METH in male and female rats.

  10. Contributed Paper Population Consequences of Environmental Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotton, Sam

    population sizes considerably. This may limit any evolutionary response to the deleterious effects of ESR sexuales y el crecimiento y persistencia de la poblaci´on despu´es de la exposici´on a fuerzas ambientales feminizaci´on moderada fue ben´efica para el crecimiento poblacional en la ausencia de efectos notables sobre

  11. Sex and Race in the History of Medicine History 447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Sex and Race in the History of Medicine History 447 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries (scholarly vs. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History Find Background Information Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine Online and REF WZ13. E565 1993

  12. SEX DETERMINATION IN GLOSSY IBIS CHICKS BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figuerola, Jordi

    to include in future analyses of sexual dimorphism in spoonbills and ibises. Key words: discriminant function, genetic analyses, glossy ibis, leg morphology, sex determination, sexual size dimorphism, Plegadis Spoonbills and ibis show strong sexual size dimorphism (Threskionidae family).The glossy ibis Plegadis

  13. NOTE / NOTE Sex ratio variation in gynodioecious species of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorken, Marcel

    NOTE / NOTE Sex ratio variation in gynodioecious species of Echium endemic to the Canary Islands Marcel E. Dorken Abstract: Species of Echium from the Canary Islands represent an adaptive radiation fertility of females and hermaphrodites were de- tected. Key words: Canary Islands, Echium, island radiation

  14. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  15. HOUSEHOLDANDSTRUCTURALINSECTS Field and Laboratory Evaluation of Female Sex Pheromone for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important pest species, The sex pheromone of the American cockroach was found to increase the num- ber, Monitoring, and Management of Brownbanded Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) DANCSHENC LIANC,I AIJUN Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 ]. Econ.Entomol.91(2): 480-485 (1998) ABSTRACT The synthetic

  16. Targeted disruption of a single sex pheromone receptor gene completely abolishes in vivo pheromone response in the silkmoth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakurai, Takeshi

    Male moths use species-specific sex pheromones to identify and orientate toward conspecific females. Odorant receptors (ORs) for sex pheromone substances have been identified as sex pheromone receptors in various moth ...

  17. Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    are being raised by same-sex couples in Kentucky, Michigan,Steinberger, MD. 2009. Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Couples inDemographics of Same-sex Couples in Kentucky, Michigan,

  18. Incorporating harm-reduction provisions in legislation to improve the well-being of sex workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    interventions targeted towards sex workers in developing6, 2014. 2. Canada’s Flawed Sex Trade Law, Julie Kaye, “Newof the Underground Commercial Sex Economy in Eight Major US

  19. The role of sex in parasite dynamics: Model simulations on transmission of Heligmosomoides polygyrus in populations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pugliese, Andrea

    The role of sex in parasite dynamics: Model simulations on transmission of Heligmosomoides Abstract We investigated possible mechanisms that could cause sex-biased parasite transmission. Two, not mutually exclusive, hypotheses were examined: that sex-bi- ased parasite transmission

  20. The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    The Impact on New Hampshire’s Budget of Allowing Same-SexSTUDY The Impact on New Hampshire’s Budget of Allowing Same-The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex

  1. The Impact on Maine's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Steinberger, Michael D; Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Community Survey data on Maine’s Same-sex couples. Ramos,to Same-Sex Couples in Maine. The Williams Institute.the recording of the deed. Maine Revenue Services Property

  2. ESTRATEGIAS DE REPODUCTIVAS: SEX RATIO Y SELECCIN SEXUAL Seleccin sexual: tambin en especies mongamas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seoane, Javier

    ESTRATEGIAS DE REPODUCTIVAS: SEX RATIO Y SELECCIÓN SEXUAL Selección sexual: también en especies respuesta inmunitaria. #12;ESTRATEGIAS DE REPODUCTIVAS: SEX RATIO Y SELECCIÓN SEXUAL Pesomediodelospollos el número de huevos pálidos. #12;ESTRATEGIAS DE REPRODUCTIVAS: SELECCIÓN SEXUAL (1) ¿Es la intensidad

  3. Sex Differences in Stress Response Circuitry Activation Dependent on Female Hormonal Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbs, Brandon

    Understanding sex differences in stress regulation has important implications for understanding basic physiological differences in the male and female brain and their impact on vulnerability to sex differences in chronic ...

  4. Same-Sex Legal Spouse Benefits and Retirement Updates (revised 1/6/2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Same-Sex Legal Spouse ­ Benefits and Retirement Updates (revised ­ 1/6/2015) Benefits Employees whose same-sex marriages are now legally recognized in Florida as of January 6, 2015, have a qualifying

  5. The Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act and the Commerce Clause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act ("SORNA") created a new federal crime of "failure to register" which is punishable by up to ten years imprisonment. Since that time, sex offenders across the country have been prosecuted...

  6. Female-biased sex ratios and the proportion of cryptic male morphs of migrant juvenile Ruffs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - sons, such as biased primary ratio and differential juvenile or adult mortality of sexes. Global bias, we report the sex ratios among juvenile Ruffs on their southward migration in Finland during 1985, and examine migration tim- ing by sex. We found a strong female bias in juvenile populations; across the study

  7. Influence of Sibling Competition on Nestling Sex Ratios of Sexually Dimorphic Gary R. Bortolotti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortolotti, Gary R.

    Influence of Sibling Competition on Nestling Sex Ratios of Sexually Dimorphic Birds Gary R Natural~st April 1986 INFLUENCE OF SIBLING COMPETITION ON NESTLING SEX RATIOS OF SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIRDS) and the rate of offspring mortality (Fisher 1930; Leigh 1970). The nestling sex ratio of altricial birds

  8. Sex Differences in Mercury Contamination of Birds: Testing Multiple Hypotheses with Meta-Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Marc J.

    size dimorphism did not explain variation in sex differences in mercury burden among breeding birds. WeSex Differences in Mercury Contamination of Birds: Testing Multiple Hypotheses with Meta-5200, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The sex of a bird can, in principle, affect exposure

  9. Split sex ratios in the social Hymenoptera: a meta-analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    Split sex ratios in the social Hymenoptera: a meta-analysis Joe¨l Meunier,a Stuart A. West, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK The study of sex allocation in social Hymenoptera (ants, bees resolution. A queen­worker conflict over sex allocation is expected because workers are more related

  10. Modeling Ideology and Predicting Policy Change with Social Media: Case of Same-Sex Marriage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Ideology and Predicting Policy Change with Social Media: Case of Same-Sex Marriage Amy X of important policy decisions. Focus- ing on the issue of same-sex marriage legalization, we exam- ine almost 2 million public Twitter posts related to same-sex marriage in the U.S. states over the course of 4 years

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Sex ratio varies with egg investment in the red-necked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sex ratio varies with egg investment in the red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus Abstract Fisher's sex ratio theory predicts that on average parents should allocate resources equally of the sex with greater variation in fitness. We tested theoretical predictions in the red-necked phalarope

  12. Sex Differences and Attitudes toward Living Donor Kidney Transplantation among Urban Black Patients on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Article Sex Differences and Attitudes toward Living Donor Kidney Transplantation among Urban Black by women and blacks. To better understand sex differences in the context of potential barriers to living for a kidney transplant (28.3% versus 52.2%, P=0.01). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sex

  13. The sociobiology of sex: inclusive fitness consequences of inter-sexual interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    Review The sociobiology of sex: inclusive fitness consequences of inter-sexual interactions Tommaso, sexual reproduction is also fraught with evolutionary tension. The possibility for members of one sex both to help and to harm members of the opposite sex was already implicit in Darwin's idea of sexual

  14. Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the roles of crowding and female age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuker, David

    Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the roles of crowding and female age with paternal genome elimination, both sexes are diploid. However, in males the chromosomes inherited from the father are deactivated during early development and eliminated from the germ line. Sex allocation theory

  15. Adaptive sex differences in growth of pre-ovulation oocytes in a passerine bird

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duckworth, Renée

    Adaptive sex differences in growth of pre-ovulation oocytes in a passerine bird Alexander V 36849, USA 5 Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, USA Maternal modification of offspring sex in birds has strong fitness consequences, however the mechanisms by which female birds can bias sex

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Sex differences in the acquisition of complex skilled movements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomplun, Marc

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Sex differences in the acquisition of complex skilled movements Nichola Rice Cohen movement sequences and show that this sex difference is accounted for by a female advantage in planning important implications for sex- sensitive instructional strategies, as well as for under- standing the human

  17. Sex-biased dispersal of adults mediates the evolution of altruism among juveniles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    Sex-biased dispersal of adults mediates the evolution of altruism among juveniles Andy Gardner that dispersal does matter if there is a sex difference in dispersal rate, even when the expression of cooperation is not conditional upon the actor's dispersal status or sex. In particular, I show

  18. Sex, Lies and Cyber-crime Dinei Florncio and Cormac Herley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herley, Cormac

    Sex, Lies and Cyber-crime Surveys Dinei Florêncio and Cormac Herley Microsoft Research, Redmond · Men claim between 3x and 9x more lifetime heterosexual partners than women. (Various sex surveys) #12 of estimate From 4998 respondents Billions FTC`06IDTheftSurvey #12;Sex and Lies Men Report 3-9x More Female

  19. Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandini, Giulio

    Sex chromosome complement affects nociception in tests of acute and chronic exposure to morphine 5 September 2007 Available online 14 September 2007 Abstract We tested the role of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones in sex differences in several different paradigms measuring nociception

  20. Sex-related dispersion of breeding deer mice in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta XUHUAXIAAND JOHNS. MILLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Xuhua

    Sex-related dispersion of breeding deer mice in the Kananaskis Valley, Alberta XUHUAXIAAND JOHNS September 17, 1985 XIA,X., andJ. S. MILLAR.1986. Sex-relateddispersionof breeding deermice in the KananaskisValley, Alberta, during the breeding seasons of 1982and 1983provided data used to analyse sex

  1. LGBT Latino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    possibility that some same-sex couples may not be counted inLatino/a Individuals and Latino/a Same-sex Couples Latino/aIndividuals in Same-sex Couples in the U.S. of Latino/a

  2. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwynne, Darryl T.

    Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex). In this study, we quantify the strength and form of selection on females of the sex-role-reversed Mormon cricket on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2010-10-15

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  4. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikram, A.; Tripathi, D.N.; Ramarao, P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India); Jena, G.B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab-160062 (India)], E-mail: gbjena@gmail.com

    2008-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic {beta}-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the {beta}-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level.

  5. RESONANCES REQUIRED: DYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 24 Sex AND HD 200964 PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-12-20

    We perform several suites of highly detailed dynamical simulations to investigate the architectures of the 24 Sextantis and HD 200964 planetary systems. The best-fit orbital solution for the two planets in the 24 Sex system places them on orbits with periods that lie very close to 2:1 commensurability, while that for the HD 200964 system places the two planets therein in orbits whose periods lie close to a 4:3 commensurability. In both cases, the proposed best-fit orbits are mutually crossing-a scenario that is only dynamically feasible if the planets are protected from close encounters by the effects of mutual mean-motion resonance (MMR). Our simulations reveal that the best-fit orbits for both systems lie within narrow islands of dynamical stability, and are surrounded by much larger regions of extreme instability. As such, we show that the planets are only feasible if they are currently trapped in mutual MMR-the 2:1 resonance in the case of 24 Sex b and c, and the 4:3 resonance in the case of HD 200964 b and c. In both cases, the region of stability is strongest and most pronounced when the planetary orbits are mutually coplanar. As the inclination of planet c with respect to planet b is increased, the stability of both systems rapidly collapses.

  6. Are there sex differences in the association between the 5HTT gene and neuroticism? A meta-analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Are there sex differences in the association between the 5HTT gene and neuroticism? A meta on neuroticism is sex. We sought to address the question of whether sex moderates the association between the 5-analytic techniques. Transformed personality trait scores were entered into a 2 · 3 ANOVA with sex (male, female

  7. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America MutationSelection Balance, Dominance and the Maintenance of Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

    and the Maintenance of Sex J. R. Chasnov Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2000 ABSTRACT A leading hypothesis for the evolutionary function of sex postulates that sex­selection balance at a single diploid gene locus, we demonstrate a significant advantage of sex due to nearly

  8. Signs of sex: what we know and how Andrew M. Schurko, Maurine Neiman and John M. Logsdon Jr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neiman, Maurine

    Signs of sex: what we know and how we know it Andrew M. Schurko, Maurine Neiman and John M. Logsdon whether a lineage engages in sex is often complicated by the potential for cryptic sex, especially among-based approaches for recognizing signs of sex and describe their applications and relevance to evolutionary biology

  9. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Mutation-Selection Balance, Dominance and the Maintenance of Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chasnov, Jeffrey R.

    and the Maintenance of Sex J. R. Chasnov Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 2000 ABSTRACT A leading hypothesis for the evolutionary function of sex postulates that sex-selection balance at a single diploid gene locus, we demonstrate a significant advantage of sex due to nearly

  10. Effects of fishing and protection on Brazilian reef fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floeter, S R; Halpern, Benjamin S; Ferreira, CEL

    2006-01-01

    292. Frédou, T. , 2004. The fishing activity on coral reefsC.M. , 2004. Effects of fishing on sex-changing CaribbeanR.F.G. , 2005. Effects of fishing pressure and trophic group

  11. An Examination of Sex, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in Experiences and Consequences of Workplace Incivility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurbrugg, Lauren Elders

    2012-10-19

    Theories of intersectionality and selective incivility framed this study of interactions between sex, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, and their relationship with incivility and psychological and occupational outcomes. ...

  12. Predictors of Workplace Sexual Health Policy at Sex Work Establishments in the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morisky, Donald E

    2008-01-01

    Mandel, 1995), and the Philippines (Morisky et al. , 1998;their managers in the Philippines. Prior studies demonstratebased sex workers in the Philippines. Unique to this study

  13. Evolution of Male Coloration in The Wild: The Role of Sex Linkage and Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Swanne Pamela

    2011-01-01

    and heritability limits evolution. PLOS (Public Library ofand J. Parsch. 2007. The evolution of sex-biased genes andPoecilia reticulata. Evolution Endler, J. A. 1986. Natural

  14. IS THERE A VIABILITY-VULNERABILITY TRADEOFF? SEX DIFFERENCES IN FETAL PROGRAMMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDMAN, CURT A; GLYNN, LAURA M; DAVIS, ELYSIA POGGI

    2013-01-01

    in developmental programming models. Reproduction. 2013;Matthews SG. Fetal programming of hypothalamo- pituitary-Bale TL. Sex-specific programming of offspring emotionality

  15. Condom use and its correlates among female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Trung Nam; Detels, Roger; Lan, Hoang Phuong

    2006-01-01

    Surveillance Report. Hanoi, Vietnam: Ministry of Health.female sex workers in Hanoi, Vietnam - A qualitative study.transitional economy of Vietnam. FAO Vietnam, Hanoi. Ghys,

  16. SIZE, AGE, SEXUAL MATURITY; AND SEX RATIO IN OCEAN QUAHOGS, ARCTICA ISLANDICA LINNE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    most other bivalves, lack external characteristics for a de- termination of sex, maturation I had reported finding many ocean quahogs in the partial spawning con- dition in mid

  17. Genome structure and primitive sex chromosome revealed in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Blaudez, D [UMR, France

    2008-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive genetic map for Populus and ordered 332 Mb of sequence scaffolds along the 19 haploid chromosomes in order to compare chromosomal regions among diverse members of the genus. These efforts lead us to conclude that chromosome XIX in Populus is evolving into a sex chromosome. Consistent segregation distortion in favor of the sub-genera Tacamahaca alleles provided evidence of divergent selection among species, particularly at the proximal end of chromosome XIX. A large microsatellite marker (SSR) cluster was detected in the distorted region even though the genome-wide distribute SSR sites was uniform across the physical map. The differences between the genetic map and physical sequence data suggested recombination suppression was occurring in the distorted region. A gender-determination locus and an overabundance of NBS-LRR genes were also co-located to the distorted region and were put forth as the cause for divergent selection and recombination suppression. This hypothesis was verified by using fine-scale mapping of an integrated scaffold in the vicinity of the gender-determination locus. As such it appears that chromosome XIX in Populus is in the process of evolving from an autosome into a sex chromosome and that NBS-LRR genes may play important role in the chromosomal diversification process in Populus.

  18. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Kira C. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, 1518 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Jackson, Leila W. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, WG37, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-4945 (United States); Lynch, Courtney D. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, 134 Cary Hall, University at Buffalo, State of New York, 3434 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14214-3000 (United States); Buck Louis, Germaine M. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  19. Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

  20. Sex ratios, bill deformities, and PCBs in nestling double-crested cormorants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Biological Service, Madison, WI (United States); Tuinen, P. van [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Deformed double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) nestlings examined from 1988--1992 had a sex ratio highly skewed toward females (66 of 81) compared to normal nestlings (43 of 80) (P < 0.005). The collection site, Green Bay, WI, is heavily contaminated with PCBs and the possibility of gender alteration was investigated in a designed study by comparing the sex of nestling birds determined using three techniques. These nestlings were collected at five sites, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Genetic sex was determined by cytogenetic techniques and phenotypic sex was determined by macroscopic and histologic examination of gonads. Differences between techniques resulted in a few instances of classifying genetic males as females by one or the other gonadal examinations. Sex ratios of the nestlings from the five sites were compared to binomial distributions assuming equal probabilities of males and females. Sex ratios of normal nestlings were not different from expected regardless of sex determination technique (P > 0.10). Deformed nestlings sexed cytogenetically or histologically did not differ from expected (P > 0.40), but deformed nestlings tended to be classified , macroscopically as females at a higher rate than expected (P = 0.092). The observed sex ratios obtained by macroscopic techniques did not differ between the 1968--1992 observational study and the designed study (P > 0.50). Histologic examination suggested two explanations for the skewed sex ratio: nestlings with undeterminable macroscopic sex usually had testes and, some gonads which grossly resembled ovaries were, in fact, testes. If phenotypic gender alteration is present in these birds, it is more evident at the gross structural level than at the histologic level.

  1. The hyperthermia mediated by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is sensitive to sex differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyeth, Richard P. [Division of Pharmacology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Division of Physiology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Mills, Edward M. [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ullman, Alison [Division of Pharmacology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Division of Physiology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Kenaston, M. Alexander; Burwell, Johanna [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sprague, Jon E. [Division of Pharmacology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Division of Physiology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA 24060 (United States); Raabe College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810 (United States)], E-mail: j-sprague@onu.edu

    2009-02-15

    Female subjects have been reported to be less sensitive to the hyperthermic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamine (MDMA) than males. Studies were designed to examine the cellular mechanisms involved in these sex sensitive differences. Gonadectomized female and male rats were treated with a 200 {mu}g 100 {mu}L{sup -1} of estrogen or 100 {mu}g 100 {mu}L{sup -1} of testosterone respectively every 5 days for a total of three doses. Rats were then challenged with either saline or MDMA (20 mg kg{sup -1}, sc). Rats were then euthanized and aortas were constricted, in vitro, by serial phenylephrine (Phe) addition with or without the inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, g-nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester (L-NAME). Skeletal muscle uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression was measured as well as plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels. All males but no females developed hyperthermia following MDMA treatment. The EC{sub 50} for Phe dose response curves increased only in the females treated with MDMA and T{sub max} for Phe increased following L-NAME only in the females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in plasma NE following MDMA treatment; however, males displayed a significantly greater NE concentration. Skeletal muscle UCP3 expression was 80% less in females than in males. These results suggest that the inability of MDMA to induce a thermogenic response in the female subjects may be due to four sex-specific mechanisms: 1) Female subjects have reduced sympathetic activation following MDMA challenge; 2) Female vasculature is less sensitive to {alpha}{sub 1}-AR stimulation following MDMA challenge; 3) Female vasculature has an increased sensitivity to NO; 4) UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle is less in females.

  2. Disciplinary Differences in Research Performance by Female Academicians: The Effect of the Proportion of Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebne, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    n.d. ). "The Effect of the proportion of women on salaries:l977b). "Some effects of proportions life: skewed sex ratiosTHE EFFECT OF THE PROPORTION OF WOMEN Douglas Rebne Paper

  3. Sex workers in Chennai, India: negotiating gender and sexuality in the time of AIDS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sariola, Salla

    Risk of HIV and illness are the dominant context in which sex work is discussed in India and there is a lacuna of social scientific analysis of sex workers’ lives. HIV interventions negotiated between global actors such as UNAIDS, World Bank, USAID...

  4. Gametocyte sex ratio in single-clone infections of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    of parasite gametes within the vector. A higher proportion of male gametocytes is favoured under conditions system later in the infection. Recent experimental studies reveal genetic variation for gametocyte sex ratio, suggesting genetic variation for some life-history trait, possibly male fecundity. Key words: sex

  5. Ecological context and metapopulation dynamics affect sex-ratio variation among dioecious plant populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Spencer C.H.

    Ecological context and metapopulation dynamics affect sex-ratio variation among dioecious plant the literature were analysed to investigate ecological correlates of among- population sex-ratio variation-ratio bias was associated with the proportion of non-repro- ductive individuals, with greater male bias

  6. Gametocyte sex ratio of a malaria parasite: response to experimental manipulation of parasite clonal diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    ratio theory posits that the adaptive proportion of male to female gametocytes of a malaria parasite are suggested for the observed variation of gametocyte sex ratio among P. mexicanum infections. Key words- Chwatt, 1985). The gametocyte sex ratio, or proportion of male to female gametocytes in the vertebrate

  7. Risk Assessment 1 Running Head: PREDICTION ISSUES IN SEX OFFENDER RISK ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grove, William M.

    Risk Assessment 1 Running Head: PREDICTION ISSUES IN SEX OFFENDER RISK ASSESSMENT Prediction Issues and the Role of Incremental Validity in Sex Offender Risk Assessment Martin D. Lloyd University of Minnesota #12;Risk Assessment 2 Abstract We review issues of prediction and discuss their relevance

  8. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Grown Bi2Te3-xSex Nanoplatelet Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Solution Grown Bi2Te3-xSex Nanoplatelet Composites Ajay Soni on the enhanced thermoelectric properties of selenium (Se) doped bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3-xSex) nanoplatelet (NP transport measure- ments, we show that both the thermoelectric power S (-259 V/K) and the figure of merit ZT

  9. Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota: Analyses of the 2013 American Community Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    GJ. 2015. Demographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas,Steinberger, MD. 2009. Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Couples inDemographics of Same-sex Couples in Arkansas, Missouri,

  10. vol. 165, no. 5 the american naturalist may 2005 A Dimensionless Invariant for Relative Size at Sex Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    vol. 165, no. 5 the american naturalist may 2005 A Dimensionless Invariant for Relative Size at Sex enhancement: table. abstract: Recent comparative studies across sex-changing animals have found that the relative size and age at sex change are strikingly invariant. In particular, 91%­97% of the variation

  11. The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal Shalosh B. EKHAD1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    The Number of Same-Sex Marriages in a Perfectly Bisexual Population is Asymptotically Normal attracted to either sex and chooses his or her mate according to other criteria. Also assume that everyone gets married. Then the expectation of the random variable "Number of same-sex marriages" is 2n (2 n - 1

  12. Preliminary sex differences in human cortical BOLD fMRI activity during the preparation of increasingly complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio, Lauren E.

    Preliminary sex differences in human cortical BOLD fMRI activity during the preparation imaging (fMRI) to show significant sex-related differences in human brain activity during visual-to-motor transformation tasks. Although the behavioural performance of the male and female groups did not differ, sex

  13. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young C. [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: youckim@snu.ac.kr; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S. [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae H. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Shinrim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Y. [College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Shinyong-Dong, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.

  14. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaff »VehicleEffective TeachingEffects of

  15. Sex differences in social focus across the lifecycle in humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way lifehistory influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to the age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age and gender-related differences that we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.

  16. The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Maine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Community Survey data on Maine?s Same-sex couples. Teng,union statute would treat a Maine marriage has a valid civilNew Hampshire might come to Maine to marry than from other

  17. The human sex ratio in New York City did not change after 11 September 2001.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lydersen, Stian

    2007-01-01

    populations as large as New York City’s how often they wouldof 11 September 2001 in New York City, Hum Reprod. Advance 3The human sex ratio in New York City did not change after 11

  18. The Impact on the New Mexico Budget of Offering Domestic Partnerships to Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, Brad

    2010-01-01

    same-sex couples in New Mexico who choose to celebrate theirThe Impact on the New Mexico Budget of Offering DomesticCommittee of the New Mexico Senate Presented by Professor

  19. The Economic Impact of Extending Marriage to Same-Sex Couples in Vermont

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    March 2008). A copy of a Vermont marriage license costs $10.00. Vermont Department of Health. http://Impact on the State of Vermont of Allowing Same-Sex Couples

  20. Counting on Couples: Fiscal Savings From Allowing Same-Sex Couple to Marry in Connecticut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Curtis, Patrice; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    visited Oct. 30, 2004). Connecticut General Assembly, OfficeSame-Sex Partners In Connecticut, 2002-R- 0834, 10/05/2002,visited Dec. 17, 2004). Connecticut General Assembly, Office

  1. Somatic Sex Determination in D. melanogaster: Insights in the Establishment to Maintenance Transition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Rojos, Alejandra Noemi

    2012-07-16

    In Drosophila melanogaster, sex is determined at the preblastoderm stage via an Xchromosome counting mechanism. During this process embryos that carry two X chromosomes begin to develop as females while embryos with one X start the male...

  2. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE HUMAN CONNECTOME: 4-TESLA HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION IMAGING (HARDI diffusion imaging at 4 Tesla, we scanned 234 young adult twins and siblings (mean age: 23.4 ± 2.0 SD years

  3. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trani, Daniela; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia; Maastricht Radiation Oncology Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht ; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P.; Datta, Kamal; Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia ; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  4. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qai, Qiang [University of Iowa; Rushton, Gerald [University of Iowa; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  5. Genome structure and emerging evidence of an incipient sex chromosome in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Tongming [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Sewell, Mitchell [ORNL; Woolbright, Dr. Scott [North Arizona University; Allan, Dr. Gery [North Arizona University; Kelleher, Colin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Douglas, Carl [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Wang, Prof. Mingxiu [Nanjing Forestry University, China; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The genus Populus consists of dioecious woody species with largely unknown genetic mechanisms for gender determination. We have discovered genetic and genomic features in the peritelomeric region of chromosome XIX that suggest this region of the Populus genome is in the process of developing characteristics of a sex chromosome. We have identified a gender-associated locus that consistently maps to this region. Furthermore, comparison of genetic maps across multiple Populus families reveals consistently distorted segregation within this region. We have intensively characterized this region using an F1 interspecific cross involving the female genotype that was used for genome sequencing. This region shows suppressed recombination and high divergence between the alternate haplotypes, as revealed by dense map-based genome assembly using microsatellite markers. The suppressed recombination, distorted segregation, and haplotype divergence were observed only for the maternal parent in this cross. Furthermore, the progeny of this cross showed a strongly male-biased sex ratio, in agreement with Haldane's rule that postulates that the heterogametic sex is more likely to be absent, rare, or sterile in interspecific crosses. Together, these results support the role of chromosome XIX in sex determination and suggest that sex determination in Populus occurs through a ZW system in which the female is the heterogametic gender.

  6. Absence of correlation between Sry polymorphisms and XY sex reversal caused by the M.m. domesticus Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, C.; Nagamine, C.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Vanderbilt Univ., School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Winkinig, H.; Weichenhan, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)] [Medizinische Universitaet Zu Luebeck (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Mus musculus domesticus Y chromosomes (Y{sup DOM} Chrs) vary in their ability to induce testes in the strain C57BL/6J. In severe cases, XY females develop (XY{sup DOM} sex reversal). To identify the molecular basis for the sex reversal, a 2.7-kb region of Sry, the testis-determining gene, was sequenced from Y{sup DOM} Chrs linked to normal testis determination, transient sex reversal, and severe sex reversal. Four mutations were identified. However, no correlation exists between these mutations and severity of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. RT-PCR identified Sry transcripts in XY{sup DOM} sex-reversed fetal gonads at 11 d.p.c., the age when Sry is hypothesized to function. In addition, no correlation exists between XY{sup DOM} sex reversal and copy numbers of pSx1, a Y-repetitive sequence whose deletion is linked to XY sex reversal. We conclude that SRY protein variants, blockade of Sry transcription, and deletion of pSx1 sequences are not the underlying causes of XY{sup DOM} sex reversal. 63 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Evolution of sex and recombination in large, finite populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartfield, Matthew

    2012-06-22

    This thesis investigates how breaking apart selection interference (‘Hill-Robertson’ effects) that arises between linked loci can select for higher levels of recombination. Specifically, it mainly studies how the presence ...

  8. The SW Sex phenomenon as an evolutionary stage of Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidtobreick, Linda

    2012-01-01

    From recent large observing campaigns, one finds that nearly all non- or weakly magnetic cataclysmic variables in the orbital period range between 2.8 and 4 hours are of SW Sex type and as such experience very high mass transfer rates. The evolution of cataclysmic variables as for any interacting binary is driven by angular momentum loss which results in a decrease of the orbital period on evolutionary time scales. In particular, all long-period systems need to cross the SW Sex regime of the orbital period distribution before entering the period gap. This makes the SW Sex phenomenon an evolutionary stage in the life of a cataclysmic variable. Here, I present a short overview of the current state of research on these systems.

  9. Sex Work in Second Life: Scripts, presence, and Bounded Authenticity in a Virtual Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    from the Internet of 1994. Conclusion $V#3;ÀHGJOLQJ#3; WHFKQRORJLHV#3; RI#3; WKH#3; SDVW#3; KDYH#3; RIWHQ#3; EHHQ#3;¿UVW#3; exploited for sexual purposes4, an argument could be made that 4#3;6XFK#3;DV#3;KRZ#3;WKH#3;¿UVW#3;PRYLQJ#3... signal a heightened sense of intimacy and is a premium feature of virtual sex as an erotic service. These ¿QGLQJV#3;SURYLGH#3;IXUWKHU#3;HYLGHQFH#3;IRU#3;%HUQVWHLQ¶V#3;QRWLRQ#3;RI#3;ERXQGHG#3; authenticity, as virtual sex is a...

  10. EFFECTS OF ESTRADIOL, SEX, AND SEASON ON ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA mRNA EXPRESSION AND FOREBRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Juli

    regions in females compared to males [Beck LA, Wade J (2009b) Sexually dimorphic estrogen re- ceptor m rodents and birds. In green anole lizards estradiol facilitates receptivity in fe- males but, unlike production of appropriate sexual behaviors, perhaps by modifying mor- phology of relevant brain regions

  11. Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: effects of scale, sex, and interspecific interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Maria João; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    orchards (mainly pears, Pyrus bourgeana), figs (Ficus carica), loquats (Eriobrotya japonica), and urban

  12. Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: effects of scale, sex, and interspecific interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Maria João; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    homing techniques (Palomares and Delibes 1992; White and453 Matos HM, Santos MJ, Palomares F, Santos-Reis M (2008)of Wisconsin Press, Madison Palomares F, Delibes M (1992)

  13. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. - Highlights: • Currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting (ED) potential in vitro. • ED effects can be mediated via sex hormone receptors and/or the aromatase enzyme. • Additive mixture effects on androgen receptor transactivity were observed.

  14. Gene Conversion and DNA Sequence Polymorphism in the Sex-Determination Gene fog-2 and Its Paralog ftr-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergthorsson, Ulfar

    Gene Conversion and DNA Sequence Polymorphism in the Sex-Determination Gene fog-2 and Its Paralog to duplication events. fog-2, a sex-determination gene unique to Caenorhabditis elegans and implicated of unknown function. Synonymous sequence divergence in regions of fog-2 and ftr-1 (excluding recent gene

  15. U.S. Navy Promotion and Retention by Race and Sex Amos Golan, American University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    U.S. Navy Promotion and Retention by Race and Sex Amos Golan, American University William Greene The Navy's promotion-retention process involves two successive decisions: The Navy decides whether an individual is selected for promotion, and then, conditional on the Navy's decision, the sailor decides

  16. American Journal of Botany 92(8): 12641269. 2005. POLLINATION SUCCESS ACROSS AN ELEVATION AND SEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    and ecological factors may influence these parameters. I analyzed the consequences of variation in population sex increased with elevation, suggesting that the higher availability of pollen due to the increased proportion in populations with a proportion of females 50%, although both pollination success and natural fruit set

  17. Sex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    , John L. Gittleman and Kate E. Jones 3. Sexual Size Dimorphism in Birds , Tamás Székely, Terje Lislevand in the Hartebeest, Isabella Capellini 13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Offspring Vulnerability in Birds, EllenSex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism Edited by Daphne J

  18. Sex Differences, but No Seasonal Variations in the Hippocampus of Food-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    - onstrated in food-caching animals. Such results suggest that sexually dimorphic spatial learning (sex in the structure of the hippocampus; however, this sexual dimorphism does not vary seasonally in adulthood; sexual dimorphism; spatial learning; seasonal behavior; wild adult eastern gray squirrels A number

  19. Light Transmission as a Criterion for Sorting Pacific Herring, Clupea harengus pallas;, by Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light Transmission as a Criterion for Sorting Pacific Herring, Clupea harengus pallas;, by Sex A, male and female herring were subjected to light transmission in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm. Males differed significantlyfrom females in trans mission response. Thus, light transmission may be used

  20. Sex-specific epigenetic disruption and behavioral changes following low-dose in utero bisphenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Sex-specific epigenetic disruption and behavioral changes following low-dose in utero bisphenol, and approved April 25, 2013 (received for review August 15, 2012) Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor widely used in the production of plastics and found

  1. Application of sexed semen technology to in vitro embryo production in cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    Application of sexed semen technology to in vitro embryo production in cattle Matthew B. Wheeler a transferred either as single or bilateral twin embryos into beef cattle recipients, demonstrating of offspring for their herds. For dairy cattle, this means heifer calves. According to the Livestock Reporter

  2. POPULATION ECOLOGY Offspring Sex Ratio and Number in Response to Proportion of Host

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Bethia H.

    POPULATION ECOLOGY Offspring Sex Ratio and Number in Response to Proportion of Host Sizes and Ages encounter variable distributions of host quality. Here I examine how the proportion of hosts that are small Spalangia cameroni Perkins parasitizing Musca domestica L. pupae. With increasing proportion of small hosts

  3. Sex difference in the principal cytochrome P-450 for tributyltin metabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohhira, Shuji [Department of Hygiene, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu-machi, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: s-ohhira@dokkyomed.ac.jp; Enomoto, Mitsunori [Department of Hygiene, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu-machi, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan); Matsui, Hisao [Department of Hygiene, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu-machi, Tochigi 321-0293 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    Tributyltin is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 (CYP) system enzymes, and its metabolic fate may contribute to the toxicity of the chemical. In the present study, it is examined whether sex differences in the metabolism of tributyltin exist in rats. In addition, the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of tributyltin was investigated using rat hepatic CYP systems to confirm the principal CYP involved. A significant sex difference in metabolism occurred both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that one of the CYPs responsible for tributyltin metabolism in rats is male specific or predominant at least. Eight cDNA-expressed rat CYPs, including typical phenobarbital (PB)-inducible forms and members of the CYP2C subfamily, were tested to determine their capability for tributyltin metabolism. Among the enzymes studied, a statistically significant dealkylation of tributyltin was mediated by CYP2C6 and 2C11. Furthermore, the sex difference in metabolism disappeared in vitro after anti-rat CYP2C11 antibody pretreatment because CYP2C11 is a major male-specific form in rats. These results indicate that CYP2C6 is the principal CYP for tributyltin metabolism in female rats, whereas CYP2C11 as well as 2C6 is involved in tributyltin metabolism in male rats, and it is suggested that CYP2C11 is responsible for the significant sex difference in the metabolism of tributyltin observed in rats.

  4. Sex determination of the feral house cat Felis catus using multivariate statistical analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pretoria, University of

    c'J \\3 Sex determination of the feral house cat Felis catus using multivariate statistical analyses measurements of feral domestic cats Felis catus by principal component and discriminant function analyses blem arose in a study on the population ecology of thr feral domestic cat, Felis catus, inhabiting

  5. Virtual navigation in humans: the impact of age, sex, and hormones on place learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Derek

    Virtual navigation in humans: the impact of age, sex, and hormones on place learning Ira Driscolla cognition in humans, while the Morris water task (MWT) is a preferred method in the domain of nonhuman animal research. The MWT is sensitive to hippocampal damage, a structure critical for normal learning

  6. Prejudice in the evaluation of job applicants via two modes of presentation: the effects of age, sex, health, work status, and subject sex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manson, Sapir

    1979-01-01

    APPENDIX 8 APPENDIX C APPENDIX D 19 19 22 26 27 31 32 53 58 91 100 107 124 1Z6 129 135 1X Page APPENDIX E. APPENDIX F. APPENDIX G. APPENDIX H. APPENDIX I. APPENDIX J. APPENDIX K. VITA. 139 143 152 159 213 223 232 236... as various subject populations, many of whom have significant con- tact with the elderly. Although most attitude surveys have reported negati ve attitudes toward the aged, some of the results have not been consistent (see Brubaker 6 Powers, 1976, Connor et...

  7. Vellai et al., 2006 Sex bias in learning in C. elegans Effects of sex and insulin/IGF-1 signaling on performance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gems, David

    University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, Budapest, H-1117, Hungary Tel.: (36-1)-209-0555 Ext: 8684 Fax: (36-1)-209-0555

  8. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U

  9. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M UniversityLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age

  10. On why keeping sex for marriage isn't such a stupid idea The Queen's College Chapel 27/5/2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    1 On why keeping sex for marriage isn't such a stupid idea The Queen's College Chapel 27 and some don't want to have sex on a first date, but once you are going out, it is expected that you will be having sex. I remember when I was a graduate student, I got mumps which developed, I later

  11. Wasp sex ratios when females on a patch are related DAVID M. SHUKER*, SARAH E. REECE*, JON A. L. TAYLOR* & STUART A. WEST*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    Wasp sex ratios when females on a patch are related DAVID M. SHUKER*, SARAH E. REECE*, JON A. L 12 November 2003; final acceptance 4 December 2003; MS. number: 7865) Optimality theory of sex sex ratio behaviour in numerous species. Extensions to the basic theory have included more specific

  12. Page 1 of 2 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, or veteran status. The Texas A

  13. Page 1 of 2 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information, or veteran status

  14. On the SW Sex-type eclipsing cataclysmic variable SDSS0756+0858

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Hernandez, Mercedes Stephania; González-Buitrago, Diego; Zharikov, Sergey; García-Díaz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic and photometric study of SDSS J075653.11+085831. X-ray observations were also attempted. We determined the orbital period of this binary system to be 3.29 hr. It is a deep eclipsing system, whose spectra show mostly single-peaked, Balmer emission lines and a rather intense He II line. There is also the presence of faint (often double-peaked) He I emission lines as well as several absorption lines, Mg I being the most prominent. All of these features point toward the affiliation of this object with the growing number of SW Sex-type objects. We developed a phenomenological model of an SW Sex system to reproduce the observed photometric and spectral features.

  15. Dusky dolphins in New Zealand: group structure by sex and relatedness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton, Deborah Ellen

    2007-04-25

    of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Bernd Würsig Committee Members, Sharon Gursky April Harlin-Cognato Rodney Honeycutt....S., Wake Forest University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Bernd Würsig The sex of and genetic relatedness among interacting individuals are known to be biologically fundamental features that characterize the composition of animal groups...

  16. The relationship between sex guilt and responses to violent, degrading, and erotic material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Deborah Ann

    1989-01-01

    (1968) defines as "a generalized expectancy for self-mediated internalized standards of pr oper conduct" (p. 690). Guiit is therefore conceptualized by Nosher as a form of personality disposition containing affective, cognitive, and action... by a young man" (Nosher 8, Greenberg, 1969, p. 473). Erotic stimulus materials were used in a study by Ray and Walker (1973). Subjects were first divided into high and low sex guilt groups on the basis of their scores on the Nosher Forced...

  17. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F{sub 2} progeny

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Masahiko [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, 332-0012 (Japan)]. E-mail: ikedam@ys2.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp; Tamura, Masashi [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Yamashita, Junko [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Suzuki, Chinatsu [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); Tomita, Takako [University of Shizuoka, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, 52-1, Yada, Shizuoka, 422 8526 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Kawaguchi, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F{sub 1}) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2}) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F{sub 1}) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F{sub 2} offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F{sub 1}), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F{sub 2})

  18. 138 CHAPTER EIGHT / BELL I advocate a dual view of sexuality and recombination. B~cause sex acts as an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Mark

    for nonzero are renewable, there C . . ed b . rates of sex and recombination as the result of genetic work. CHAPTER IS MEIOTIC RECOMBINATION AN ADAPTATION FOR REPAIRING DNA, PRODUCING GENETIC VARIATION

  19. A Comparative Study of Sex Salary Differentials for Full-time Workers with a Degree in Science or Engineering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinley, Rayna L.

    2010-07-14

    This thesis compares two datasets, the Science and Engineering Indicators 2006 (SEI) and the 1993 National Survey of College Graduates (NSCG), and looks at the impact of sex on full-time annual salary while controlling for different variables...

  20. REPRODUCfIVE CYCLE, FECUNDITY, AND SEX RATIOS OF THE RED PORGY, PAGRUS PAGRUS(PISCES: SPARIDAE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    departure from the expected 1:1 sex ratio when data were stratified by month, year, and size. Females were Center, National Marine Fish- eries Service, NOAA, Beaufort, NC 28516. 2Headhoats are those that charge

  1. Cancer-specific variation in emergency presentation by sex, age and deprivation across 27 common and rarer cancers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, G. A.; Shelton, J.; Johnson, S.; Elliss-Brookes, L.; Lyratzopoulos, G.

    2015-03-03

    logistic regression model that, conditional on being a cancer case, predicts the emergency presentation status (yes/no binary variable) adjusting for age, sex, deprivation group, year of diagnosis and cancer (model 1). Subsequently, we examined whether... age groups (laryngeal, melanoma, thyroid, oral, anal, brain, oropharynx, renal cancer and soft-tissue sarcoma). For one cancer (ALL), the reverse pattern was observed. For the remaining cancers (AML, colon, stomach, oesophageal, liver, bladder, Sex6 O...

  2. Dimensions of Racism and their Impact on Partner Selection among Men who have Sex with Men of Colour: Understanding Pathways to Sexual Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ro, Annie; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Homophobia, Poverty, and Racism on the Mental Health of Gaythe Relationship between Racism and Unsafe Sex among Asianas Biology Is. Fiction, Racism as a Social Problem Is Real -

  3. Sprague-Dawley rats display metabolism-mediated sex differences in the acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonsart, Julien [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Menet, Marie-Claude [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Plateau Spectrometrie de Masse (IFR 71), Service de Chimie Analytique, Paris F-75006 (France); Decleves, Xavier [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Galons, Herve [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U648, Paris F-75006 (France); Crete, Dominique; Debray, Marcel; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Noble, Florence [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France)]|[INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France)], E-mail: florence.noble@univ-paris5.fr

    2008-07-01

    The use of the amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has been associated with unexplained deaths. Male humans and rodents are more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females, including a potentially lethal hyperthermia. MDMA is highly metabolized to five main metabolites, by the enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP2D. The major metabolite in rats, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), also causes hyperthermia. We postulated that the reported sex difference in rats is due to a sexual dimorphism(s). We therefore determined (1) the LD50 of MDMA and MDA, (2) their hyperthermic effects, (3) the activities of liver CYP1A2 and CYP2D, (4) the liver microsomal metabolism of MDMA and MDA, (5) and the plasma concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites 3 h after giving male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats MDMA (5 mg.kg{sup -1} sc). The LD50 of MDMA was 2.4-times lower in males than in females. MDMA induced greater hyperthermia (0.9 deg. C) in males. The plasma MDA concentration was 1.3-fold higher in males, as were CYP1A2 activity (twice) and N-demethylation to MDA (3.3-fold), but the plasma MDMA concentration (1.4-fold) and CYP2D activity (1.3-fold) were higher in females. These results suggest that male SD rats are more sensitive to MDMA acute toxicity than are females, probably because their CYP1A2 is more active, leading to higher N-demethylation and plasma MDA concentration. This metabolic pathway could be responsible for the lethality of MDMA, as the LD50 of MDA is the same in both sexes. These data strongly suggest that the toxicity of amphetamine-related drugs largely depends on metabolic differences.

  4. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonsart, Julien, E-mail: julien.fonsart@lrb.aphp.f [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France); INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France); Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Biologique, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris F-75010 (France); Menet, Marie-Claude [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Plateau Spectrometrie de Masse (IFR 71), Service de Chimie Analytique, Paris F-75006 (France); Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier [Universite Paris Descartes, Faculte de Pharmacie, Paris F-75006 (France); CNRS, UMR 7157, Paris F-75006 (France); INSERM, U705, Paris F-75006 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC{sub last} and C{sub max} were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC{sub last} and t{sub 1/2} were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C{sub max} and AUC{sub last} were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC{sub last} of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  5. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Leslie, Traci C., E-mail: traci.leslie@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hatfield, Kimberly P., E-mail: kpm9786@yahoo.co [Program in Toxicology and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  6. Research Article Effects of Roads and Crabbing Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorcas, Michael E.

    Research Article Effects of Roads and Crabbing Pressures on Diamondback Terrapin Populations tidal creeks to evaluate the current relationships between road and crabbing pressures and the abundance to proximity to roads. Sex ratios did not vary significantly with crabbing activity or proximity to roads

  7. Multi-year SeaSonal Sex-allocation PatternS in red-winged BlackBirdS (AgelAius phoeniceus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weatherhead, Patrick J.

    Multi-year SeaSonal Sex-allocation PatternS in red-winged BlackBirdS (AgelAius phoeniceus) Patrick had been proposed. Instead, seasonal sex-allocation patterns interacted with season length. Early late in the season and those earlier (early plus midseason) was a strong function of season length

  8. Table HIST002R_1. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, David

    _1. Death rates for 113 selected causes, by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979Table HIST002R_1. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United though the cause-of-death titles may be the same. Deaths rates are per 100,000 population in specified

  9. Table HIST002R_2. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979-98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, David

    _2. Death rates for 113 selected causes, by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United States, 1979Table HIST002R_2. Death rates for 113 selected causes by 5-year age groups, race and sex: United though the cause-of-death titles may be the same. Deaths rates are per 100,000 population in specified

  10. I Like it When You Act Like a Leader: A Role Congruity Account of Romantic Desire for Powerful Opposite-Sex Others 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkey, Brian 1987-

    2013-01-11

    such expectations. To this end, we examined perceivers’ romantic liking for opposite-sex targets depending on whether or not the targets conformed to a powerful role. Participants interacted with two opposite-sex partners in brief, recorded sessions. We manipulated...

  11. Brood size and environmental conditions sex-specifically affect nestling immune response in the European starling Sturnus vulgaris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University Blvd., Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 Canada. E-mail: olovea@sfu.ca Within sexually size-dimorphic birds. Avian Biol. 36: 549Á/554. In sexually size-dimorphic species, the larger sex can be more sensitive and resources might differentially affect growth and immune function in nestlings of a sexually size-dimorphic

  12. Social reversal of sex-biased aggression and dominance in a biparental cichlid fish1 (Julidochromis marlieri)2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renn, Susan C.P.

    species, aggression, dominance and parental care are typically sexually dimorphic.14 While behavioural; sexual dimorphism; sex-role; parental care; territorial32 aggression33 #12;- 2 - INTRODUCTION34 In many are expressed; these behaviours are said to be sexually dimorphic.36 Specifically, sexually dimorphic behaviours

  13. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmides, Leda

    Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game Matthew H), and unprovoked attack during a simulated war game (n = 176). We also investigated whether 2D:4D mediated; Narcissism, social dominance orientation; Stress; Self-esteem; Aggression; War 0191-8869/$ - see front matter

  14. Tactics for male reproductive success in plants: contrasting insights of sex allocation theory and pollen presentation theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomson, James D.

    allocation theory is that an organism's reproductive success, through either male or female function, can in that function. The shapes of these curves determine what patterns of resource allocation can be evolutionarily and female function. Sex allocation theory matured rapidly through the efforts of Charnov 55(1979, 1982

  15. Tactics for male reproductive success in plants: contrasting insights of sex allocation theory and pollen presentation theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomson, James D.

    allocation theory is that an organism's reproductive success, through either male or female function, can in that function. The shapes of these curves determine what patterns of resource allocation can be evolutionarily and female pathways, to the amount of resources it invested in male and female function. Sex allocation

  16. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: No own-age or own-sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    . Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5- year-old) and sex (male or female). We on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys.elsevier.com/locate/jecp #12;Introduction When asked to judge the attractiveness of faces, adults from different cultures

  17. The Relationship Between Team Sex Composition and Team Performance in the Context of Training Complex, Psychomotor, Team–based Tasks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarrett, Steven

    2011-02-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of team sex composition in team training performance and team processes in the context of a complex, psychomotor, information–processing task. With the growing number of women in the workplace...

  18. AGE, GROWTH, SEX RATIO, AND MATURITY OF THE WHITEFISH IN CENTRAL GREEN BAY AND ADJACENT WATERS OF LAKE MICHIGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lighter than those from Green Bay. Weight increased to the 3.386 power of length in Green Bay (combinedAGE, GROWTH, SEX RATIO, AND MATURITY OF THE WHITEFISH IN CENTRAL GREEN BAY AND ADJACENT WATERS from five localities In central Green Bay in 1948-49 and 1951-52 and 204 in a single 1948 collection

  19. Alterations to dam-spill discharge influence sex-specific activity, behaviour and passage success of migrating adult

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, Scott G.

    hydraulic challenges (e.g. dams and weirs) that impede or slow their movement (Keefer et al., 2004; CaudillAlterations to dam-spill discharge influence sex-specific activity, behaviour and passage success dam in British Columbia, Canada, affected the activity, behaviour and passage success of a Fraser

  20. Page 1 of 2 Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion

  1. UW Urban Songbird Study: Pictorial Guide to Color-banded Songbird Species in Seattle Area Common name (length in inches from tip of bill to tip of tail sex if distinct plumages)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    name (length in inches from tip of bill to tip of tail ­ sex if distinct plumages) American robin (10" ­ male, darker gray head) American robin (10" ­ female, lighter gray head) Swainson's thrush (7" - sexes information contact: Kara Whittaker (karaayn@u.washington.edu) #12;Song sparrow (6.25" - sexes similar) Oregon

  2. 02/06/2008 18:33Sex and the malaria parasite : Nature Page 1 of 1http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7195/edsumm/e080529-06.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obbard, Darren

    02/06/2008 18:33Sex and the malaria parasite : Nature Page 1 of 1http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7195/edsumm/e080529-06.html Editor's Summary 29 May 2008 Sex and the malaria parasite Malaria novel experiments to show that the assumptions of sex-allocation theory, previously controversial when

  3. Processing of Information Acquired at a Preconscious Level of Awareness: Instruction and Sex Effects on Hemispheric Laterality and Accuracy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlaki, Kinga M; Barchas, Patricia

    2015-08-15

    table, in front of the table stood a chair with adjustable height. A 26 cm high styrofoam chin-rest was mounted to the end of the table, facing the chair, and it was covered with black felt. On the right side of the table was a small, two...

  4. A Free Choice Task Evaluating Chimpanzees’ Preference for Photographic Images of Sex Swellings: Effects of Color, Size, and Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breaux, Sarah D.; Watson, Sheree L.; Fontenot, M. Babette

    2012-01-01

    items (i.e. , grape, celery, peanut, and broccoli). The sixSubject A Broccoli Broccoli Celery Grape Peanut CeleryGrape Peanut Subject B Broccoli Broccoli Celery Grape Peanut

  5. In silico identification of anthropogenic chemicals as ligands of zebrafish sex hormone binding globulin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsteinson, Nels; Ban, Fuqiang; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo; Tabaei, Seyed M.H. [Prostate Centre at the Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3Z6 (Canada); Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Underhill, Caroline [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Child and Family Research Institute, 950 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Cherkasov, Artem [Prostate Centre at the Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3Z6 (Canada)], E-mail: artc@interchange.ubc.ca; Hammond, Geoffrey L. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Child and Family Research Institute, 950 West 28th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4H4 (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic compounds with the capacity to interact with the steroid-binding site of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) pose health risks to humans and other vertebrates including fish. Building on studies of human SHBG, we have applied in silico drug discovery methods to identify potential binders for SHBG in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model aquatic organism. Computational methods, including; homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, virtual screening, and 3D QSAR analysis, successfully identified 6 non-steroidal substances from the ZINC chemical database that bind to zebrafish SHBG (zfSHBG) with low-micromolar to nanomolar affinities, as determined by a competitive ligand-binding assay. We also screened 80,000 commercial substances listed by the European Chemicals Bureau and Environment Canada, and 6 non-steroidal hits from this in silico screen were tested experimentally for zfSHBG binding. All 6 of these compounds displaced the [{sup 3}H]5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone used as labeled ligand in the zfSHBG screening assay when tested at a 33 {mu}M concentration, and 3 of them (hexestrol, 4-tert-octylcatechol, and dihydrobenzo(a)pyren-7(8H)-one) bind to zfSHBG in the micromolar range. The study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale in silico screening of anthropogenic compounds that may disrupt or highjack functionally important protein:ligand interactions. Such studies could increase the awareness of hazards posed by existing commercial chemicals at relatively low cost.

  6. Predicting escalation in sex offence recidivism : use of the SVR-20 and PCL : SV to predict outcome with non-contact recidivists and contact recidivists 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacPherson, Gary John Dick

    2004-07-09

    There is considerable responsibility on the clinician to identify sex offenders who may potentially commit more serious sexually violent behaviour and an increased demand for evidence based risk assessments (Macpherson, 1997; Thomas-Peter and Warren...

  7. The effects of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on uterine vascular impedance and uterine artery mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    into arterial size and stiffness, and index of wave reflection (RW), which reflects the effects of taper and with healthy pregnancies have not been reported. The ovarian cycle is characterized by fluctuations in the sex pregnancy (CP, n = 10). Impedance and metrics of impedance (input impedance Z0, index of wave reflection RW

  8. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  9. Altered microRNA expression patterns in irradiated hematopoietic tissues suggest a sex-specific protective mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Zemp, Franz J.; Koturbash, Igor [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kovalchuk, Olga [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alta., T1K 3M4 (Canada)], E-mail: olga.kovalchuk@uleth.ca

    2008-12-05

    To investigate involvement of miRNAs in radiation responses we used microRNAome profiling to analyze the sex-specific response of radiation sensitive hematopoietic lymphoid tissues. We show that radiation exposure resulted in a significant and sex-specific deregulation of microRNA expression in murine spleen and thymus tissues. Among the regulated miRNAs, we found that changes in expression of miR-34a and miR-7 may be involved in important protective mechanisms counteracting radiation cytotoxicity. We observed a significant increase in the expression of tumor-suppressor miR-34a, paralleled by a decrease in the expression of its target oncogenes NOTCH1, MYC, E2F3 and cyclin D1. Additionally, we show that miR-7 targets the lymphoid-specific helicase LSH, a pivotal regulator of DNA methylation and genome stability. While miR-7 was significantly down-regulated LSH was significantly up-regulated. These cellular changes may constitute an attempt to counteract radiation-induced hypomethylation. Tissue specificity of miRNA responses and possible regulation of miRNA expression upon irradiation are discussed.

  10. Parasite mediated selection, sex and diapause in a natural population of Daphnia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Alison B

    Parasites are thought to have large effects on their host populations, driving genetic change, population density changes, speciation and be a major selective force maintaining sexual reproduction. Indirect signatures of ...

  11. To Catch a Sex Thief: The Burden of Performance in Rape and Sexual Assault Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yung, Corey Rayburn

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to reform American rape law, prosecution and conviction rates remain low compared to similar crimes. While activists led legislatures to adopt important statutory changes for rape and sexual assault, only modest effects...

  12. The “I” in Team: Coach Incivility, Coach Sex, and Team Performance in Female Basketball Teams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smittick, Amber Leola

    2012-10-19

    With the continuing influx of teams in the workplace it is important to understand how incivility affects team success. The purpose of this study was to address this topic by investigating the effects of leader incivility towards team members...

  13. A review of "Sex and Drugs before Rock 'n' Roll: Youth Culture and Masculinity During Holland's Golden Age" by Benjamin B. Roberts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    stream_source_info Review of %22Sex and Drugs Before Rock n Roll Youth Culture and Masculinity druing Holland's Golden Age%22 by Roberts reviewer Cruz.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7164 Content-Encoding UTF-8... stream_name Review of %22Sex and Drugs Before Rock n Roll Youth Culture and Masculinity druing Holland's Golden Age%22 by Roberts reviewer Cruz.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 reviews 79 Alexander’s successor, Pope Julius...

  14. A review of "Love, Sex, Intimacy, and Friendship Between Men, 1550-1800." by Katherine O’Donnell and Michael O’Rourke, eds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Klawitter

    2003-01-01

    with sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English anxieties in regard to historiography, politics, and the theater. Katherine O?Donnell and Michael O?Rourke, eds. Love, Sex, Intimacy, and Friendship Between Men, 1550-1800. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. xiv... + 206 pp. $65.00. Review by GEORGE KLAWITTER, ST. EDWARD?S UNIVERSITY. REVIEWS 221 Somewhere along the way ?affect? has become a noun. David Halperin uses it thus a dozen times in his preface to Love, Sex, Intimacy, and Friendship Between Men, 1550...

  15. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 ?M) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ?TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ?Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ?TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  16. Mapping of genes using a bovine BAC Library to determine their effects on economically important traits in cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herring, Kimberly Lynn

    1995-01-01

    ). The analyses did not show the genotype at KLHGHM to have an effect on any of the other traits measured (P>.05). Sex of calf was an important source of variation for all traits except REA, MARB and QG. Sire breed by dam breed combinations were significant for BW...

  17. The effects of psychological stress on an animal model of multiple sclerosis, Theiler's virus induced demyelination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sieve, Amy Nicole

    2005-02-17

    in the Chronic Phase??. 62 9 SJL Inflammatory Histological Lesions??????????.. 64 10 SJL Ab Levels to MOG, MBP, PLP, and TMEV???????. 66 11 CBA Body Weights, Behavioral Signs of Illness, and Plasma CORT Levels in the Acute Phase?????????????. 91 12 CBA Food... with Rotarod Time and Body Weights????????.. 110 10 The Effect of Restraint on Disease Progression in CBA Mice?.. 112 11 The Effect of Restraint Stress and Sex on Histological Lesions in SJL Mice????????????????????????. 132 12 Frequency of Restraint...

  18. 10/17/2007 01:21 PMSpiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict among parasitoid wasps Page 1 of 2http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/biowissenschaften_chemie/bericht-82174.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Andy

    10/17/2007 01:21 PMSpiteful soldiers and sex ratio conflict among parasitoid wasps Page 1 of 2http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/biowissenschaften_chemie Midge Insect Wings Home Fachgebiete Biowissenschaften Chemie Nachricht Spiteful soldiers and sex ratio Biowissenschaften Chemie Energie und Elektrotechnik Geowissenschaften Gesellschaftswissenschaften

  19. Schal C, Sevala V, Capurro ML, Snyder TE, Blomquist GJ, Bagnres AG. 2001. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica. 11 pp. Journal of Insect Science,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica. 11 pp. Journal.org Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica

  20. sHOrT COMMUniCATiOns 3838 SEX-ROLE REVERSAL IN SONG? FEMALES SING MORE FREQUENTLY THAN MALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Troy G.

    not be unique. Key words: Bird song, female song, Icterus pustulatus, trop- ical songbird, sexual selection Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 6, anada Abstract. Birds in which both sexes female song in other sexu- ally monomorphic or weakly dimorphic species, so such patterns might

  1. Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass Guillaume Guery1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass network, Université de Bordeaux I, Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex, France. Keywords: Chalcogenide glass; Raman spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Glass properties Author whom correspondence should

  2. Getting a Full Dose? Reconsidering Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walters, James R.; Hardcastle, Thomas J.

    2011-04-20

    :Female Expression Ratios of the Z and Autosomes A direct comparison reveals that the M:F expression ratios are highly consistent between the Z chromosome and auto- somes (fig. 2 and table 1; see also supplementary figs. 2–4 and tables 1 and 2, Supplementary Material... with the 691 Z- linked probes identified by Zha et al. (2009). Plotting M:F fold change of genes along the Z chromosome does not re- veal any obvious ‘‘neighborhood’’ effects with localized de- viations from the overall pattern of equal M:F expression (fig. 4...

  3. Do female yellow bellied marmots adjust the sex ratios of their offspring?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armitage, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    the analyses. The effect of stress on annual reproductive output was measured for 2 yr in two ways. First, animals were tested by mirror-image stimulation (MIS; Svendsen and Armitage 1973; Svendsen 1974). The behavioral data were analyzed by factor analysis... stable group; repeated MIS testing over several years revealed that these females do not change their social status (Svendsen 1974). Lifetime reproductive output was obtained for each of the 19 females. S E X - R A T I O A D J U S T M E N T I N M A R...

  4. Effects of variability in sire fertility and daughter stayability on profitability of sire selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochoa Ochoa, Rene Federico

    1989-01-01

    estimated expected profit from a single unit of semen (PV$) and from a cow bred to pregnancy (PC$) from future production and from cattle disposal after discounting costs and returns to the time of insemination. Cow replacement cost, sire fertility... and daughter stayability differentials were included into the PV$ and PC$ models. An ancillary objective was to estimate the effects of sexed semen and semen unit dilution on profitability using NPV to determine optimum breeding strategies for dairy herds...

  5. Sex and Fiscal Desire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Robert; Stuart, Charles

    1999-01-01

    ns onI Iby model n i ghow ani di du ' n vi al sdes red rediopesu l pward. Tou ders d how ani di du ' pected mari n tann r s\\t r a po t t it ,ift e h Ani di du ' pected f tu ti i

  6. Sex and Gender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Power on their own: Gender and social roles in provincial New Kingdom Egypt.Egypt on bowls and figurines, ritually broken to neutralize the enemies’ power)powers of both Horus and Seth. Royal masculinity was strongly adversarial, opposing the enemies of Egypt

  7. The effects of size-selective harvesting on the population biology and ecology of a sex-changing limpet species, Lottia gigantea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenberg, Phillip Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    of a thin layer of microalgae on the rocky substrate (territories and eat as much microalgae as they can beforehabitat dominated by microalgae (Connor 1986) (i.e. avg.

  8. The role of male-male relationships in partner violence treatment groups: the effects of improving same sex relationships on attachment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnes, Ashley D.

    2009-05-15

    to others, modulate distress, and alter focus on the self, others, and the environment (Pistole, 1989). Hazan and Shaver (1987) expanded Ainsworth?s explanation of attachment in infancy and early childhood, and discussed adult attachment behaviors... (Sauer, Lopez, & Gormley, 2003). Secure individuals are also generally more expressive, show greater selflessness, and less game playing in their relationships with others (Collins & Read, 1990). Pistole (1989) reports that securely attached...

  9. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  10. Family Structure, Marital Fertility and Premarital Sex among Married and Never-Married Women in Contemporary China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei 1984-

    2012-11-20

    in China, research still shows that family structure in China is relatively stable compared to western countries. This dissertation investigates the effects of family structure on fertility in contemporary China. This dissertation had two main objectives...

  11. From International Idea to Domestic Policy: Explaining the Emergence of Same-Sex Partnership Recognition in Argentina and Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulenberg, Shawn Richard

    2010-01-01

    Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University ofParties and Governability in Brazil," in Party Politics in2008. "The Pope's Visit to Brazil: Context and Effects," SPW

  12. Health effects of Halon 1301 exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holness, D.L.; House, R.A. )

    1992-07-01

    An accidental discharge of a Halon 1301 system is reported. Thirty-one workers were assessed, 22 who were present at the time of the discharge, and 9 who worked the next shift. The incident was complicated by a small Freon-22 leak several hours later. Throat, eye, and nasal irritation and lightheadedness were reported by the majority of workers. Workers present during the halon discharge reported significantly more lightheadedness, headache, voice change, cough, and a fast heartbeat than did those who worked the later shift. These differences were significant even after correcting for confounding factors such as age, sex, and sense of anxiety at the time of the incident. The possible causes for the irritant symptoms include breakdown products of Halon 1301 and Freon-22 or contaminants from the halon discharge system. Although these irritant effects may not be an effect of Halon 1301 alone, they may occur in these discharge situations, and workers should be advised of this possibility. The possible cardiac and central nervous system effects also should be considered. The importance of a clear-cut protocol to deal with such incidents as well as worker education are discussed.

  13. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U Biological &Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University Introduction Runoff from impervious, perme- able pavements were not assigned stormwater credit by the state of North Carolina due

  14. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North CarolinaA&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North CarolinaA&T State University, U runoff in North Carolina. Greenroofs have the potential to reduce the volume of runoff entering water bod STATE UNIVERSITY PROJECT SPOTLIGHT Greenroof Research of Stormwater Runoff Quantity and Quality in North

  15. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U Temperature in Trout Sensitive Waters Matthew Jones, EI and Bill Hunt, PhD, PE North Carolina State University ............................ 10 Meetings ................................ 10 #12;NWQEP NOTES -- March 2007 2 North Carolina

  16. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U have been researched and developed since the middle of the twentieth century. In North Carolina Site In 1998, North Carolina passed a relatively far-reaching set of stormwater standards, included

  17. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North CarolinaA&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    origin, sex, age, or disability. North Carolina State University, North CarolinaA&T State University, U and Research in North Carolina and other Mid-Atlantic States Bill Hunt, PE, Extension Specialist Dept, and to a lesser degree phosphorus, imbalances in coastal North Carolina are blamed for spawning fish kills in NC

  18. Comparison of Salivary and Serum Levels of Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) in Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) Compared to Age- and Sex-Matched Controls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, Harrison Lee

    2014-04-28

    This cross-sectional study examined potential differences in concentration of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in serum and citric acid-stimulated saliva from patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) and healthy age-, sex-, and periodontal disease- matched...

  19. The effect on melanoma risk of genes previously associated with telomere length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iles, Mark M.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Taylor, John C.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Brossard, Myriam; Cust, Anne E.; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Moses, Eric K.; Akslen, Lars A.; AMFS investigators; Andresen, Per A.; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Bianchi Scarrà, Giovanna; Brown, Kevin M.; D?bniak, Tadeusz; Elder, David E.; Friedman, Eitan; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Hansson, Johan; Harland, Mark; Helsing, Per; Ho?evar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; IBD investigators; Ingvar, Christian; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G. Mark; Lubi?ski, Jan; Mackie, Rona M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Molven, Anders; Montgomery, Grant W.; Novakovi?, Srdjan; Olsson, Håkan; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; QMEGA and QTWIN investigators; Radford-Smith, Graham L.; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; SDH Study Group; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Doorn, Remco; Whiteman, David C.; MacGregor, Stuart; Pooley, Karen A.; Ward, Sarah V.; Mann, Graham J.; Amos, Christopher I.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Demenais, Florence; Law, Matthew H.; Newton Bishop, Julia A.; Barrett, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    , by calculating a weighted mean of genotype dosage across the 7 telomere length-associated SNPs. The weights for each SNP were the age- and sex-adjusted effect estimates (log odds ratios) from the telomere meta-analysis (18). We then used this score in a logistic... regression of melanoma risk (see Supplementary Methods). We found a strong association between increased telomere score and increased risk of melanoma (p=8.92x10-9) that was consistent across geographic regions (Figure 1). Categorizing telomere score...

  20. Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweizer, Peter E; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of marine and hydrokinetic energy projects in rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters of the United States. Hydrokinetic (HK) technologies convert the energy of moving water in river or tidal currents into electricity, without the impacts of dams and impoundments associated with conventional hydropower or the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) maintains a database that displays the geographical distribution of proposed HK projects in inland and tidal waters (FERC 2012). As of March 2012, 77 preliminary permits had been issued to private developers to study HK projects in inland waters, the development of which would total over 8,000 MW. Most of these projects are proposed for the lower Mississippi River. In addition, the issuance of another 27 preliminary permits for HK projects in inland waters, and 3 preliminary permits for HK tidal projects (totaling over 3,100 MW) were under consideration by FERC. Although numerous HK designs are under development (see DOE 2009 for a description of the technologies and their potential environmental effects), the most commonly proposed current-based projects entail arrays of rotating devices, much like submerged wind turbines, that are positioned in the high-velocity (high energy) river channels. The many diverse HK designs imply a diversity of environmental impacts, but a potential impact common to most is the risk for blade strike to aquatic organisms. In conventional hydropower generation, research on fish passage through reaction turbines at low-head dams suggested that strike and mortality for small fish could be low. As a consequence of the large surface area to mass ratio of small fish, the drag forces in the boundary layer flow at the surface of a rotor blade may pull small fish around the leading edge of a rotor blade without making physical contact (Turnpenny 1998, Turnpenny et al. 2000). Although there is concern that small, fragile fish early life stages may be unable to avoid being struck by the blades of hydrokinetic turbines, we found no empirical data in the published literature that document survival of earliest life-stage fish in passage by rotor blades. In addition to blade strike, research on passage of fish through conventional hydropower turbines suggested that fish mortalities from passage through the rotor swept area could also occur due to shear stresses and pressure chances in the water column (Cada et al. 1997, Turnpenny 1998). However, for most of the proposed HK turbine designs the rotors are projected to operate a lower RPM (revolutions per minute) than observed from conventional reaction turbines; the associated shear stress and pressure changes are expected to be lower and pose a smaller threat to fish survival (DOE 2009). Only a limited number of studies have been conducted to examine the risk of blade strike from hydrokinetic technologies to fish (Turnpenny et al. 1992, Normandeau et al. 2009, Seitz et al. 2011, EPRI 2011); the survival of drifting or weakly swimming fish (especially early life stages) that encounter rotor blades from hydrokinetic (HK) devices is currently unknown. Our study addressed this knowledge gap by testing how fish larvae and juveniles encountered different blade profiles of hydrokinetic devices and how such encounters influenced survivorship. We carried out a laboratory study designed to improve our understanding of how fish larvae and juvenile fish may be affected by encounters with rotor blades from HK turbines in the water column of river and ocean currents. (For convenience, these early life stages will be referred to as young of the year, YOY). The experiments developed information needed to quantify the risk (both probability and consequences) of rotor-blade strike to YOY fish. In particular, this study attempted to determine whether YOY drifting in a high-velocity flow directly in the path of the blade leading edge will make contact with the rotor blade or will bypass the blade while entrained in the boundary l

  1. The SW Sex-type star 2MASS J01074282+4845188: an unusual bright accretion disk with non-steady emission and a hot white dwarf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khruzina, T; Kjurkchieva, D; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220385

    2013-01-01

    We present new photometric and spectral observations of the newly discovered nova-like eclipsing star 2MASS J01074282+4845188. To obtain a light curve solution we used model of a nova-like star whose emission sources are a white dwarf surrounded by an accretion disk, a secondary star filling its Roche lobe, a hot spot and a hot line. 2MASS J01074282+4845188 shows the deepest permanent eclipse among the known nova-like stars. It is reproduced by covering the very bright accretion disk by the secondary component. The luminosity of the disk is much bigger than that of the rest light sources. The determined high temperature of the disk is typical for that observed during the outbursts of CVs. The primary of 2MASS J01074282+4845188 is one of the hottest white dwarfs in CVs. The temperature of 5090 K of its secondary is also quite high and more appropriate for a long-period SW Sex star. It might be explained by the intense heating from the hot white dwarf and the hot accretion disk of the target. The high mass accr...

  2. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada)] [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada) [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids appears mostly due to the antiandrogenic properties of p,p'-DDE, a major constituent of the mixture. Other mixtures of contaminants that include emerging compounds of interest such as brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl compounds should be tested for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation. - Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on breast cancer cell growth. {yields} Weak xenoestrogens in the mixture stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. {yields} Antiandrogens increased the proliferation CAMA-1 cells grown with sex steroids. {yields} High concentrations of the mixture decreased the proliferation of all cell lines.

  3. The influence of sex-role orientation on membership, activity participation rates, and perceived masculinity-femininity of activities at select fitness and health clubs in the Burlington, Vermont area / cby Susan Kay Bulmer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulmer, Susan Kay

    1986-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF SEX-ROLE ORIENTATION ON MEMBERSHIP, ACTIVITY PARTICIPATIDN RATES, AND PERCEIVED MASCULINITY-FEMININITY DF ACTIVITIES AT SELECT FITNESS AND HEALTH CLUBS IN THE BURLINGTON, VERMONT AREA A Thesis by SUSAN KAY BULMER Submitted... PARTICIPATION RATES, AND PERCEIVED MASCULINITY-FEMININITY OF ACTIVITIES AT SELECT FITNESS . AND HEALTH CLUBS IN THE BURLINGTDN, VERMONT AREA A Thesis by SUSAN KAY BULMER Approved as to style and content by: J nna M. Westphal ( air of Committee) James H...

  4. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

  5. AGEING & SEXING AGEING AND SEXING OF THE AFRICAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    with narrow lime greel gr bases, Eving a moftled appea.rance when ihey yellow Tgrgns on the outer web lighter as the are blackish or dark brown with very thin lime plumage ages. Blackish ones liqime brown-withavariableamolntoflimeg{een the iris biown or dark brown. The legs ind on the.-fringeq 9{ttre feathers

  6. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-2 on reproduction in fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisbrod, Christin J.; Kunz, Petra Y.; Zenker, Armin K. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch

    2007-12-15

    The UV filter benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is largely used in personal care products such as cosmetics and in numerous other materials for UV protection. Like other UV filters, BP-2 has been found to be estrogenic in vitro and in vivo, but potential effects on reproduction of fish are unknown. In this study, we evaluate whether BP-2 affects important reproductive parameters such as fecundity, gametogenesis and secondary sex characteristics. After a pre-exposure period of 19 days, reproductively mature fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 0.002, 0.1, 1.2, 5.0 and 9.7 mg/L BP-2 for 15 days. BP-2 was accumulated in fish up to 3.1 {mu}g/g body weight. In males, a dose-dependent vitellogenin induction and decrease in the number of nuptial tubercles occurred. Moreover, significant dose-related effects on gonads of male and female fish were observed. At concentrations of 1.2 mg/L and higher, spermatocyte and oocyte development was significantly inhibited in male and female fish, respectively. Testes of exposed males had much fewer spermatocytes and ovaries of exposed females had much fewer mature and more atretic follicles. Reproduction was negatively affected in a dose-dependent manner with a decrease in egg production at 5.0 mg/L and a complete cessation of spawning activity at 9.7 mg/L BP-2. Our findings show significant estrogenic effects of the common UV filter BP-2 on vitellogenin induction, secondary sex characteristics, gonadal development, and reproduction in fish.

  7. Educational programs of Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating Name & Phone Number

  8. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Comm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating. What

  9. Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Comm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, disability, religion, age, or national origin. The Texas A&M University System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating Health

  10. WASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    WASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH UC Santa Cruz ... ranked material resources than some of its sister campuses in the UC system. UC Santa Cruz is now at a critical sought to maintain the high quality of our undergraduate education. We also seek to continue growth

  11. Subacute effects of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on hepatic gene expression profiles in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canton, Rocio F. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: rfcanton@gmail.com; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L.A.P. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H.; Ven, Leo T.M. van der [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Laboratory for Heath Protection Research, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Berg, Martin van den [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heneweer, Marjoke [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-09-01

    Hexabromoyclododecane (HBCD), used as flame retardant (FR) mainly in textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacture, has been identified as a contaminant at levels comparable to other brominated FRs (BFRs). HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand. The toxicological database of HBCD is too limited to perform at present a solid risk assessment, combining data from exposure and effect studies. In order to fill in some gaps, a 28-day HBCD repeated dose study (OECD407) was done in Wistar rats. In the present work liver tissues from these animals were used for gene expression profile analysis. Results show clear gender specificity with females having a higher number of regulated genes and therefore being more sensitive to HBCD than males. Several specific pathways were found to be affected by HBCD exposure, like PPAR-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism, triacylglycerol metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, and phase I and II pathways. These results were corroborated with quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Cholesterol biosynthesis and lipid metabolism were especially down-regulated in females. Genes involved in phase I and II metabolism were up-regulated predominantly in males, which could explain the observed lower HBCD hepatic disposition in male rats in this 28-day study. These sex-specific differences in gene expression profiles could also underlie sex-specific differences in toxicity (e.g. decreased thyroid hormone or increased serum cholesterol levels). To our knowledge, this is the fist study that describes the changes in rat hepatic gene profiles caused by this commonly used flame retardant.

  12. Effective Incentive Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an in-depth look at effective incentive structures, how to clarify your program goals, and tips to plan for the long term.

  13. Gravitomagnetic Barnett Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. de Matos; M. Tajmar

    2000-12-22

    Using the linearized theory of general relativity, the gravitomagnetic analogue of the Barnett effect is derived. Further theoretical and experimental investigation is recommended, due to the expected macroscopic values of the gravitomagnetic field involved in this effect, and to the constraints which would appear on quantum theories of gravity, currently under development, in case of non detection of the predicted phenomena.

  14. Highly Effective Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Schwarz

    2013-11-22

    It is conjectured that the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in an $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ background of type IIB superstring theory, with one unit of flux, can be reinterpreted as the exact effective action (or highly effective action) for U(2), ${\\cal N} = 4$ super Yang-Mills theory on the Coulomb branch. An analogous conjecture for $U(2)_k \\times U(2)_{-k} $ ABJM theory is also presented. The main evidence supporting these conjectures is that the brane actions have all of the expected symmetries and dualities. Highly effective actions have general coordinate invariance, even though they describe nongravitational theories.

  15. Nonrelativistic effective Lagrangians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutwyler, H. )

    1994-03-15

    Chiral perturbation theory is extended to nonrelativistic systems with spontaneously broken symmetry. In the effective Lagrangian, order parameters associated with the generators of the group manifest themselves as effective coupling constants of a topological term, which is gauge invariant only up to a total derivative. In the case of the ferromagnet, a term connected with the Brouwer degree dominates the derivative expansion. The general analysis includes antiferromagnetic magnons and phonons, while the effective field theory of fluids or gases is beyond the scope of the method.

  16. Effective 4-H Meetings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication ...

  17. Matthew: Effect or Fable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azoulay, Pierre

    In a market context, a status effect occurs when actors are accorded differential recognition for their efforts depending on their location in a status ordering, holding constant the quality of these efforts. In practice, ...

  18. High Burnup Effects Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

    1990-04-01

    This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Health effects of acid aerosols on North American children: Respiratory symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockery, D.W. |; Cunningham, J.; Damokosh, A.I.

    1996-05-01

    We examined the respiratory health effects of exposure to acidic air pollution among 13,369 white children 8 to 12 years old from 24 communities in the United States and Canada between 1988 and 1991. Each child`s parent or guardian completed a questionnaire. Air quality and meteorology were measured in each community for a 1-year period. We used a two-stage logistic regression model to analyze the data, adjusting for the period confounding effects of sex, history of allergies, parental asthma, parental education, and current smoking in the home. Children living in the community with the highest levels of particle strong acidity were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.48] to report at least one episode of bronchitis in the past year compared to children living in the least-polluted community. Fine particulate sulfate was also associated with higher reporting of bronchitis (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.12-2.42). No other respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in association with any of the air pollutants of interest. No sensitive subgroups were identified. Reported bronchitis, but neither asthma, wheeze, cough, nor phlegm, were associated with levels of particle strong acidity for these children living in a nonurban environment. 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms in Male Sex Determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arboleda, Valerie Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was officially born, with theaccomplishments of the HGP. The availability of a densethe official start of the HGP, by two independent groups,

  1. Seeking Sex in an Electronic Age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keilty, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    social networking design elements into their websites,social networking design elements into their websites,

  2. Sex, attachment, and the development of reproductive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maestripieri, Dario

    an integrated evolutionary model of the development of attachment and human reproductive strategies In this article, I present an integrated evolutionary model of the development of attachment and reproductive strat- egies in humans. The model is built on the foundations of life history theory, parental

  3. Sex, Myth, and Metaphor in Moche Pottery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    and Power in Moche Society. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru,Power of a Moche Urban Class. In Moche Art and Archaeology in Ancient Peru,

  4. Getting the Offer: Sex Discrimination in Hiring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen, Trond; Togstad, Thea

    2004-01-01

    positions. In each of positions 1-10, one offer was given.In each of positions 11-14, two offers were given.In position 15, 12 offers were given. Of the 30 offers made,

  5. Getting the Offer: Sex Discrimation in Hiring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen, Trond; Togstad, Thea

    2006-01-01

    positions. In each of positions 1-10, one offer was given.In each of positions 11-14, two offers were given.In position 15, 12 offers were given. Of the 30 offers made,

  6. 6 Sex and Power John Berger writes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John A.

    . The thrust of Berger's argument is that the artistic nude is no different from the soft porn nude, existing

  7. Does Sex Induce a Phase Transition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Oliveira, P M C; Stauffer, D; Cebrat, S; Pekalski, A; 10.1140/epjb/e2008-00229-3

    2009-01-01

    We discovered a dynamic phase transition induced by sexual reproduction. The dynamics is a pure Darwinian rule with both fundamental ingredients to drive evolution: 1) random mutations and crossings which act in the sense of increasing the entropy (or diversity); and 2) selection which acts in the opposite sense by limiting the entropy explosion. Selection wins this competition if mutations performed at birth are few enough. By slowly increasing the average number m of mutations, however, the population suddenly undergoes a mutational degradation precisely at a transition point mc. Above this point, the "bad" alleles spread over the genetic pool of the population, overcoming the selection pressure. Individuals become selectively alike, and evolution stops. Only below this point, m < mc, evolutionary life is possible. The finite-size-scaling behaviour of this transition is exhibited for large enough "chromosome" lengths L. One important and surprising observation is the L-independence of the transition curv...

  8. Cost-effective ecological restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    whether the cost-effectiveness index in the all seed mixesRestoration cost-effectiveness (index calculated as percentwith the highest cost-effectiveness index values were drill

  9. Interference Effects in the Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerzy Szwed

    2008-03-14

    Interference effects are the most spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of phenomena. This note proposes a systematic search for such effects in the brain.

  10. Health Effects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Worker Health & Safety Health Effects Health Effects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers research programs and monitoring activities, both domestic and...

  11. MINIREVIEWS Neighborhood Effects, Disturbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    severity is the proportion of trees killed during a disturbance. Interactions between neighbor- hood (continuous change, in those forests dominated by species with neutral-negative neigh- borhood effects). We by many ecologists. Continuous succes- sional change due to frequent disturbance, climate change, canopy

  12. Identifying Effective School Principals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

    2007-01-01

    -1 PRINCIPAL PERFORMANCE IN TEXAS: TOOLS FOR MEASURING EFFECTIVE SCHOOL LEADERSHIP KANDYCE FERNANDEZ SANTA FLORES EMILY HUANG CAROLYN IGWE LESLIE MCDONALD RYAN STROUD REBECCA WILLIS AMBER DUGAT FACULTY ADVISOR: DR. LORI TAYLOR MAY.........................................................................................................................................15 Influences of School Characteristics on Student Performance ..........................................................................17 Student Performance Conclusion...

  13. Coordinating and promoting effective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 I Coordinating and promoting effective protection and restoration of fish, wildlife Nation Idaho Department of Fish and Game Kootenai Tribe of Idaho Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks National Marine Fisheries Service Nez Perce Tribe Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Shoshone

  14. EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Effective Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SUBJECT: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Effective Date: 4-7-14 Policy Number: 1.14 Supersedes: Policy 4 assets and ensure continued operations during and after all manner of emergencies, whether natural or man- made, by implementing appropriate emergency management policies, plans, and procedures designed

  15. Latent effects decision analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. Arlin (Albuquerque, NM); Werner, Paul W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-08-24

    Latent effects on a system are broken down into components ranging from those far removed in time from the system under study (latent) to those which closely effect changes in the system. Each component is provided with weighted inputs either by a user or from outputs of other components. A non-linear mathematical process known as `soft aggregation` is performed on the inputs to each component to provide information relating to the component. This information is combined in decreasing order of latency to the system to provide a quantifiable measure of an attribute of a system (e.g., safety) or to test hypotheses (e.g., for forensic deduction or decisions about various system design options).

  16. Effect of Concentrate Form on Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Horses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huth, Lindsey

    2012-02-14

    EGUS score on a scale of 0 to 4 (0= no ulceration or hyperkeratosis, 4= extensive, deep ulceration) and sex, and utilized in a 77-d cross-over design with two 28-d periods separated by a 21-d washout period. During the first 28-d period, horses were...

  17. Flexoelectric effect modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kapanowski

    2011-02-09

    The statistical theory of the dipole flexoelectric (FE) polarization in liquid crystals is used to calculate the temperature dependence of order parameters, the elastic constants and the FE coefficients. Two systems with polar wedge-shaped and banana-shaped molecules are investigated. In both cases the FE coefficients are proportional to the dipole moment component parallel to the molecule symmetry axis. The origin of the FE effect and microscopic pictures of the distorted phases are discussed.

  18. The health effects of disclosing traumatic events: examining behavioral inhibition theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacks, Stephen Daniel

    1990-01-01

    % involved boyfriend/girlfriend problems. Among other common topics were failing grades (8%), health problems (7%), arguments with parents or friends (7%), car accidents (5%), leaving home (3%), sex abuse such as incest or rape (3%), and parents divorcing...

  19. The effective equation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Kuksin; Alberto Maiocchi

    2015-01-17

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behaviour of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behaviour of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three-- and four--wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. In the case of the NLS equation we use next some heuristic approximation from the arsenal of wave turbulence to show that under the iterated limit "the volume goes to infinity", taken after the limit "the amplitude of oscillations goes to zero", the energy spectrum of solutions for the effective equation is described by a Zakharov-type kinetic equation. Evoking the Zakharov ansatz we show that stationary in time and homogeneous in space solutions for the latter equation have a power law form. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanology.

  20. Vibration by relativistic effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Oradaz Romay

    2005-12-27

    Relativity, time reversal invariance in mechanics and principle of causality can be in the bases of a type of vibration of the extensive objects. It is because, the detailed analysis of the relativistic movement of an extensive body entail that all the objects must have inherent a vibratory movement to their own size. Such effect does not happen when it works with point particles thus is not stranger who happens unnoticed in the traditional studies. Also we can find relation between the form of vibration of the extensive objects and the energy that calculates by quantum considerations.

  1. Demonstrating the Greenhouse Effect Demonstrate how the greenhouse effect works.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Demonstrating the Greenhouse Effect Demonstrate how the greenhouse effect works. Difficulty / Time represents the greenhouse layer, which is composed of such gases as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and many others. The temperature was warmer initially for the non-greenhouse effect

  2. Topological phase effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Robbins

    2010-09-10

    Quantum eigenstates undergoing cyclic changes acquire a phase factor of geometric origin. This phase, known as the Berry phase, or the geometric phase, has found applications in a wide range of disciplines throughout physics, including atomic and molecular physics, condensed matter physics, optics, and classical dynamics. In this article, the basic theory of the geometric phase is presented along with a number of representative applications. The article begins with an account of the geometric phase for cyclic adiabatic evolutions. An elementary derivation is given along with a worked example for two-state systems. The implications of time-reversal are explained, as is the fundamental connection between the geometric phase and energy level degeneracies. We also discuss methods of experimental observation. A brief account is given of geometric magnetism; this is a Lorenz-like force of geometric origin which appears in the dynamics of slow systems coupled to fast ones. A number of theoretical developments of the geometric phase are presented. These include an informal discussion of fibre bundles, and generalizations of the geometric phase to degenerate eigenstates (the nonabelian case) and to nonadiabatic evolution. There follows an account of applications. Manifestations in classical physics include the Hannay angle and kinematic geometric phases. Applications in optics concern polarization dynamics, including the theory and observation of Pancharatnam's phase. Applications in molecular physics include the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. In condensed matter physics, we discuss the role of the geometric phase in the theory of the quantum Hall effect.

  3. Handbook of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes-Siedle, A. (ed.) (Radiation Experiments and Monitors, Oxford (United Kingdom) Univ. of West London (United Kingdom)); Adams, L. (ed.) (European Space Agency-ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Radiation Effects and Analysis Techniques Unit)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book.

  4. An effective Z'

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Liu, Jia; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2011-12-06

    We describe a method to couple Z' gauge bosons to the standard model (SM), without charging the SM fields under the U(1)', but instead through effective higher-dimension operators. This method allows complete control over the tree-level couplings of the Z' and does not require altering the structure of any of the SM couplings, nor does it contain anomalies or require introduction of fields in nonstandard SM representations. Moreover, such interactions arise from simple renormalizable extensions of the SM—the addition of vectorlike matter that mixes with SM fermions when the U(1)' is broken. We apply effective Z' models as explanations ofmore »various recent anomalies: the D0 same-sign dimuon asymmetry, the CDF W+di-jet excess and the CDF top forward-backward asymmetry. In the case of the W+di-jet excess we also discuss several complementary analyses that may shed light on the nature of the discrepancy. We consider the possibility of non-Abelian groups, and discuss implications for the phenomenology of dark matter as well.« less

  5. The Generation Effect and Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosner, Zachary Alexander

    2012-01-01

    M. A. (2007). The generation effect: A meta- analyticBjork, R. A. (1988). The generation effect: Support for aE. J. (2012). The next generation: The value of reminding.

  6. Euler - Heisenberg effective action and magnetoelectric effect in multilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Katsnelson; G. E. Volovik; M. A. Zubkov

    2013-01-24

    The low energy effective field model for the multilayer graphene (at ABC stacking) is considered. We calculate the effective action in the presence of constant external magnetic field $B$ (normal to the graphene sheet). We also calculate the first two corrections to this effective action caused by the in-plane electric field $E$ at $E/B \\ll 1$ and discuss the magnetoelectric effect. In addition, we calculate the imaginary part of the effective action in the presence of constant electric field $E$ and the lowest order correction to it due to the magnetic field ($B/E \\ll 1$).

  7. Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent consistent understanding and application of how cost effectiveness is calculated and when and how to apply Action Plan for Energy Efficiency published a comprehensive guide on cost effectiveness: best practices

  8. Solar Neutrino Matter Effects Redux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; A. Malkus

    2011-12-19

    Following recent low-threshold analysis of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and asymmetry measurements of the BOREXINO Collaboration of the solar neutrino flux, we revisit the analysis of the matter effects in the Sun. We show that solar neutrino data constrains the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ poorly and that subdominant Standard Model effects can mimic the effects of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  9. SexSpace : creating architectural rituals for getting laid : a women's sex club in Provincetown, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirschkop, Lisa Maria, 1959-

    1998-01-01

    Much recent debate has centered around architecture, the gendering of space, and space and sexuality. Many fine books are now delving deep into feminist psychoanalysis, post-structuralist theory, and postmodern debate to ...

  10. All about sex, culture, technology, art, politics, gossip, ideas, drugs & rock & roll ... but mostly sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    -style porn DVD rent-by-mail service. Huge selection, all major studios, hundreds of new titles monthly. All

  11. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  12. Effective risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, C.J. [Corpfinance International Ltd., Toronto (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Most independent power financial proposals contain one or more elements of a non-recourse nature. Traditionally, this means prospective lenders will not have a substantial corporate credit or state guarantee standing behind a project loan, which forces attention to be focused on a single asset as the security and debt repayment source. While this major risk remains present, if properly understood, uncertainty can be mitigated and managed, including financial and development hazards inherent in hydropower projects. The specific risk points that a project developer or sponsor must satisfy from the lender`s purposes are numerous. However, they can be grouped primarily into seven key risk areas: project profile, site securing, power sales agreements, government agreements, in-service management, construction and insurance. While a developer strives for a minimum internal rate of return of at least 20 percent, the lender`s expectations are much more modest. Often, developers need to place themselves in the proverbial shoes of the other entity, namely the independent lender, whose only attraction may be some interest, fee income and placement of capital in a safe investment which provides a return in an orderly and uninterrupted manner. Only then is it possible to objectively view and effectively manage the risks mentioned earlier.

  13. Combined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternal restraint stress on hypothalamus adrenal axis (HPA) function in the offspring of mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribes, Diana; Fuentes, Silvia; Torrente, Margarita; Colomina, M. Teresa [Department of Psychology and Research Center for Behavioral Assessment (CRAMC), 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sescelades Campus, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.ca [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Although it is known that prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) can cause developmental adverse effects in mammals, the disruptive effects of this compound on hormonal systems are still controversial. Information concerning the effects of PFOS on hypothalamus adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress and corticosterone levels is not currently available. On the other hand, it is well established that stress can enhance the developmental toxicity of some chemicals. In the present study, we assessed the combined effects of maternal restraint stress and PFOS on HPA axis function in the offspring of mice. Twenty plug-positive female mice were divided in two groups. Animals were given by gavage 0 and 6 mg PFOS/kg/day on gestation days 12-18. One half of the animals in each group were also subjected to restraint stress (30 min/session, 3 sessions/day) during the same period. Five plug-positive females were also included as non-manipulated controls. At 3 months of age, activity in an open-field and the stress response were evaluated in male and female mice by exposing them to 30 min of restraint stress. Male and female offspring were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected to measure changes in corticosterone levels at four different moments related to stress exposure conditions: before stress exposure, immediately after 30 min of stress exposure, and recuperation levels at 60 and 90 min after stress exposure. Results indicate corticosterone levels were lower in mice prenatally exposed to restraint. In general terms, PFOS exposure decreased corticosterone levels, although this effect was only significant in females. The recuperation pattern of corticosterone was mainly affected by prenatal stress. Interactive effects between PFOS and maternal stress were sex dependent. The current results suggest that prenatal PFOS exposure induced long-lasting effects in mice.

  14. The effects of two situational variables on the self-confidence of males and females in achievement settings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Susan Marilyn Hartman

    1977-01-01

    - ~uivocal feedback on individuals' abilities, women do not have lower self-confidence than men. Feather and. Simon (1971) found no sex differences in conf1dence of passing a subsequent anagruns test when the subjects had been given feedback in the form oi..., 94 ) I ? 5. 28, yg . 01. A Scheffe's comparison of means revealed that subjects who were given clear feedback were significantly more conf1dent in same-sex competition (X= 4. 26) and less confident in oppos1te-sex competition (X= 2. 71), g g . 05...

  15. The potential reproductive, neurobehavioral and systemic effects of soluble sodium tungstate exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McInturf, S.M. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Bekkedal, M.Y.V. [Two Steps Forward, LLC, Sun Prairie, WI (United States); Wilfong, E. [U.S. Naval Academy, 572M Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD (United States); Arfsten, D. [Navy Drug Screening Laboratory P.O. Box 113, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, FL (United States); Chapman, G. [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Gunasekar, P.G., E-mail: palur.gunasekar@wpafb.af.mil [Naval Medical Research Unit at Dayton (NAMRU), Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The debate on tungsten (W) is fostered by its continuous usage in military munitions. Reports demonstrate W solubilizes in soil and can migrate into drinking water supplies and, therefore, is a potential health risk to humans. This study evaluated the reproductive, systemic and neurobehavioral effects of sodium tungstate (NaW) in rats following 70 days of daily pre-and postnatal exposure via oral gavage to 5, 62.5 and 125 mg/kg/day of NaW through mating, gestation and weaning (PND 0-20). Daily administration of NaW produced no overt evidence of toxicity and had no apparent effect on mating success or offspring physical development. Distress vocalizations were elevated in F{sub 1} offspring from the high dose group, whereas righting reflex showed unexpected sex differences where males demonstrated faster righting than females; however, the effects were not dose-dependent. Locomotor activity was affected in both low and high-dose groups of F{sub 1} females. Low-dose group showed increased distance traveled, more time in ambulatory movements and less time in stereotypic behavior than controls or high dose animals. The high-dose group had more time in stereotypical movements than controls, and less time resting than controls and the lowest exposure group. Maternal retrieval was not affected by NaW exposure. Tungsten analysis showed a systemic distribution of NaW in both parents and offspring, with preferential uptake within the immune organs, including the femur, spleen and thymus. Histopathological evidence suggested no severe chronic injury or loss of function in these organs. However, the heart showed histological lesions, histiocytic inflammation from minimal to mild with cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis in several P{sub 0} animals of 125 mg NaW dose group. The result of this study suggests that pre and postnatal exposure to NaW may produce subtle neurobehavioral effects in offspring related to motor activity and emotionality.

  16. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands)] [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands) [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  17. 2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2906-1369 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    agricultural enterprises on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The advantages of plastic mulch include soil warming plastic mulch. These recommendations were based upon theory but the actual effectiveness was not known, and changing the width of the mulched beds to reduce the percentage of land covered with water imperiable

  18. Electron Effective Mass in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

    2012-08-12

    The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

  19. Effective range function below threshold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deloff

    2000-06-26

    We demonstrate that the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, associated with interactions consisting of a sum of the Coulomb plus a short range nuclear potential, below threshold becomes degenerate. Taking advantage of this fact, we present a simple method of calculating the effective range function for negative energies. This may be useful in practice since the effective range expansion extrapolated to threshold allows to extract low-energy scattering parameters: the Coulomb-modified scattering length and the effective range.

  20. Twisted mass finite volume effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colangelo, Gilberto; Wenger, Urs; Wu, Jackson M. S.

    2010-08-01

    We calculate finite-volume effects on the pion masses and decay constant in twisted mass lattice QCD at finite lattice spacing. We show that the lighter neutral pion in twisted mass lattice QCD gives rise to finite-volume effects that are exponentially enhanced when compared to those arising from the heavier charged pions. We demonstrate that the recent two flavor twisted mass lattice data can be better fitted when twisted mass effects in finite-volume corrections are taken into account.

  1. Searching for Novel Gravitational Effects

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Christopher Stubb

    2010-09-01

    Stubbs, Chair of the Physics Department at Harvard University, discusses experiments that search for novel gravitational effect and scientific observations about it.

  2. EFFECTIVE POROSITY IMPLIES EFFECTIVE BULK DENSITY IN SORBING SOLUTE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.

    2012-02-27

    The concept of an effective porosity is widely used in solute transport modeling to account for the presence of a fraction of the medium that effectively does not influence solute migration, apart from taking up space. This non-participating volume or ineffective porosity plays the same role as the gas phase in single-phase liquid unsaturated transport: it increases pore velocity, which is useful towards reproducing observed solute travel times. The prevalent use of the effective porosity concept is reflected by its prominent inclusion in popular texts, e.g., de Marsily (1986), Fetter (1988, 1993) and Zheng and Bennett (2002). The purpose of this commentary is to point out that proper application of the concept for sorbing solutes requires more than simply reducing porosity while leaving other material properties unchanged. More specifically, effective porosity implies the corresponding need for an effective bulk density in a conventional single-porosity model. The reason is that the designated non-participating volume is composed of both solid and fluid phases, both of which must be neglected for consistency. Said another way, if solute does not enter the ineffective porosity then it also cannot contact the adjoining solid. Conceptually neglecting the fluid portion of the non-participating volume leads to a lower (effective) porosity. Likewise, discarding the solid portion of the non-participating volume inherently leads to a lower or effective bulk density. In the author's experience, practitioners virtually never adjust bulk density when adopting the effective porosity approach.

  3. SMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bargh, John A.

    (2003) recently proposed that power, as a fundamental dimension of human inter- action, affectsSMITH AND BARGHNONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER NONCONSCIOUS EFFECTS OF POWER ON BASIC APPROACH to the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), having power should

  4. The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks #12;Three Pillars Behind Climate Change! #12;1. Global. Greenhouse Gases have been on the increase. #12;3. The Greenhouse effect is a powerful theory that explains absorbed=rate emitted 30% reflected to space! #12;Computing T! no-greenhouse planet,! e.g., 78% N2, 21% O2

  5. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate and it emits Note: heat balance Fvis( = Fout = Te 4 z #12;(simple Greenhouse cont.) 0 1 2 3 4 Ground Space Top

  6. Effects of acemannan on macrophages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Linna

    1994-01-01

    variety of roles and it is clear that activation of macrophages could play a role in the effects described above. For this reason, studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of acemannan on macrophages in vitro. A macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7...

  7. Student Success Effective Seminar Participation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See over Student Success Effective Seminar Participation Seminars are effective learning experiences as students learn more from talking and listening to each other than they do from listening to keep the conversation going, focused, and inclusive. Confidentiality and Respectful Behaviour o

  8. Correlation effects and bound states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinovjev, G. M.; Molodtsov, S. V.

    2012-11-15

    Bound states in a simple quark model that are due to correlation effects are analyzed. The confining properties of this model in meson (quark-antiquark and diquark) channels manifest themselves at any quark momenta, and an extra potential field may only enhance the confining effect.

  9. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH FISHERIES, H. E. Crowther, Director Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Marine Oils By JAMES J. PEIFER Excerpt from Chapter 23 of the book, "Fish Oils,·· M. E. Stansby, editor Avi Publishing Company, Westport

  10. Spurious Effects in perturbative Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hortacsu; B. C. Lutfuoglu

    1998-12-11

    We show spurious effects in perturbative calculations due to different orderings of inhomogeneous terms while computing corrections to Green functions for two different metrics. These effects are not carried over to physically measurable quantities like the renormalized value of the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor.

  11. Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing Contamination at West Valley Demonstration Project Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing...

  12. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    direct - - injection HECC injection HECC Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary Establish fundamental understanding of fuel effects necessary for...

  13. An animal model to study toxicity of central nervous system therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Effects on behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J. (Forsyth Research Institute, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-10-15

    Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy.

  14. Aldol Reactions - Isotope Effects, Mechanism and Dynamic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetticatt, Mathew J.

    2011-02-22

    , described in this dissertation, represents a significant advance in our research methodology. The role of dynamic effects in aldol reactions is examined in great detail. The study of the proline catalyzed aldol reaction has revealed an intriguing new dynamic...

  15. Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory: Quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-04-15

    We develop the Maxwell-Garnett theory for the effective medium approximation of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles by taking into account the quantum spatial dispersion effects in dielectric response of nanoparticles. We derive a quantum nonlocal generalization of the standard Maxwell-Garnett formula, by means the linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory in conjunction with the Poisson equation as well as the appropriate additional quantum boundary conditions.

  16. Electromagnetic transitions with effective operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ionel Stetcu; Bruce R. Barrett; Petr Navratil; Calvin W. Johnson

    2004-09-30

    In the no-core shell model formalism we compute effective one- and two-body operators, using the Lee-Suzuki procedure within the two-body cluster approximation. We evaluate the validity of the latter through calculations in reduced model spaces. In particular, we test the results for the two-body system and find that indeed the effective operators in the reduced space reproduce the expectation values or transition strengths computed in the full space. On the other hand, the renormalization for operators in the case of 6Li is very weak, suggesting the need for higher-body clusters in computing the effective interaction.

  17. Semiparametric measurement of environmental effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Diego

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a semiparametric analysis of pollution effects on housing prices using the Boston Housing Data. The exposition introduces the basic ideas of modeling pollution impacts with hedonic price ...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of lead exposure.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaziri, N D; Gonick, H C

    2008-01-01

    Ding Y. Effect of lead on nitric oxide synthase expressionND. Lead-induced hypertension: interplay of nitric oxide andZ. Nitric oxide synthase expression in the course of lead-

  19. Advertisement Takes effect in January

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Advertisement Takes effect in January New law gives seniors more control over their living wills/29/2007http://www.sltrib.com/news/ci_7537468 #12;Advertisement The new law also lets Utahns choose what action

  20. Nonlinear effects in kinetic resolutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Derrell W.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of nonlinear effects in the asymmetric catalysis of kinetic resolutions is analyzed. It is found with minimal assumptions that the kinetics of homocompetitive reactions should apply generally to kinetic resolutions involving partially...

  1. Efimov effect in quantum magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuke Nishida; Yasuyuki Kato; Cristian D. Batista

    2013-08-23

    Physics is said to be universal when it emerges regardless of the underlying microscopic details. A prominent example is the Efimov effect, which predicts the emergence of an infinite tower of three-body bound states obeying discrete scale invariance when the particles interact resonantly. Because of its universality and peculiarity, the Efimov effect has been the subject of extensive research in chemical, atomic, nuclear and particle physics for decades. Here we employ an anisotropic Heisenberg model to show that collective excitations in quantum magnets (magnons) also exhibit the Efimov effect. We locate anisotropy-induced two-magnon resonances, compute binding energies of three magnons and find that they fit into the universal scaling law. We propose several approaches to experimentally realize the Efimov effect in quantum magnets, where the emergent Efimov states of magnons can be observed with commonly used spectroscopic measurements. Our study thus opens up new avenues for universal few-body physics in condensed matter systems.

  2. Dilatonic effects near naked singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2011-11-03

    Static spherically symmetric solutions of 4d Brans-Dicke theory include a set of naked singularity solutions. Dilatonic effects near the naked singularities result in either a shielding or an antishielding effect from intruding massive test particles. One result is that for a portion of the solution parameter space, no communication between the singularity and a distant observer is possible via massive particle exchanges. Kaluza-Klein gravity is considered as a special case.

  3. Effective theory of color superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deog Ki Hong

    2007-07-17

    We briefly review an effective theory of QCD at high baryon density, describing the relevant modes near the Fermi surface. The high density effective theory has properties of reparametrization invariance and gauge invariance, maintained in a subtle way. It also has a positive measure, allowing lattice simulations at high baryon density. We then apply it to gapless superconductors and discuss recent proposals to resolve the magnetic instability of gapless superconductivity.

  4. Effect of Field Size and Length of Plantar Spur on Treatment Outcome in Radiation Therapy of Plantar Fasciitis: The Bigger the Better?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, Robert Michael, E-mail: hermann@strahlentherapie-westerstede.com [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Andreas [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Gemeinschaftspraxis für Strahlentherapie Hildesheim/Goslar (Germany); Becker, Alexandra [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Schneider, Michael [Orthopaedic Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Würzburg (Germany); Reible, Michael; Carl, Ulrich Martin [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Abteilung Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Mirko [Zentrum für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bremen/Westerstede (Germany); Klinik für Strahlentherapie, Karl-Lennert-Krebscentrum, Universität Kiel (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is well established in the treatment of painful plantar fasciitis or heel spur. A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of field definition on treatment outcome and to determine the impact of factors potentially involved. Methods and Materials: A review of treatment data of 250 patients (285 heels) with a mean follow-up time of 11 months showed that complete symptom remission occurred in 38%, partial remission in 32%, and no change in 19% (11% were lost to follow-up). Variables such as radiologic evidence of plantar spurs, their length, radiation dose, field size, age, sex, and onset of pain before administration of radiation therapy were investigated in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results: Treatment response depended upon age >53 years, length of heel spur ?6.5 mm (or no radiologic evidence of a heel spur), and onset of pain <12 months before radiation therapy. Patients with these clinical prerequisites stood a 93% chance of clinical response. Without these prerequisites, only 49% showed any impact. No influence of field size on treatment outcome became evident. Conclusion: Patients with short plantar heel spurs benefit from radiation therapy equally well as patients without any radiologic evidence. Moreover, smaller field sizes have the same positive effect as commonly used large field definitions covering the entire calcaneal bone. This leads to a recommendation of a considerable reduction of field size in future clinical practice.

  5. Shaped hole effects on film cooling effectiveness and a comparison of multiple effectiveness measurement techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvel, Trent Alan

    2005-02-17

    -state liquid crystal thermography, transient liquid crystal thermography, pressure sensitive paint (PSP), thermocouples, and infrared thermography. A comparison of the film cooling effectiveness from each of the measurement techniques is presented. All...

  6. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) at low concentrations in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blüthgen, Nancy [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland) [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); University of Basel, Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland)] [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland) [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH?4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH?8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-09-01

    Organic UV filters including benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are widely used to protect humans and materials from damage by UV irradiation. Despite the environmental occurrence of BP-3 in the aquatic environment, little is known about its effects and modes of action. In the present study we assess molecular and physiological effects of BP-3 in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and in eleuthero-embryos by a targeted gene expression approach focusing on the sex hormone system. Fish and embryos are exposed for 14 days and 120 hours post fertilization, respectively, to 2.4–312 ?g/L and 8.2–438 ?g/L BP-3. Chemical analysis of water and fish demonstrates that BP-3 is partly transformed to benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and both compounds are accumulated in adult fish. Biotransformation to BP-1 is absent in eleuthero-embryos. BP-3 exposure leads to similar alterations of gene expression in both adult fish and eleuthero-embryos. In the brain of adult males esr1, ar and cyp19b are down-regulated at 84 ?g/L BP-3. There is no induction of vitellogenin expression by BP-3, both at the transcriptional and protein level. An overall down-regulation of the hsd3b, hsd17b3, hsd11b2 and cyp11b2 transcripts is observed in the testes, suggesting an antiandrogenic activity. No histological changes were observed in the testes after BP-3 treatment. The study leads to the conclusion that low concentrations of BP-3 exhibit similar multiple hormonal activities at the transcription level in two different life stages of zebrafish. Forthcoming studies should show whether this translates to additional physiological effects. Highlights: ? Activity of UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is assessed in zebrafish. ? BP-3 is partly metabolized to benzophenone-1 by adult fish but not embryos. ? Alterations of gene expression are similar in adult males and embryos. ? Gene expression alterations point to multiple hormonal activity of BP-3.

  7. The effect of inanition upon the development of the gonads and germ cells of larval frogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swingle, W W (Wilbur Willis), 1891-1975

    1916-01-01

    April 11 to May 20. X 660 Hag. a. Germ cell. "b. Follicle cell. c. Mesorchium. d. Primae genital space. Fig. 6 Transverse section through the gonad of con­ trol of starvation larvae hilled May 20. X 660 Hag a. Germ cell. b. Sex cord cell. c. lies... or ch iura. d. Primary genital space. X. Germ cells in diplotene stage t. nuclei of germ cells in päcyt'.ene stage, Fig. 7 Cross section through the gonad of larvae starved from April 11 to June 1. X 660 Hag. a. Germ cell. b. Sex cord "cell. c...

  8. The effect of stride length alterations on running efficiency in beginning runners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Jerry Lynn

    1980-01-01

    summary table for caloric cost 2 Descriptive statistics for caloric cost 3 Duncan's New Nultiple Range Test for Stride Length 18 20 LIST OF FIGURES F1gure Page l The eff1cient range of a runner 2 The relat1ve roles of Stride Rate and Stride... Length in velocity changes 3 A two-by-three (sex-by-stride length) repeated measures design 4 A bar chart of the caloric cost means of SL-A, SL-B, and SL-C w1thout distinction between sexes l7 22 5 A bar chart of the caloric cost means of each...

  9. Memory effects in turbulent transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Hubbard; Axel Brandenburg

    2009-11-13

    In the mean-field theory of magnetic fields, turbulent transport, i.e. the turbulent electromotive force, is described by a combination of the alpha effect and turbulent magnetic diffusion, which are usually assumed to be proportional respectively to the mean field and its spatial derivatives. For a passive scalar there is just turbulent diffusion, where the mean flux of concentration depends on the gradient of the mean concentration. However, these proportionalities are approximations that are valid only if the mean field or the mean concentration vary slowly in time. Examples are presented where turbulent transport possesses memory, i.e. where it depends crucially on the past history of the mean field. Such effects are captured by replacing turbulent transport coefficients with time integral kernels, resulting in transport coefficients that depend effectively on the frequency or the growth rate of the mean field itself. In this paper we perform numerical experiments to find the characteristic timescale (or memory length) of this effect as well as simple analytical models of the integral kernels in the case of passive scalar concentrations and kinematic dynamos. The integral kernels can then be used to find self-consistent growth or decay rates of the mean fields. In mean-field dynamos the growth rates and cycle periods based on steady state values of alpha effect and turbulent diffusivity can be quite different from the actual values.

  10. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-06-18

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  11. Quantum effects near future singularities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John D. Barrow; Antonio B. Batista; Giuseppe Dito; Julio C. Fabris; M. J. S. Houndjo

    2012-01-09

    General relativity allows a variety of future singularities to occur in the evolution of the universe. At these future singularities, the universe will end in a singular state after a finite proper time and geometrical invariants of the space time will diverge. One question that naturally arises with respect to these cosmological scenarios is the following: can quantum effects lead to the avoidance of these future singularities? We analyze this problem considering massless and conformally coupled scalar fields in an isotropic and homogeneous background leading to future singularities. It is shown that near strong, big rip-type singularities, with violation of the energy conditions, the quantum effects are very important, while near some milder classes of singularity like the sudden singularity, which preserve the energy conditions, quantum effects are irrelevant.

  12. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  13. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  14. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  15. Investigating the effect of Process Experience on Inspection Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basili, Victor R.

    an inspector needs before he or she is effective and efficient in using that technique. This technical report themselves. This report discusses how the particular experience with process was evaluated and how the opportunity to observe someone else using PBR prior to their own use of it. General Terms Measurement

  16. THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    sickness · Chronic ­ Low dose over long period of time ­ Cancer, anemia, cataracts #12;Appearance of Biological Effects · Prompt/Acute effect ­ effects seen immediately after large doses of radiation if no treatment is given #12;Dose / Radiation Syndrome Relationship · Dose

  17. Improving Rainfall Effectiveness on Rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Thurow, Thomas L.; Taylor Jr., Charles A.

    2000-01-11

    little effective mois- ture for plant growth because it is rapidly lost through evaporation. Other factors affecting evap- oration from the soil surface include soil texture, L-5029 Improving Rainfall Effectiveness On Rangeland Allan McGinty, Thomas L..., an aggres- sive woody invader of moist pastures, rangelands and riparian habitats can use from 0.1 to 0.4 inch of water per day and from 48 to 156 inches of water per year (Davenport, et al., 1982). Perennial grasses are generally more efficient users...

  18. Effective potentials for Folding Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan-yow Chen; Zheng-Yao Su; Chung-Yu Mou

    2006-01-28

    A coarse-grained off-lattice model that is not biased in any way to the native state is proposed to fold proteins. To predict the native structure in a reasonable time, the model has included the essential effects of water in an effective potential. Two new ingredients, the dipole-dipole interaction and the local hydrophobic interaction, are introduced and are shown to be as crucial as the hydrogen bonding. The model allows successful folding of the wild-type sequence of protein G and may have provided important hints to the study of protein folding.

  19. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tscheuschner called for this discussion in their paper.

  20. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use formore »the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.« less

  1. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act This handbook presents the...

  2. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Effects on the Physical Environment...

  3. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector This...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF SUBSIDENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viets, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    S. G. , 1975, Environmental Report - Deep Geothermal Test1976, Geohydrological Environmental Effects of GeothermalI -------- ------- Effects 4 . Environmental and Economic

  5. Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Surface Modification...

  6. EFFECTS OF ELECTRICITY DEREGULATION ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    #12;EFFECTS OF ELECTRICITY DEREGULATION ON NUCLEAR POWER SAFETY Vicki Bier, University of Wisconsin-Madison (608) 262-2064, bier@engr.wisc.edu James Joosten, Connect USA David Glyer, Jennifer Tracey, Michael.K. electricity industry Purpose: ­ Develop a complete list of changes relevant to safety ­ Emphasize changes

  7. Fluid flow effects on electroplating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of fluid flow patterns on the electroplating of rotating cylindrically symmetric objects are examined. Ways are outlined for preventing undesirable spiral patterns on the plated surface. Estimates are given for the diffusion boundary later thickness for cylinders, disks, spheres, and cones. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  9. An Ode to Effective Lagrangians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. P. Burgess

    1998-12-22

    A brief introduction is given to the methods and spirit of effective lagrangians. The emphasis is on a summary of the overall picture, using a simple model as the vehicle to motivate and illustrate the main points. Powercounting is illustrated by estimating the size of the quantum corrections to the predictions of classical gravity.

  10. Possible Pressure Effect for Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kwang-Hua Chu

    2005-08-30

    We make an estimate of the possible range of $\\Delta T_c$ induced by high-pressure effects in post-metallic superconductors by using the theory of {\\it extended irreversible/reversible thermodynamics} and Pippard's length scale. The relationship between the increment of the superconducting temperature and the increase of the pressure is parabolic.

  11. Environmental Effects of Industrial Farming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    ;Animal welfare ·Less density ·Less pollution #12;Animal welfare ·Less density ·Less pollution ·Soil, airEnvironmental Effects of Industrial Farming Dmitri Gaskin #12;Agenda ·Background ·Air contamination 3.5 35 billion Chicken 8.7 billion 16 billion 2 32 billion #12;Air contamination "Smells like money

  12. Project Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    : Martin Visser, John George Academic Supervisor: Andrew Frost Project Reference Number: S112/PrisonersTrustProject Title: Prisoner Counselling Effectiveness Bachelor of Arts Internship Company/Organization: The Counselling Service for Prisoners Trust Intern Position Title: Methodology Evaluator Organisation Supervisor

  13. Effective Hamiltonian for cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, C.D.; Aligia, A.A. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche e Instituto Balseiro, 8400 S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina))

    1993-04-01

    We compare numerical results of O and Cu occupations and optical and magnetic excitations for the three-band Hubbard model in a Cu[sub 4]O[sub 8] cluster, with those obtained with an effective Hamiltonian [ital H][sub [ital e][ital f][ital f

  14. Imprinted genes and transpositions: epigenomic targets for low dose radiation effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jirtle, Randy L.

    2012-10-11

    The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) elicits adaptive responses in part by causing heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. This novel postulate was tested by determining if the level of DNA methylation at the Agouti viable yellow (A{sup vy}) metastable locus is altered, in a dose-dependent manner, by low dose radiation exposure (<10 cGy) during early gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the increased use of CT scans in disease diagnosis, increased number of people predicted to live and work in space, and the present concern about radiological terrorism. We showed for the first time that LDIR significantly increased DNA methylation at the A{sup vy} locus in a sex-specific manner (p=0.004). Average DNA methylation was significantly increased in male offspring exposed to doses between 0.7 cGy and 7.6 cGy with maximum effects at 1.4 cGy and 3.0 cGy (p<0.01). Offspring coat color was concomitantly shifted towards pseudoagouti (p<0.01). Maternal dietary antioxidant supplementation mitigated both the DNA methylation changes and coat color shift in the irradiated offspring (p<0.05). Thus, LDIR exposure during gestation elicits epigenetic alterations that lead to positive adaptive phenotypic changes that are negated with antioxidants, indicating they are mediated in part by oxidative stress. These findings provide evidence that in the isogenic Avy mouse model epigenetic alterations resulting from LDIR play a role in radiation hormesis, bringing into question the assumption that every dose of radiation is harmful. Our findings not only have significant implications concerning the mechanism of hormesis, but they also emphasize the potential importance of this phenomenon in determining human risk at low radiation doses. Since the epigenetic regulation of genes varies markedly between species, the effect of LDIR on other epigenetically labile genes (e.g. imprinted genes) in animals and humans needs to be defined.

  15. Stress effects in structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy Maartens; Josep Triginer; David Matravers

    1999-07-14

    Residual velocity dispersion in cold dark matter induces stresses which lead to effects that are absent in the idealized dust model. A previous Newtonian analysis showed how this approach can provide a theoretical foundation for the phenomenological adhesion model. We develop a relativistic kinetic theory generalization which also incorporates the anisotropic velocity dispersion that will typically be present. In addition to density perturbations, we consider the rotational and shape distortion properties of clustering. These quantities together characterize the linear development of density inhomogeneity, and we find exact solutions for their evolution. As expected, the corrections are small and arise only in the decaying modes, but their effect is interesting. One of the modes for density perturbations decays less rapidly than the standard decaying mode. The new rotational mode generates precession of the axis of rotation. The new shape modes produce additional distortion that remains frozen in during the subsequent (linear) evolution, despite the rapid decay of the terms that caused it.

  16. Sonoluminescence and the Heimlich Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan Chodos

    1996-04-19

    The phenomenon of sonoluminescence (SL), originally observed some sixty years ago, has recently become the focus of renewed interest, particularly with the discovery that one can trap a single bubble and induce it to exhibit SL stably over a large number of acoustical cycles. In this work we shall adopt a version of the provocative suggestion put forward by Schwinger: the mechanism responsible for the radiation in SL is a dynamic version of the Casimir effect. It has been known since Casimir's original work in 1948 that the zero-point energy of quantum fields can be modified by the presence of boundaries, and that these modifications generate observable effects. For example, in Casimir's original work, the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in the presence of a pair of uncharged, parallel, perfectly conducting plates were shown to give rise to an attractive force between the plates.

  17. Effective Viscosity of Confined Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson

    2012-01-24

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity \\mu eff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log(effective viscosity) = C - n log (shear rate), where n varies from 1 (solidlike friction) at very low temperatures to 0 (Newtonian liquid) at very high temperatures, following an inverse sigmoidal curve. Only the shortest chain molecules melt, whereas the longer ones only show a softening in the studied temperature interval 0 < T < 900 K. The results are important for the frictional properties of very thin (nanometer) films and to estimate their thermal durability.

  18. Effect of bypass protein and lasalocid on reproductive function in the postpartum Brahman cow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpena, Mario Luis

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six fall-calving, pluriparous suckled Brahman cows were allotted randomly within sex of calf to receive: (d O= parturition) 2.6 kg corn and 0.60 kg soybean meal (SBM, n=ll), or 2.80 kg corn and 0.40 kg Menhaden fish meal (FM,n=ll) alone...

  19. Effects of pre-feedlot growth rate on carcass composition and meat tenderness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigman, Ivan Todd

    2001-01-01

    within breed type and sex to low (3.7 hd/ha), medium (5.1 hd/ha) or high (6.8 hd/ha) stocking rate (SR) pastures. Calves were fed a high-grain diet in a commercial feedlot to an approximate carcass weight of 361 kg. Carcass characteristics were measured...

  20. Nuclear quantum effects in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car

    2008-03-25

    In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.

  1. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  2. Effect of Sea Level Rise

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVthe next generationEffect of Sea Level

  3. Return of the EMC Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Miller; J. R. Smith

    2001-07-09

    The relationship between the properties of nuclear matter and structure functions measured in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is investigated using light front dynamics. We find that relativistic mean field models such as the Walecka, Zimanyi-Moszkowski (and point-coupling versions of the same) and Rusnak-Furnstahl models contain essentially no binding effect, in accord with an earlier calculation by Birse. These models are found to obey the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem, which is applicable if nucleons are the only degrees of freedom. Any model in which the entire Fock space wave function can be represented in terms of free nucleons must obey this theorem, which implies that all of the plus momentum is carried by nucleons, and therefore that there will be essentially no binding effect. The explicit presence of nuclear mesons allows one to obtain a modified form of the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem, which is equivalent to the often-used momentum sum rule. These results argue in favor of a conclusion that the depletion of the deep inelastic structure function observed in the valence quark regime is due to some interesting effect involving dynamics beyond the conventional nucleon-meson treatment of nuclear physics.

  4. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Viola; David P. DiVincenzo

    2014-03-04

    The electronic circulator, and its close relative the gyrator, are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory, but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative non-reciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an ohmically-contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90 degrees. In this limit we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the a.c. wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimetre (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realising a Hall gyrator is also analysed.

  5. Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped charged jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.

  6. Effect Size and Moderators of Effects for Token Economy Interventions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soares, Denise

    2012-02-14

    of this investigation was to Meta-analyze the single case research on TE implemented in school and is the first to offer effect size analysis and identify moderators. The use of TE?s has been widely established as an evidence-based intervention for use in prisons... to implement a TE is needed in our literature. Empirical evidence for the use of a token economy in a classroom is presented along with suggested implementation ideas. Twenty four studies were included in this Meta-analysis with an overall combined Tau...

  7. Unparticle effects in Supernovae cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasanta Kumar Das

    2007-11-08

    Recently H. Georgi suggested that a scale invariant unparticle ${\\mathcal{U}}$ sector with an infrared fixed point at high energy can couple with the SM matter via a higher-dimensional operator suppressed by a high cut-off scale. Intense phenomenological search of this unparticle sector in the collider and flavour physics context has already been made. Here we explore it's impact in cosmology, particularly it's possible role in the supernovae cooling. We found that the energy-loss rate (and thus the cooling) is strongly dependent on the effective scale \\LdaU and the anomalous dimension \\dU of this unparticle theory.

  8. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  9. RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIMOS,N.

    2007-05-30

    Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

  10. Quantum chaos and effective thermalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altland, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate effective equilibration for unitary quantum dynamics under conditions of classical chaos. Focusing on the paradigmatic example of the Dicke model, we show how a constructive description of the thermalization process is facilitated by the Glauber $Q$ or Husimi function, for which the evolution equation turns out to be of Fokker-Planck type. The equation describes a competition of classical drift and quantum diffusion in contractive and expansive directions. By this mechanism the system follows a 'quantum smoothened' approach to equilibrium, which avoids the notorious singularities inherent to classical chaotic flows.

  11. Orbital effects in actinide systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Actinide magnetism presents a number of important challenges; in particular, the proximity of 5f band to the Fermi energy gives rise to strong interaction with both d and s like conduction electrons, and the extended nature of the 5f electrons means that they can interact with electron orbitals from neighboring atoms. Theory has recently addressed these problems. Often neglected, however, is the overwhelming evidence for large orbital contributions to the magnetic properties of actinides. Some experimental evidence for these effects are presented briefly in this paper. They point, clearly incorrectly, to a very localized picture for the 5f electrons. This dichotomy only enhances the nature of the challenge.

  12. Flexoelectric effect in biaxial nematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kapanowski

    2011-02-09

    The flexoelectric (FE) effect provides a linear coupling between electric polarization and orientational deformation in liquid crystals. It influences many electrooptical phenomena and it is used in some bistable nematic devices. A statistical theory of dipole FE polarization in biaxial nematic liquid crystals is used to calculate temperature dependence of order parameters, elastic constants, and FE coefficients. The splitting of the two Meyer FE coefficients and the appearance of new FE coefficients is obtained at the uniaxial-biaxial nematic transition. The ordering of the splited FE coefficients corresponds to the ordering of the splited elastic constants.

  13. Linear effects of perturbed recombination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony Lewis

    2007-07-18

    Perturbations in the ionization fraction after recombination affect the Compton cooling of density perturbations. Once the gas temperature starts to decouple from the CMB temperature, ionization fraction perturbations can have a significant influence on the subsequent gas temperature perturbation evolution. This directly affects the 21cm spin temperature of the gas, and also modifies the small-scale baryon perturbation evolution via the difference in baryon pressure. The effect on the gas temperature perturbations can be significant on all scales, and galactic-scale baryon perturbations are modified at the percent level at redshifts z >~ 100 where numerical simulations are typically started.

  14. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  15. Electron kinetic effects on interferometry,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroicAward | DepartmentElectronkinetic effects

  16. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  17. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2010-02-12

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise between optimizing the combustion performance and keeping the number of elementary charges low. Further tests in a barometric bomb calorimeter of 21.2 l volume were performed with four types of aluminum. The mass fraction burned in this case appeared to depend on the morphology of the aluminum particles. Flake aluminum exhibited a better performance than granulated aluminum with particle sizes ranging from below 25 {micro}m to 125 {micro}m for the coarsest material. In addition, a feasibility study on electro-magnetic effects from SDF charges detonated in a tunnel has been performed. A method was developed to measure the local, unsteady electro-conductivity in the detonation/combustion products cloud. This method proved to yield reproducible results. A variety of methods were tested with regard to probing electro-magnetic pulses from the detonation of SDF charges. The results showed little reproducibility and were small compared to the effect from pulsed high voltage discharges of comparatively small energy (around 32 J). Thus either no significant electromagnetic pulse is generated in our small-scale tests or the tested techniques have to be discarded as too insensitive or too limited in bandwidth to detect possibly very high frequency electro-magnetic disturbances.

  18. Substrate dielectric effects on graphene field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Ung Lee, Ji, E-mail: jlee1@albany.edu; Liehr, Michael [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, The State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Graphene is emerging as a promising material for future electronics and optoelectronics applications due to its unique electronic structure. Understanding the graphene-dielectric interaction is of vital importance for the development of graphene field effect transistors (FETs) and other novel graphene devices. Here, we extend the exploration of substrate dielectrics from conventionally used thermally grown SiO{sub 2} and hexagonal boron nitride films to technologically relevant deposited dielectrics used in semiconductor industry. A systematic analysis of morphology and optical and electrical properties was performed to study the effects of different substrates (SiO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-oxide, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) on the carrier transport of chemical vapor deposition-derived graphene FET devices. As baseline, we use graphene FETs fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2} with a relatively high carrier mobility of 10?000 cm{sup 2}/(V s). Among the deposited dielectrics studied, silicon nitride showed the highest mobility, comparable to the properties of graphene fabricated on thermal SiO{sub 2}. We conclude that this result comes from lower long range scattering and short range scattering rates in the nitride compared those in the other deposited films. The carrier fluctuation caused by substrates, however, seems to be the main contributing factor for mobility degradation, as a universal mobility-disorder density product is observed for all the dielectrics examined. The extrinsic doping trend is further confirmed by Raman spectra. We also provide, for the first time, correlation between the intensity ratio of G peak and 2D peak in the Raman spectra to the carrier mobility of graphene for different substrates.

  19. Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobek II, Durward K.

    Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving 1 EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING MANIMAY GHOSH and DURWARD K. SOBEK II* Mechanical and Industrial Engineering@ie.montana.edu * Corresponding Author #12;Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving 2 Abstract Short

  20. Optical Effects of the Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heifets, S.; Novokhatski, S.; Teytelman, D.; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    We discuss optical effects of the wake fields: synchronous phase and bunch length variation along the train of bunches, effect of the wakes on the tune and on the Twiss parameters.

  1. Effective Field Theory in Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin J. Savage

    2000-07-11

    I review recent developments in the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on precision two-body calculations and efforts to formulate the nuclear shell model in terms of an effective field theory.

  2. "Exotic" quantum effects in the laboratory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralf Schützhold

    2010-04-15

    This Article provides a brief (non-exhaustive) review of some recent developments regarding the theoretical and possibly experimental study of "exotic" quantum effects in the laboratory with special emphasis on cosmological particle creation, Hawking radiation, and the Unruh effect.

  3. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  4. Ethanol's Effect on Grain Supply and Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides graphical information about ethanol's effect on grain supply and prices, uses of corn, and grain price trends.

  5. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  6. Understanding the Effects of Marine Biodiversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stachowicz, Jay

    and negative effects on herbivores. Recognizing that marine and terrestrial approaches to understandingUnderstanding the Effects of Marine Biodiversity on Communities and Ecosystems John J. Stachowicz,1 There is growing interest in the effects of changing marine biodi- versity on a variety of community properties

  7. Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirzba, Andreas - Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP)

    1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich · · Andreas Wirzba Casimir effect and trace formula Copenhagen, 17 May 2006 #12;1 Casimir Effect and Trace formula Andreas Wirzba Institut f¨ur Kernphysik Forschungszentrum J¨ulich 1. Introduction to the Casimir

  8. An Effective Particle Approach to the Photophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaron, David

    : David Yaron, Advisor Hyung Kim, Chair Richard McCullough David Sholl January 2002 #12;An Effective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.4.2 Chain End Effects in PPV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.4.3 Chain Length Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 4.4.4 PPP vs INDO Hamiltonian for Polyacetylene

  9. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Science Honor Society Center Moriches High School Center about how this drug affects brain chemistry. #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;Everybody talks about about it. ­ Mark Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What

  10. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Stephen E. Schwartz Atmospheric Sciences Division CSSP Lecture July 27, 2005 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Twain­ Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something about it. What are we doing

  11. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  12. How to effectively revalidate PHAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crumpler, D.K.; Whittle, D.K. [JBF Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Under OSHA process safety management (PSM) standard 29 CFR 1910.119, process hazard analyses (PHAs) must be updated and revalidated at least every five years. This rule was promulgated in 1992; however, many operating companies began PHA programs as early as 1990. Now these initial PHAs must be revalidated due to the time limit. Because OSHA 1910.119 only gives guidance, hydrocarbon processing industry companies can select the revalidation method to use and have several options: redo the PHA as if it were the initial one; retrofit, update and revalidate the PHA by concentrating on deficiencies in the original analysis and incorporating process changes; and update and revalidate the original PHA for process changes only. Using guidelines and the evaluation flow diagram, companies can cost-effectively decide how much rework is needed to maintain PSM compliance. The paper discusses regulatory requirements, revalidation approaches, collect supporting documentation, initial/previous PHA quality, operating experience, conducting and documenting revalidation analyses, and documentation.

  13. Crowding effects in vehicular traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combinido, Jay Samuel L

    2012-01-01

    While the impact of crowding on the diffusive transport of molecules within a cell is widely studied in biology, it has thus far been neglected in traffic systems where bulk behavior is the main concern. Here, we study the effects of crowding due to car density and driving fluctuations on the transport of vehicles. Using a microscopic model for traffic, we found that crowding can push car movement from a superballistic down to a subdiffusive state. The transition is also associated with a change in the shape of the probability distribution of positions from negatively-skewed normal to an exponential distribution. Moreover, crowding broadens the distribution of cars' trap times and cluster sizes. At steady state, the subdiffusive state persists only when there is a large variability in car speeds. We further relate our work to prior findings from random walk models of transport in cellular systems.

  14. Nernst Effect in Magnetized Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joglekar, Archis S; Ridgers, Christopher P; Kingham, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    We present nanosecond timescale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's Law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of non-local behavior, we demonstrate that effects such as anomalous heat flow are induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. We show magnetic field amplification up to a factor of 3 from Nernst compression into the hohlraum wall. The magnetic field is also expelled towards the hohlraum axis due to Nernst advection faster than frozen-in-flux would suggest. Non-locality contributes to the heat flow towards the hohlraum axis and results in an augmented Nernst advection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling.

  15. Inflating with large effective fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, C.P. [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Cicoli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, F. [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Williams, M., E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mcicoli@ictp.it, E-mail: f.quevedo@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mwilliams@perimeterinsititute.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset G/H (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple large-field power laws (like V ? ?{sup 2}) and exponential potentials, V(?) = ?{sub k}V{sub x}e{sup ?k?/M}. Both of these can describe the data well and give slow-roll inflation for large fields without the need for a precise balancing of terms in the potential. The exponential potentials achieve large r through the limit |?| || ? and so predict r ? (8/3)(1-n{sub s}); consequently n{sub s} ? 0.96 gives r ? 0.11 but not much larger (and so could be ruled out as measurements on r and n{sub s} improve). We examine the naturalness issues for these models and give simple examples where symmetries protect these forms, using both pseudo-Goldstone inflatons (with non-abelian non-compact shift symmetries following familiar techniques from chiral perturbation theory) and extra-dimensional models.

  16. Mechanical effects in cookoff modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, R.J.; Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.

    1994-07-01

    Complete cookoff modeling of energetic material in confined geometries must couple thermal, chemical and mechanical effects. In the past, modeling has focused on the prediction of the onset of combustion behavior based only on thermal-chemistry effects with little or no regard to the mechanical behavior of the energetic material. In this paper, an analysis tool is outlined which couples thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior for one-dimensional Geometries comprised of multi-materials. A reactive heat flow code, XCHEM, and a quasistatic mechanics code, SANTOS, have been completely coupled using, a reactive, elastic-plastic constitutive model describing pressurization of the energetic material. This new Thermally Reactive Elastic-plastic explosive code, TREX, was developed to assess the coupling, of mechanics with thermal chemistry making multidimensional cookoff analysis possible. In this study, TREX is applied to confined and unconfined systems. The confined systems simulate One-Dimensional Time to explosion (ODTX) experiments in both spherical and cylindrical configurations. The spherical ODTX system is a 1.27 cm diameter sphere of TATB confined by aluminum exposed to a constant external temperature. The cylindrical ODTX system is an aluminum tube filled with HMX, NC, and inert exposed to a constant temperature bath. Finally. an unconfined system consisting of a hollow steel cylinder filled with a propellant composed of Al, RMX, and NC, representative of a rocket motor, is considered. This model system is subjected to transient internal and external radiative/convective boundary conditions representative of 5 minutes exposure to a fire. The confined systems show significant pressure prior to ignition, and the unconfined system shows extrusion of the propellent suggesting that the energetic material becomes more shock sensitive.

  17. Does the side jump effect exist?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sushkov, O P; Mori, M; Maekawa, S

    2012-01-01

    The side-jump effect is a manifestation of the spin orbit interaction in electron scattering from an atom/ion/impurity. The effect has a broad interest because of its conceptual importance for generic spin-orbital physics, in particular the effect is widely discussed in spintronics. We reexamine the effect accounting for the exact nonperturbative electron wave function inside the atomic core. We find that value of the effect is much smaller than estimates accepted in literature. The reduction factor is 1/Z^2, where Z is the nucleus charge of the atom/impurity. This implies that the side-jump effect is practically irrelevant for spintronics, the skew scattering and/or the intrinsic mechanism always dominate the anomalous Hall and spin Hall effects.

  18. Climate warming and environmental sex determination in tuatara: the Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    (figure 1). They currently live only on some small islands off New Zealand. Their populations are small- logical data (empirically determined). The model first predicts nest-temperature profiles by solving heat to higher altitudes, colonize cooler islands). Tuatara do not have this option, as they survive only on low

  19. Testosterone-induced phenotypic sex reversal in sheep 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiles, Maxine Lorene

    1979-01-01

    into the abdominal cavity was continued along the midline (linea alba). The fingers were inserted into the 23 0 Figure 1. Chemical structures of testosterone cypionate (top) and -te tosterone propionate (bottom), 24 Table 4. Summary of Hormone Treatment Levels... was sutured following pellet insertion. After injection of the hormone, the uterus was bathed in sterile saline and replaced into the abdominal cavity. 26 Simple interrupted sutures, using no. 1 chromic catgut, were placed in the linea alba...

  20. Sex differences in affective and physiological responses to relationship orientations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebl, Michelle Rae

    1993-01-01

    electromyographic activity (i.e., zygomaticus major, corrugator supercilli, and orbicularis oris muscle activation) were collected. Subjects also rated their affective reactions. In addition, subjects completed self esteem and other measures prior...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Do sex and habitat differences in antipredator behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandpipers are sexually dimorphic, with females about 15% longer-billed and 10% heavier than males. We than com- pensatory. However, with respect to habitat use, birds appeared to compensate for the higher-off against other factors. Keywords Habitat quality Á Local distribution Á Predation danger Á Sexual

  2. Identifying Sex Differences in Spatial Cognition in Laboratory Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettis, Tania

    2011-01-01

    ecological niches. Rats are semi-aquatic while the houseEcological Economics 30 (3):405-415 Chambers L, Singleton G, Krebs C (2000) Movements and social organization of wild house

  3. SEX STEROIDS MODULATE NOCICEPTION, AND ESTROGEN MODIFIES SUPRASPINAL NOCICEPTIVE ACTIVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralya, Andrew

    2010-12-10

    with histology. Dr. Megan Johnson for assistance with Fos immunohistochemistry and its quantification. Drs. Jonathan and Sara Li of Hormone Pellet Press. Dr. Christopher Liverman for assistance with pERK immunohistochemistry. Dr. Mani Maran Rajamani Rengasamy...

  4. Sex differences in hypothalamic astrocyte response to estradiol stimulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, John; Hamid, Naheed; Bondar, Galyna; Dewing, Phoebe; Clarkson, Jenny; Micevych, Paul

    2010-01-01

    kisspeptin neurons in mouse hypothalamus; sexual dimorphismfunctions controlled by the hypothalamus are highly sexuallyGnRH release from the hypothalamus and gonadotropin release

  5. Haploinsufficiency and the sex chromosomes from yeasts to humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Clare, Michaela; Pir, Pinar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2011-02-28

    /l, har- vested by centrifugation, washed in 10 ml 100 ?M lithium acetate, and finally resuspended in 1 ml of 100 ?M lithium acetate. A total of 100 ?l of cell suspension was added per 10 ?l of PCR product; 240 ?l of 50% (w/ v) poly(ethylene glycol)-3000... ; 30 ?l 1 M lithium acetate; and 25 ?l 2 mg/ml single-stranded (ss)-DNA. The sus- pension was incubated at 30°C with shaking for 30 min; 43 ?l of dimethylsulfoxide added; and subsequently heat shocked at 42°C for 10 min. Cells were incubated in YPD...

  6. Directions of Goldberg's five-factor approach across the sexes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butts, Marcus M

    2013-02-22

    In recent research, validity of Big Five personality measures has been questioned. Specifically, the question of social comparison targets needs research. When persons evaluate themselves on personality dimensions, implicit comparisons are made...

  7. Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim; Smith, Kirk R.

    2008-01-01

    Catalano, Tim Bruckner, and Kirk R. Smith* School of Public94720-7360 Contributed by Kirk R. Smith, November 15, 2007 (

  8. Ties of Dependence: AIDS and Transactional Sex in Rural Malawi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swidler, Ann; Watkins, Susan Cotts

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Office (NSO) [Malawi], and ORC Macro. 2005.and Health Survey 2004, NSO and ORC Macro, Calverton, MD,National Statistics Office and ORC Macro 2005 for Malawi;

  9. 930 Brain imaging Sex differences in brain structure in auditory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    . Brun, Natasha Lepore´, Eileen Luders, Yi-Yu Chou, Sarah K. Madsen, Arthur W. Toga and Paul M. Thompson

  10. Trading Sex, Marking Bodies: Pornographic Trademarks and the Lanham Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasserman, David Israel

    2009-01-01

    e.g. , Anthony D'Amato, Porn Up, Rape Down (Northwesternat 239 (citing Alice Walker's Porn, in You CAN'T KEEP A GOODEroiiZed Asian in Gay Video Porn in, A 235, 243 (Kent A. Ono

  11. Feminism and Pornography after the Sex Wars: Diversifying Pornography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Allison

    2009-01-01

    is pornography as speech. Queer porn politicizes the eroticis ignored by mainstream porn is the variety of ways thisand power play in queer porn necessarily refers to the

  12. Gender, sex and social control: East Lothian, 1610-1640 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornell, Harriet Jane

    2012-11-30

    Early modern Scotland was a religious society where the doctrine of Calvinism permeated everyday life in the localities through the official regulation of personal behaviour. Recent historical studies have debated the ...

  13. Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Nora

    2009-05-15

    Previous studies of non-human animals and humans with endocrine abnormalities have demonstrated that higher prenatal androgen levels promote more male-typical behavior, including cognitive abilities and sexual behavior. Research on normal hormonal...

  14. Asymmetries of cortical thickness: eects of handedness, sex, and schizophrenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    handers, and vice versa for left handers [6]. Voxel-based studies examining tissue density, however women, three of whom were nondextral) and 84 patients experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia (60 men, 12 of whom were nondextral; 24 women, four of who

  15. DIFFERENCE IN SEX RATIOS OF THE ANADROMOUS ALEWIFE, ALOSA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .cted by the great dam for hydroelectric power built across the river between Keokuk, Iowa, and Hamilton, ID., much

  16. Research Report The phonemic restoration effect reveals pre-N400 effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kutas, Marta

    ) investigation of the phonemic restoration effect found that the processing of coughs replacing high versus low

  17. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios, E-mail: sskaf@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 203 Bouverie Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ?70?pA, subthreshold swing of ?60?mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  18. Sex Hormones Genotypes and Phenotypes and Determinants of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin in relation to Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GOTO, ATSUSHI

    2012-01-01

    Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes withAssociation of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with

  19. 2,3-Hexanediols as Sex Attractants and a Female-produced Sex Pheromone for Cerambycid Beetles in the Prionine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ceramby- cid species often share pheromone components, or even pro- duce pheromone blends of identical,3- hexanediols, common components of male-produced aggrega- tion pheromones of beetles in the subfamily components, or even apparently using pheromones of identical composition. For example, males of many species

  20. 2,3-Hexanediols as Sex Attractants and a Female-produced Sex Pheromone for Cerambycid Beetles in the Prionine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ceramby- cid species often share pheromone components, or even pro- duce pheromone blends of identical,3- hexanediols, common components of male-produced aggrega- tion pheromones of beetles in the subfamily sharing pheromone components, or even apparently using pheromones of identical composition. For example

  1. Radiation effects in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B.; Yazzie, A.; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T.; Leavitt, C.P.

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  2. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  3. Effect of mixing on polymerization of styrene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treybig, Michael Norris

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis by MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major... Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF MIXING ON POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE A Thesis MICHAEL NORRIS TREYBIG Approved as to style and content by: ~ C. W a rman of Comaittee e d of De artment em er em er August 1977 ABSTRACT Effect of Mixing...

  4. Coulomb collision effects on linear Landau damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callen, J. D.

    2014-05-15

    Coulomb collisions at rate ? produce slightly probabilistic rather than fully deterministic charged particle trajectories in weakly collisional plasmas. Their diffusive velocity scattering effects on the response to a wave yield an effective collision rate ?{sub eff} ? ? and a narrow dissipative boundary layer for particles with velocities near the wave phase velocity. These dissipative effects produce temporal irreversibility for times t???1/?{sub eff} during Landau damping of a small amplitude Langmuir wave.

  5. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  6. Enviro effects of hydrokinetic turbines on fish | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    effects of hydrokinetic turbines on fish Enviro effects of hydrokinetic turbines on fish Enviro effects of hydrokinetic turbines on fish 47fish-hkturbineinteractionseprijacobs...

  7. Effective Field Theory for Nuclear Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin J. Savage

    2003-01-21

    I review the current status of the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics, and its present implications for nuclear astrophysics.

  8. Designing More Effective Accountability Report Cards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabbah, Faris M.

    2011-01-01

    stripped of other design elements (i.e. , axis headings,with unnecessary design elements. In his seminal work, Thereport cards and identify design elements of an effective

  9. Recommendation 192: Comments on Remediation Effectiveness Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB Recommendations and Comments on the Draft 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation.

  10. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

  11. Effective Strategies for Participating in Utility Planning |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Neighborhood Program Working with Utilities Peer Exchange Call: Effective Strategies for Participating in Utility Planning, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, August 2, 2012. This...

  12. Approaches for Effective Climate Change Communication (NPS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register here. Join us for a webinar exploring the importance of effective communication strategies as a key component of climate change response. The presentation will highlight examples and...

  13. Meteorological Effects on Air/Fuel Ratio 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    temperature and humidity variations. Also shown are the minimal effects of higher excess air rates on fuel consumption when preheated combustion air is used....

  14. Food behavior checklist effectively evaluates nutrition education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Food behavior checklist effectivelyB. Joy We developed a short food behavior checklist (FBC) todiverse women in the Food Stamp Nutrition Education

  15. Nonuniversal Effects in the Homogeneous Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer; Shawn Hermans

    2000-12-04

    Effective field theory predicts that the leading nonuniversal effects in the homogeneous Bose gas arise from the effective range for S-wave scattering and from an effective three-body contact interaction. We calculate the leading nonuniversal contributions to the energy density and condensate fraction and compare the predictions with results from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations by Giorgini, Boronat, and Casulleras. We give a crude determination of the strength of the three-body contact interaction for various model potentials. Accurate determinations could be obtained from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the energy density with higher statistics.

  16. Electromagnetic effects on explosive reaction and plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mace, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pemberton, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Richard J [INDIAN HEAD DIVISION

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that electric fields can have quantifiable effects on the initiation and growth of detonation, yet the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. Candidates include Joule heating of the reaction zone, perturbations to the activation energy for chemical reaction, reduction of the Peierls energy barrier that facilitates dislocation motion, and acceleration of plasma projected from the reaction zone. In this study the possible role of plasma in the initiation and growth of explosive reaction is investigated. The effects of magnetic and electric field effects on reaction growth will be reviewed and recent experiments reported.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5 audit of SRP radioactive waste Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; HIGH-LEVEL...

  18. Acoustic Effects of Hydrokinetic Tidal Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polagye, Brian

    2011-11-01

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics environmental projects to determine the likely acoustic effects from a tidal energy device.

  19. Effects of father absence on aptitude scores and achievement motivation in college students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misle, Rose Marie

    1981-01-01

    CO m h CI 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 0 5. O ?C I? ch rrr Lr- IO CC UJ ?C O F Z 0 UJ UJ OC UC Q ?C O O Z 3: CL cC O Z5 N m cl Ch CQ IO 0 O 0 I O CO O LQ 0 ct 0 N 0 0 0 0 CO O 0 0 0 0 0 0 CI I I I IQ CP N 0 I 0 0 O CO 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 CI... II I- CI 5- O O CI 5 O SJ ?I JD CI ) II ?5 Xi 5 Cl ) I ? I? cC I/I IJS CO W ?C I? Z I? ~ C I/I CC W ?C ) Z CI JJ O Table 3 WOFO Score Means for the Subject's Sex and Family Type SEX = MALE MALE FAMTYPE = SINGLE BOTH...

  20. Quantum mechanical effects from deformation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Much, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germany and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We consider deformations of quantum mechanical operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. The deformation enables us to obtain several quantum mechanical effects where electromagnetic and gravitomagnetic fields play a role. Furthermore, a quantum plane can be defined by using the deformation techniques. This in turn gives an experimentally verifiable effect.