National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for life cycle greenhouse

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States On May 29, 2014, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy announced the availability for public review and comment the report Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States (LCA GHG Report).

  2. Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States The Office of Fossil Energy of the Department of Energy gives notice of the availability of the report Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows: *How does exported liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the U.S. compare

  4. NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model AgencyCompany Organization: National Energy Technology...

  5. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Life Cycle GHG Perspective Report.pdf More Documents & Publications Cameron LNG LLC Final Order Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. ...

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  8. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  10. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  12. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cafferty, Kara G.; Searcy, Erin M.; Nguyen, Long; Spatari, Sabrina

    2014-11-01

    To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

  13. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  14. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  15. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  16. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  18. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  2. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Moreira, M.T.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  4. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  5. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  6. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant. In a scenario with conventional tillage and a 30% stover removal rate, life-cycle GHG emissions for a combined gallon of corn grain and stover ethanol without cover crop adoption or manure application are 49 g CO2eq MJ-1, in comparison with 91 g CO2eq MJ-1 for petroleum gasoline. Adopting a cover crop or applying manure reduces the former ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions by 8% and 10%, respectively. We considered two different life cycle analysis approaches to develop estimates of life-cycle GHG emissions for corn stover ethanol, marginal analysis and energy allocation. In the same scenario, this fuel has GHG emissions of 12 – 20 g CO2eq MJ-1 (for manure and cover crop application, respectively) and 45 – 48 g CO2eq MJ-1 with the marginal approach and the energy allocation approach, respectively.

  7. NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life cycle assessment (LCA) harmonization helps lenders, utility executives, and lawmakers get the best, most precise information on greenhouse gas emissions from various sources of energy. LCA has been used to estimate and compare GHG emissions from utility-scale power systems for three decades, often with considerable variability in results. Harmonization provides more exact estimates of greenhouse-gas emissions for renewable and conventional electricity

  8. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model...

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental ...

  11. GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO Project Peer Review GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels March 24, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability Michael Wang, Jennifer B. Dunn Argonne National Laboratory Key acronyms list AD Anaerobic digestion FR Forest residue AEO Annual Energy Outlook FTD Fischer Tropsch Diesel AEZ Agricultural Ecological Zone FN Fuel gas/natural gas AGE Air emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption FY Fiscal year ALU Algal lipid upgrading GHG Greenhouse gas AHTL Algal hydrothermal liquefaction GREET

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming | Department of Energy Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. PDF icon 27637.pdf More Documents & Publications Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production via Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone

  13. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-10-14

    (The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

  14. Program Evaluation: Program Life Cycle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In general, different types of evaluation are carried out over different parts of a program's life cycle (e.g., Creating a program, Program is underway, or Closing out or end of program)....

  15. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  16. Life Cycle Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-25

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF{sub 3}, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF{sub 3} in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF{sub 3} and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF{sub 3} at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF{sub 3} in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO{sub 2eq}/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  17. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  18. Title: The Life-cycle

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Authors: Morgan N. Price, Adam P. Arkin, and Eric J. Alm Author affiliation: Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley CA, USA and the Virtual Institute for Microbial Stress and Survival. A.P.A. is also affiliated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the UC Berkeley Dept. of Bioengineering. Corresponding author: Eric Alm, ejalm@lbl.gov, phone 510-486-6899, fax 510-486-6219, address Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 977-152, Berkeley, CA 94720

  19. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  20. A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis. State of Knowledge and Critical Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.

    2010-10-01

    This report examines battery life-cycle assessments with a focus on cradle-to-gate (CTG) energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions. This includes battery manufacturing and as the production of materials that make up batteries. The report covers both what is known about battery life cycles, as well as what needs to be established for better environmental evaluations.

  1. Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle ...

  2. GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Questions | Department of Energy GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions November 23, 2015 - 2:57pm Addthis GREET Model Expanded to Better Address Biofuel Life-Cycle Analysis Research Questions The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model allows researchers and analysts to fully evaluate the energy and emission

  3. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Systems | Department of Energy Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. PDF icon

  4. Life Cycle Inventory Database | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Database Life Cycle Inventory Database The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the

  5. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  6. Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

    2012-12-01

    This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

  7. Updating the LED Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance 7 Goal of the New Study Review new literature on the life- cycle assessment of LED products. Determine if newer A-19 products...

  8. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  9. Life-Cycle Analysis of Geothermal Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The results and tools from this project will help GTP and stakeholders determine and communicate GT energy and GHG benefits and water impacts. The life-cycle analysis (LCA) approach is taken to address these effects.

  10. Prospective Life Cycle and Technology Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prospective Life Cycle and Technology Analysis Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review May 28, 2015 Diane J. Graziano E. Masanet R. Huang M.E. Riddle This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. DOE-AMO Analysis Summary - ANL/NU * Quantifying, from a life-cycle perspective, the enabling effects of advanced manufacturing in achieving AMO's mission for energy savings across the economy * Assessing net energy, emissions, and economic

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Power Systems | Department of Energy A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. PDF icon lifecycle_analysis_of_geothermal_systems_draft.pdf More Documents & Publications Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems Water Use in the

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production viaWind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Hydrogen Production via WindElectrolysis: Milestone Completion Report Life Cycle ... Analysis Activities at National Renewable Energy Laboratory Life Cycle Assessment of ...

  13. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Polymer Composites Research in the LM ...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products PDF icon ...

  15. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioeconomy Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREETTM Model Jennifer B. Dunn, Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead, Argonne National Laboratory PDF icon ...

  16. Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home Our Mission Maintaining the Stockpile Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear weapons are ...

  17. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  18. Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle Analysis Michael Wang, Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han Argonne National Laboratory The 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting Washington, DC June 18, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: van002 Project Overview  Start: Oct. 1993  End: not applicable (ongoing annual allocation  % complete: 70% (for FY14)  Indicators and

  19. GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Emissions Modeling: GREET Life Cycle...

  20. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philp; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-02-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  1. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  2. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part I: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent, and LED ...

  3. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products This March 28, ...

  4. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle ...

  5. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2B—Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts—Enabling Biofuels and Growing the Bioeconomy Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model Jennifer B. Dunn, Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead, Argonne National Laboratory

  6. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Breakout Session 2D-Building Market ...

  7. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  8. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  9. Day4 Energy Certus Life Cycle JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Day4 Energy Certus Life Cycle JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Day4 Energy & Certus Life Cycle JV Place: Italy Product: JV company will develop photovoltaic power projects in...

  10. Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC - FE Dkt. No. 10-161-LNG Federal Register Notice on Proposed Procedures for LNG Export Decisions Cameron LNG LLC Final Order

  11. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  12. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Electricity Generation Forecast: 25% Growth in Next 20 Years EIA, AEO 2015: Reference Case 37% Coal ... a clearinghouse of information on technologies, ...

  13. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-02-10

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

  14. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang Systems Assessment Section Energy Systems Division Argonne National Laboratory Biomass 2014 Washington, D.C., July 30, 2014 2 The GREET TM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) Model  DOE has been sponsoring GREET development and applications since 1995 - Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) - Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) - Fuel-Cell Technology Office (FCTO) - Energy Policy and

  15. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  16. Life-cycle environmental analysis--A three dimensional view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherlin, K.L.; Black, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Both the US Air Force and the US Army have recently increased their emphasis on life-cycles of weapons systems. Along with that emphasis, there has also been an increase in emphasis in life-cycle National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation. Conflicts and inefficiencies arise when a weapon system is fielded and prompts the need for a site-specific environmental analysis. In their research and experience, the authors found no real link between life-cycle environmental analysis and site-specific environmental analyses required at various points within the life-cycle of a weapon. This other look at the relation between life-cycle and site-specific environmental analyses has the potential to increase efficiency in NEPA compliance actions and save tax dollars in the process. The authors present a three-dimensional model that relates life-cycle analyses to site-specific analyses.

  17. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm001_das_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials

  18. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. They include BLCC5, the Energy Escalation Rate Calculator, Handbook 135, and the Annual Supplement to Handbook 135. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-15 (for Windows or Mac OS X). BLCC version 5.3-15 contains the

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Scholand, Michael; Dillon, Heather E. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; LIFE CYCLE;...

  20. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on...

  1. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting ...

  2. NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory Database Buildings Research Photo of a green field with an ocean in the background. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database to help life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners answer questions about environmental impact. This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with

  3. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm001_das_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Multi-Material Joining: Challenges and Opportunities

  4. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

  5. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadel, Alexander; Gursel, Petek; Masanet, Eric

    2012-01-18

    Structural materials in commercial buildings in the United States account for a significant fraction of national energy use, resource consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Robust decisions for balancing and minimizing these various environmental effects require that structural materials selections follow a life-cycle, systems modeling approach. This report provides a concise overview of the development and use of a new life-cycle assessment (LCA) model for structural materials in U.S. commercial buildings-the Berkeley Lab Building Materials Pathways (B-PATH) model. B-PATH aims to enhance environmental decision-making in the commercial building LCA, design, and planning communities through the following key features: (1) Modeling of discrete technology options in the production, transportation, construction, and end of life processes associated U.S. structural building materials; (2) Modeling of energy supply options for electricity provision and directly combusted fuels across the building life cycle; (3) Comprehensiveness of relevant building mass and energy flows and environmental indicators; (4) Ability to estimate modeling uncertainties through easy creation of different life-cycle technology and energy supply pathways for structural materials; and (5) Encapsulation of the above features in a transparent public use model. The report summarizes literature review findings, methods development, model use, and recommendations for future work in the area of LCA for commercial buildings.

  6. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  8. FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management’s (OCRWM) May 2007 total...

  9. Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful for evaluating the costs and benefits of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects. The life-cycle cost (LCC) of two or more alternative designs are...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News,...

  11. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREETTM Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET TM Model Jennifer B. Dunn Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead Systems Assessment Group Argonne National Laboratory Biomass 2014 July 29 and 30, 2014 Selection of bioproducts based on a high-level market analysis 2 Algae Glycerol 1,3-Propanediol Propylene glycol Lipid extraction and hydrogenation Catalytic hydrogenolysis Fermentation Acrylic acid 1,4-Butanediol Clean sugars Isobutanol Polyethylene 3-Hydroxypropionic acid Succinic acid Sugars Corn

  12. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm001_das_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Polymer Composites Research in the LM Materials Program Overview

  13. Life Cycle Management Solutions for the Electricity Industry

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kinectrics Inc. All rights reserved. Kinectrics - Proprietary and Confidential Page 1 life cycle management solutions GENERATING SUCCESS --- FOR 100 YEARS Tritium Separation at Cernavoda Nuclear - Romania A. Antoniazzi TFG May 5-7, 2015 Copyright © 2015 Kinectrics Inc. All rights reserved. Kinectrics - Proprietary and Confidential Page 2 life cycle management solutions Background - Cernavoda Nuclear * SNN-CNE has 2 operating CANDU 6 Heavy Water reactors (706 MWe) * U1 operational 1996,

  14. Beyond pollution prevention: Managing life-cycle costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohan, D.; Gess, D. )

    1993-01-01

    Companies that purchases and use chemicals and materials in their everyday operation are finding that disposing of these products is becoming increasingly expensive. These disposal and liability costs have been the motivating factor behind recent efforts at pollution prevention. This paper suggests an alternative approach: considering the full life-cycle costs of chemicals and materials at the time purchase decisions are made. Life-cycle cost is the sum of all the costs that a product is expected to incur from the time of its purchase, during its use, until the disposal of any wastes or by-products and beyond as long as liabilities may remain. It represents the product's real cost to the company, and as such is a better basis for making cost-effective decisions. By using life-cycle costs to make decisions, companies can prevent uneconomical decisions on potentially hazardous materials and more effectively minimize overall costs. Life-cycle cost management can also help in the formulation of pollution prevention plans by identifying cost-effective waste-reduction alternatives. Although the concepts of life-cycle cost management are straightforward and intuitive, applying these concepts to real decisions may be challenging. This paper presents an overview of life-cycle cost management, discusses some of the challenges companies face applying this approach to real decisions, and provides solutions that meet these challenges.

  15. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  16. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary This ...

  17. Commissioning tools for life-cycle building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses information systems for building life-cycle performance analysis and the use of computer-based commissioning tools within this context. There are many reasons why buildings do not perform in practice as well as intended at the design stage. One reason is the lack of commissioning. A second reason is that design intent is not well documented, and performance targets for building components and systems are not well specified. Thus, criteria for defining verification and functional tests is unclear. A third reason is that critical information is often lost throughout the building life-cycle, which causes problems such as misunderstanding of operational characteristics and sequences and reduced overall performance. The life-cycle building performance analysis tools project discussed in this paper are focused on chillers and cooling systems.

  18. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  19. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2013-06-04

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  20. Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sweeney

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  2. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  3. Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pm034_das_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components

  4. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  5. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure) Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results. PDF icon 45153.pdf More Documents & Publications Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Vehicle

  6. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  7. Impact of the 3Cs of Batteries on PHEV Value Proposition: Cost, Calendar Life, and Cycle Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.; Markel, T.

    2009-06-01

    Battery cost, calendar life, and cycle life are three important challenges for those commercializing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; battery life is sensitive to temperature and solar loading.

  8. Process integrated modelling for steelmaking Life Cycle Inventory analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria Hanrot, Francois Ablitzer, Denis

    2008-10-15

    During recent years, strict environmental regulations have been implemented by governments for the steelmaking industry in order to reduce their environmental impact. In the frame of the ULCOS project, we have developed a new methodological framework which combines the process integrated modelling approach with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method in order to carry out the Life Cycle Inventory of steelmaking. In the current paper, this new concept has been applied to the sinter plant which is the most polluting steelmaking process. It has been shown that this approach is a powerful tool to make the collection of data easier, to save time and to provide reliable information concerning the environmental diagnostic of the steelmaking processes.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production via

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone Completion Report | Department of Energy Renewable Hydrogen Production via Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone Completion Report Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production via Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone Completion Report This report summarizes the results of a lifecycle assessment of a renewable hydrogen production process employing wind/electrolysis. PDF icon 35404.pdf More Documents & Publications Analysis Activities at National Renewable Energy

  10. Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J.

    2011-04-01

    This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  12. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual...

  13. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to develop consistent and defensible life-cycle cost estimates (LCCE) and perform appropriate life-cycle cost analyses (LCCA) for capital projects. LCC Handbook – Final, September 2014

  14. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, ...

  15. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guide describes the clarification of how agencies...

  16. Life Cycle Assessments Confirm the Need for Hydropower and Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, L.

    2004-10-03

    This paper discusses the use of life cycle assessments to confirm the need for hydropower and nuclear energy.

  17. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights.

  19. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  20. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2011-11-15

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is useful, the latter being the target of enacted legislation aiming at increasing reuse.

  1. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  2. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guide describes the clarification of how agencies determine the life-cycle cost for investments required by Executive Order 13123. PDF icon lcc_guide_05.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 High Impact Technology

  3. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumpingsystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-07-08

    Industries worldwide depend upon pumping systems for theirdaily operation. These systems account for nearly 20 percent of theworld's industrial electrical energy demand and range from 25-50 percentof the energy usage in certain industrial plant operations. Purchasedecisions for a pump and its related system components are typicallybased upon a low bid, rather than the cost to operate the system over itslifetime. Additionally, plant facilities personnel are typically focussedon maintaining existing pumping system reliability rather than optimizingthe systems for best energy efficiency. To ensure the lowest energy andmaintenance costs, equipment life, and other benefits, the systemcomponents must be carefully matched to each other, and remain sothroughout their working lives. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis is a toolthat can help companies minimize costs and maximize energy efficiency formany types of systems, including pumping systems. Increasing industryawareness of the total cost of pumping system ownership through lifecycle cost analysis is a goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Thispaper will discuss what DOE and its industry partners are doing to createthis awareness. A guide book, Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCCAnalysis for Pumping Systems, developed by the Hydraulic Institute (HI)and Europump (two pump manufacturer trade associations) with DOEinvolvement, will be overviewed. This guide book is the result of thediligent efforts of many members of both associations, and has beenreviewed by a group of industrial end-users. The HI/Europump Guideprovides detailed guidance on the design and maintenance of pumpingsystems to minimize the cost of ownership, as well as LCC analysis. DOE,Hydraulic Institute, and other organizations' efforts to promote LCCanalysis, such as pump manufacturers adopting LCC analysis as a marketingstrategy, will be highlighted and a relevant case studyprovided.

  4. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  5. Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power | Department of Energy Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Office presentation icon 16_life_revision_previsic_update.ppt More Documents & Publications 2014 Water Power Program

  6. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709. PDF icon ashb15.pdf More Documents & Publications Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter

  7. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summary | Department of Energy Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary This brochure is a management tool that can help companies minimize waste and maximize energy efficiency for pumping systems. PDF icon Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems - Executive Summary (January 2001) More Documents & Publications Variable Speed

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle

  9. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and

  10. The Life-cycle of Operons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Life-cycle of Operons Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Products | Department of Energy Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL alternatives. The reports for Parts 1 and 2 were published in February 2012 and June 2012, respectively,

  12. Text Alternative Version: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products" webcast, held March 28, 2013.

  13. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Final Version 9-30-14 This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to develop consistent and defensible life-cycle cost estimates (LCCE) and perform...

  14. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (2015) - Carbon efficiency 85% * Followed ISO 14040 and convened Critical Review Panel to ... following procedures established under ISO 14040 standards on Life Cycle Analyses * ...

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  17. Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es020_amine_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes FY 2011 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  18. Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, K.

    2010-05-05

    Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

  19. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  20. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  1. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  2. Life-cycle energy and GHG emissions of forest biomass harvest and transport for biofuel production in Michigan

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang

    2015-04-01

    High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncoveredmore » that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.« less

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01, Sedlacek, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10 - 2011.06.25 Lead Scientist : Gannet Hallar For data sets, see below. Abstract Current estimates indicate that new particle formation globally account for a majority of Cloud

  4. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems: Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PUMP LIFE CYCLE COSTS: PUMP LIFE CYCLE COSTS: A GUIDE TO LCC ANALYSIS FOR PUMPING SYSTEMS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY T O F E N E R G Y DE P A R T M EN U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A M A GUIDE TO LCC ANALYSIS FOR PUMPING SYSTEMS Office of Industrial Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Hydraulic Institute Europump uropump Introduction Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems is the result of a collaboration between the Hydraulic

  5. The Life-cycle of Operons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Life-cycle of Operons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Life-cycle of Operons Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our

  6. GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang, Senior Scientist, Energy Systems, Argonne National Laboratory

  7. DOE Brochure Highlights Ethanol Life-Cycle Results Obtained with GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently published a brochure highlighting the efficacy of Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model in evaluating the complete energy life cycle for ethanol.

  8. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for Electrical Energy Storage (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in analyzing life-cycle costs for hydrogen storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  9. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  10. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector | Department of Energy A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin PDF icon 2004_deer_abbott.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell Gas to Liquids in

  11. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Hudak, Nicholas ; Huber, Dale L. ; Gulley, Gerald Publication Date: 2014-09-01 OSTI Identifier:

  12. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to focus on two

  13. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's

  14. Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: The Life Cycle of Tribal Clean Energy June 29, 2016 11:00AM to 12:30PM MDT According to DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, most of the hundreds of lifecycle assessments published on electricity generation technologies over the last 30 years only assemble lifecycle inventories, quantifying the emissions to the environment or the use of resources rather than reporting effects on environmental

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance Part 2 of the project (this report) uses the conclusions from Part 1 as a point of departure to

  16. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production | Department of Energy Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a

  17. Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology TEM and XRD of a Copper-Tin Material Used in Li Batteries (left), and cycling performance (right)<br /> TEM and XRD of a Copper-Tin Material Used in Li Batteries (left), and cycling performance (right) Technology

  18. Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Flint...

  19. Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  20. Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  1. Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Maximizing the life cycle of plastics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, W. L.

    1980-02-01

    The Plastics Research Institute has conducted a coordinated research program designed to extend the useful life of plastics. Since feedstock for practically all synthetic plastics is derived from fossil fuel, every effort should be made to obtain the maximum useful life from these materials. Eventually, plastic scrap may be used as a fuel supplement, but this disposal route should be followed only after the scrap is no longer reusable in its polymeric form. The extent to which plastic scrap will be recovered and reused will be affected by the economic situation as well as the available supply of fossil fuel. The Institute's program was conducted at five major universities. Dedicated faculty members were assembled into a research team and met frequently with members of the Institute's Board of Trustees to review progress of the program. The research was conducted by graduate students in partial fulfillment of degree requirements. Summaries are presented of the following research projects: Improved Stabilization; Separation of Mixed Plastic Scrap; Compatibilizing Agents for Mixed Plastic Scrap; Controlled Degradation of Plastic Scrap; and Determination of Compatibility.

  3. Bliss Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bliss Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bliss Greenhouse...

  4. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  5. Comparison of Battery Life Across Real-World Automotive Drive-Cycles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Earleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-11-01

    Laboratories run around-the-clock aging tests to try to understand as quickly as possible how long new Li-ion battery designs will last under certain duty cycles. These tests may include factors such as duty cycles, climate, battery power profiles, and battery stress statistics. Such tests are generally accelerated and do not consider possible dwell time at high temperatures and states-of-charge. Battery life-predictive models provide guidance as to how long Li-ion batteries may last under real-world electric-drive vehicle applications. Worst-case aging scenarios are extracted from hundreds of real-world duty cycles developed from vehicle travel surveys. Vehicles examined included PHEV10 and PHEV40 EDVs under fixed (28 degrees C), limited cooling (forced ambient temperature), and aggressive cooling (20 degrees C chilled liquid) scenarios using either nightly charging or opportunity charging. The results show that battery life expectancy is 7.8 - 13.2 years for the PHEV10 using a nightly charge in Phoenix, AZ (hot climate), and that the 'aggressive' cooling scenario can extend battery life by 1-3 years, while the 'limited' cooling scenario shortens battery life by 1-2 years. Frequent (opportunity) charging can reduce battery life by 1 year for the PHEV10, while frequent charging can extend battery life by one-half year.

  6. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI is a comprehensive quantification of all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  7. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  8. Design and life-cycle considerations for unconventional-reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskimins, J.L.

    2009-05-15

    This paper provides an overview of design and life-cycle considerations for certain unconventional-reservoir wells. An overview of unconventional-reservoir definitions is provided. Well design and life-cycle considerations are addressed from three aspects: upfront reservoir development, initial well completion, and well-life and long-term considerations. Upfront-reservoir-development issues discussed include well spacing, well orientation, reservoir stress orientations, and tubular metallurgy. Initial-well-completion issues include maximum treatment pressures and rates, treatment diversion, treatment staging, flowback and cleanup, and dewatering needs. Well-life and long-term discussions include liquid loading, corrosion, refracturing and associated fracture reorientation, and the cost of abandonment. These design considerations are evaluated with case studies for five unconventional-reservoir types: shale gas (Barnett shale), tight gas (Jonah feld), tight oil (Bakken play), coalbed methane (CBM) (San Juan basin), and tight heavy oil (Lost Hills field). In evaluating the life cycle and design of unconventional-reservoir wells, 'one size' does not fit all and valuable knowledge and a shortening of the learning curve can be achieved for new developments by studying similar, more-mature fields.

  9. Product Life-Cycle Management: The future of product and packaging design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, L.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Product Life-Cycle Management (PLCM) is the control of environmental impacts associated with all the life phases of a product, from design through manufacture, packaging and disposal. PLCM dictates that products be manufactured using less harmful chemicals and fewer resources. Product packaging must be minimal and made of renewable and recyclable resources. Both the product and the package must contain recycled material. Packaging and products must also be collected for recycle at the end of their intended use, requiring infrastructure to collect, transport and process these materials. European legislation now requires the return and recycle of packaging materials by the end of 1993. Requirements are also being imposed on manufacturers of automobile related products; automotive batteries, tires and even automobiles themselves must now be accepted back and recycled. Increasing public concerns and awareness of environmental impacts plus the decreasing availability of natural resources will continue to push product life-cycle legislation forward.

  10. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  11. Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson...

  12. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  13. Wards Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wards Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Wards Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Wards...

  14. Liskey Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liskey Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Liskey Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Liskey...

  15. The Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name The Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility The Greenhouse Sector...

  16. Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  17. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithium/sulfur cell: a multifaceted approach to enhancing cell performance," NanoLetters, November 12, 2013 (web). (437 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab battery researchers led by Elton Cairns has

  18. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  19. GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of Vehicle/Fuel Systems Michael Wang, Amgad Elgowainy, Jeongwoo Han, Hao Cai Argonne National Laboratory The 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting Arlington, VA May 16, 2013 Project ID: van002 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project Overview  Start: Oct. 1993  End: not applicable (ongoing annual allocation  % complete:

  20. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  1. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  2. Performance metrics and life-cycle information management for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Commercial buildings account for over $85 billion per year in energy costs, which is far more energy than technically necessary. One of the primary reasons buildings do not perform as well as intended is that critical information is lost, through ineffective documentation and communication, leading to building systems that are often improperly installed and operated. A life-cycle perspective on the management of building information provides a framework for improving commercial building energy performance. This paper describes a project to develop strategies and techniques to provide decision-makers with information needed to assure the desired building performance across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element in this effort is the development of explicit performance metrics that quantitatively represent performance objectives of interest to various building stakeholders. The paper begins with a discussion of key problems identified in current building industry practice, and ongoing work to address these problems. The paper then focuses on the concept of performance metrics and their use in improving building performance during design, commissioning, and on-going operations. The design of a Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) is presented. BLISS is intended to provide an information infrastructure capable of integrating a variety of building information technologies that support performance assurance. The use of performance metrics in case study building projects is explored to illustrate current best practice. The application of integrated information technology for improving current practice is discussed.

  3. Using life-cycle cost management to cut costs and reduce waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gess, D.; Cohan, D.; McLearn, M.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing competition is forcing electric utility companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. At the same time, increasing costs for waste disposal and emissions control and growing environmental regulatory pressure are providing powerful incentives for firms in virtually every industry to investigate opportunities to reduce or even eliminate the adverse environmental impacts associated with their operations. companies are also striving toward environmental stewardship to realize the potential benefits to the firms`s public image, employees, an shareholders. Motivated by these cost and environmental concerns, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Decision Focus Inc. (DFI), and a consortium of electric utility companies have developed techniques and tools to help electric utility companies to make purchase and operating decisions based on their full life-cycle costs, which explicitly include environmental, health, and safety costs. The process, called Life-Cycle Cost Management (LCCM), helps utilities to efficiently assemble the appropriate life-cycle information and bring it to bear on their business decisions. To date, several utilities have used LCCM to evaluate a range of product substitution and process improvement decisions and to implement cost-savings actions. This paper summarizes some of these applications.

  4. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.

    1996-05-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

  5. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  6. Understanding Low-cycle Fatigue Life Improvement Mechanisms in a Pre-twinned Magnesium Alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Wei; An, Ke

    2015-10-03

    The mechanisms of fatigue life improvement by pre-twinning process in a commercial rolled magnesium (Mg) alloy have been investigated using real-time in situ neutron diffraction under a continuous-loading condition. It is found that by introducing the excess twinned grains through pre-compression along the rolling direction the fatigue life was enhanced approximately 50%, mainly resulting from the prolonged detwinning process and inhibited dislocation slip during reverse tension. Moreover, after pre-twinning process, the removal of the rapid strain hardening during reverse tension leads to a compressive mean stress value and more symmetric shape of stress-strain hysteresis loop. The pre-twinning has significant impactsmore » on the twinning-detwinning characteristics and deformation modes during cyclic loading and greatly facilitates the twinning-detwinning activities in plastic deformation. The cyclic straining leads to the increase of contribution of tensile twinning deformation in overall plastic deformation in both the as-received and pre-deformed sample. The mechanisms of load partitioning in different groups of grains are closely related to the deformation modes in each deformation stage, while the fatigue cycling has little influence on the load sharing. The pre-twinning process provides an easy and cost-effective route to improve the low-cycle fatigue life through manufacturing and processing, which would advance the wide application of light-weight wrought Mg alloys as structural materials.« less

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Giga Life Cycle: Manufacture of Cells from Recycled EV Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Giga Life Cycle: manufacture...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Penn State at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy, long cycle life...

  9. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  10. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle carbon assessment of facade parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Window contribution of CO2 emissions depends on the number and size of windows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without insulation, AAC walls offer more savings in CO2 emissions.

  11. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems ANL/ESD/10-5 Energy Systems Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Offce of Scientifc and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728

  13. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NISTIR 85-3273-30 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2015 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 Priya D. Lavappa Joshua D. Kneifel This publication is available free of charge from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.85-3273-30 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology Prepared for United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program April 2005 NISTIR 85-3273-30 Energy Price Indices

  14. Microsoft Word - HABAdv#223_Life Cycle&TPA Modifications.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Subject: Life Cycle Cost & Schedule Report of the Proposed Consent Decree & TPA Modifications Adopted: November 6, 2009 Page 1 November 6, 2009 Dave Brockman, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations P.O. Box 550 (A7-50) Richland, WA 99352 Shirley Olinger, Manager U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection P.O. Box 450 (H6-60) Richland, WA 99352 Polly Zehm, Director Washington State Department of Ecology P.O. Box 47600 Olympia, WA 98504-7600 Michelle Pirzadeh,

  15. Waste-To-Energy Techno-Economic Analysis and Life-Cycle Analysis Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste-To-Energy Techno-Economic Analysis and Life-Cycle Analysis March 24, 2015 Conversion Ling Tao†, Jeongwoo Han* †National Renewable Energy Laboratory *Argonne National Laboratory DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement * Conduct the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life-cycle analysis (LCA) of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) pathways to evaluate their economic viability and environmental sustainability - Strategic

  16. Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    measures that save large amounts of energy, improve energy-related infrastructure, reduce air pollution, or reduce greenhouse gas emissions may be bundled with other ECMs as long...

  17. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet M Twomey, PhD

    2010-04-30

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

  18. Life-cycle cost analysis 200-West Weather Enclosure: Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umphrey, M.R.

    1995-01-16

    The Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF)will provide environmentally safe and acceptable storage capacity for handling wastes resulting from the remediation of existing single-shell and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site. The MWTF will construct two tank farm facilities at two separate locations. A four-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site; a two-tank complex will be constructed in the 200-West Area. This report documents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) for the Weather Enclosure proposed to be constructed over the 200-West tanks. Currently, all tank farm operations on the Hanford Site are conducted in an open environment, with weather often affecting tank farm maintenance activities. The Weather Enclosure is being proposed to allow year-round tank farm operation and maintenance activities unconstrained by weather conditions. Elimination of weather-related delays at the MWTF and associated facilities will reduce operational costs. The life-cycle cost analysis contained in this report analyzes potential cost savings based on historical weather information, operational and maintenance costs, construction cost estimates, and other various assumptions.

  19. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  20. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  1. Integrating a life-cycle assessment with NEPA: Does it make sense?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ECCLESTON, C.H.

    1998-09-03

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides the basic national charter for protection of the environment in the US. Today NEPA has provided an environmental policy model which has been emulated by nations around the world. Recently, questions have been raised regarding the appropriateness and under what conditions it makes sense to combine the preparation of a NEPA analysis with the International Organization for Stnadardization (ISO) - 14000 Standards for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper advantages a decision making tool consisting of six discrete criteria which can be employed by a user in reaching a decision regarding the integration of NEPA analysis and LCA. Properly applied, this tool should reduce the risk that a LCA may be inappropriately prepared and integrated with a NEPA analysis.

  2. MARVEL: A PC-based interactive software package for life-cycle evaluations of hybrid/electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, W.W.; He, J.

    1995-07-01

    As a life-cycle analysis tool, MARVEL has been developed for the evaluation of hybrid/electric vehicle systems. It can identify the optimal combination of battery and heat engine characteristics for different vehicle types and performance requirements, on the basis of either life-cycle cost or fuel efficiency. Battery models that allow trade-offs between specific power and specific energy, between cycle life and depth of discharge, between peak power and depth of discharge, and between other parameters, are included in the software. A parallel hybrid configuration, using an internal combustion engine and a battery as the power sources, can be simulated with a user-specified energy management strategy. The PC-based software package can also be used for cost or fuel efficiency comparisons among conventional, electric, and hybrid vehicles.

  3. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future A national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Technical Report NREL/TP-510-37500 May 2005 Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life-Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer Used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production Susan E. Powers Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts

  4. Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Source Attribution - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released a revised estimate of the total system life cycle cost for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  The 2007 total system life...

  6. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

    2009-07-20

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaiñ€™i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  8. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  9. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan; Li Xiangzhi; Zhaojie Cui

    2010-11-15

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  10. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  11. Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Burgett Geothermal Greenhouses Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Cotton City, New Mexico Coordinates Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  12. Edward's Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Technology's Geo-Heat Center Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEdward%27sGreenhousesGreenhouseLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility&oldid305261" ...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator'99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  14. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator`s success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning.

  15. What Can Meta-Analyses Tell Us About the Reliability of Life Cycle Assessment for Decision Support?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature is vast and has grown over the last decade at a dauntingly rapid rate. Many LCAs have been published on the same or very similar technologies or products, in some cases leading to hundreds of publications. One result is the impression among decision makers that LCAs are inconclusive, owing to perceived and real variability in published estimates of life cycle impacts. Despite the extensive available literature and policy need for more conclusive assessments, only modest attempts have been made to synthesize previous research. A significant challenge to doing so are differences in characteristics of the considered technologies and inconsistencies in methodological choices (e.g., system boundaries, coproduct allocation, and impact assessment methods) among the studies that hamper easy comparisons and related decision support.

  16. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle Looking inside the black box of innovation June 2014 Prepared by Gretchen Jordan, 360 Innovation LLC; Jonathan Mote, George Washington University; Rosalie Ruegg, TIA Consulting Inc.; Thomas Choi, Arizona State University; Angela Becker-Dippmann, Pacifc Northwest National Laboratory i Acknowledgements This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  17. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  18. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListGreenhouse Effect and Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming The Greenhouse Effect refers to a naturally occurring phenomenon that is responsible for maintaining a temperature that supports life on earth. However, this is often

  19. Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunter Hot Spring Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

  20. High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name High Country Rose Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  1. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150°C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  2. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  3. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  4. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  6. Draft Final Phase II Report: Review of Life Cycle and Technology Applications of the Office of Environmental Managements Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A1-1 APPENDIX 1 Charge Summary Issue Suggested Activities Expected Output/ Work Product Notes Charge 1 Modeling for Life-Cycle Analysis This task entails reviewing the modeling approaches for determining tank waste remediation life-cycle costs at both SRS and Hanford. This includes evaluating assumptions in system plans for completing tank waste missions at Hanford and SRS, as well as the rigor of the models for identifying activities and costs through the end of each site's program.

  7. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  8. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management alternatives with consideration of uncertainty: SIWMS development and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hanandeh, Ali; El-Zein, Abbas

    2010-05-15

    This paper describes the development and application of the Stochastic Integrated Waste Management Simulator (SIWMS) model. SIWMS provides a detailed view of the environmental impacts and associated costs of municipal solid waste (MSW) management alternatives under conditions of uncertainty. The model follows a life-cycle inventory approach extended with compensatory systems to provide more equitable bases for comparing different alternatives. Economic performance is measured by the net present value. The model is verified against four publicly available models under deterministic conditions and then used to study the impact of uncertainty on Sydney's MSW management 'best practices'. Uncertainty has a significant effect on all impact categories. The greatest effect is observed in the global warming category where a reversal of impact direction is predicted. The reliability of the system is most sensitive to uncertainties in the waste processing and disposal. The results highlight the importance of incorporating uncertainty at all stages to better understand the behaviour of the MSW system.

  9. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  10. Proposed paper: Linking NDE to component life-cycle decisions for fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, R.

    1996-12-31

    In the changing US utility industry, competition for customers is placing ever increasing pressure to reduce operating and maintenance costs for generating facilities. A key challenge in this cost-cutting process is to obtain such reductions without compromising plant safety or reliability. To meet such a challenge will require a much tighter coupling of component inspection activities with decisions on component life. Past utility practices for fossil units have focused on performing periodic inspections and then reacting to any findings from such inspections. In the current environment, the process needs to provide a close integration of NDE activities with the component damage models to ensure an optimal program of where to inspect, how to inspect, and when to inspect. This paper will review current state-of-activities and provide recommendations on achieving such an integrated process. An example case will be developed for a typical, fossil plant, high temperature header. Visualization software is becoming an everyday tool in NDE. However, it has never been so difficult to find a package that fulfills the needs of a research laboratory. Issues such as price, availability for a given platform, learning curves make the choice even harder. This paper describes our experience at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with various visualization packages. We will show how the problems encountered with large data sets led us to use popular scripting languages such as Tcl/Tk or Perl. By coupling these languages with standard toolkits as XLib and OpenGL, powerful, flexible, user-friendly and machine-independent tools can be designed rapidly. We will describe X-ray CT industrial and biomedical applications that made use of this approach, and show how their requirements were taken into account.

  11. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  12. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  13. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  14. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.

  15. Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, Christopher W.; Hill, Jason D.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-12-30

    Commonly considered strategies for reducing the environmental impact of light-duty transportation include using alternative fuels and improving vehicle fuel economy. We evaluate the air quality-related human health impacts of 10 such options, including the use of liquid biofuels, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) in internal combustion engines; the use of electricity from a range of conventional and renewable sources to power electric vehicles (EVs); and the use of hybrid EV technology. Our approach combines spatially, temporally, and chemically detailed life cycle emission inventories; comprehensive, fine-scale state-of-the-science chemical transport modeling; and exposure, concentration–response, and economic health impact modeling for ozonemore » (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We find that powering vehicles with corn ethanol or with coal-based or “grid average” electricity increases monetized environmental health impacts by 80% or more relative to using conventional gasoline. Conversely, EVs powered by low-emitting electricity from natural gas, wind, water, or solar power reduce environmental health impacts by 50% or more. Consideration of potential climate change impacts alongside the human health outcomes described here further reinforces the environmental preferability of EVs powered by low-emitting electricity relative to gasoline vehicles.« less

  16. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-26

    The order addresses stewardship of physical assets as valuable national resources in a cost-effective manner to meet the DOE mission using industry standards, a graded approach, and performance objective.

  17. Life Cycle Asset Management

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-07-09

    Cancels the following only after meeting implementation conditions: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B, DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5, DOE 4540.1, DOE 4700.1, DOE 4700.3, DOE 4700.4, DOE 5700.2D, DOE 6430.1A. Canceled by DOE O 430.1A.

  18. Greenhouse Gases into Gold

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Greenhouse Gases into Gold Greenhouse Gases into Gold NERSC simulations reveal reaction mechanism behind CO₂ conversion into carbon-neutral fuels and chemicals November 6, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Environmentalists have long lamented the destructive effects of greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,

  19. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beylot, Antoine Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from ?58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of ?58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  20. Comparative life-cycle energy payback analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline/a-Si modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-07-15

    Despite the publicity of nanotechnologies in high tech industries including the photovoltaic sector, their life-cycle energy use and related environmental impacts are understood only to a limited degree as their production is mostly immature. We investigated the life-cycle energy implications of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV designs using a nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) bottom layer in the context of a comparative, prospective life-cycle analysis framework. Three R and D options using nc-Si bottom layer were evaluated and compared to the current triple-junction a-Si design, i.e., a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe. The life-cycle energy demand to deposit nc-Si was estimated from parametric analyses of film thickness, deposition rate, precursor gas usage, and power for generating gas plasma. We found that extended deposition time and increased gas usages associated to the relatively high thickness of nc-Si lead to a larger primary energy demand for the nc-Si bottom layer designs, than the current triple-junction a-Si. Assuming an 8% conversion efficiency, the energy payback time of those R and D designs will be 0.7-0.9 years, close to that of currently commercial triple-junction a-Si design, 0.8 years. Future scenario analyses show that if nc-Si film is deposited at a higher rate (i.e., 2-3 nm/s), and at the same time the conversion efficiency reaches 10%, the energy-payback time could drop by 30%.

  1. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  2. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  3. Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A.

    2011-05-01

    Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

  4. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber; Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik; Aziz, Ferhat; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-02-12

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance.

  5. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  6. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 | Department of Energy Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study, 2013 BroadRock Renewables LLC, in collaboration with DCO Energy, operates combined cycle electric generating plants at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island, and Olinda Alpha Landfill in Brea, California. The Rhode

  7. Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for...

  8. Bioenergy Impacts … Greenhouse Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    researchers at Argonne National Laboratory developed the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model to develop non-food biofuels from agricultural residues, forestry trimmings, energy crops, and algae that have greater greenhouse gas reduction benefits compared to petroleum fuels. Greenhouse gas emission data is helping researchers develop more sustainable biofuels

  9. Tsuji Nurseries Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nurseries Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Tsuji Nurseries Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Susanville, California Coordinates...

  10. ARM - Carbon Cycle Balance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Cycle Balance Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Carbon Cycle Balance The net result of this recycling is that our atmosphere now gains a total of 5 gigatonnes (1 gigatonne = 1x1012 kilograms) of carbon annually. Nearly all of this ends up in gases that are greenhouse

  11. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model and local biomass processing depots for sustainable biofuel production: Integrated life cycle assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eranki, Pragnya L.; Manowitz, David H.; Bals, Bryan D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2013-07-23

    An array of feedstock is being evaluated as potential raw material for cellulosic biofuel production. Thorough assessments are required in regional landscape settings before these feedstocks can be cultivated and sustainable management practices can be implemented. On the processing side, a potential solution to the logistical challenges of large biorefi neries is provided by a network of distributed processing facilities called local biomass processing depots. A large-scale cellulosic ethanol industry is likely to emerge soon in the United States. We have the opportunity to influence the sustainability of this emerging industry. The watershed-scale optimized and rearranged landscape design (WORLD) model estimates land allocations for different cellulosic feedstocks at biorefinery scale without displacing current animal nutrition requirements. This model also incorporates a network of the aforementioned depots. An integrated life cycle assessment is then conducted over the unified system of optimized feedstock production, processing, and associated transport operations to evaluate net energy yields (NEYs) and environmental impacts.

  12. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program -Data and Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data and Reports Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Data and Reports The first reporting cycle under the revised Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program closed in November 2010. Posted below is the most recent Public Use Database for the 2009 reporting year, as well as all previous versions of the Public Use Database. Also posted below is the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases 2009: Summary Report. Links are also provided below to earlier versions on the Voluntary

  13. Optima: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels Blake Simmons Bioenergy 2015 June 24, 2015 2 Defining and Developing New Fuels * Workflow - Survey what fuels are available today - Provide fuel...

  14. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  15. LIFE CYCLE COST HANDBOOK Guidance for Life Cycle Cost Estimation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the comparison of alternatives within an LCCA. Variations in the utility requirements and consumption rates of various alternatives, as well as sources of those utilities (e.g.,...

  16. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  17. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2012-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  18. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  19. ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; GREENHOUSES...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses Rafferty, K. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; GREENHOUSES; AUXILIARY HEATING; CAPITALIZED COST; OPERATING...

  20. Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Countryman Well Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Countryman...

  1. Express Farms Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Express Farms Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Express Farms Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Express Farms...

  2. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  3. ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What are Greenhouse Gases? Carbon Dioxide Methane Gas Oxides of Nitrogen Halocarbons Ozone Water Vapor Greenhouse gases are atmospheric gases that trap infrared radiation emitted from the earth, lower atmosphere, or clouds or aerosols and, as

  4. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  5. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  6. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

  7. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global impact of system emissions.

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview 1.1 Total emissions Total U.S. anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 were 5.8 percent below the 2008 total (Table 1). The decline in total emissions-from 6,983 million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent (MMTCO2e) in 2008 to 6,576 MMTCO2e in 2009-was the largest since emissions have been tracked over the 1990-2009 time frame. It was largely the result of a 419-MMTCO2e drop in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (7.1 percent). There was a

  9. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    â€č Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of

  10. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  11. Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The GREET TM model is widely recognized as the "gold standard" for life-cycle analysis with over 20,000 registered users worldwide. GREET is used by regulatory agencies for WTW ...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  13. Fuel Cycle Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Fuel Cycle Technologies Preparing for Tomorrow's Energy Demands Powerful imperatives drive the continued need for nuclear power, among them the need for reliable, baseload electricity and the threat of global climate change. As the only large-scale source of nearly greenhouse gas-free energy, nuclear power is an essential part of our all-of-the-above energy strategy, generating about 20 percent of our nation's electricity and more than 60 percent

  14. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email,

  15. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are Greenhouse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gases? What are Greenhouse Gases? Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse gases." These gases allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth's surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere. Many gases exhibit these

  16. Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are uncertain. This is in part because many climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems will partition future releases of carbon to the atmosphere. Ecosystem observations of CH4 emissions lack mechanistic links to the processes that govern CH4 efflux: microbial

  17. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

  18. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  19. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Your Own Greenhouse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Your Own Greenhouse Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Your Own Greenhouse Objective The objective is to make your own small greenhouse and in a simple way to test its effect on temperature. Materials Each student or group of students will need the following:

  2. Greenhouse Gas Technology Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Greenhouse Gas Technology Center Place: North Carolina Zip: 27709 Product: North Carolina-based partnership focused on environmental technology verification. References:...

  3. Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBR...

  4. Nakashima Nurseries Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Nakashima Nurseries Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Coachella, California Coordinates 33.6803003, -116.173894 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Geothermal greenhouse development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal greenhouse development Author P. J. Lienau Published Journal Geo-Heat Center, 1990 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  6. SWTDI Geothermal Aquaculture Facility Greenhouse Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Facility Facility SWTDI Geothermal Aquaculture Facility Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Las Cruces, New Mexico Coordinates 32.3123157,...

  7. Allocation of energy use in petroleum refineries to petroleum products : implications for life-cycle energy use and emission inventory of petroleum transportation fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Lee, H.; Molburg, J.

    2004-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation underestimates gasoline energy use, relative to the process-level based gasoline efficiency. For diesel fuel, the well-to-pump energy use for the process-level allocations with the mass- and energy-content-based weighting factors is smaller than that predicted with the refinery-level allocations. However, the process-level allocation with the market-value-based weighting factors has results very close to those obtained by using the refinery-level allocations. For LPG, the refinery-level allocation significantly overestimates LPG energy use. For naphtha, the refinery-level allocation overestimates naphtha energy use. The GHG emission patterns for each of the fuels are similar to those of energy use.We presented a refining-process-level-based method that can be used to allocate energy use of individual refining processes to refinery products. The process-level-based method captures process-dependent characteristics of fuel production within a petroleum refinery. The method starts with the mass and energy flow chart of a refinery, tracks energy use by individual refining processes, and distributes energy use of a given refining process to products from the process. In allocating energy use to refinery products, the allocation method could rely on product mass, product energy contents, or product market values as weighting factors. While the mass- and energy-content-based allocation methods provide an engineering perspective of energy allocation within a refinery, the market-value-ased allocation method provides an economic perspective. The results from this study show that energy allocations at the aggregate refinery level and at the refining process level could make a difference in evaluating the energy use and emissions associated with individual petroleum products. Furthermore, for the refining-process-level allocation method, use of mass -- energy content- or market value share-based weighting factors could lead to different results for diesel fuels, LPG, and naphtha. We suggest that, when possible, energy use allocations should be made at the lowest subprocess level

  8. Proceedings of the Great Lakes Solar Greenhouse Conference V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currin, C.G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of the Fifth Great Lakes Greenhouse Conference are presented. Topics included are: a review of a greenhouses, greenhouses as integral part of an earth-sheltered home, solar architecture, design criteria, heat contribution for solar greenhouses, and the future of solar greenhouses.

  9. Proceedings of the Great Lakes Solar Greenhouse Conference V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currin, C.G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Proceedings of the Fifth Great Lakes Solar Greenhouse Conference are presented. Topics included are a review of greenhouses, greenhouses as integral part of an earth-sheltered house, solar architecture, design criteria, heat contribution from solar greenhouses, and the future for solar greenhouses.

  10. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Global lWarming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16

  11. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  12. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  13. Greenhouse gases in the corn-to-fuel ethanol pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-06-18

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has applied its Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis model to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn-feedstock ethanol, given present and near-future production technology and practice. On the basis of updated information appropriate to corn farming and processing operations in the four principal corn- and ethanol-producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska), the model was used to estimate energy requirements and GHG emissions of corn farming; the manufacture, transportation to farms, and field application of fertilizer and pesticide; transportation of harvested corn to ethanol plants; nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated cornfields; ethanol production in current average and future technology wet and dry mills; and operation of cars and light trucks using ethanol fuels. For all cases examined on the basis of mass emissions per travel mile, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol used in both E85 and E10 blends with gasoline outperforms conventional (current) and reformulated (future) gasoline with respect to energy use and GHG production. Also, GHG reductions (but not energy use) appear surprisingly sensitive to the value chosen for combined soil and leached N-fertilizer conversion to nitrous oxide. Co-product energy-use attribution remains the single key factor in estimating ethanol's relative benefits because this value can range from 0 to 50%, depending on the attribution method chosen.

  14. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  15. Green Canyon Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Green Canyon Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Green Canyon Hot...

  16. Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Donlay Ranch Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  17. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  18. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories AgencyCompany...

  19. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the Clean Air Act References...

  20. Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baseline Scenarios: Learning from Experiences in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name Ethiopia-National Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

  1. Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Managing the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Process Agency...

  2. EIA Energy Efficiency-Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Energy Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions Links Posted Date: May 2007 Page Last Modified: September 2010 EIA Links Disclaimer: These pages...

  3. Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Inc RGGI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Gas Initiative Inc RGGI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, Inc (RGGI) Place: New York Zip: NY 10007 Sector: Services Product: New...

  4. J & K Growers Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    J & K Growers Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name J & K Growers Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility J & K Growers...

  5. Energy Information Administration--Energy and Greenhouse Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Efficiency > Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis Posted Date: October 1999 Page Last Modified: August 2007 This section contains analysis covering...

  6. Big Bend Preventorium Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Big Bend Preventorium Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Big Bend...

  7. Lake County Ag Park Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ag Park Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake County Ag Park Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Lake County Ag...

  8. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Potential in Agriculture) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas...

  9. Milgro No. 3 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Milgro No. 3 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Milgro No. 3 Sector...

  10. Milgro No. 2 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Milgro No. 2 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Milgro No. 2 Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Milgro No. 2...

  11. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  12. Utah Roses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Utah Roses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Utah Roses Sector...

  13. Cal Flint Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cal Flint Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cal Flint Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Cal Flint...

  14. Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Cove Hot Spring Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Cove Hot...

  15. Hunt Brothers Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brothers Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hunt Brothers Floral Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Hunt...

  16. Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Chico Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Chico...

  17. Canyon Bloomers, Inc Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canyon Bloomers, Inc Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Canyon Bloomers, Inc Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  18. Weiser Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Weiser Hot Springs Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Weiser Hot...

  19. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  20. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Reduction A leader in federal greenhouse gas (GHG) management, NREL has conducted GHG inventories, developed reduction goals, and reported emissions since 2000. NREL was the first federal facility to become a partner in the Environmental Protection Agency's Climate Leaders program, and has played a critical support role in the development of federal guidelines for GHG accounting and reporting through DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. Carbon Neutrality NREL is committed to

  1. ARM - Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListDanger of Increased Greenhouse Gases Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Danger of Increased Greenhouse Gases As far back as Greek and Roman times, people built structures which created an indoor environment suited to growing plants throughout the year. This enabled the

  2. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  3. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  4. EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases EPA's Recent Advance Notice on Greenhouse Gases Summary EPA's advanced notice of proposed rulemaking on mobile sources of greenhouse gas emissions. PDF icon deer08_charmley.pdf More Documents & Publications EPA Diesel Update Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews EPA Mobile Source Rule Update

  5. Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Wei; Huppes, Gjalt; Voet, Ester van der

    2011-06-15

    The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

  6. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The...

  7. Where Greenhouse Gases Come From | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Greenhouse Gases Come From In the United States, greenhouse gas emissions come primarily from the burning of fossil fuels in energy use. Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. In 2013, 82% of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions were carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, solid waste, trees, wood, and other chemical reactions. Methane and Other Gases Another greenhouse gas, methane, comes from landfills, coal mines, oil and natural gas

  8. Prospective Life Cycle and Technology Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle lightweighting, wide band gap materials, additive manufacturing, natural gas to ... to be > 30% CAGR through 2020 * Aircraft industry case study - key early adopter ...

  9. Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest ÎŁ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to

  10. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  11. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  12. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  13. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Schedule Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Revised Launch Schedule EIA will begin accepting both Start Year and Reporting Year reports using the Workbook Form on April 6, 2011. Please see the below reporting schedule for this data cycle: Launch Date: April 6, 2011 Self-Certified Reports Due: July 1, 2011 Third-Party Verified Reports Due: September 1, 2011 This schedule is subject to change and any changes will be communicated to reporters immediately. Please see the

  14. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  15. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  16. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  17. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    including strategies for: reducing greenhouse gas emissions; using water more efficiently; promoting pollution prevention and eliminating waste; constructing high performance ...

  18. Annual Greenhouse Gas and Sustainability Data Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas and Sustainability Data Report Annual Greenhouse Gas and Sustainability Data Report This Excel workbook (version 6-1) is a tool to use for comprehensive reporting of fiscal year 2015 for energy, costs, square footage, and associated operational data for calculating and reporting greenhouse gas data. This document is to be used by top-tier Federal departments and agencies. This Data Report collects agency-aggregated data necessary for calculating scope 1, 2, and 3 greenhouse gas

  19. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations,

  20. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4:

  1. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  2. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy myth versus facts about biofuels and greenhouse gas emissions. PDF icon Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - 47C468D4-69BA-281F40.doc Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts

  3. Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy myths versus facts of ethanol and greenhouse gas emissions. PDF icon Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word - 47C468D4-69BA-281F40.doc

  4. SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 File SUMMARY_GREENHOUSE_GAS_EMISSIONS_DATA_WORKSHEET_JANUARY_2015.xlsx More Documents & Publications Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Full Service Leased Space Data Report

  5. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Use within the Natural Gas Supply Chain - Sankey Diagram Methodology James Bradbury, Zachary Clement, and Adrian Down Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis U.S. Department of Energy July, 2015 2 Acknowledgements The authors are grateful for excellent technical reviews and other contributions provided by several individuals. Within the Department of Energy, input was provided by Judi Greenwald, Elke Hodson and Diana Bauer. External reviewers included the

  7. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azhar, M. Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-12

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for {sup 60}Co and 30.1 years for {sup 137}Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly cover Research and Development, Research Collaboration, Exchange of Information, Irradiation Services, Training Programs, Education, Exchange of Scientists and Seminars/ Conferences.

  8. Fuel Cycle Research and Development Advanced Fuels Campaign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    near-term accident tolerant LWR fuel technology n Perform research and development of long-term transmutation options 2 ATF AFC Fuel Development Life Cycle Irradiation ...

  9. Life Insurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Insurance Life Insurance A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contact Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Life Insurance The Lab offers a variety of life insurance options through The Hartford to help you protect your loved ones. Life insurance provides financial assistance to help cover the rising costs of final expenses and any outstanding debts you leave behind. Resources Rates » Provider

  10. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Table-Figure Notes and Sources

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A1. Notes and Sources Tables Chapter 1: Greenhouse gas emissions overview Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009: Sources: Emissions: EIA estimates. Data in this table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December 2009). Global warming potentials: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 2007: The Physical

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 (Conference) | SciTech Connect GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012 Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions

  12. Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Public Comment | Department of Energy Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance, Seeks Public Comment March 22, 2005 - 10:54am Addthis Program Will Ensure Greater Accuracy & Completeness WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today asked for further public comment on its revised guidelines for voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, sequestration and emission reductions. The program

  13. OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels Plenary IV: Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines OPTIMA: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels Blake Simmons, Biofuels Program Lead, Sandia National Laboratories PDF icon simmons_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Optima Stakeholder Listening Day Agenda Optima Program Overview

  14. DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Power Sector | Department of Energy DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the Electric Power Sector DOE Technical Assistance on Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies in the Electric Power Sector The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will continue to offer analysis and technical support for state, local, tribal and regional planning efforts related to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electric power sector. DOE is ready to support state, local, and

  15. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the

  16. ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PlansAmount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere Objective The objective is to feel the changes of the amounts of greenhouse gases in the global atmosphere. Materials Each group of

  17. Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options | Department of Energy 9: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Fact #879: June 29, 2015 Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costs for Employer-Subsidized Commuting Options Providing workplace charging is one of the more effective ways for businesses to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their employees' daily commute. Offering a bike purchase subsidy can be even more cost effective but may not be suitable for

  18. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Change in NEPA Reviews | Department of Energy Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews On December 18, 2014, CEQ released revised draft guidance for public comment that describes how Federal departments and agencies should consider the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change in their National Environmental Policy

  19. CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews | Department of Energy Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews December 22, 2014 - 12:59pm Addthis The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued revised draft guidance on consideration of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the effects of

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Benefits of Workplace Charging Reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from employees' commutes, also known as Scope 3 emissions, is a top priority for many organizations interested in minimizing their carbon footprint. Scope 3 emissions are indirect GHG emissions from sources not owned or directly controlled by the organization but are related to their activities,

  1. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  2. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  3. PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse ... Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ...

  4. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase:...

  5. Monitoring and Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the MAGHG project is to support developing countries assess and report their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including assessment of mitigation options for...

  6. Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Abatement Study Jump to: navigation, search Name Asia Least-Cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Study (ALGAS) AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility,...

  7. Navigating the Numbers: Greenhouse Gas Data and International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Data and International Climate Policy1 Overview "This report examines greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the global, national, sectoral, and fuel levels and identifies...

  8. Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Agreements Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements AgencyCompany...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liechtenstein, Poland and Turkey provided updated information on emission projections and national programmes in 2009." References "Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and...

  10. #AskBerkeleyLab: Jeff Greenblatt Talks Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeff

    2015-02-02

    We received questions from our social media audience around California's goal to dramatically reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Berkeley Lab scientist Jeff Greenblatt answers them here.

  11. CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change in NEPA Reviews CEQ Issues Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in NEPA Reviews December 22, 2014 - ...

  12. Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews Revised Draft Guidance on Consideration of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change in NEPA Reviews On December 18, 2014, CEQ released ...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Services AES GE EFS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services (AESGE EFS) Place: Arlington, Virginia Zip: 22203-4168 Product: Develop and invest in a range of projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions that produce verified GHG...

  14. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Measurement and Estimation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GHG Emissions AgencyCompany Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase:...

  15. High Performance Builder Spotlight: KB Home GreenHouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Located in the Lake Burden community in Windermere, FL, the KB Home GreenHouse is expected to produce as much energy as it consumes.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Policies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potentials and Policies...

  17. GTZ-Greenhouse Gas Calculator for Waste Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a great part of the national greenhouse gas production, because landfills produce methane which has a particularly strong effect on climate change. Therefore, it is essential...

  18. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  19. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  20. Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Knowledge Partnership for Measuring Air Pollution and...

  1. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of new and advanced technologies that avoid, reduce, or capture and store greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. ...

  2. Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico's Largest Geothermal Greenhouse...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse, Largest Aquaculture Facility, and First Binary Electrical Power Plant Authors J. C. Witcher, J. W. Lund and D. E. Seawright Published Journal Geo-Heat Center Bulletin,...

  3. Masson Radium Springs Farm Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Masson Radium Springs Farm Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Radium Springs, New Mexico Coordinates 32.501453,...

  4. Doc Cambell's Post Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Doc Cambell's Post Sector Geothermal energy Type Greenhouse Location Las Cruces, New Mexico Coordinates 32.3123157,...

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; AGING; CARBON DIOXIDE; GREENHOUSE GASES; LEACHATES; ...

  6. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Note: Greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide are dealt with separately in the proposed rules. Supporting Information Projected Fleet-Wide Emissions Compliance Levels under the ...

  7. Energy Department Releases New Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Under the revised guidelines, utilities, manufacturers and other businesses that emit greenhouse gases will be able to register their emission reductions achieved after 2002 if ...

  8. Centre for Energy and Greenhouse Technologies | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    200px Name: Centre for Energy and Greenhouse Technologies Address: 50 Northways Rd, Churchill Victoria 3842, Australia Place: Churchill Victoria, Australia Website:...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gas Initiative Scenario Database AgencyCompany Organization: Science for Global Insight Sector: Climate, Energy, Land Topics: Baseline projection, GHG...

  10. PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL Celebrates Earth Day with Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Patti Wieser April 25, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes...

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    For more information and background on the Revised Guidelines, please refer to the DOE's Office of Policy and International Affairs Web site. voluntary reporting of greenhouse ...

  12. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: Sector Specific Tools...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    divisionsfuture-perfect Country: South Korea Eastern Asia Language: English References: Greenhouse Gas Training Program for Inventory and Mitigation Modeling1...

  14. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.orgcalculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance1 The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for...

  15. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.orgcalculation-toolsall-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide1 The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is...

  16. Environmental Emissions from Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide.

  17. Environmental Emissions From Energy Technology Systems: The Total Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Martin, Robert L.

    1989-04-01

    This is a summary report that compares emissions during the entire project life cycle for a number of fossil-fueled and renewable electric power systems, including geothermal steam (probably modeled after The Geysers). The life cycle is broken into Fuel Extraction, Construction, and Operation. The only emission covered is carbon dioxide. (DJE 2005)

  18. Microtrap assembly for greenhouse gas and air pollution monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitra, Somenath; Saridara, Chutarat

    2015-08-25

    A microtrap assembly includes a carbon nanotube sorbent. The microtrap assembly may be employed as a preconcentrator operable to deliver a sample to an analytical device to measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases. A system includes a microtrap having a carbon nanotube sorbent for measuring the concentrations of greenhouse gases in a sample.

  19. UGE Scheduler Cycle Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UGE Scheduler Cycle Time UGE Scheduler Cycle Time Genepool Cycle Time Genepool Daily Genepool Weekly Phoebe Cycle Time Phoebe Daily Phoebe Weekly What is the Scheduler Cycle? The Univa Grid Engine Scheduler cycle performs a number of important tasks, including: Prioritizing Jobs Reserving Resources for jobs requesting more resources (slots / memory) Dispatching jobs or tasks to the compute nodes Evaluating job dependencies The "cycle time" is the length of time it takes the scheduler

  20. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Anodes Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es020_amine_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Developing A New High Capacity Anode With Long Cycle Life Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

  1. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumbenergyuselossemissionslg.gif How...

  2. 2013 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  3. 2014 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  4. 2015 Planning Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Ancillary and Control Area Services (ACS) Practices Forum Attachment K 2015 Planning Cycle 2014 Planning Cycle 2013 Planning...

  5. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  6. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Under Construction

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Under Construction Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program This Page is Currently Under Construction Please check back at a later time For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or U.S. mail: E-Mail: InfoGHG@eia.doe.gov Phone: Toll-Free: 800-803-5182 Local: 202-586-0688 Fax: 202-586-3045 U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000

  7. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 Share Description Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas - one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6

  8. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Contact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Contact For more information on the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, contact us via e-mail, phone, fax, or U.S. mail: E-Mail: InfoGHG@eia.doe.gov Phone: Toll-Free: 800-803-5182 Local: 202-586-0688 Fax: 202-586-3045 U.S. Mail: Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Energy Information Administration, EI-81 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave, SW Washington, DC 20585

  9. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  10. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  11. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  12. DOE Strengthens Public Registry to Track Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Under this program, U.S. companies will submit detailed, annual reports on their emissions and reductions of greenhouse gases, and these reports will become part of the public ...

  13. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson...

  14. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    through Deployment of Advanced Technology | Department of Energy Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology September 22, 2005 - 10:45am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today released for public review and comment a plan for accelerating the development and reducing the cost of new and advanced

  15. First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface Researchers Link Rising CO₂ Levels from Fossil Fuels to Radiative Forcing February 25, 2015 Contact: Dan Krotz, dakrotz@lbl.gov, 510-486-4019 ARM Alaska Caption: The scientists used incredibly precise spectroscopic instruments at two sites operated by the Department of Energy's

  16. Energy Lab Sets Aggressive Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Energy Lab Sets Aggressive Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal NREL pledges to cut carbon footprint, impact on environment by 75 percent December 4, 2007 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has pledged to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 75 percent from 2005 to 2009. The new goal is part of NREL's participation in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Climate Leaders program and was announced at the Climate Leaders meeting in Boulder, Colo.,

  17. EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    â€č Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses

  18. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's

  19. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their

  20. Reliable Muddle: Transportation Scenarios for the 80% Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goal for 2050 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Webster, K.

    2009-10-28

    Presentation describing transportation scenarios for meeting the 2050 DOE goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%.

  1. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  2. ARM - The Hydrologic Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrologic Cycle Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans The Hydrologic Cycle The hydrologic cycle is the cycle through which water passes from sea to land and from land to sea. Water vapor enters the air through the evaporation of water. Water vapor in the air eventually condenses

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  4. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines the capital and operating costs for fossil fuel-fired peak heating systems in geothermally (direct use) heated greenhouses. Issues covered include equipment capital costs, fuel requirements, maintenance and operating costs, system control and integration into conventional hot water greenhouse heating systems. Annual costs per square foot of greenhouse floor area are developed for three climates: Helena, MT; Klamath Falls, OR and San Bernardino, CA, for both boiler and individual unit heater peaking systems. In most applications, peaking systems sized for 60% of the peak load are able to satisfy over 95% of the annual heating requirements and cost less than $0.15 per square foot per year to operate. The propane-fired boiler system has the least cost of operation in all but Helena, MT climate.

  5. NYC Taxi Drive Cycle Development and Simulation Study | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NYC Taxi Drive Cycle Development and Simulation Study NYC Taxi Drive Cycle Development and Simulation Study 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss073_jones_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Dynamometer Testing of USPS EV Conversions Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Dynamic Feasibility Study Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus

  6. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  7. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas

  8. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    comparison of young and aged landfill (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill leachate treatment plants: A comparison of young and aged landfill Highlights: * Young and aged leachate works accounted for 89.1% and 10.9% of 33.35 Gg CO{sub 2} yr{sup -1}. * Fresh leachate owned extremely low ORP and high organic

  10. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  11. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  12. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  13. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biosecurity, and Health Environmental Microbiology Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding...

  14. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels Title Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

  15. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Well-to-Wheels ... More Documents & Publications Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas ...

  16. Life Cycle Management Solutions for the Electricity Industry

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... - Heater integral part of the ITC design - Reason: Easier heat transfer for T 2 ... and subsequent trapping of water on molecular sieves - Reason: experience at TLK - ...

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Disassembled and chemically tested product samples to determine whether potentially toxic elements are present in concentrations that exceed regulatory thresholds for hazardous...

  18. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    performing similar work in-house. Following is a discussion of known uncertainties stemming from procedural design or implementation. Mercury in CFLs 5.3.1 Consistent with the...

  19. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fertilizer use can cause environmental problems, particularly eutrophication of water bodies from excess nitrogen or phosphorus. Increased fertilizer runoff is a concern for ...

  20. Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biodiesel is made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Methanol has been the most commonly used alcohol in the commercial ...

  1. Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In January 2007, Ohio enacted HB 251 and Governor Ted Strickland issued Executive Order 2007-02S. Both initiatives amend state policy pertaining to energy efficiency in state buildings. H.B. 251...

  2. Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...162 Figure 73: Ranking of Electricity Requirements for Our Process Design Model and for Current Comparable Technology...

  3. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon dioxide, they are not insignificant. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the global warming potential (GWP) of methane and nitrous...

  5. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ratio, adjusted internal rate of return, and years to payback. BLCC is programmed in Java with an XML file format. The user's guide is part of the BLCC Help system. If you are...

  6. Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: To create the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) comprised of a core and distributed network of databases and data sites that will comprise a federated system for acquisition, management, maintenance, and dissemination of geothermal and related data.

  7. Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reductions in GHG, criteria pollutants and acidification gases and * Development of LCA framework based on ISO standards and LCA technical reports such as 14040, 14044, and...

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. LED; light-emitting diode; CFL; incandescent; halogen; lamp; bulb; TCLP; STLC; TTLC; WET; hazardous waste; electronic...

  9. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs File Saving Troubleshooting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some users have experienced difficulties saving BLCC projects. The primary issue causing the issue is that the user is not an “Administrator,” and lacks the “permission” to save to that location....

  10. Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identification of component-wise cost reduction targets for parity with coal and natural gas - Assessment of market economics for potential new entrants - Forecasts of technology...

  11. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. PDF icon...

  12. Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... such data can be considered qualitative to semi-quantitative in part because of likely ... This factor was noted previously by Bryan (1974). Inter- study variation in MPR ...

  13. Americium/Curium Disposition Life Cycle Planning Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, W.N.; Krupa, J.; Stutts, P.; Nester, S.; Raimesch, R.

    1998-04-30

    At the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Office (DOE- SR), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated concepts to complete disposition of Americium and Curium (Am/Cm) bearing materials currently located at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  14. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  15. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more ... DOE Contract Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Pacific ...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    case. It was found that the transportation distance has a significant effect on the oil consumption, a few of the systems emissions, and the energy consumption, whereas the...

  17. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Software Installation Troubleshootin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system to load the software. If you are unable to run the installer, make sure that java 1.7 or greater is installed. The installer will not run with older versions of java....

  18. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NRELFS-5600-48437 * Revised December 2010 Hydrogen electrical energy storage and dispatch scenario Electricity Hydrogen Storage Electrolyzer Fuel Cell Electricity Hydrogen Storage ...

  19. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    category of hazardous waste to landfill, which is driven by the upstream energy and environment impacts from the manufacturing of the aluminum from raw materials. Although...

  20. U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis thumb_energyuse_loss_emissions_lg.gif How effectively is energy used in U.S. manufacturing? How much greenhouse gas (GHG) is emitted from combustion in manufacturing operations? The U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory traces energy from supply (fuel, electricity, and

  1. Fact #608: February 1, 2010 Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 1990

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 8: February 1, 2010 Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 1990 Fact #608: February 1, 2010 Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions since 1990 In October of 2009, the United Nations (UN) released greenhouse gas inventory data for 1990 to 2007 for all countries that submitted data in accordance with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Between 1990 and 2007, total aggregate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for all reporting countries declined by 3.9%

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. Cycle chemistry related issues in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, K.L.; Chhatre, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maximizing the availability and useful life of a fossil power plant can be achieved by the reduction of corrosion. Poorly defined chemistry limits and inadequate response to cycle chemistry excursions have cost the utility industry billions of dollars in lost revenue and repair/replacement costs of damage equipment. The Cycle Chemistry related corrosion problems can be minimized by maintaining feed water, boiler water, and steam purity. Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s approach to reduce cycle chemistry related damage, as well as their participation in the Electric Power Research Institute`s Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program demonstration are reviewed in this paper.

  4. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  5. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  6. FEMP Offers New eTraining Core Course on Fundamentals of Life...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    metrics and tools for energy-efficient and sustainable buildings and implementing life cycle costing methods and procedures. He is also responsible for the software tool ...

  7. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  8. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  9. Using Coupled Harmonic Oscillators to Model Some Greenhouse Gas Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Go, Clark Kendrick C.; Maquiling, Joel T.

    2010-07-28

    Common greenhouse gas molecules SF{sub 6}, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} are modeled as harmonic oscillators whose potential and kinetic energies are derived. Using the Euler-Lagrange equation, their equations of motion are derived and their phase portraits are plotted. The authors use these data to attempt to explain the lifespan of these gases in the atmosphere.

  10. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. Duty Cycle Software Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    The Software consists of code which is capable of processing a large volume of data to create a “duty cycle” which is representative of how equipment will function under certain conditions.

  14. 10 MWe power cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWe power cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  15. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report to NEAC Fuel Cycle Subcommittee Meeting of April 23, 2013 Washington D.C. June 13, 2013 Burton Richter (Chair), Margaret Chu, Darleane Hoffman, Raymond Juzaitis, Sekazi K Mtingwa, Ronald P Omberg, Joy L Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I Introduction and Summary The Fuel Cycle Subcommittee of NEAC met in Washington on April 23, 2013. The meeting focused on issues relating to the NE advanced reactor program (sections II, III, and IV), and on storage and transportation issues (section V) related to

  16. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    April 29, 2015 Washington, DC June 26, 2015 Al Sattelberger (Chair), Carol Burns, Margaret Chu, Raymond Juzaitis, Chris Kouts, Sekazi Mtingwa, Ronald Omberg, Joy Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I. Introduction The agenda for the April 29, 2015 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting is given below. The meeting provided members an overview of various research efforts funded by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program and related research that is coordinated with the FCT program.

  17. Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 22, 2015 Washington, DC December 7, 2015 Al Sattelberger (Chair), Carol Burns, Margaret Chu, Raymond Juzaitis, Chris Kouts, Sekazi Mtingwa, Ronald Omberg, Joy Rempe, Dominique Warin 2 I. Introduction The agenda for the October 22, 2015 Fuel Cycle Subcommittee meeting is given below. The meeting provided members an overview of several research efforts funded by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program and related research that is coordinated with the FCT

  18. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  19. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  20. Curbing the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide adsorption with zeolite 13X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konduru, N.; Lindner, P.; Assaf-Anad, N.M.

    2007-12-15

    The removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from industrial emissions has become essential in the fight against climate change. In this study, we employed Zeolite 13X for the capture and recovery of CO{sub 2} in a flow through system where the adsorbent was subjected to five adsorption-desorption cycles. The influent stream contained 1.5% CO{sub 2} at standard conditions. The adsorbent bed was 1 in. in length and 1 in.3/8 in dia., and was packed with 10 g of the zeolite. Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) was employed as the regeneration method through heating to approximately 135{sup o}C with helium as the purge gas. The adsorbent capacity at 90% saturation was found to decrease from 78 to 60g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X} after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} capture ratio or the mass of CO{sub 2} adsorbed to the total mass that entered the system decreased from 63% to only 61% after the fifth cycle. The CO{sub 2} recovery efficiency ranged from 82 to 93% during desorption, and the CO{sub 2} relative recovery, i.e., CO{sub 2} desorbed for the nth cycle to CO{sub 2} adsorbed for the first cycle, ranged from 88 to 68%. The service life of the adsorbent was determined to be equal to eleven cycles at a useful capacity of 40g CO{sub 2}/kg{sub Zeolite13X}.

  1. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  2. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  4. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  5. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terrestrial Carbon Cycle "Only about half of the CO2 released into the atmosphere by human activities currently resides in the atmosphere, the rest absorbed on land and in the oceans. The period over which the carbon will be sequestered is unclear, and the efficiency of future sinks is unknown." US Carbon Cycle Research Plan "We" desire to be able to predict the future spatial and temporal distribution of sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 and their interaction (forcing and

  6. A Greenhouse-Gas Information System: Monitoring and Validating Emissions Reporting and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonietz, Karl K.; Dimotakis, Paul E.; Walker, Bruce C.

    2011-09-26

    This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS.

  7. Full-Column Greenhouse Gas Sampling 2012-2014 Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, ML

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distributions of CO2, CH4, and other gases provide important constraints when determining terrestrial and ocean sources and sinks of carbon and other biogeochemical processes in the Earth system. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Earth System Research Laboratory to quantify the vertically resolved distribution of atmospheric carbon-cycle gases(CO2, CH4 ) within approximately 99% of the atmospheric column at the DOE ’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma . During the 2012 to 2014 campaign period, 12 successful Air C ore flights were conducted from the SGP site . In addition to providing critical data for evaluating remote sensing and earth system models, valuable lessons were learned that motivate improvements to the sampling and recovery systems and campaign logistics . With the launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory - 2 (OCO - 2) and Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite ( GOSAT ) satellites, we look forward to proposing additional sampling and analysis efforts at the SGP site and at other sites to characterize the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4 over time and space.

  8. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Original 1605(b)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Program Program Calculation Tools Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Original 1605(b) Program Calculation Tools The workbooks below were developed to assist participants in the original Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program to estimate the carbon sequestered by urban forestry activities and to estimate emissions reductions from recycling, source reduction, or composting activities, respectively. The original Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was based on

  9. NREL Develops More Precise Look at Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Energy Technologies - News Releases | NREL NREL Develops More Precise Look at Cradle-to-Grave Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Energy Technologies May 4, 2012 A new approach to assessing greenhouse-gas emissions from coal, wind, solar and other energy technologies paints a much more precise picture of cradle-to-grave emissions and should help sharpen decisions on what new energy projects to build. The method - a harmonization of widely variant estimates of greenhouse gas emissions by the

  10. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Across the Continental United States | Department of Energy Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Data analysis from this study will provide insight into real-world performance of current emissions reduction devices, under various operating conditions, and with respect to greenhouse gas emissions. PDF icon p-03_carder.pdf

  11. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - About the 1605(b)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program About the 1605(b) Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program About the 1605(b) Program History Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (also known as the 1605(b) Program) encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration

  12. Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Standards | Department of Energy 9: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards Fact #589: September 21, 2009 Proposed Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards On September 15, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) jointly announced a proposal to establish national standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  14. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  15. Statement from U.S. Energy Secretary Moniz on Mexico's Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "We warmly welcome the announcement by the Government of Mexico on new greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The commitment Mexico has made today sends a strong signal of ...

  16. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1994 Volume 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This report provides information on greenhouse gases GHGs) as required by Section 503 a(4) and b(3) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT).

  17. Solar greenhouse as an integral part of an earth-sheltered home: the first two years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malott, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a solar greenhouse as an integral part of an earth-sheltered home is discussed. The problems of building such a home are described.

  18. Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Natural Gas System; Sankey Diagram Methodology As natural gas travels through ...

  19. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental...

  20. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.