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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate Change IR Indian Railways Jatropha Jatropha curcas L. KCl potassium chloride LCA life cycle assessment LCI life cycle inventory LCIA life cycle impact assessment MSRTH...

2

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation factsheet Download the Fact Sheet The U.S. Department of Energy enlisted NREL to review and "harmonize" life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Hundreds of assessments have been published, often with considerable variability in results. These variations in approach, while usually legitimate, hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Learn more about life cycle assessments of energy technologies. By harmonizing this data, NREL seeks to reduce the uncertainty around estimates for environmental impacts of renewables and increase the value of

3

Life Cycle Assessment: Past, Present, and Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) can develop into life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), which is a transdisciplinary integration framework of models rather than a model in itself. ... As the environmental burden from agriculture, and especially from livestock breeding, is known to be quite important, such an analysis was interesting for policy purposes. ...

Jeroen B. Guinée; Reinout Heijungs; Gjalt Huppes; Alessandra Zamagni; Paolo Masoni; Roberto Buonamici; Tomas Ekvall; Tomas Rydberg

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Life Cycle Assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessments A life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic, cradle-to-grave process that evaluates the environmental impacts of products, processes, and services. Its...

5

NREL: Energy Analysis: Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life cycle assessment (LCA) harmonization helps lenders, utility executives, and lawmakers get the best, most precise information on greenhouse gas emissions from various sources of energy. LCA has been used to estimate and compare GHG emissions from utility-scale power systems for three decades, often with considerable variability in results. Harmonization provides more exact estimates of greenhouse-gas emissions for renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature and reducing uncertainty. Highlights of Recent Studies Chart that compares published and harmonized lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster.

6

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

life-cycle energy requirements (e total ) and global warmingtotal life-cycle global warming impacts. Chapter 3 Life-cycle Energy and Global

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Life-cycle assessment of NAND flash memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information for nand ?ash lca,” Consortium on Green DesignLife Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA), US 1997 Industry BenchmarkLife Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA), US 1997 Industry Benchmark

Boyd, Sarah; Horvath, A; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Life Cycle Assessment of Biomass Conversion Pathways.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study has investigated the life cycle of three biomass feedstocks including forest residue, agricultural residue, and whole forest for biohydrogen and biopower production in… (more)

Kabir, Md R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Life Cycle Assessments of Energy Technologies Learn about how NREL research analysts are evaluating various LCA studies in the Life Cycle Analysis Harmonization Project. NREL is a leader in the field of life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy technologies, both renewable and conventional. Life cycle assessment is a standardized technique that tracks all material, energy, and pollutant flows of a system-from raw material extraction, manufacturing, transport, and construction to operation and end-of-life disposal. Life cycle assessment can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate comparisons of energy technologies. Life cycle assessments provide a well-established and comprehensive framework to compare renewable energy technologies with fossil-based and

11

Life Cycle Assessment of a Wind Farm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the next step of the LCA, specific energy expenditures and produced emissions were linked to the inventory analysis result. The database of the Swiss Center for Life Cycle Inventories Ecoinvent lists over 4,00...

Hermann-Josef Wagner; Jyotirmay Mathur

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

NREL: Energy Analysis - Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Nuclear Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Over the last 30 years, analysts have conducted life cycle assessments on the environmental impacts associated with a variety of nuclear power technologies and systems. These life cycle assessments have had wide-ranging results. To better understand greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from nuclear power systems, NREL completed a comprehensive review and analysis of life cycle assessments focused on light water reactors (LWRs)-including both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs)-published between 1980 and 2010. NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life cycle assessment literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions

13

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Gasoline Vehicles Project ID: 143 Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Brief Description: Examines the social, environmental and economic impacts of hydrogen fuel cell and gasoline vehicles. Purpose This project aims to investigate fuel cell vehicles through environmental impact, life cycle assessment, sustainability, and thermodynamic analyses. The project will assist in the development of highly qualified personnel in such areas as system analysis, modeling, methodology development, and applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Ibrahim Dincer Organization: University of Ontario Institute of Technology

14

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Methodolog...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

more than 2,100 published references as potentially being life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation technologies. Each reference was then subjected to three...

15

Harmonization of Energy Generation Life Cycle Assessments (LCA...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Harmonization of Energy Generation Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) FY2010 LCA Milestone Report November 2010 Ethan Warner, Garvin Heath, and Patrick O'Donoughue Management Report...

16

NREL: Energy Analysis - Biopower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems, NREL completed a comprehensive review and analysis of life cycle assessments (LCA) on co-fired (with coal), direct combustion, gasification and pyrolysis biopower...

17

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of industrial milk production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was carried out for milk production extending ... to study the influence of transport. The agriculture was found to be the main hot...

Merete Høgaas Eide

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Life cycle assessment framework in agriculture on the farm level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method that can be used to assess the environmental impact of agriculture, but impact categories and the functional unit of classical LCA’s must be adapted to the specific ... as ...

Guido Haas; Frank Wetterich…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- rable. For instance, CO2 and CH4 emissions can both be expressed as CO2-equivalent emissions by using in the life cycle and sums them across the whole system. Typically, several hundreds of emissions and resources are quantified. In the third phase, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), emissions and resources

Napp, Nils

20

3 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) aspects of concrete  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The concrete industry is considered to be a large consumer of energy and natural resources, and is one of the main sources of greenhouse emissions and waste generation. The production and utilization of concrete and concrete structures have a large impact on the environment, and so the environmental assessment of concrete is of great importance in terms of achieving a sustainable society. This chapter includes instructions on how to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to concrete, including a general description, life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment of concrete, future trends and sources of further information.

S.B. Marinkovi?

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Title Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Masanet, Eric R., Yuan Chang, Anand R. Gopal, Peter H. Larsen, William R. Morrow, Roger Sathre, Arman Shehabi, and Pei Zhai Journal Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 38 Date Published 2013 Keywords electricity, energy policy, environmental analysis, life-cycle impact, life-cycle inventory Abstract The application of life-cycle assessment (LCA) to electric power (EP) technologies is a vibrant research pursuit that is likely to continue as the world seeks ways to meet growing electricity demand with reduced environmental and human health impacts. While LCA is an evolving methodology with a number of barriers and challenges to its effective use, LCA studies to date have clearly improved our understanding of the life-cycle energy, GHG emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water use implications of EP technologies. With continued progress, LCA offers promise for assessing and comparing EP technologies in an analytically-thorough and environmentally-holistic manner for more robust deployment decisions. This article summarizes: (1) major challenges in applying LCA to EP technologies thus far, (2) LCA results to date on the various impacts of EP technologies, and (3) opportunities for improving LCAs as applied to EP technologies moving forward.

22

title Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems journal Annual Review of Environment and Resources volume year month abstract p The application of life cycle assessment LCA to electric power EP technologies is a vibrant research pursuit that is likely to continue as the world seeks ways to meet growing electricity demand with reduced environmental and human health impacts While LCA is an evolving methodology with a number of barriers and challenges to its effective use LCA studies to date have clearly improved our understanding of the life cycle energy GHG emissions air pollutant emissions and water use implications of EP technologies With continued progress LCA offers promise for assessing and comparing EP technologies in an analytically thorough and environmentally holistic manner for more robust deployment

23

Life-cycle assessment of wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprints analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. In previous research, the issue of global warming is often related ...

Dong, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of the Internet: The Benefits and Impacts of Innovative Technologies Speaker(s): Oliver Jolliet Date: July 15, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone This seminar starts by providing a short introduction to the field of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) through a practical example of packaging. It will then develop the case of the Life Cycle Benefits and Impacts of the Internet; raising the different scientific challenges that LCA faces to provide relevant results for innovative technologies.--The rapid development of the Internet and the related potential impacts on and benefits for the environment deserves attention. The infrastructure that supports a university's use of the Internet has been comprehensively

25

NREL: Energy Analysis - Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review Geothermal Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Geothermal Energy OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for geothermal technologies. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from geothermal power generation Credit: Goldstein, B., G. Hiriart, R. Bertani, C. Bromley, L. Gutiérrez-Negrín, E. Huenges, H. Muraoka, A. Ragnarsson, J. Tester, V. Zui, 2011: Geothermal Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press. Figure 4.6 Enlarge image

26

NREL: Energy Analysis - Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review Ocean Energy Results - Life Cycle Assessment Review For more information, visit: Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation: Ocean Energy OpenEI: Data, Visualization, and Bibliographies Chart that shows life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for ocean power technologies. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of wave and tidal range technologies. Credit: Lewis, A., S. Estefen, J. Huckerby, W. Musial, T. Pontes, J. Torres-Martinez, 2011: Ocean Energy. In IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)], Cambridge University Press. Figure 6.11 Enlarge image

27

NREL: Energy Analysis - Wind Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet) Wind LCA Harmonization (Fact Sheet) Cover of the LWind LCA Harmonization Fact Sheet Download the Fact Sheet Wind Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization To better understand the state of knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from utility-scale wind power systems, NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review life cycle assessment literature, identify sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a meta-analytical process called "harmonization." Over the last 30 years, several hundred life cycle assessments have been conducted for wind power technologies with wide-ranging results. Harmonization for onshore and offshore wind power systems was performed by adjusting published greenhouse gas estimates to achieve:

28

21 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of windows and window materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Windows are a significant component in sustainable buildings in both the impacts caused by their material life cycles and by their influence on the performance of a building over its service life. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have compared the impacts of different framing materials with mixed results. LCA has also been used to estimate the environmental payback of higher manufacturing impacts from producing better performing windows. Future sustainable window selection should make use of standardized LCA data for windows and utilize advanced technologies to optimize window performance.

J. Salazar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas from Separated slurry Lorie Hamelin, Marianne Wesnæs and Henrik AND ALTERNATIVES 28 2.2.1 Reference Scenario (Scenario A) 28 2.2.2 Biogas from raw pig slurry and fibre fraction from chemical- mechanical separation (Scenario F) 29 2.2.3 Biogas from raw cow slurry and fibre

30

Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers Jean in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re- vamped models each year. The automobile industry is therefore a very emblematic sector for best practices of LCA

Boyer, Edmond

31

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Petroleum and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. To determine the validity of this assump- tion, a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) allows a quantitative such as ethanol and biodiesel, and various databases catalog the environmental impacts of agriculture (15-19). One showsgreenhousegasemissionsreductionsforbiolubricants but increased impacts of eutrophication, smog production, and energy use (20). Agricultural

Illinois at Chicago, University of

32

Toward Meaningful End Points of Biodiversity in Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here, we review the use of indicators and approaches to model biodiversity loss in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a methodology used to evaluate the cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of products. ... patch diversity, richness, composition, number of ecosystems, relative or absolute area, area of seminatural vegetation in agriculture, emergent patterns in species distribution (richness, endemism) ...

Michael Curran; Laura de Baan; An M. De Schryver; Rosalie van Zelm; Stefanie Hellweg; Thomas Koellner; Guido Sonnemann; Mark A. J. Huijbregts

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

33

Information Resources: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL alternatives. The reports for Parts 1 and 2 were published in February 2012 and June 2012, respectively, providing a literature review and life-cycle assessment (LCA) for lamps utilizing these three light source technologies. Presenters Jason Tuenge of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Brad Hollomon of Compa Industries focused on findings from Part 3, which augments the LCA results with chemical analysis of a variety of lamps using standard testing procedures from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different lamps, were tested to ascertain whether potentially toxic elements are present in concentrations that exceed regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste.

34

Environmental life-cycle assessment of highway construction projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Finland (Junnila et al 2003). The energy use and emissions from the life-cycle of the office building was assessed assuming fifty years as its service life. This study conducted an inventory as well as impact assessment on the office building as given... of office buildings in Finland. The practical aspects of this study are that more environmentally-conscious design can be made but further studies have to be conducted to standardize the results of this study in countries in a different geographic...

Rajagopalan, Neethi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Grand Challenges for Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grand Challenges for Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels ... Both advocates and critics of biofuels often focus on a restricted set of scenarios that appear to reinforce their a priori beliefs about how biofuel production and use might function. ... Converting rain forest, peatland, savanna, or grassland to produce food crop-based biofuels in Brazil, southeast Asia, and the US creates a biofuel C debt by releasing 17-420 times more CO2 than the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) redns. ...

T. E. McKone; W. W. Nazaroff; P. Berck; M. Auffhammer; T. Lipman; M. S. Torn; E. Masanet; A. Lobscheid; N. Santero; U. Mishra; A. Barrett; M. Bomberg; K. Fingerman; C. Scown; B. Strogen; A. Horvath

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Life Cycle Assessment for Sustainable Metropolitan Water Systems Planning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. ... Water systems supply additional functions includ ing the following:? (1) nutrient recovery ? the treatment and land application of biosolids brings back the nutrients to the natural cycle in agriculture, horticulture, and forest systems, which can prevent the need for chemical fertilizers and thus avoid their production; (2) energy recovery ? which can include the generation of electricity or the cogeneration of thermal energy and electricity from biogas at sewage treat ment plants (STPs) or biosolids combustion off-site [This generation activity replaces the production of electrical and thermal energy from other energy sources.]; ...

Sven Lundie; Gregory M. Peters; Paul C. Beavis

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

37

Life cycle assessment of various hydrogen production methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is reported for five methods of hydrogen production, namely steam reforming of natural gas, coal gasification, water electrolysis via wind and solar electrolysis, and thermochemical water splitting with a Cu–Cl cycle. Carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and energy equivalents of each method are quantified and compared. A case study is presented for a hydrogen fueling station in Toronto, Canada, and nearby hydrogen resources close to the fueling station. In terms of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, thermochemical water splitting with the Cu–Cl cycle is found to be advantageous over the other methods, followed by wind and solar electrolysis. In terms of hydrogen production capacities, natural gas steam reforming, coal gasification and thermochemical water splitting with the Cu–Cl cycle methods are found to be advantageous over the renewable energy methods.

E. Cetinkaya; I. Dincer; G.F. Naterer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current,...

39

The Product Process Service Life Cycle Assessment Framework to Estimate GHG Emissions for Highways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter introduces readers to the Product Process Service (PPS) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework. This framework is founded in principals of pavement life cycle assessment and provides the basis for too...

Amlan Mukherjee; Darrell Cass

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Life-Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Eric Masanet, 1 Yuan Chang, 1 Anand R. Gopal, 2 Peter Larsen, 2,3 William R. Morrow III, 2 Roger Sathre, 2 Arman Shehabi, 2 and Pei Zhai 2 1 McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208; email: eric.masanet@northwestern.edu, yuan.chang@northwestern.edu 2 Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720; email: argopal@lbl.gov, wrmorrow@lbl.gov, rsathre@lbl.gov, ashehabi@lbl.gov, pzhai@lbl.gov 3 Management Science and Engineering Department, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; email: phlarsen@lbl.gov Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2013. 38:107-36 First published online as a Review in Advance on August 7, 2013 The Annual Review of Environment and Resources is online at http://environ.annualreviews.org

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Chemicals with LCA: The Examples of Trichloroethylene andin Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product orand outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life

Hellweg, Stefanie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Economic Life Cycle Assessment as element of sustainability certification – a key success factor moving beyond Life Cycle Costing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Target topic: achieving sustainability, saving energy, and improving occupant comfort? Lead Author Wolfram Trinius, PhD, Ingenieurb?ro Trinius, Hamburg, Germany and University of Gavle, Sweden Co Authors Harry Hirsch, HH Consulting, Baden... Baden, Germany Simone Lakenbrink, DU Diederichs Project Management, Munich, Germany Title Economic Life Cycle Assessment as element of sustainability certification ? a key success factor moving beyond Life Cycle Costing The move from...

Trinius, W.; Hirsch, H.

43

16 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of road pavement materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: At present the choice of materials and techniques in road construction is dictated by structural requirements and economic aspects. However, ecological factors have gained in importance due to environmental considerations in politics and society. To evaluate the environmental impact of motorways, a life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040 was carried out for different pavement types. By investigating different case scenarios, the reduction potential of environmental impact was quantified. The biggest reduction in air pollution can be achieved by improving pavement properties (e.g., texture, stiffness and flatness) which would significantly reduce the fuel consumption of vehicles.

C. Thiel; T. Stengel; C. Gehlen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

11 - Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) of lubricants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Lubricants impact on the environment from raw material extraction to manufacturing, usage and disposal or reuse. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is utilised for evaluation of the environmental impacts of energy and material flows throughout the product life. Several comprehensive \\{LCAs\\} have compared mineral oil-based and bio-based lubricants, reporting varying conclusions. Environmental savings of biolubricants are more apparent at a local level than at a global scale. Negative impacts mainly stem from their agricultural production and performance in the use phase. \\{LCAs\\} should be used in industrial product design of biolubricants. Sustainable development indicators also consider the socio-economic impact of a product. Optimised lubricants determine significant energy savings.

Jan C.J. Bart; Emanuele Gucciardi; Stefano Cavallaro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Life-Cycle Assessment of Highway Pavement Alternatives in Aspects of Economic, Environmental, and Social Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) provides economic transactions, environmental emissions, and energy use throughout a product's life cycle based on a dollar amount of the product. A custom EIO-LCA model was conducted to compare...

Mao, Zhuting

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

46

Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies: Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power (11 pp)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The life cycle inventory analysis for photovoltaic power shows that each production ... be important for specific elementary flows. A life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) shows that there ... Material consumption...

Niels Jungbluth; Christian Bauer…

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

The effect of carbonation after demolition on the life cycle assessment of pavements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high contribution of CO? emissions associated with pavements has driven research to assess the life cycle of concrete versus asphalt structures and to develop a strategy to reduce the carbon footprint. The life cycle ...

Rossick, Katelyn M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and clarifying the central tendency of those estimates in ways useful for decision makers and analysts. Each article took a slightly different approach, demonstrating the flexibility of the harmonization approach. Each article also discusses limitations of the current research, and the state of knowledge and of harmonization, pointing toward a path of extending and improving the meta-analysis of LCAs.

Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nano Insulation Materials: Synthesis and Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The application of manufactured nanomaterials provides not only advantages resulting from their unique properties, but also disadvantages derived from the possible high energy use and CO2 burden related to their manufacture, operation, and disposal. It is therefore important to evaluate the trade-offs of process economics with the associated environmental impacts in order to strengthen the existing advantages while counteracting disadvantages of nanomaterials. This is of particular importance at the early stage of the development, where different synthetic approaches with different energy and environmental impacts may be employed. We discuss here the importance of life cycle assessment (LCA) on the synthesis of nano insulation materials (NIMs) consisting of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNSs). The results indicate that the use of recyclable and environmentally friendly raw materials can improve greatly the process environmental footprints. New synthetic procedures are developed accordingly for HSNS \\{NIMs\\} with improved environmental features as well as thermal insulation performance. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientific Committee of the 21st CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering in the person of the Conference Chair Prof. Terje K. Lien.

Tao Gao; Linn Ingunn C. Sandberg; Bjørn Petter Jelle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions. While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback periods. Much more challenging is the geographic mapping of impacts that these emissions wi

Matthew J Eckelman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

NREL: Energy Analysis - Hydropower Results - Life Cycle Assessment...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the systematic review and analysis. The majority of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for hydropower cluster between about 4 and 14 g CO2eqkWh. The...

52

Life cycle assessment and sustainability analysis of products, materials and technologies. Toward a scientific framework for sustainability life cycle analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are many approaches to study the environmental and sustainability aspects of production and consumption. Some of these reside at the level of concepts, e.g., industrial ecology, design for environment, and cleaner production. Other approaches are based on the use of quantitative models, e.g., life cycle assessment, material flow accounting and strategic environmental assessment. This paper focuses on the development of a framework that is able to incorporate different models for environmental analysis, with the option of a broader scope that also includes economic and social aspects, thus covering the three pillars of sustainability. This framework builds on the ISO-framework for life cycle assessment, but takes a broader view, and allows us to move from micro questions on specific products, via meso questions on life styles up to macro questions in which the entire societal structure is part of the analysis.

Reinout Heijungs; Gjalt Huppes; Jeroen B. Guinée

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dealing with uncertainties in Life Cycle Assessment for emerging technologies; test case LCA of Silicon Thin-film PV.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Onzekerheden in the benodigde inputdata voor Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) en Life Cycle Costing (LCC) studies zijn het onderwerp van veel publicaties en vormen een… (more)

Salve, José Luis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Life cycle assessment of electric mobility: answers and challenges—Zurich, April 6, 2011  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At this forum most recent results of life cycle assessment studies of electric car driving compared to driving fossil- and agro...

Rolf Frischknecht; Karin Flury

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Text Alternative Version: Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Below is the text-alternative version of the "Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products" webcast, held March 28, 2013.

56

Status of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) activities in the Nordic Region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The status of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) activities in the Nordic Region (period ... the most important ones. All aspects of LCA methodology are used: 90% use impact...

Ole J. Hanssen

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels, Improving Life Cycle Assessments by taking into account local.......................................................................................................................................................14 Chapter 1 Biofuels, greenhouse gases and climate change 1 Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cockerill T. 2008. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuelreduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintendedemission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ the UBC LCA Project ­ which aims to support the development of the field of life cycle assessment (LCA Completed November 18th, 2013 as part of a continuing study, the UBC LCA Project #12;1 Executive Summary This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental performance of the University

60

Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) of buildings and the building sector: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This review summarizes and organizes the literature on life cycle assessment (LCA), life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) studies carried out for environmental evaluation of buildings and building related industry and sector (including construction products, construction systems, buildings, and civil engineering constructions). The review shows that most LCA and LCEA are carried out in what is shown as “exemplary buildings”, that is, buildings that have been designed and constructed as low energy buildings, but there are very few studies on “traditional buildings”, that is, buildings such as those mostly found in our cities. Similarly, most studies are carried out in urban areas, while rural areas are not well represented in the literature. Finally, studies are not equally distributed around the world.

Luisa F. Cabeza; Lídia Rincón; Virginia Vilariño; Gabriel Pérez; Albert Castell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Life cycle sustainability assessment of UK electricity scenarios to 2070  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Decarbonising the UK electricity mix is vital to achieving the national target of 80% reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050, relative to a 1990 baseline. Much work so far has focused only on costs and GHG emissions ignoring other sustainability issues. This paper goes beyond to assess the life cycle sustainability of different electricity scenarios for the UK, extending to 2070. The scenarios include the main technologies relevant to the UK: nuclear, gas, coal with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS), wind, solar photovoltaics and biomass. Three levels of decarbonisation are considered and the implications are assessed for techno-economic, environmental and social impacts on a life cycle basis. The results show that decarbonisation is likely to increase electricity costs despite anticipated future cost reductions for immature technologies. Conversely, sensitivity to volatile fuel prices decreases by two-thirds in all the scenarios with low-carbon technologies. To meet the GHG emission targets, coal CCS can only play a limited role, contributing 10% to the electricity mix at most; the use of CCS also increases other sustainability impacts compared to today, including worker injuries, large accident fatalities, depletion of fossil fuels and long-term waste storage. This calls into question the case for investing in coal CCS. A very low-carbon mix with nuclear and renewables provides the best overall environmental performance, but some impacts increase, such as terrestrial eco-toxicity. Such a mix also worsens some social issues such as health impacts from radiation and radioactive waste storage requirements. UK-based employment may more than double by 2070 if a renewables-intensive mix is chosen. However, the same mix also increases depletion of elements nearly seven-fold relative to the present, emphasising the need for end-of-life recycling. Very low-carbon mixes also introduce considerable uncertainty due to low dispatchability and grid instability. With equal weighting assumed for each sustainability impact, the scenario with an equal share of nuclear and renewables is ranked best.

Laurence Stamford; Adisa Azapagic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Construction of a classification hierarchy for process underspecification to streamline life-cycle assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concerns over global warming potential and environmental degradation have created a demand for accurate assessment of the impact of various products and processes. Life cycle assessment (LCA), a quantitative assessment ...

Cary, Victor E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coupling Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, Life-Cycle Assessment, and Risk Assessment for Emerging Threats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coupling Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, Life-Cycle Assessment, and Risk Assessment for Emerging Threats ... Emerging environmental threats such as novel chemical compounds, biological agents, and nanomaterials present serious challenges to traditional models of risk analysis and regulatory risk management processes. ... The recent emergence of new materials, technologies, and other environmental stressors in both the marketplace and the public consciousness coincides with increased recognition of the importance of an integrated systems approach to environmental health and safety that includes life-cycle thinking, public participation, and adaptive management of risks associated with emerging threats. ...

Igor Linkov; Thomas P. Seager

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Variability Assessment of Groundwater Exposure to Pesticides and Its Consideration in Life-Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper, leaching scenarios typical in European agriculture are defined. ... Due to the inherent toxicity of many pesticides, the application of pesticides in agriculture has been extensively assessed with tools such as risk assessment and, less frequently, with life-cycle assessment (LCA). ... The goal of this paper is (a) to assess the variability of pesticide leaching to groundwater in EU agriculture, (b) to quantify the contribution of substance-property, site, and farming-practice parameters to variability, thus identifying the most important parameters for consideration in the assessment of pesticide leaching, and (c) to suggest pos sibilities for incorporating such variability assessment in LCA. ...

Georg Geisler; Stefanie Hellweg; Simon Liechti; Konrad Hungerbühler

2004-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case of vertical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle environmental Assessment (LCA) of sanitation systems including sewerage: Case The article presents the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to a complete sanitation system including the sewer network. It first describes the LCA hypothesis which concerns two types of waste water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Life Cycle Assessment to Evaluate the Environmental Impact of Biochar Implementation in Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment to Evaluate the Environmental Impact of Biochar Implementation in Conservation Agriculture in Zambia ... This paper applies life cycle assessment (LCA) on agricultural biochar use in sub-Saharan Africa, perhaps one of the most feasible areas for biochar as a means of climate change mitigation and adaptation. ...

Magnus Sparrevik; John L. Field; Vegard Martinsen; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enabling streamlined life cycle assessment : materials-classification derived structured underspecification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As environmental footprint considerations for companies gain greater importance, the need for quantitative impact assessment tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a higher priority. Currently, the cost and ...

Rampuria, Abhishek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The collaboration between Int J Life Cycle Assess and J LCA Jpn  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many studies have been conducted for assessing the environmental impacts of organic agriculture. In general, they compare a few ... system thinking based on life cycle assessment (LCA). Therefore, this paper revi...

Yasunari Matsuno; Yasushi Kondo

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Life cycle assessment of potential energy uses for short rotation willow biomass in Sweden  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two different bioenergy systems using willow chips as raw material has been assessed in detail applying life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to compare its environmental profile with conventional alternativ...

Sara González-García; Blas Mola-Yudego…

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Iterative uncertainty reduction via Monte Carlo simulation : a streamlined life cycle assessment case study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one methodology for assessing a product's impact on the environment. LCA has grown in popularity recently as consumers and governments request more information concerning the environmental ...

Bolin, Christopher E. (Christopher Eric)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Comparative life cycle assessment of tubular wind towers and foundations – Part 2: Life cycle analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the first part of the paper the design of tubular towers and respective onshore foundations was addressed. The considered solutions were based on steel, concrete and hybrid steel-concrete tubular towers supporting multi-megawatt turbines of 2, 3.6 and 5 MW power with hub heights of 80, 100 and 150 m respectively. In this second part of the paper, the life cycle analysis of the designed case studies is performed and conclusions about their environmental impact are drawn. Two different scenarios concerning the lifetime of the towers were established. The first scenario considers 20 years lifetime and two different construction methods for the connection of the steel segments, the first based in current technology using flange connections and the second using newly developed friction connections. Assuming equal importance for all environmental categories in this scenario, it may be concluded that for heights up to 100 m hybrid towers with friction connections are the most efficient solution. For higher heights, the concrete tower becomes more efficient. The second scenario considers an increased total lifetime of 40 years, assuming the reuse of the tower after 20 years of operation. In this case, the use of friction connections in steel towers enhances the possibility of dismantling and reusing the tower potentiating much better performance in relation to the environmental category of global warming.

H. Gervásio; C. Rebelo; A. Moura; M. Veljkovic; L. Simões da Silva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

73

Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ?1000 m2 production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m2 (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as “pond-to-wheels”. Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total \\{NOx\\} and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m2/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20–30 g/m2/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required.

Howard Passell; Harnoor Dhaliwal; Marissa Reno; Ben Wu; Ami Ben Amotz; Etai Ivry; Marcus Gay; Tom Czartoski; Lise Laurin; Nathan Ayer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Illustrating Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In emerging technology cases,(8) LCA practitioners have responded with a number of strategies including developing structured scenarios within LCA models,(9, 10) thermodynamic process modeling,(11) consideration of experience curves from analogous industries to identify potential future improvements in efficiency,(12) dimensional analysis to explore scaling effects,(13) exploring market-driven impacts through consequential LCA,(14) and uncertainty bounding analyses to provide upper and lower limits to environmental impact. ... (22) Examples include use of stochastic multiattribute analysis after characterization to generate a probabilistic rank ordering of alternatives according to their overall life cycle impacts. ... Presented at the 2nd World Conference on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, 1998. ...

Ben A. Wender; Rider W. Foley; Valentina Prado-Lopez; Dwarakanath Ravikumar; Daniel A. Eisenberg; Troy A. Hottle; Jathan Sadowski; William P. Flanagan; Angela Fisher; Lise Laurin; Matthew E. Bates; Igor Linkov; Thomas P. Seager; Matthew P. Fraser; David H. Guston

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Assessment of Projected Life-Cycle Costs for Wave, Tidal, Ocean Current, and In-Stream Hydrokinetic Power

77

Methods for managing uncertainly in material selection decisions : robustness of early stage life cycle assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing alternative materials is an important tactic to improve the environmental performance of products. Currently a growing array of materials candidates confronts today's product designer. While life-cycle assessment ...

Nicholson, Anna L. (Anna Louise)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M, Deschênes L, Samson R. 2010. Considering time in LCA:Dynamic LCA and its application to global warming impactLife Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Compost benefits for agriculture evaluated by life cycle assessment. A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As compost use in agriculture increases, there is an urgent need to ... on land by using life cycle assessment (LCA). A total of nine environmental benefits ... these two benefits should be regularly included in

Julia Martínez-Blanco; Cristina Lazcano…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Decision-making of biomass ethanol fuel policy based on life cycle 3E assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To evaluate the environmental, economic, energy performance of biomass ethanol fuel in China and to support the decision-making of biomass ethanol energy policy, an assessment method of life cycle 3E (economy, en...

Ru-bo Leng PhD; Du Dai; Xiao-jun Chen…

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of probabilistic underspecification as a method for incorporating uncertainty into comparative life cycle assessments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life cycle assessments are quickly becoming a crucial method through which the environmental impacts of products or processes are evaluated. A concern with current practice, however, is that the use of deterministic values ...

Wildnauer, Margaret T. (Margaret Thea)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Life cycle assessment of UK pig production systems: the impact of dietary protein source   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was developed to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing 1 kg pig live weight. A comparison was made between dietary protein sources, i.e. imported soybean meal with the UK protein ...

Stephen, Katie Louise

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

83

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

84

Life cycle assessment of bio-based ethanol produced from different agricultural feedstocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bio-based products are often considered sustainable due to their renewable nature. However, the environmental performance of products needs to be assessed considering a life cycle perspective to get a complete pi...

Ivan Muñoz; Karin Flury; Niels Jungbluth…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Life Cycle Assessment and Grid Electricity: What Do We Know and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

explore the limits of current knowledge about grid electricity in LCA and carbon footprinting for the U cycle assessment and policy analyses in a world with incomplete and uncertain information. Introduction drivers in regional greenhouse gas intensity and in region-specific life cycle inventories (4). However

Jaramillo, Paulina

87

Regionalized Life Cycle Assessment: Computational Methodology and Application to Inventory Databases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that site-dependent impact assessment for categories like acidification and eutrophication give more accurate and realistic results than site-generic assessments. ... In addition, we use indicators, developed by the CASES (cost assessment for sustainable energy systems) project, which assess the external costs of energy generation (38), and consider impacts on human health, agriculture, acidification damage to structures, and loss of biodiversity. ...

Christopher L. Mutel; Stefanie Hellweg

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

88

Environmental impact for offshore wind farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental impact for offshore wind farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach an approach for Environmental Impact Assessment through the use of geolocalized LCA approach, for fixed of environmental impacts of different sources of energy. This paper described the geolocalized LCA approach

Boyer, Edmond

89

Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainability of Chemical Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

’s shelf-life by 14 days1 Did you know? In-store potato waste reduced from 3% to waste management Inputs Outputs Raw materials Energy Atmospheric emissions Solid waste...

Sahnoune, A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metrics of Life-Cycle Performance Energy Payback Times (EPBT) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) Toxic Gases #12;6 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­EuropeLife Cycle GHG Emissions ­Europe Insolation: 1700 kwh/m2-yr 0 10 #12;7 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­Comparison with Conventional Technologies Life Cycle GHG Emissions

91

How Leaders Leverage Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Data: A Guide for the North American Residential Window Industry.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research studied ways in which leaders leverage Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) data, specifically as it relates to the North American residential window industry. Multiple… (more)

Perkins, Annie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems ... Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO-standardized biophysical accounting framework used to (1) compile an inventory of material and energy inputs and outputs characteristic of each stage of a product life cycle and (2) quantify its contributions to a specified suite of resource use and emissions-related environmental impact categories (8, 9). ... System boundaries for a cradle-to-farm-gate LCA of live-weight salmon production in Norway, the UK, Canada, and Chile (gray font denotes background system data derived from the EcoInvent database, modified as appropriate to conform to regional conditions). ...

Nathan Pelletier; Peter Tyedmers; Ulf Sonesson; Astrid Scholz; Friederike Ziegler; Anna Flysjo; Sarah Kruse; Beatriz Cancino; Howard Silverman

2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

93

12 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of building thermal insulation materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: In this chapter thermal insulation materials and types of plaster and their properties are described. The impact of the selected thermal insulation materials and plaster on the environment is assessed using LCA analysis. A method of assessing the ecological and economic benefits resulting from thermal insulation of the external walls of buildings is proposed. On this basis, ecological and economic payback periods for thermal insulation are defined as well as the ecological efficiency of thermal insulation. The conducted analyses conclude that thermal insulation of the external walls of buildings is environmentally favourable.

R. Dylewski; J. Adamczyk

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Accounting for Ecosystem Services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: Toward an Ecologically Based LCA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accounting for Ecosystem Services in Life Cycle Assessment, Part II: Toward an Ecologically Based LCA ... Accounting for the role of ecosystem services is essential for LCA to guide decisions toward sustainability; Eco-LCA is a step in this direction. ... This article presents a step toward including the direct and indirect role of ecosystems in LCA, and a hierarchical scheme to interpret their contribution. ...

Yi Zhang; Anil Baral; Bhavik R. Bakshi

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

LA SOSTENIBILIT DEI PRODOTTI ATTRAVERSO IL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) E  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LA SOSTENIBILIT� DEI PRODOTTI ATTRAVERSO IL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) E LA RIDUZIONE DELL Università degli studi di Bari "LCA e Carbon Foot Print ­ metodologie ed opportunità per l'efficientamento e aziende comunicano il percorso di analisi LCA e calcolo della CFP, le opportunità ed i vantaggi CISA S

Malerba, Donato

96

Economic Input?Output Life-Cycle Assessment of Trade Between Canada and the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use an economic input?output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. ... Support?Activities?for?Agriculture ...

Jonathan Norman; Alex D. Charpentier; Heather L. MacLean

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Systems:? Influence of System Boundaries and Scale on Calculated Environmental Loads  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to compare the environmental loads from wastewater systems with different technical solutions. ... The separation systems outperformed the conventional systems by showing lower emissions to water and more efficient recycling of nutrients to agriculture, especially of nitrogen but also of phosphorus. ...

Margareta Lundin; Magnus Bengtsson; Sverker Molander

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Project Information Form Project Title Program for Vehicle Regulatory Reform: Assessing Life Cycle-Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,931.44 Total Project Cost $98,931.44 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and End Dates November 1Project Information Form Project Title Program for Vehicle Regulatory Reform: Assessing Life Cycle, 2014 ­ October 31, 2015 Brief Description of Research Project Current greenhouse gas emissions

California at Davis, University of

99

14 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of wood-based building materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: In this chapter we discuss major issues regarding life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental performance analysis of wood-based building materials. We follow the life cycle of a wood product, beginning with a discussion of sustainable forestry and the growth of trees. We then discuss the processes of manufacturing wood-based building products, focusing on issues of adhesives and preservatives. We discuss the design and construction of buildings and infrastructure made of wood, with an emphasis on eco-design processes. We describe the system-wide material and energy flows associated with wood-based construction in a life cycle perspective, and discuss the climate benefits of using wood material from sustainably managed forests.

R. Sathre; S. González-García

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

TY JOUR T1 Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems JF Annual Review of Environment and Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Power Systems JF Annual Review of Environment and Resources A1 Eric R Masanet A1 Yuan Chang A1 Anand R Gopal A1 Peter H Larsen A1 William R Morrow A1 Roger Sathre A1 Arman Shehabi A1 Pei Zhai KW electricity KW energy policy KW environmental analysis KW life cycle impact KW life cycle inventory AB p The application of life cycle assessment LCA to electric power EP technologies is a vibrant research pursuit that is likely to continue as the world seeks ways to meet growing electricity demand with reduced environmental and human health impacts While LCA is an evolving methodology with a number of barriers and challenges to its effective use LCA studies to date have clearly improved our understanding of the life cycle energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy, emissions and environmental impact analysis of wind turbine using life cycle assessment technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Wind turbine used for electricity generation is known as clean and renewable energy technology. The worldwide increasing trend of wind turbine installation present and future projection addressing the issue of energy required for manufacture and environmental impact due to energy consumption. The life cycle energy and environmental impact of wind turbine has been studied in many literature, but some studies are based on average data, the life cycle stages are incomplete of some study, most of the literature are horizontal axis type and the literature for Asian developing countries are rare. In addition, the life cycle study of vertical axis wind turbine is unusual. Since, the life cycle assessment (LCA) study varied from location to location due to industrial performance, countries energy mix and related issues, a life cycle embodied energy, emissions and environmental impacts analysis were undertaken for two grid connected rooftop wind turbines (vertical axis and horizontal axis) considering the industrial performance, applications and related issues in Thailand. The life cycle assessment was done using SimaPro 7.3.3 software from cradle to grave for base case and for alternative cases. The result showed that, wind turbine installation in Thailand at Chiangmai is reliable to deliver wind energy over the year compared to Phuket and Surat Thani Island. The vertical axis wind turbine is energy and emission intensive per kWh/year energy delivered compared to horizontal axis wind turbine for base case system. The embodied energy and environmental impact could be possible to reduce by more than 60% and 50% respectively using reuse of materials strategy. The embodied energy of vertical axis wind turbine could be possible to reduce by 36% with thermoplastic and 40% with fiberglass plastic turbine instead of aluminum turbine, while the environmental impact reduction more than 15% has been observed. The energy intensity, CO2 emission intensity and energy payback time found to be lower when compared with literature.

Md. Shazib Uddin; S. Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels in Brazilian conditions: A meta-analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The key objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the main environmental life cycle impacts and energy balance of ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from soybean and palm oil, in the Brazilian conditions. The methodological tool used was the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), in Well-To-Tank (WTT) perspective. A process based on cradle-to-gate attribution LCA method, was applied as the technique to assess the health and environmental impacts of ethanol and biodiesel production systems. The environmental assessment was carried out using the SimaPro 7.0.1 software and the CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology, developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML). The assumed common analysis base in this paper was 1.0 MJ of energy released by combustion of the analyzed biofuels. The environmental impacts were quantified and ranked in categories of impacts: Abiotic Depletion Potential (ADP), Global Warming Potential (GWP), Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), Acidification Potential (ACP) and Eutrophication Potential (ETP). In addition, the results were compared by meta-analysis with previous published studies. The Net Energy Relation (NER) in the life cycle of biofuels is an important indicator of the technical and environmental performance evaluation of biofuels production. In this study the NER of ethanol and biodiesel from soybean and palm oil were estimated and compared with previous published studies. Direct and embodied energy inputs, based on defined system boundaries, were used to estimate the energy requirement of crops production, juice/oil extraction, and ethanol/biodiesel industrial production. It is possible to conclude, that biofuel production systems with higher agricultural yields and extensive use of co-products in its life cycle present best environmental results. The analysis of obtained results shows that the choices of co-products allocation method, transport distance and inventory database of the country, have significant influence on the results of the life cycle environmental performance of biofuels.

Mateus Henrique Rocha; Rafael Silva Capaz; Electo Eduardo Silva Lora; Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira; Marcio Montagnana Vicente Leme; Maria Luiza Grillo Renó; Oscar Almazán del Olmo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant.Analysis: Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Power Plant.assessment of natural gas combined cycle power plant with

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

GIS-Based Regionalized Life Cycle Assessment: How Big Is Small Enough? Methodology and Case Study of Electricity Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GIS-Based Regionalized Life Cycle Assessment: How Big Is Small Enough? ... Several data sets were combined to form a life cycle inventory database of all large electricity generators in the United States for the year 2005. ... The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) defines 10 regions, mapped in section 5 of the SI, that have their own regulatory or technical independence. ...

Christopher L. Mutel; Stephan Pfister; Stefanie Hellweg

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA results performances with a simplified life cycle approach. Variability of GHG performances of onshore wind turbines

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of passenger seats and their impact on different vehicle models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main purpose of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to date has been to evaluate life cycle impacts of different design solutions and materials for a car, its sub-systems and components. Considerable number of publications are available on LCA of automotive components. This research aims to extend the LCA approach by evaluating and comparing the effects of mass reduction of passenger seats for different vehicle models in order to provide strategic support for decision making in the development process and to validate the environmental benefits of design alternatives under investigation. For this purpose, the paper presents a comprehensive LCA of passenger seats with detailed consideration of alternative scenarios for the use phase for different vehicle models.

Aleksandar Subic; Francesco Schiavone; Martin Leary; Jack Manning

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

3 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of sustainable building materials: an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The construction industry is one of the largest exploiters of both renewable and non-renewable natural resources. It was inevitable that it would find itself at the centre of concerns regarding environmental impact. The process and operation of building construction consumes a great deal of materials throughout its service life cycle. The selection and use of sustainable building materials play an important role in the design and construction of green building. This chapter sets out to present an overview of sustainable building materials and their impacts on the environment. It also discusses the life cycle assessment as a methodological principle and framework, and its limitations for the analysis of sustainable building materials.

G.K.C. Ding

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Life cycle assessment: A case study of two wind turbines used in Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents the case study of two wind turbines installed in Mexico which are analyzed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Environmental impacts of different fabrication materials and electricity consumption were studied for the main turbine components. The designs of both turbines were examined through the phases of manufacture, construction, and final disposal. Both turbines (turbine A and turbine B) were of 2.0 megawatts (MW). Results ascertain that the most intensive environmental impacts come from the nacelle and tower components of both turbines; and that within life cycle phases, turbine A influences the environment less than turbine B, specifically during manufacture and final disposal. This study is valuable for decision makers in the domain of technological product design and marketing; in order to determine which features of the wind turbines can be modified to mitigate environmental impacts, contributing to technological innovation in the domains of sustainability and renewable energies in Mexico.

A.V. Vargas; E. Zenón; U. Oswald; J.M. Islas; L.P. Güereca; F.L. Manzini

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Green infrastructure life cycle assessment: A bio-infiltration case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents life cycle assessment (LCA) as a methodology to evaluate environmental, economic, and social performance of green infrastructure stormwater control measures (SCMs). A case study examining a bio-infiltration rain garden at the Villanova University Campus is offered to demonstrate this methodology. The scope of this analysis is cradle to grave benefits and impacts of green infrastructure. Metrics used in this case study to evaluate benefits and impacts include carbon footprint (global warming potential), acidification potential, human health cancer impact, human health non-cancer impact, respiratory effects, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, eco-toxicity, smog formation potential, labor impacts, and life cycle economic costs. Results of this bio-infiltration rain garden case study show that the construction phase is the main contributing life cycle phase for all adverse environmental impacts, as well as total life cycle cost and labor impacts. The majority of these construction phase environmental impacts are attributed to the use of silica sand as a soil amendment for the rain garden media and the use of bark mulch to provide ground cover, repress invasive vegetation, and establish target vegetation. The bio-infiltration rain garden operation phase was found to provide significant avoided environmental impacts relative to the construction phase impacts. These avoided impacts are attributed to urban forest benefits from rain garden vegetation, benefits due to stormwater runoff pollutant treatment by the practice, and benefits to combined sewer systems due to reduced stormwater volume through infiltration and evapo-transpiration. Consideration of multiple rain garden decommissioning phase scenarios makes a case to support the onsite reuse on rain garden media at the end of the practice life.

Kevin M. Flynn; Robert G. Traver

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Life cycle assessment of energy and GHG emissions during ethanol production from grass straws using various pretreatment processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to perform a well-to-pump life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the overall net energy balance and environmental impact of bioethanol production using Tall Fescue grass straw as fee...

Deepak Kumar; Ganti S. Murthy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Life-cycle assessment of multi-crystalline photovoltaic (PV) systems in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study performs a life-cycle assessment for a photovoltaic (PV) system with multi-crystalline silicon (multi-Si) modules in China. It considers the primary energy demand, energy payback time (EPBT), and environmental impacts, such as global warming potential and eutrophication, over the entire life cycle of the PV system, including the upstream process, ranging from silica extraction to the multi-Si purification, the midstream process, involving crystalline silicon ingot growth and wafering; and the downstream process, consisting of cell and module fabrication. The data were collected with recommendations provided by the ISO norms and acquired from typical PV companies in China. The results show that the most critical phase of life cycle of Chinese PV system was the transformation of metallic silicon into solar silicon, which was characterized by high electricity consumption, representing most of the environmental impact. The other electricity generation systems were compared to PV. Considering that Chinese electricity is mainly produced by coal-fired power plants, the installation of multi-Si PV systems is recommended over exporting them from China. Furthermore, being higher solar radiation areas, areas in western China, such as the Tibet Autonomous Region, northeastern Qinghai, and the western borders of Gansu, are best suited for the installation of the PV systems even if the long distance of transportation. Finally, recommendations were provided with respect to the sustainable development of the Chinese PV industry and environmental protection.

Yinyin Fu; Xin Liu; Zengwei Yuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Life cycle assessment of a community hydroelectric power system in rural Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rural electrification and the provision of low cost, low emission technology in developing countries require decision makers to be well informed on the costs, appropriateness and environmental credentials of all available options. While cost and appropriateness are often shaped by observable local considerations, environmental considerations are increasingly influenced by global concerns which are more difficult to identify and convey to all stakeholders. Life cycle assessment is an iterative process used to analyse a product or system. This study iteratively applies life cycle assessment (LCA) to a 3 kW community hydroelectric system located in Huai Kra Thing (HKT) village in rural Thailand. The cradle to grave analysis models the hydropower scheme’s construction, operation and end of life phases over a period of twenty years and includes all relevant equipment, materials and transportation. The study results in the enumeration of the environmental credentials of the HKT hydropower system and highlights the need to place environmental performance, and LCA itself, in a proper context. In the broadest sense, LCA results for the HKT hydropower system are found to reflect a common trend reported in hydropower LCA literature, namely that smaller hydropower systems have a greater environmentally impact per kWh – perform less well environmentally - than larger systems. Placed within a rural electrification context, however, the HKT hydropower system yields better environmental and financial outcomes than diesel generator and grid connection alternatives.

Andrew Pascale; Tania Urmee; Andrew Moore

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

4 - Life cycle assessment (LCA) of the building sector: strengths and weaknesses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the building sector. Through standardisation, LCA has gained global support as a most important tool for furthering more environmentally friendly choices in the sector. However, there are several limitations of LCA at a macro level such as choice of unit of analysis and at a micro level related to methodological and practical matters. Overall and inherent possibilities and limitations in the steps of LCA analyses are scrutinised. The flexibility of the method gives LCA the power to inform decision makers and the public about the environmental performance of buildings and building products.

A. Rønning; A. Brekke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Biodiesel Production in a Semiarid Environment: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biodiesel production has mainly focused on biodiesel production from soybean and rapeseed (or canola) oils produced in Argentina, Brazil, China, South Africa, and the USA,(1-5) with very few studies conducted for semiarid climates. ... Approximately 1 kg of canola seeds was required to produce 0.44 L of canola oil,(16) with an oil expeller efficiency of 75%; in turn 1 L of canola oil produced 1 L of biodiesel (BE Bioenergy, Victoria, Stephen Hobb, Pers. ...

Wahidul K. Biswas; Louise Barton; Daniel Carter

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach ... This capacity corresponds approximately to storing the emissions of a 5 MW power plant emitting 65 tons of CO2 per day for almost 1800 years27 or 14 years from a 300 MW coal power plant where 8000 tons of CO2 is captured per day. ... To overcome this CO2 emission problem, there is great interest, esp. in Canada, to capture carbon dioxide and utilize it as a flooding agent for the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. ...

Anne-Christine Aycaguer; Miriam Lev-On; Arthur M. Winer

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

117

Technoeconomic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of an Integrated Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A biomass gasification combined-cycle power plant, consisting of a low pressure...®...Economic analyses were then performed to determine the levelized cost of electricity. The economic viability and efficiency of...

M. K. Mann; P. L. Spath

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of streetlight technologies for minor roads in United Arab Emirates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method is used to investigate the environmental impacts of two recent energy efficient streetlight technologies, Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH) and Light Emitting Diode (LED), with the aim of assessing their application in Abu Dhabi — United Arab Emirates (UAE). The cradle to grave analysis for CMH and LED streetlights includes raw material extraction, production of streetlight fixture, use and end of life scenario, all modeled using the SimaPro software package. The results show that LED lights have larger environmental impact during the production stage, but this is offset during the operational life of the lamp, due to the lower energy consumption of LEDs. For both types of lamps, the production stage has significantly less overall impact when compared to the impact during their operational life. The analysis in this paper also covers a scenario where stand-alone light fixtures are powered by photovoltaic (PV) panels, with and without battery recycling, in addition to a scenario where the energy used for operation comes from a solar power plant. In all the cases analyzed, the LED lamp has a lower overall environmental impact. Furthermore, our analysis shows that most environmental impacts come from battery production, consumption of fossil fuels for energy, and transportation of parts.

Sabina Abdul Hadi; Muna R. Al Kaabi; Meshayel O. Al Ali; Hassan A. Arafat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Life Cycle Cost Estimate  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle carbon assessment of facade parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Window contribution of CO2 emissions depends on the number and size of windows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without insulation, AAC walls offer more savings in CO2 emissions.

Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

122

The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site.

Thomas Brecheisen; Thomas Theis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of PET bottles and comparative LCA of three disposal options in Mauritius  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disposal of the increasing volume of used Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles has been a cause for concern for the Mauritian Government. To assist Government in decision-making, a study on PET bottles and its disposal was undertaken using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool. Three disposal scenarios, namely (100%) landfilling; (100%) incineration; and 50% landfilling and 50% incineration were compared. Sima Pro 5.1 software was used to analyse data and Eco-indicator 99 method was used for the impact assessment. The results showed that about 90% of the total environmental impact happened during the assembly and use phase of PET bottles. 100% incineration was found to be the most preferred option.

Rajendra Kumar Foolmaun; Toolseeram Ramjeawon

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Opportunity cost principles for life cycle assessment: toward strategic decision making in agriculture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used for products that require natural resources as important inputs. Relating environmental impacts to the whole production chain makes the method often interpreted as holistic and useful for environmental policy and strategic decision-making. The authors of this paper argue that there are limitations of using LCA for such purposes in food production. Using a product context as basis for the functional unit and the system boundaries may result in false indications of total environmental impacts. Therefore, we suggest that opportunity cost (OC) principles should be included into the LCA method. The significance of the OC principles is shown by using a published case study comparing a conventional and an organic milk production system. The LCA-OC assessment shows that extensive organic farming may result in higher outputs of greenhouse gases than more intensive conventional methods when related effects of alternative land use are considered.

Daniel Berlin; Hans-Erik Uhlin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Integrating technology foresight methods with environmental life cycle assessment to promote sustainable agriculture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The research addressed priority-setting in research and development of environmentally-friendly technologies. A two-step compilation of the opinions of a large number of experts, based on technology foresight methods, is used to define directions for technological advancement and assess the probability of success in each area. The life cycle assessment method is used to quantify the impacts of the expected changes in agricultural production technologies across a wide range of environmental impact categories. Based on case studies of tomato, potato and citrus crop production in Israel, we conclude that technological improvements addressing the use of fertilisers and packing materials show the greatest potential to reduce the environmental impacts. We also conclude that agricultural research on field-grown crops should focus on increasing the yield per hectare, and research on greenhouse grown crops should focus on reducing the impact of the materials used in covering the greenhouse.

Nava Haruvy; Sarit Shalhevet

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Quebec Life Cycle Inventory Database Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) in Quebec (Canada) is increasingly important. Yet, ... life cycle inventory (LCI) data. The Quebec government invested in the creation of a Quebec LCI database. The approach is to work...

Pascal Lesage; Réjean Samson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Reusability based on Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Case Study on WEEE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Reuse is one of the key strategies of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) recycling system in China. Reuse can help realize eco-efficient and sustainable WEEE management, with environmentally friendly materials recovery. At present, reusability of products and components is determined only by the products functional situation or the economic cost benefit analysis. It does not cover all the three pillars of sustainability, including environment, economy and society. In this study, the emerging integrated method, Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), is employed to measure reusability of typical electrical and electronic products and components. The results of case studies show that, LCSA based reusability of typical electrical and electronic products and components will help improve WEEE management policy.

Bin Lu; Bo Li; Lihui Wang; Jianxin Yang; Jingru Liu; Xi Vincent Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Eco-design and Life Cycle Assessment of a chemical process: the case study of HDA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The well-known benchmark process for hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) to produce benzene is revisited in a multi-objective approach to identify environmentally friendly and cost-effective solutions. Some guidelines to develop an eco-design framework for chemical processes, involving multiple criteria to be satisfied simultaneously are proposed, based on simulation, optimization, multiple choice decision making procedures and life cycle assessment. Two studies related to the selection of the primary energy source, either fuel oil or natural gas for the utility production system (UPS) of the HDA process are conducted. In each case, a multi-objective optimization problem involving the total annual cost of the process, and five environmental burdens is carried out.

Adama Ouattara; Luc Pibouleau; Catherine Azzaro-Pantel; Serge Domenech

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Hazard/Risk Assessment MULTIPLE STRESSORS AND COMPLEX LIFE CYCLES: INSIGHTS FROM A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, USA kUniversity of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, USA #Department to the habitat type (aquatic, terrestrial) and that operate at different times in the life cycle. We investigated

Hopkins, William A.

131

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This March 28, 2013 webcast reviewed DOE's recently completed three-part study of the life-cycle energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products relative to incandescent and CFL...

132

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Related Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Related Links Related Links Below are links to life cycle inventory (LCI) databases, life cycle assessment (LCA) information, LCA tools, research institutes utilizing LCA, labeling initiatives and organizations, international LCA initiatives, LCA online forums. Life Cycle Inventory Data Ecoinvent: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories IVAM LCA Data 4: Dutch LCA Database KITECH (Korea Institute of Industrial Technology): Korea National Cleaner Production Center LCI Database Life Cycle Assessment Information IERE (The Institute for Environmental Research and Education): The American Center for Life Cycle Assessment SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry): SETAC Life Cycle Assessment SPOLD (Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment Development): 2.0 LCA Consultants homepage

133

Life Cycle Assessment of district heat production in a straw fired CHP plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to concerns about the sustainability of the energy sector, conversion of biomass to energy is increasing its hold globally. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is being adopted as an analytical tool to assess the environmental impacts in the entire cycle of biomass production and conversions to different products. This study deals with the LCIA of straw conversion to district heat in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and in a district heating boiler (producing heat only). Environmental impact categories are Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), aquatic and terrestrial Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Non-Renewable Energy (NRE) use. In the case of CHP, the co-produced electricity is assumed to displace the marginal Danish electricity mix. The current study showed that straw fired in the CHP plant would lead to a GWP of ?187 g CO2-eq, AP 0.01 m2 UES (un-protected ecosystem), aquatic EP 0.16 g NO3-eq, terrestrial EP 0.008 m2 UES, and NRE use ?0.14 MJ-primary per 1 MJ heat production. Straw conversion to heat in the CHP plant showed better environmental performances compared to the district heating boiler. Furthermore, removing straw from the field is related to the consequence e.g. decline in soil carbon sequestration, limiting soil nutrient availability, and when compared with natural gas the conversion of straw to heat would lead to a higher aquatic and terrestrial EP and AP. The study also outlays spaces for the detail sustainability assessment of straw conversion in a biorefinery and compare with the current study.

Ranjan Parajuli; Søren Løkke; Poul Alberg Østergaard; Marie Trydeman Knudsen; Jannick H. Schmidt?; Tommy Dalgaard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The \\{LCAs\\} of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

Jamie Ally; Trevor Pryor

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Life cycle assessment of an onshore wind farm located at the northeastern coast of Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article assesses the life cycle emissions of a fictive onshore wind power station consisting of 141.5-MW wind turbines situated on the northeastern coast of Brazil. The objective is to identify the main sources of CO2(eq)-emissions during the life cycle of the wind farm. The novelty of this work lies in the focus on Brazil and its emerging national manufacturing industry. With an electricity matrix that is primarily based on renewable energy sources (87% in 2010), this country emits eight times less CO2 for the production of 1 kWh of electricity than the global average. Although this fact jeopardizes the CO2 mitigation potential of wind power projects, it also reduces the carbon footprint of parts and components manufactured in Brazil. The analysis showed that reduced CO2-emissions in the material production stage and the low emissions of the component production stage led to a favorable CO2-intensity of 7.1 g CO2/kWh. The bulk of the emissions, a share of over 90%, were unambiguously caused by the production stage, and the transportation stage was responsible for another 6% of the CO2-emissions. The small contributions from the construction and operation phases could be neglected. Within the manufacturing process, the steel tower was identified as the source responsible for more than half of the emissions. The environmental impacts of the wind farm are small in terms of CO2-emissions, which can be credited to a green electricity mix. This scenario presents an advantage for the country and for further production sites, particularly in the surroundings of the preferred wind farm sites in Brazil, which should be favored to reduce CO2 emissions to an even greater extent.

Kerstin B. Oebels; Sergio Pacca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and Energy Carriers from Waste Matter – A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The development of economic growth, population, and rapid urbanization is increasing the pace of energy consumption and waste production. These trends, if left unchecked, will lead to massive environmental degradation. Waste-to-energy (WtE) conversion is one way of alleviating the twin problems of fossil fuel use and solid waste disposal, and their related problems (climate change, pollution etc). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for assessing the environmental performances of WtE systems. Over fifty LCA studies on various WtE systems are reviewed, comprising different waste sources, energy products, and including countries from six continents. A variety of waste types, such as agricultural residues, used cooking oil, manure, municipal solid waste, and waste wood were studied. The review found that a large majority of WtE has lower greenhouse gas emissions when compared to fossil fuels. However, some WtE studies showed an increase in environmental impacts such as acidification and eutrophication, compared to fossil fuel extraction and use. This is due to the use of chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides) in agriculture and the allocation of these impacts to the use of the agricultural waste for energy conversion. Other problems with LCA are also highlighted, including allocation issues, definition of reference systems and functional units.

Augustine Quek; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai�¢����i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment of Chemistry Building North Block  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­ the UBC LCA Project ­ which aims to support the development of the field of life cycle assessment (LCA Analysis (LCA) evaluates the environmental impacts of the inputs and outputs of a product system. 22 is to peek into LCA by investigating the environmental impacts of buildings using current LCA methods

140

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels ... Hill, J.; Nelson, E.; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D. Environmental, Economic, and Energetic Costs and Benefits of Biodiesel and Ethanol Biofuels Proc. ...

Hong Huo; Michael Wang; Cary Bloyd; Vicky Putsche

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Ethanol or Bioelectricity? Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Use in Light-Duty Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The remaining unfermented material, which includes lignin, is combusted to generate process heat and electricity. ... Delivered feedstock is combusted within a biomass boiler, generating steam to drive a steam turbine electrical generator, and flue gas to dry delivered feedstock. ... Fossil energy use in the bioenergy pathways is associated primarily with three aspects of the life cycle: (i) in the vehicle cycle (production/disposal) stage, coal and natural gas are used extensively. ...

Jason M. Luk; Mohammad Pourbafrani; Bradley A. Saville; Heather L. MacLean

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

142

Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and the Impacts of Key Design Alternatives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). ... Power plant system: components typically associated with the power block (e.g., turbine generator set), in addition to other balance-of-plant components, such as buildings, roads, and parking lots. ... The majority of the remaining water consumption is attributed to water consumed during the manufacturing phase (10% of LC or 0.47 L/kWh). ...

John J. Burkhardt; III; Garvin A. Heath; Craig S. Turchi

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

The role of waste-to-energy in integrated waste management: A life cycle assessment perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management has become a major issue in terms of environmental impacts. It has become the focus of local, state and federal regulations, which generally tend to promote the reduce/re-use/recycle/incinerate/landfill environmental hierarchy. At the same time, the Waste Industry capital requirements have increased in order of magnitude since the beginning of the 80`s. The driving forces of further capital requirements for the Waste Management Industry will be the impact of public policies set today and goals set by politicians. Therefore, it appears extremely important for the Waste Industry to correctly analyze and forecast the real environmental and financial costs of waste management practices in order to: discuss with the local, state and federal agencies on more rational grounds; forecast the right investments in new technologies (recycling networks and plants, incinerators with heat recovery, modern landfill). The aim of this paper is to provide an example of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) project in the waste management field that raised surprising issues on otherwise unchallenged waste management practices.

Besnainou, J. [Ecobalance, Rockville, MD (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

Hsu, D. D.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

Heath, G.; Turchi, C.; Burkhardt, J.; Kutscher, C.; Decker, T.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used extensively within the recent decade to evaluate the environmental performance of thermal Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies: incineration, co-combustion, pyrolysis and gasification. A critical review was carried out involving 250 individual case-studies published in 136 peer-reviewed journal articles within 1995 and 2013. The studies were evaluated with respect to critical aspects such as: (i) goal and scope definitions (e.g. functional units, system boundaries, temporal and geographic scopes), (ii) detailed technology parameters (e.g. related to waste composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent descriptions of all these aspects, in many cases preventing an evaluation of the validity of results, and limiting applicability of data and results in other contexts. The review clearly suggests that the quality of LCA studies of WtE technologies and systems including energy recovery can be significantly improved. Based on the review, a detailed overview of assumptions and modeling choices in existing literature is provided in conjunction with practical recommendations for state-of-the-art LCA of Waste-to-Energy.

Thomas Fruergaard Astrup; Davide Tonini; Roberto Turconi; Alessio Boldrin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions with urban agriculture: A Life Cycle Assessment perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production and supply of food currently accounts for 20–30% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK and the government and nongovernmental organisations are seeking to reduce these environmental burdens. Local authorities all over UK establish community farms with the aim to produce more sustainable food for citizens. This study used environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the potential savings of food-related GHG emissions that may be achieved with the establishment of an urban community farm, based on a case study recently found in the London Borough of Sutton. The work identified elements of the farm design that require the greatest attention to maximise these savings. The greatest reductions can be achieved by selecting the right crops: (i) providing the highest yields in local conditions and (ii) usually produced in energy-intensive greenhouses or air-freighted to UK from outside Europe. Implications from further development of the farm on the local, unused land were examined, taking into account market requirements. This showed that land used on an urban fringe for food production could potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Sutton by up to 34 t CO2e ha?1 a?1. Although the percentage of this reduction in total diet emissions is relatively low, the result exceeds carbon sequestration rates for the conventional urban green space projects, such as parks and forests.

Michal Kulak; Anil Graves; Julia Chatterton

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Life cycle assessment of ship-generated waste management of Luka Koper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sea ports and the related maritime activities (e.g. shipping, shipbuilding, etc.) are one of the main driver of Europe's growth, jobs, competitiveness and prosperity. The continuously growth of shipping sectors has however introduced some environmental concerns, particularly with respect to ship-generated waste management. The port of Koper, one of the major ports on the northern Adriatic Coast, is the focus of this study. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was performed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts caused by the ship-generated waste management of port of Koper. Carcinogens substance (e.g. dioxins) and inorganic emissions, especially heavy metals, resulted to be the most critical environmental issues, while the fossil fuels consumption is reduced by recovery of ship-generated oils. Moreover, the final treatment of ship waste was found to be critical phase of the management, and the landfill have a significant contribute to the overall environmental load. These results can be useful in the identification of the best practices and in the implementation of waste management plans in ports.

Zuin, Stefano, E-mail: sz.cvr@vegapark.ve.i [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche, Via della Liberta 12, c/o PST VEGA, 30175 Venice (Italy); Belac, Elvis; Marzi, Boris [Luka Koper d.d., Vojkovo nabrezje 38, SI - 6501 Koper (Slovenia)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the...projections; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United...general equilibrium (GE) LCA flows; partial equilibrium...values for input to the LCA. The actual availability...g. US Department of Agriculture or Organization for Economic...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Use of Life Cycle Assessment in Evaluating Solvent Recovery Alternatives in Pharmaceutical Manufacture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was evaluated based on its ability to efficiently separate and purify isopropyl alcohol (IPA) from an aqueous the wastes and to recycle IPA back into the process. The recovery of the spent IPA avoids its incineration and also reduces the inventory of fresh IPA required to operate the celecoxib process. Life cycle

Savelski, Mariano J.

152

SPECIFICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IFC BASED PERFORMANCE METRICS TO SUPPORT BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the introduction of tighter building codes have done little to stem the poor energy performance in commercial on owners to quantify the energy usage of their buildings against benchmarks set by government energy (LBNL), Berkeley, CA, USA ABSTRACT Minimising building life cycle energy consumption is becoming

153

Toward a Life Cycle-Based, Diet-level Framework for Food Environmental Impact and Nutritional Quality Assessment: A Critical Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. ... Additional research needs include development of regionally specific life cycle inventory databases for food and agriculture and expansion of the scope of assessments beyond the current focus on greenhouse gas emissions. ...

Martin C. Heller; Gregory A. Keoleian; Walter C. Willett

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

154

Life cycle assessment of Brassica carinata biomass conversion to bioenergy and platform chemicals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The extraction, supply and use of fossil energy carriers and chemicals is a day-by-day increasingly critical issue, linked as it is to severe damages to environment and human health, not to talk of the shrinking availability of fossil fuels worldwide. Therefore, research on suitable alternatives to the extensive use of fossil-based fuels and chemicals is crucial: the potential of Brassica carinata, a non-food oil crop, to grow on marginal lands in Campania Region was investigated, focusing on the production of biodiesel from seeds and platform chemicals from agricultural and extraction residues via an innovative conversion route (so-called Biofine process) in a local industry. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of such an agro-industrial system for biodiesel and bio-chemicals. A comparison with an equivalent system only producing biodiesel and thermal energy is also carried out. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is performed by means of commercial LCA software (Simapro 7.3.0), investigating energy requirements and environmental impacts (global warming, acidification, abiotic depletion, human toxicity, eutrophication and photochemical oxidation). Results show that, in spite of claims of biomass-based “greenness”, both systems still rely on large fractions of non-renewable energy sources (around 90% of the total use) and mostly affect the same impact categories (abiotic depletion and global warming). The agricultural phase contributes to the total impact more than the industrial extraction and conversion steps, being the nitrogen fertilizers responsible for most of impacts of both systems. However, the conversion of lignocellulosic residues into chemicals instead of heat, conserves the structural quality of natural polymers in the form of marketable value added products (ethyl levulinate and formic acid), also translating into large energy savings compared to traditional chemical routes.

G. Fiorentino; M. Ripa; S. Mellino; S. Fahd; S. Ulgiati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Streamlined life cycle assessment of transparent silica aerogel made by supercritical drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When developing sustainable building fabric technologies, it is essential that the energy use and CO2 burden arising from manufacture does not outweigh the respective in-use savings. This study investigates this paradigm by carrying out a streamlined life cycle assessment (LCA) of silica aerogel. This unique, nanoporous translucent insulation material has the lowest thermal conductivity of any solid, retaining up to four times as much heat as conventional insulation, whilst being highly transparent to light and solar radiation. Monolithic silica aerogel has been cited as the ‘holy grail’ of future glazing technology. Alternatively, translucent granular aerogel is now being produced on a commercial scale. In each case, many solvents are used in production, often accompanied by intensive drying processes, which may consume large amounts of energy and CO2. To date, there has been no peer-reviewed LCA of this material conducted to the ISO 14000 standard. Primary data for this ‘cradle-to-factory gate’ LCA is collected for silica aerogel made by low and high temperature supercritical drying. In both cases, the mass of raw materials and electricity usage for each process is monitored to determine the total energy use and CO2 burden. Findings are compared against the predicted operational savings arising from retrofitting translucent silica aerogel to a single glazed window to upgrade its thermal performance. Results should be treated as a conservative estimate as the aerogel is produced in a laboratory, which has not been developed for mass manufacture or refined to reduce its environmental impact. Furthermore, the samples are small and assumptions to upscale the manufacturing volume occur without major changes to production steps or equipment used. Despite this, parity between the CO2 burden and CO2 savings is achieved in less than 2 years, indicating that silica aerogel can provide a measurable environmental benefit.

Mark Dowson; Michael Grogan; Tim Birks; David Harrison; Salmaan Craig

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications for Policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electricity generation infrastructure is long-lived, and technology decisions within the next decade about electricity supplies in the power sector will affect the potential for large GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs for several decades. ... Life cycle GHG emissions (g CO2-eq/km) of conventional vehicles (CVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) with all-electric ranges of 30, 60, or 90 km. ...

Constantine Samaras; Kyle Meisterling

2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

157

Life cycle assessment of 50 MW wind firms and strategies for impact reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The world today is continuously striving toward a carbon neutral clean energy technology. Hence, renewable wind power systems are increasingly receiving the attention of mankind. Energy production with structurally more promising and economically more competitive design is no more the sole criterion while installing new megawatt (MW) range of turbines. Rather important life cycle analysis (LCA) issues like climate change, ozone layer depletion, effect on surrounding environments e.g. eco-system quality, natural resources and human health emerge as dominant factors from green energy point of view. Hence, the study covers life cycle impact analysis (LCIA) of three wind farms: one onshore horizontal, one offshore horizontal, another vertical axis. It appears that vertical axis wind farm generates per unit electricity with lowest impact followed by horizontal offshore and horizontal onshore farms. The study, henceforward, discovers most adverse impact contributing materials in today's multi megawatt wind turbines and subsequently substitutes copper, the topmost impact contributor, with more eco-friendly aluminum alloys and its corresponding process routes. In this process, it reduces overall life cycle impacts up to 30% for future greener wind farms. In later stages, it compares all major electricity production technologies, viz., oil, diesel, coal, natural gas, wind, solar, biomass, nuclear, hydro plant in a common platform which demonstrates the wind farms performing the best except the hydro-kinetic ones. However, as the study suggests, offshore VAWT farm may even perform better than hydro-kinetic farms because of higher capacity factors in the high sea. Findings from the study can be deployed to harness massive scale green electricity from environmentally more clean and green turbines.

A. Rashedi; I. Sridhar; K.J. Tseng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Use of an energy-saving concept to assess life-cycle impact in engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and environmental issues are worldwide concerns in the 21st century. The authors propose that the best way to solve the energy-use problem is to account for all of a product's energy consumption information at the beginning of product design. Therefore, with the objective to promote energy-saving throughout the entire life cycle of general products or systems, the authors develop a new product design method by integrating the engineering design theory and two new concepts. A case study based on a typical energy-consuming product, a commercial hair dryer, will be presented in the paper for demonstrating the new design concept.

Hua Li; Hong-Chao Zhang; John Carrell; Derrick Tate

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. ... In a later stage, indoor exposure to radioactive gases such as radon can also be incorporated within the impact category “radiation” in LCIA methods such as Eco-Indicator 99, similarly to the framework shown in this paper. ... The work for this project was carried out on a voluntary basis and financed by in-kind contributions from the home institutions of the authors and scientists mentioned above, which are therefore gratefully acknowledged. ...

Stefanie Hellweg; Evangelia Demou; Raffaella Bruzzi; Arjen Meijer; Ralph K. Rosenbaum; Mark A. J. Huijbregts; Thomas E. McKone

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Life cycle assessment of TV sets in China: A case study of the impacts of CRT monitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Along with the rapid increase in both production and use of TV sets in China, there is an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of these sets. This paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese TV sets. An assessment of the TV set device (focusing on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor) was carried out using a detailed modular LCA based on the international standards of the ISO 14040 series. The LCA was constructed using SimaPro software version 7.2 and expressed with the Eco-indicator' 99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the CML method was used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the results. Life cycle inventory information was compiled by Ecoinvent 2.2 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the current Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that the use stage of such devices has the highest environmental impact, followed by the manufacturing stage. In the manufacturing stage, the CRT and the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) are those components contributing the most environmental impacts. During the use phase, the environmental impacts are due entirely to the methods of electricity generation used to run them, since no other aspects were taken into account for this phase. The final processing step-the end-of-life stage-can lead to a clear environmental benefit when the TV sets are processed through the formal dismantling enterprises in China.

Song Qingbin [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau (Macao); Wang Zhishi, E-mail: zswang@umac.mo [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau (Macao); Li Jinhui; Zeng Xianlai [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

163

Comparative life cycle assessment of biodiesel from algae and jatropha: A case study of India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Algae and jatropha, two types of promising and unconventional biomass, are investigated in this study for large-scale production of biodiesel. The aim is to evaluate the potential advantages and the magnitude of closeness of life cycle balances between these two biodiesel pathways compared to fossil diesel, by taking into account possible uncertainties. The geographical location of this study is India with a prospect of utilizing available wastelands in southern regions. The results indicate that the environmental performance of algal biodiesel is comparable to that of jatropha biodiesel. Both show significant GHG emission and fossil energy depletion reductions which are in the range of 36–40 and 10–25% respectively compared to fossil diesel in the studied geographic context.

Atta Ajayebi; Edgard Gnansounou; Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Life Cycle Assessment of an Advanced Bioethanol Technology in the Perspective of Constrained Biomass Availability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The low net GHG mitigation obtained in the ethanol scenarios is mainly caused by the considerable amounts of steam and electricity consumed in the process of converting biomass into bioethanol, particularly for pretreatment, hydrolysis, extract concentration, distillation, and drying processes (12). ... Figure 3. Fossil fuel displacement in a life cycle perspective for alternative energy utilizations of 1 ha year agricultural land, shown as (a) net consumption/displacement of crude oil, hard coal, and natural gas, respectively, and as (b) net fossil fuel displacement (positive values represent fuel consumptions and negative values represent fuel displacements). ... However, the electric car and plug-in hybrid cars (electric motor and combustion engine) are still in a development stage and commercialization is not expected to occur until 10 to 15 years from now (37). ...

Karsten Hedegaard; Kathrine A. Thyø; Henrik Wenzel

2008-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Life cycle assessment of CO2 emissions from wind power plants: Methodology and case studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wind energy plays an increasingly important role in the world’s electricity market with rapid growth projected in the future. In order to evaluate the potential for wind energy to mitigate the effects of climate change by reducing CO2 intensity of the energy sector, this study developed a new direct and simple method for estimating CO2 emissions per kWh produced during the life cycle of four representative wind power plants (three in developed countries and one in China). The life cycle analysis focuses on the wind power plant as the basic functional object instead of a single wind turbine. Our results show that present-day wind power plants have a lifetime emission intensity of 5.0–8.2 g CO2/kWh electricity, a range significantly lower than estimates in previous studies. Our estimate suggests that wind is currently the most desirable renewable energy in terms of minimizing CO2 emissions per kWh of produced electricity. The production phase contributes the most to overall CO2 emissions, while recycling after decommission could reduce emissions by nearly half, representing an advantage of wind when compared with other energy generation technologies such as nuclear. Compared with offshore wind plants, onshore plants have lower CO2 emissions per kWh electricity and require less transmission infrastructure. Analysis of a case in China indicates that a large amount of CO2 emissions could be saved in the transport phase in large countries by using shorter alternative routes of transportation. As the world’s fastest growing market for wind power, China could potentially save 780 Mtons of CO2 emissions annually by 2030 with its revised wind development target. However, there is still ample room for even more rapid development of wind energy in China, accompanied by significant opportunities for reducing overall CO2 emissions.

Yuxuan Wang; Tianye Sun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

System dynamics based models for selecting HVAC systems for office buildings: a life cycle assessment from carbon emissions perspective.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study aims to explore the life cycle environmental impacts of typical heating ventilation and air condition (HVAC) systems including variable air volume (VAV) system,… (more)

Chen, S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A life cycle co-benefits assessment of wind power in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Wind power can help ensure regional energy security and also mitigate both global greenhouse gas and local air pollutant emissions, leading to co-benefits. With rapid installation of wind power equipment, it is critical to uncover the embodied emissions of greenhouse gas and air pollutants from wind power sector so that emission mitigation costs can be compared with a typical coal-fired power plant. In order to reach such a target, we conduct a life cycle analysis for wind power sector by using the Chinese inventory standards. Wind farms only release 1/40 of the total CO2 emissions that would be produced by the coal power system for the same amount of power generation, which is equal to 97.48% of CO2 emissions reduction. Comparing with coal power system, wind farms can also significantly reduce air pollutants (SO2, NOX and PM10), leading to 80.38%, 57.31% and 30.91% of SO2, NOX and PM10 emissions reduction, respectively. By considering both recycling and disposal, wind power system could reduce 2.74×104 t of CO2 emissions, 5.65×104 kg of NOX emissions, 2.95×105 kg of SO2 emissions and 7.97×104 kg of PM10 emissions throughout its life cycle. In terms of mitigation cost, a wind farm could benefit 37.14 US$ from mitigating 1ton of CO2 emissions. The mitigation cost rates of air pollutants were 7.94 US$/kg of SO2, 10.79 US$/kg of NOx, and 80.79 US$/kg of PM10.Our research results strongly support the development of wind power so that more environmental benefits can be gained. However, decentralized wind power developers should consider not only project locations close to the demand of electricity and wind resources, but also the convenient transportation for construction and recycling, while centralized wind power developers should focus on incorporating wind power into the grids in order to avoid wind power loss.

Bing Xue; Zhixiao Ma; Yong Geng; Peter Heck; Wanxia Ren; Mario Tobias; Achim Maas; Ping Jiang; Jose A. Puppim de Oliveira; Tsuyoshi Fujita

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings.

171

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

Deru, M.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

173

Life Cycle Asset Management  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

(The following directives are deleted or consolidated into this Order and shall be phased out as noted in Paragraph 2: DOE 1332.1A; DOE 4010.1A; DOE 4300.1C; DOE 4320.1B; DOE 4320.2A; DOE 4330.4B; DOE 4330.5; DOE 4540.1C; DOE 4700.1). This Order supersedes specific project management provisions within DOE O 430.1A, LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT. The specific paragraphs canceled by this Order are 6e(7); 7a(3); 7b(11) and (14); 7c(4),(6),(7),(11), and (16); 7d(4) and (8); 7e(3),(10), and (17); Attachment 1, Definitions (item 30 - Line Item Project, item 42 - Project, item 48 - Strategic System); and Attachment 2, Contractor Requirements Document (paragraph 1d regarding a project management system). The remainder of DOE O 430.1A remains in effect. Cancels DOE O 430.1. Canceled by DOE O 413.3.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

Does it matter which Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool you choose? – a comparative assessment of SimaPro and GaBi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract SimaPro and GaBi are the leading software tools used for life cycle assessments. Assessing product systems applying the exact same unit process foundation would be expected to yield comparable result sets with either tool. The software performances are compared based on a random sample of 100 unit processes. The research question investigated here is; can there be a difference between SimaPro and GaBi influencing the results and the decisions based on them? In many cases the results are identical between SimaPro and GaBi or nearly so, but in other cases the results reveal differences. Some of these differences are so large that they could influence the conclusions. For some of the 100 unit processes, six elementary flows were inventoried differently in SimaPro and GaBi, with an extreme maximum comparative ratio of 109. The implementation of the impact assessment methodologies shows notable differences. For the same life cycle inventory the maximum result ratio for the characterized results is 0.0076 for Terrestrial Ecotoxicity Potential. The observed differences appear to originate primarily from errors in the software databases for both inventory and impact assessment. SimaPro and GaBi are used by many Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) practitioners worldwide as a decision-support tool; if the results of the present analysis are representative of the differences obtained when using either one or the other, then the implications of this paper are worrying. It is clearly in the interest of both software developers and LCA practitioners that the observed differences be addressed, for example through ring tests comparing the tools.

Ivan T. Herrmann; Andreas Moltesen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

8th International Conference on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector, Rennes, France, 2-4 October 2012 Life Cycle Assessment at the regional scale: innovative insights  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8th International Conference on LCA in the Agri-Food Sector, Rennes, France, 2-4 October 2012 1 in groundwater irrigated areas worldwide are manifold and the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is very relevant for assessing these impacts. But a regional LCA can not be done by transferring the "stan- dard" product

Boyer, Edmond

176

Life-Cycle Assessment in Pesticide Product Development:? Methods and Case Study on Two Plant-Growth Regulators from Different Product Generations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life-cycle assessment (LCA) enables a more comprehensive evaluation by additionally assessing the impacts of pesticide production and application (e.g. ... Also, the break-even point depends strongly on the yield increase data determined in field trials, which are specific to the use of growth regulators in intensive agriculture. ...

Georg Geisler; Stefanie Hellweg; Thomas B. Hofstetter; Konrad Hungerbuehler

2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

177

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system functional life, and energy mix consumed duringlocation influences the energy mix consumed duringlocation influences the energy mix offset by the output of

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Process of aluminum dross recycling and life cycle assessment for Al-Si alloys and brown fused alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2008, around 596?000 t of aluminum dross was generated from secondary aluminum industry in China; however, it was not sufficiently recycled yet. Approximately 95% of the Al dross was land filled without innocent treatment. The purpose of this work is to investigate Al dross recycling by environmentally efficient and friendly methods. Two methods of Al dross recycling which could utilize Al dross efficiently were presented. High-quality aluminum-silicon alloys and brown fused alumina (BFA) were produced successfully by recycling Al dross. Then, life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate environmental impact of two methods of Al dross recycling process. The results show that the two methods are reasonable and the average recovery rate of Al dross is up to 98%. As the LCA results indicate, they have some advantages such as less natural resource consumption and pollutant emissions, which efficiently relieves the burden on the environment in electrolytic aluminum and secondary aluminum industry.

Jian-ping HONG; Jun WANG; Hai-yan CHEN; Bao-de SUN; Jia-jing LI; Chong CHEN

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Life cycle assessment of energy crop production with special attention to the establishment of regional biomass utilisation systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We conducted a life cycle assessment of energy crop production for bioethanol to clarify the potentialities of biomass utilisation systems in Japan, focusing on cumulative fossil energy demand and global warming potential. Their reductions were evaluated under two scenarios; one was improving cultivation technologies and breeding of new crop varieties, and the other was setting up of regional biomass utilisation systems, in which biomass resources from various industries were utilised mutually and effectively. It was proved that the improvement in cultivation technologies and the establishment of regional biomass utilisation systems have large potential for saving fossil fuel resources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although these results largely depend on scenarios including the lifetime and coverage area of agricultural machinery, and types of biomass utilisation, it was concluded that substitution of petrol by bioethanol converted from these energy crops has considerable potential for rendering our society more sustainable.

Susumu Uchida; Kiyotada Hayashi; Mitsuru Gau; Tsutomu Kajiyama; Shigekiyo Shirasawa; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Yoshifumi Terajima; Makoto Matsuoka; Masaru Yoshinaga

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: currentcosts: 2004early 2005 status. Progress in Photovoltaicphotovoltaic systems often do not consider panel installation, even though it is a major component of their financial cost.

Zhang, Teresa Weirui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Assessing Options for Electricity Generation from Biomass on a Life Cycle Basis: Environmental and Economic Evaluation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-firing biomass with coal is being increasingly seen in the EU ... direct emissions of pollutants generated during combustion of coal, including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and ... cycle approach to evaluat...

Harish Kumar Jeswani; Haruna Gujba; Adisa Azapagic

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

44(8): 3169–3174. NETL (National Energy TechnologyCoal (EXPC) Power Plant. Report Number DOE/NETL-403-110809.NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory). 2010b. Life

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Comparing Environmental Impacts of Additive Manufacturing vs. Traditional Machining via Life-Cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the! average! life! of! a! CNC! mill! in! a! job! shop! to!cutting! fluid! used! by! CNC! machines! is! said! to! pose!studies! were! found! on! CNC! or! AM! that! attempt! to!

Faludi, Jeremy; Bayley, Cindy; Bhogal, Suraj; Iribarne, Myles

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production via Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone Completion Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report summarizes the results of a lifecycle assessment of a renewable hydrogen production process employing wind/electrolysis.

185

What Can Meta-Analyses Tell Us About the Reliability of Life Cycle Assessment for Decision Support?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature is vast and has grown over the last decade at a dauntingly rapid rate. Many LCAs have been published on the same or very similar technologies or products, in some cases leading to hundreds of publications. One result is the impression among decision makers that LCAs are inconclusive, owing to perceived and real variability in published estimates of life cycle impacts. Despite the extensive available literature and policy need formore conclusive assessments, only modest attempts have been made to synthesize previous research. A significant challenge to doing so are differences in characteristics of the considered technologies and inconsistencies in methodological choices (e.g., system boundaries, coproduct allocation, and impact assessment methods) among the studies that hamper easy comparisons and related decision support. An emerging trend is meta-analysis of a set of results from LCAs, which has the potential to clarify the impacts of a particular technology, process, product, or material and produce more robust and policy-relevant results. Meta-analysis in this context is defined here as an analysis of a set of published LCA results to estimate a single or multiple impacts for a single technology or a technology category, either in a statistical sense (e.g., following the practice in the biomedical sciences) or by quantitative adjustment of the underlying studies to make them more methodologically consistent. One example of the latter approach was published in Science by Farrell and colleagues (2006) clarifying the net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ethanol, in which adjustments included the addition of coproduct credit, the addition and subtraction of processes within the system boundary, and a reconciliation of differences in the definition of net energy metrics. Such adjustments therefore provide an even playing field on which all studies can be considered and at the same time specify the conditions of the playing field itself. Understanding the conditions under which a meta-analysis was conducted is important for proper interpretation of both the magnitude and variability in results. This special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology includes 12 high-quality metaanalyses and critical reviews of LCAs that advance understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of different technologies, processes, products, and materials. Also published are three contributions on methodology and related discussions of the role of meta-analysis in LCA. The goal of this special supplemental issue is to contribute to the state of the science in LCA beyond the core practice of producing independent studies on specific products or technologies by highlighting the ability of meta-analysis of LCAs to advance understanding in areas of extensive existing literature. The inspiration for the issue came from a series of meta-analyses of life cycle GHG emissions from electricity generation technologies based on research from the LCA Harmonization Project of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, which also provided financial support for this special supplemental issue. (See the editorial from this special supplemental issue [Lifset 2012], which introduces this supplemental issue and discusses the origins, funding, peer review, and other aspects.) The first article on reporting considerations for meta-analyses/critical reviews for LCA is from Heath and Mann (2012), who describe the methods used and experience gained in NREL's LCA Harmonization Project, which produced six of the studies in this special supplemental issue. Their harmonization approach adapts key features of systematic review to identify and screen published LCAs followed by a meta-analytical procedure to adjust published estimates to ones based on a consistent set of methods and assumptions to allow interstudy comparisons and conclusions to be made. In a second study on methods, Zumsteg and colleagues (2012) propose a checklist for a sta

Brandao, M.; Heath, G.; Cooper, J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Low cycle fatigue crack initiation life assessment of HY-100 undermatched weld  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An evaluation is conducted of several approaches to the prediction of low cycle fatigue crack initiation in HY-100 welds of an undermatched weldment. FEM analyses and experiments using various types of low cycle fatigue specimens were conducted and their results were compared with the results of such theoretical algorithms as Neuber's rule. A two-surface cyclic plasticity algorithm was implanted in a FEM code's user subroutine in order to simulate the material's cyclic stress-strain behavior under cyclic loading conditions; fatigue tests ranging from small, standard smooth specimens to notched cylindrical specimens with notch constraint were conducted for HY-100. 11 refs.

Wang, K.; Shah, R.; Yuan, D.; Kleinosky, M.J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with both conventional and ultra-low sulfur diesel, and FRFG motor fuels. * The UCF LCA develops a set of near-term (2006) and long-term (2015) scenarios to assess impacts...

189

International symposium on life cycle assessment and construction 2012, Nantes (France), July 10-12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-12 HOW TO USE LCA TO ASSESS MATERIALS AS ECO-DESIGN PARAMETERS IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS? ­ APPENDIXES which enables to avoid transport, to have a low grey energy, waste and agricultural co

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

A life cycle assessment case study of ground rubber production from scrap tires  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The number of scrap tires generated in China has grown dramatically every year. Generation of ground rubber from scrap tires is the dominant management ... necessary to assess the environmental impacts of ground

Wei Li; Qiaoli Wang; Jiajia Jin; Sujing Li

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Pioneering Life Cycle Assessment in Russia: Application of the EcoScarcity Method for Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Russian industry grows rapidly every year, but the environmental assessment of the products and processes are not yet developed enough. It is obvious that the growth of manufacturing causes the growth of environm...

M. Grinberg; M. Finkbeiner

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology is presented for assessing the current and future utilization of agricultural crops as feedstocks for the production of transportation fuels, specifically, the use of corn grain and stover for ethanol production. ...

Johnson, Jeremy C. (Jeremy Clayton)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

NREL: Energy Analysis - Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Factsheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Download the Factsheet Flowchart that shows the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power systems. For help reading this chart, please contact the webmaster. Figure 1. Process flow diagram illustrating the life cycle stages for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. The yellow box defined by the grey line shows the systems boundaries assumed in harmonization. Enlarge image NREL developed and applied a systematic approach to review literature on life cycle assessments of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, identify

194

Quantifying the Total Environmental Impacts of an Industrial Symbiosis - a Comparison of Process-, Hybrid and Input?Output Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we compared process, hybrid and input?output life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches in quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a forest industrial symbiosis, situated in Kymenlaakso, Finland. ... Starch is a product of the grain milling industry, which has embodied pesticide emissions from agriculture. ...

Tuomas J. Mattila; Suvi Pakarinen; Laura Sokka

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

195

Life Cycle Assessment of Chinese Shrimp Farming Systems Targeted for Export and Domestic Sales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(14) The objectives of this study are to (1) identify key stages and hotspots with highest contribution to overall impacts and assess the most significant environmental impacts, (2) compare how these two market-oriented production systems (intensive and semi-intensive) differ in their environmental performance, (3) evaluate the contribution to overall environmental performance of transporting frozen shrimp products to export markets, and (4) use the LCA results as basis to formulate strategies to minimize environmental impacts and promote more sustainable shrimp production. ... (15) The main system boundary of our study was from cradle to farm-gate, including feed production, production of larvae at hatcheries, and production of marketable-size shrimp at the farm level (Figure 1). ... diesel (L) ...

Ling Cao; James S. Diana; Gregory A. Keoleian; Qiuming Lai

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

196

Life Cycle Assessment of solar energy systems: Comparison of photovoltaic and water thermal heater at domestic scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is concerned with the results of a Life Cycle Assessment comparison between photovoltaic – silicon based modules and thin film modules – and solar thermal systems, as technologies which are usually installed for partially covering household energy demand. Several studies focused on energy and environmental performances of photovoltaic and solar thermal collectors, however they have been always analysed separately. This study proposes the comparison of different systems to exploit the solar energy, producing different energy types. The comparison was done referring to one square meter of roof surface occupied by the equipment. The environmental burdens were calculated according to the indicators proposed by Eco-indicator'95 method. The results showed that the system based on thermal solar collector obtained the major number of more favourable indicators: eight out of ten, in the case of no-recycling of materials after dismantling phase, and six out of ten in the case of recycling of materials after dismantling phase. The thin film modules and solar thermal collector showed the lowest values of energy payback time and \\{CO2eq\\} payback time. Results clearly show that photovoltaic and solar thermal collector can effectively provide comparable environmental and energy benefits as regard to domestic scale installation.

E. Carnevale; L. Lombardi; L. Zanchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels.

Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rogers, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Using atmospheric plasma to design multilayer film from polylactic acid and thermoplastic starch: a screening Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The accumulation of plastic waste and the increasing awareness of the environmental implications and technical challenges associated to their treatment and recycling have led to a constant increase of biopolymers market in the 90's. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the most promising biodegradable plastics, showing a wide range of potential applications, e.g. in the packaging industry. However, the high production costs hamper its further development. The use of PLA in multilayer (ML) films is a potential opportunity to reduce the production costs. This study tackled the ecodesign of a clam shell for packaging applications based on a novel ML film made of PLA and thermoplastic starch (TPS), evaluating the environmental performance of different design concepts through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In order to assure proper compatibility between PLA and TPS, the use of dielectric barrier discharge (dbd) plasma technology at atmospheric pressure to increase the hydrophilicity of PLA was investigated. The results have highlighted the significant contribution of plasma treatment to the overall environmental impact of the ML film and the need for further optimisation. Despite the contribution of the PLA end-of-life phase to the overall environmental impact of the ML clam shell is low, the methodological approach to end-of-life can have a significant influence on the LCA results. This seems to be due to the low PLA recycling and recovery rate assumed, which is nevertheless realistic. The promotion of high recovery and recycling rates should therefore be a priority in the future. At the current development stage, even the most improved ML clam shell concept obtained using atmospheric plasma technology is not an environmentally sound alternative to pure PLA clam shell, although it is likely to be a cost-effective option. A good compromise between cost and environmental constrains to be further investigated could be to increase further the proportion of PLA in the ML, by improving the water adsorption capability of TPS through, e.g., the addition of a phthalate free plasticiser.

Enrico Benetto; Colin Jury; Elorri Igos; Julien Carton; Paula Hild; Christèle Vergne; Jean Di Martino

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Ecological-economic assessment of farms using multi-input multi-output models: life cycle assessment with multiple paired comparisons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multi-input multi-output model is developed by extending the life cycle assessment framework for analysing the relationship between agricultural production and environmental impacts. The inputs include farmland and materials such as fertilisers, pesticides and animals. The outputs are of two types: one is agro-economic production, such as crop yields, and the other is environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions. Additive and ratio models are defined for analysing the relationship between management intensity, land productivity and environmental impacts based on the farm model. After the framework of multiple paired comparisons is illustrated, the multi-input multi-output model is applied to rice farming in Japan. The results indicate that the additive and ratio models can be used for detecting the directions of changes. These models can be extended for analysing the land-use competition between food and energy production.

Kiyotada Hayashi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the , is defined as (SETAC, 1991) “An objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials use...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Nanocellulose Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The commercialization of nanocellulose is forthcoming with the projected GPD of $600 billion worldwide by 2020;(1, 2) hence it is critical that we understand how much environmental impact the fabrication process will generate and design the best manufacturing system accordingly. ... Commodity chemicals are often produced with similar technology throughout the world and often sourced outside the US, so the European data was considered acceptable despite some differences in fuel sources for electricity generation. ... (46) The CED method further breaks down energy use into the categories of nonrenewable (fossil, nuclear, and biomass) and renewable (biomass, solar/wind/geothermal, and hydro) energy. ...

Qingqing Li; Sean McGinnis; Cutter Sydnor; Anthony Wong; Scott Renneckar

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of -2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg{sup -1} wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and -0.9 to 28 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, C., E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

How to quantify uncertainty and variability in life cycle assessment: the case of greenhouse gas emissions of gas power generation in the US  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study quantified the contributions of uncertainty and variability to the range of life-cycle greenhouse gas (LCGHG) emissions associated with conventional gas-fired electricity generation in the US. Whereas uncertainty is defined as lack of knowledge and can potentially be reduced by additional research, variability is an inherent characteristic of supply chains and cannot be reduced without physically modifying the system. The life-cycle included four stages: production, processing, transmission and power generation, and utilized a functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity generated at plant. Technological variability requires analyses of life cycles of individual power plants, e.g. combined cycle plants or boilers. Parameter uncertainty was modeled via Monte Carlo simulation. Our approach reveals that technological differences are the predominant cause for the range of LCGHG emissions associated with gas power, primarily due to variability in plant efficiencies. Uncertainties in model parameters played a minor role for 100 year time horizon. Variability in LCGHG emissions was a factor of 1.4 for combined cycle plants, and a factor of 1.3 for simple cycle plants (95% CI, 100 year horizon). The results can be used to assist decision-makers in assessing factors that contribute to LCGHG emissions despite uncertainties in parameters employed to estimate those emissions.

M Hauck; Z J N Steinmann; I J Laurenzi; R Karuppiah; M A J Huijbregts

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

Damgaard, Anders, E-mail: and@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Riber, Christian [Ramboll, Consulting Engineers, Teknikerbyen 31, DK-2830 Virum (Denmark); Fruergaard, Thilde [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Hulgaard, Tore [Ramboll, Consulting Engineers, Teknikerbyen 31, DK-2830 Virum (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Derived Biomass and U.S. Northeast Forest Residuals Gasification for Electricity Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Construction and Demolition (C&D) Derived Biomass and U.S. Northeast Forest Residuals Gasification for Electricity Production ... Various types of organic waste including (a) agriculture and forestry residues and (b) municipal and industrial wastes (i.e., biodegradable municipal solid waste, plastic waste, construction and demolition (C&D) waste, and sewage sludge) are considered as potential feedstock for bioenergy and chemicals production. ...

Philip Nuss; Kevin H. Gardner; Jenna R. Jambeck

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Quantifying the Environmental Impact of an Integrated Human/Industrial-Natural System Using Life Cycle Assessment; A Case Study on a Forest and Wood Processing Chain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantifying the Environmental Impact of an Integrated Human/Industrial-Natural System Using Life Cycle Assessment; A Case Study on a Forest and Wood Processing Chain ... For example a forest provides wood but can also emit quantities of NO, CO2, and other compounds, requires solar energy, and occupies a piece of land. ... The net electricity generated is a product of the wood disposal through burning. ...

Thomas Schaubroeck; Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga; Kris Verheyen; Bart Muys; Jo Dewulf

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

207

The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools.

Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.

1999-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Life Cycle of the Corn-Soybean Agroecosystem for Biobased  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the agriculture and production stages. This paper compiles a more comprehensive life cycle inventory (LCI) for use not be neglected in bioproduct LCAs. Introduction Agricultural life cycle assessments (LCAs) are becoming choices. A LCA quantifies the environmental impacts of a product or process. Impact-minimizing LCAs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

209

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power Over the last thirty years, more than 100 life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. These LCAs have yielded wide-ranging results. Variation could

210

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program...

211

Emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA) of multi-unit and single-family residential buildings in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The construction and building process depends on substantial consumption of natural resources with far-reaching impacts beyond their development area. In general, a significant portion of annual resource consumption by the building and construction industry is a result of applying traditional building strategies and practices such as designing and selecting types of development (e.g. multi-unit condo and single-family house, etc.), building materials and structure, heating/cooling systems, and planning renovation and maintenance practices. On the other hand, apart from structural suitability, building developers mostly consider the basic requirements of public owners or private occupants of the buildings, where the main criteria for selecting building strategies are costs, and long-term environmental and socio-economic impacts are generally ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an improved building sustainability assessment framework to measure and integrate different sustainability factors, i.e. long-term environmental upstream and downstream impacts and associated socio-economic costs, in a unified and quantitative basis. The application of the proposed framework has been explained through a case study of single-family houses and multi-unit residential buildings in Canada. A comprehensive framework based on the integration of emergy synthesis and life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed and applied. The results of this research prove that the proposed emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA) framework offers a practical sustainability assessment tool by providing quantitative and transparent results for informed decision-making.

Bahareh Reza; Rehan Sadiq; Kasun Hewage

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Including Pathogen Risk in Life Cycle Assessment of Wastewater Management. 2. Quantitative Comparison of Pathogen Risk to Other Impacts on Human Health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of the presented study was to include pathogen risks to human health in life cycle assessment (LCA) of wastewater and sludge management systems, as this is commonly omitted from LCAs due to methodological limitations. ... Part 1 of this article series estimated the overall pathogen risk for such a system with agricultural use of the sludge, in a way that enables the results to be integrated in LCA. ... This article (part 2) presents a full LCA for two model systems (with agricultural utilization or incineration of sludge) to reveal the relative importance of pathogen risk in relation to other potential impacts on human health. ...

Sara Heimersson; Robin Harder; Gregory M. Peters; Magdalena Svanström

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

213

2D representation of life cycle greenhouse gas emission and life cycle cost of energy conversion for various energy resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We suggest a 2D-plot representation combined with life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and life cycle cost for various energy conversion technologies. In general, life cycle ... use life cycle GHG emissions ...

Heetae Kim; Claudio Tenreiro; Tae Kyu Ahn

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

The behavioral manipulation hypothesis Life cycle of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The behavioral manipulation hypothesis · No one knows how the parasite causes these Life cycle eat mostly hares · Linked cycles? Predator-Prey Cycles? · Think and then discuss: · Under the hypothesis that predators cause this cycle, what would you expect for the following when hare populations

Mitchell, Randall J.

215

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National...

216

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from S-I thermochemical process coupled to a high temperature gas reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated to the hydrogen produced by the sulfur-iodine thermochemical process, coupled to a high temperature nuclear reactor, and to compare the results with other life cycle analysis (LCA) studies on hydrogen production technologies, both conventional and emerging. The LCA tool was used to quantify the impacts associated with climate change. The product system was defined by the following steps: (i) extraction and manufacturing of raw materials (upstream flows), (U) external energy supplied to the system, (iii) nuclear power plant, and (iv) hydrogen production plant. Particular attention was focused to those processes where there was limited information from literature about inventory data, as the TRISO fuel manufacture, and the production of iodine. The results show that the electric power, supplied to the hydrogen plant, is a sensitive parameter for GHG emissions. When the nuclear power plant supplied the electrical power, low GHG emissions were obtained. These results improve those reported by conventional hydrogen production methods, such as steam reforming. (authors)

Giraldi, M. R.; Francois, J. L.; Castro-Uriegas, D. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, C.P. 62550, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Environmental Decision-Making Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Stochastic Multiattribute Decision Analysis: A Case Study on Alternative Transportation Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ecological Science and Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, and Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology, 111 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 ... For example, the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005 and Executive Order 13423 require state and federal fleets to have vehicles capable of using alternative fuels—although there are few guidelines for assessing the systemic environmental impact of alternative fuel technologies (26, 27). ... This case study is limited to life cycle air emissions for the fuel alternatives: gasoline (GAS), low-sulfur diesel (LSD), 100% soy-biodiesel (BD100), electric vehicle (EV), and 85% corn-based ethanol (EtOH). ...

Kristin Rogers; Thomas P. Seager

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7 Vintage capital modeling...18 Natural gas...plant (IGCC), and natural gas combined cycle power...CdTe Roadmap (29) Capital costs per m2 module $26 per...7920 MWh/yr Annual natural gas consumptiona 8900 0...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A Computational Framework for Life-Cycle Management of Wind Turbines incorporating Structural Health Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Computational Framework for Life-Cycle Management of Wind Turbines incorporating Structural of wind turbines and reducing the life-cycle costs significantly. This paper presents a life-cycle management (LCM) framework for online monitoring and performance assessment of wind turbines, enabling

Stanford University

220

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...assumed. The life-cycle boundary includes emissions...the results of life-cycle assessment. Often...required. Gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum...prior work on the life cycle of petroleum products...and/or com-putable general equilibrium models with...

Jeremy J. Michalek; Mikhail Chester; Paulina Jaramillo; Constantine Samaras; Ching-Shin Norman Shiau; Lester B. Lave

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Life Cycle Inventory Database | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Commercial Buildings » Research Projects » Life Cycle Inventory Database Life Cycle Inventory Database The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database serves as a central repository for information about the total energy and resource impacts of developing and using various commercial building materials, components, and assemblies. The database helps manufacturers, building designers, and developers select energy-efficient and environmentally friendly materials, products, and processes for their projects based on the environmental impact of an item over its entire lifespan. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the database in 2003 with input from a variety of partners. NREL maintains and updates the database with support from the

222

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

223

life cycle inventory | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

life cycle inventory life cycle inventory Dataset Summary Description Datasets are for the US electricity grid system for eGrid regions (AKGD, AKMS, AZNM, CAMX, ERCT, FRCC, HIMS, HIOA, MROE, MROW, NEWE, NWPP, NYCW, NYLI, NYUP, RFCE, RFCM, RFCW, RMPA, SPNO, SPSO, SRMV, SRMW, SRSO, SRTV, SRVC) for 2008. The data is provided in life cycle inventory forms (xls and xml) . A module report and a detailed spreadsheet are also included.Datasets include generation and transmission of electricity for each of the eGrid regions. It is representative of the year 2008 mix of fuels used for utility generations for each of the eGrid regions Source USLCI Database Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords eGrid Electricity grid LCI life cycle inventory US Data application/zip icon egrid_electricity_lci_datasets_2008.zip (zip, 7 MiB)

224

Life-Cycle Analysis of Geothermal Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The results and tools from this project will help GTP and stakeholders determine and communicate GT energy and GHG benefits and water impacts. The life-cycle analysis (LCA) approach is taken to address these effects.

225

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...large wind turbines and wind power plants. With the...submarine cables connect the wind turbines to a substation; external...installation, operations and maintenance (O&M) and end-of-life...inventories for offshore wind farms were based on...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Basics

227

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

- Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle...

228

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound...

229

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...address the issue of system balancing for the...tidal, geothermal, solar photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), and onshore and offshore wind power. The scenario...technology product systems (foreground) In...rail, or ship. In hybrid assessment, the...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Wittmaier, M. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: wittmaier@hs-bremen.de; Langer, S.; Sawilla, B. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

B. Mar

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

232

Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boyd et al. : “Life-cycle energy demand and global warmingLife-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-to assess the life-cycle energy demand of its products for

Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boyd et al. : “Life-cycle energy demand and global warmingLife-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-to assess the life-cycle energy demand of its products for

Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

numerical models & information Systems, Nice: France (2013)" Environmental impact for offshore wind farms: Geolocalized Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. This paper presents an approach for Environmental Impact Assessment through the use of geolocalized LCA approach, for fixed and floating offshore wind farms. This work was undertaken within the EUsponsored EnerGEO project, aiming at providing a versatile modeling platform for stakeholders allowing calculation, forecasting and monitoring of environmental impacts of different sources of energy. This paper described the geolocalized LCA approach, and its use for the evaluation of environmental impacts of wind energy. The effects of offshore wind farms on global environnemental impacts are evaluated though the LCA approach. It takes into account the type of wind farm, the construction phase, all technical aspects, the operation and maintenance scheme and the decommissioning. It also includes geolocalized information such as wind resources, bathymetry, accessibility … Environmental impact parameters are accessible through a web service helping the decision makers in assessing the environnemental impacts. 1

Catherine Guermont; Lionel Ménard; Isabelle Blanc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS Comparison of Life-Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of agricultural oper- ations were used to generate air emissions data for soy- bean production: the greenhouse-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model; and SimaPro software equipped with the Franklin database. EIO-LCA specifically to U.S. soybean agriculture and processing, which resulted in several major findings. The EIO

Illinois at Chicago, University of

236

Target structural reliability in life cycle consideration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of minimising life cycle cost can be rationally applied to determine a target reliability of structures. However, there has been a recent legal requirement to reduce CO2 emissions, therefore, the minimisation of life cycle CO2 emission could be an alternative approach in structural design. This paper explains the general formulae for deciding the optimum reliability by minimising the total life cycle cost and the amount of CO2 emission in the structure's lifetime, and also shows that these formulae can be applied to decision making for the cost-benefit problem related to seismic strengthening of structures. Additionally, the role of the engineer is discussed, reflecting the current situation in Japan.

Jun Kanda; Tsuyoshi Takada; Hang Choi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

R.E. Sweeney

2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

239

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Life Cycle Analysis: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant Revision 2, March 2012 DOE/NETL-2012/1551 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or

240

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Home Page  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Research Research Search More Search Options Site Map Photo of a green field with an ocean in the background. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database to help life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners answer questions about environmental impact. This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with producing a material, component, or assembly in the U.S. The goals of the U.S. LCI Database project are: Maintain data quality and transparency Cover commonly used materials, products, and processes in the United States with up-to-date, critically reviewed LCI data Support the expanded use of LCA as an environmental decision-making

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A model for life cycle records management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this paper is to update an old Records Management concept; the management of records according to the records life cycle. Accordingly, the authors are presenting a new version of the Records Management life cycle model and its associated elements. The basic concept is that every record progresses through three phases; a record is created, is used and maintained, and dispositioned. In this presentation, the authors update the very old straight line model and the more current circular model with a new model that essentially combines the two. The model portrays Records Management as having a distinct straight-line beginning, a circular use and maintenance phase, and a distinct straight-line end. The presentation maps Records Management Program elements and activities against the phases depicted in the model. The authors believe that this new records life cycle model is an enhanced physical representation of the process. This presentation is designed to help put all of the specialized Records Management topics that participants have heard about during the conference in the perspective of the records life cycle.

Tayfun, A.C.; Gibson, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The development of a life cycle cost model for railroad tunnels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today, Life Cycle Costing is one of the most popular ways of assessing a project's or an investment's worth to a company. This method of assessment is often applied to all stages of a investment's lifecycle, starting from ...

Angeles, Jon Virgil V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese Input–Output Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. ... This sector is followed by several food- and agriculture-related sectors such as seeds and seedlings (JD11) (?57%), flour and other grain mill products (JD47) (?52%), timber (JD90) (?52%), and Feeds (JD72) (?51%). ...

Keisuke Nansai; Yasushi Kondo; Shigemi Kagawa; Sangwon Suh; Kenichi Nakajima; Rokuta Inaba; Susumu Tohno

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

244

Advanced Technologies in Life Cycle Engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Increasing competitive pressure within industries producing long-living, cost intensive products drive the need to optimize product life cycles in terms of faster time to market, sustainable operation, reengineering and recycling. In this context, complexity of IT systems is growing and has to connect different life cycle phases. Especially new concepts of Product Service Systems (PSS) lead to a connection between product design, maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO). There are still many challenges concerning interface problems between different IT-Systems. They are caused by different data formats, continuous demand for information or integration of new technologies. Thus, Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) has gained an important role and needs to consider integration of new industry 4.0 solutions like cloud services, big data or cyber physical systems. This paper gives an overview about these challenges, future development and new research approaches. A deeper view is taken at one promising approach in the field of maintenance of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). This approach is about invention and implementation of a new process that combines both electrical and optical measuring techniques to automate circuit and layout plan reconstruction of long-living and cost intensive electronic boards.

Rainer Stark; Hendrik Grosser; Boris Beckmann-Dobrev; Simon Kind

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Information Resources Information Resources Site Map Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Building Life Cycle Cost Programs on AddThis.com... Publications Software FAQs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs

246

Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2B—Integration of Supply Chains II: Bioproducts—Enabling Biofuels and Growing the Bioeconomy Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET Model Jennifer B. Dunn, Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead, Argonne National Laboratory

247

An ideal sealed source life-cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

Tompkins, Joseph Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Profiles of Polyhydroxybutyrates Derived from Corn Grain: A Life Cycle Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Profiles of Polyhydroxybutyrates Derived from Corn Grain: A Life Cycle Perspective ... Polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain could reduced nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-based polymer. ... Cradle-to-gate environmental performance of PHB derived from corn grain is evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. ...

Seungdo Kim; Bruce E. Dale

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

249

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Freshwater Consumption of Marcellus Shale Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Freshwater Consumption of Marcellus Shale Gas ... We present results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of Marcellus shale gas used for power generation. ... The analysis employs the most extensive data set of any LCA of shale gas to date, encompassing data from actual gas production and power generation operations. ...

Ian J. Laurenzi; Gilbert R. Jersey

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

250

GREET Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Li Li 收件人 School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology Battery Recycling: How to Make It Happen Analysis can help identify a clear path for battery production and recycling  Purpose is to clear the road for mass-market introduction of battery-powered vehicles by identifying any roadblocks on the way  Life cycle analysis (LCA) is used to identify significant environmental issues  Availability of recycling processes can:  Assure against major waste problems at end-of-life  Reduce environmental impacts  Reduce raw material supply issues  Reduce net material costs  Create viable business opportunities  Economic and institutional constraints must also be accounted for

251

ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL govCampaignsAerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL Campaign Links Images Wiki 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Sedlacek 2011 ASR STM Presentation: Springston 2010 ASR Fall Meeting: Sedlacek News, June 14, 2011: Next-generation Aerosol-sampling Stations to Head for India Related Campaigns Aerosol Life Cycle: Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer - CIMS 2011.07.10, Lee, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: HR-ToF-AMS 2011.06.15, Zhang, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: ARM Mobile Facility 2 Aerosol Observing System 2011.06.15, Sedlacek, OSC Aerosol Life Cycle: UV-APS and Nano-SMPS 2011.06.10, Hallar, OSC Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aerosol Life Cycle IOP at BNL 2011.06.01 - 2011.08.31 Lead Scientist : Arthur Sedlacek For data sets, see below.

252

Assessment of potential life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects from using corn-based butanol as a transportation fuel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since advances in the ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation process in recent years have led to significant increases in its productivity and yields, the production of butanol and its use in motor vehicles have become an option worth evaluating. This study estimates the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. It employs a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis tool: the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The estimates of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are based on an Aspen Plus(reg. sign) simulation for a corn-to-butanol production process, which describes grain processing, fermentation, and product separation. Bio-butanol-related WTW activities include corn farming, corn transportation, butanol production, butanol transportation, and vehicle operation. In this study, we also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. Our study shows that driving vehicles fueled with corn-based butanol produced by the current ABE fermentation process could result in substantial fossil energy savings (39%-56%) and avoid large percentage of the GHG emission burden, yielding a 32%-48% reduction relative to using conventional gasoline. On energy basis, a bushel of corn produces less liquid fuel from the ABE process than that from the corn ethanol dry mill process. The coproduction of a significant portion of acetone from the current ABE fermentation presents a challenge. A market analysis of acetone, as well as research and development on robust alternative technologies and processes that minimize acetone while increase the butanol yield, should be conducted.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA). http://www.eiolca.net.the estimation of LCIs. Int. J. LCA 2004, 9 (2), 101–113.inventory information. Int. J. LCA 2000, 5 (3), 153–159.

Krishnan, Nikhil; Boyd, Sarah; Somani, Ajay; Dornfeld, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Sustainable Buildings & Campuses » Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings October 4, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis To help facility managers make sound decisions, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials assume discount rates and energy price projections determined

256

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Electricity Generation Technologies Speaker(s): Garvin Heath Date: April 11, 2011 - 10:00am Location: 90-3075 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Eric Masanet One barrier to the full support and deployment of alternative energy systems and the development of a sustainable energy policy is the lack of robust conclusions about the life cycle environmental impacts of energy technologies. A significant number of life cycle assessments (LCA) of energy technologies have been published, far greater than many are aware. However, there is a view held by many decision-makers that the state of the science in LCA of energy technologies is inconclusive because of perceived and real variability and uncertainty in published estimates of life cycle

257

Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2010 -- Washington D.C. lm001das2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus Technical Cost Modeling - Life...

258

Life Cycle Exergy Analysis of Wind Energy Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Wind power capacity is currently growing fast around the world. At the same time different forms of life cycle analysis are becoming common for… (more)

Davidsson, Simon

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Federal Register Notice for Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas from the United States (Life Cycle Analysis Greenhouse Gas Report, or LCA GHG Report) and invites the submission of comments. LifecycleGreenhouseGas.pdf More...

260

Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

processing technology data based on actual experimental data - SimaPro - a commercial LCA software package used for life cycle analysis Source: Powell et. al (2010) 13 Managed...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

gas (GHG) perspective? *How do those results compare with natural gas sourced from Russia and delivered to the same European and Asian markets via pipeline? Life Cycle GHG...

262

GREET Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Development and Applications for Life-Cycle Analysis of VehicleFuel Systems 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

263

Technical Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cost Modeling - Life Cycle Analysis Basis for Program Focus 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

264

Federal Energy Management Program: Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments. Federal Requirements Life cycle cost (LCC) rules are promulgated in 10 CFR 436 A, Life Cycle Cost Methodology and Procedures and conforms to requirements in the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and subsequent energy conservation legislation as well as Executive Order 13423. The LCC guidance and materials provided here assume discount rates and energy price projections (TXT 17 KB) determined annually by FEMP and the Energy Information Administration. Building Life Cycle Cost Software FEMP's Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) software can help you calculate life cycle costs, net savings, savings-to-investment ratio, internal rate of return, and payback period for Federal energy and water conservation projects funded by agencies or alternatively financed. BLCC also estimates emissions and emission reductions. An energy escalation rate calculator (EERC) computes an average escalation rate for energy savings performance contracts when payments are based on energy cost savings.

265

Invited Review The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a century. Various aspects of the life cycle, however, have been elucidated only recently, whilst others Ostensibly, the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi has been elucidated for nearly a century (Chagas, 1909 it attaches (Bonaldo et al., 1988) and is a cAMP mediated process (Gonzales-Perdomo et al., 1988; Rangel

Engman, David M.

266

Environmental Life Cycle Comparison of Algae to Other Bioenergy Feedstocks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental Life Cycle Comparison of Algae to Other Bioenergy Feedstocks ... The environmental burdens of cultivating algae for bioenergy have been quantified and compared to several terrestrial crops using a stochastic life cycle model. ... Algae are an appealing source for bioenergy due to their high yields relative to terrestrial energy crops. ...

Andres F. Clarens; Eleazer P. Resurreccion; Mark A. White; Lisa M. Colosi

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

267

Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Partner: National Institute of Standards and Technology Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency Phase: Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan Topics: Finance, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_blcc.html Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, Building Life-Cycle Cost, BLCC References: Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs[1] Building Energy Software Tools Directory: BLCC[2]

268

Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration Life Cycle | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Home > Our Mission > Managing the Stockpile > Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear Weapons Life Cycle Nuclear weapons are developed, produced, and maintained in the stockpile, and then retired and dismantled. This sequence of events is known as the

269

Improving environmental performances of organic spreading technologies through the use of life cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) is generally used to assess environmental performances of a product or a system. Some agricultural LCA were, France Corresponding author*: marilys.pradel@cemagref.fr Abstract Life Cycle Assessment (LCA into account the direct contributions of agricultural machinery. In this paper, we develop the three step

Boyer, Edmond

270

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) May 2007 total system cost estimate for the disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TSLCC analysis provides a basis for assessing the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) Fee as required by Section 302 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended. In addition, the TSLCC analysis provides a basis for the calculation of the Government's share of disposal costs for government-owned and managed SNF and HLW. The TSLCC estimate includes both historical costs and

271

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive...

272

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for Canada Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles for Canada Project Summary Full Title: Life Cycle Analysis of Vehicles Powered by a Fuel Cell and by Internal Combustion Engine for Canada Project ID: 117 Principal Investigator: Xianguo Li Purpose In this study, a full life cycle analysis of an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has been carried out. The impact of the material and fuel used in the vehicle on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is analyzed for Canada. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extraction of hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station.

273

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Anita Estner Barbara Adams In this presentation we describe the prospective life-cycle modeling of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), a novel type of material with the potential for efficiently capturing CO2. Life-cycle modeling of emerging technologies, conducted early in the innovation process, can generate knowledge that can feed back to inform scientific discovery and development. We discuss the challenges of credibly modeling a system that does not yet exist, and describe methodological approaches including parametric system modeling (quantifying relations between system elements), scenario projections (defining plausible pathways for system scale-up),

274

Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings Life Cycle Analysis and Energy Conservation Standards for State Buildings < Back Eligibility Institutional Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Energy Standards for Public Buildings Provider Ohio State Architect's Office In 1995 Ohio passed legislation requiring that all state agencies perform life-cycle cost analyses prior to the construction of new buildings, and energy consumption analyses prior to new leases. Both analyses are to be primary considerations in either building design or leasing decisions. The

275

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs October 8, 2013 - 2:14pm Addthis The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-13 (for Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux). BLCC is programmed in Java with an XML file format. The user's guide is part of the BLCC Help system. BLCC version 5.3-13 contains the following modules: FEMP Analysis; Energy Project Federal Analysis; Financed Project Office of Management and Budget Analysis MILCON Analysis; Energy Project MILCON Analysis; Energy Conservation Investment Program Project MILCON Analysis; Non-Energy Project

276

Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wastewater-Based Algal Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Wastewater-Based Algal Biofuels ... The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. ...

Dongyan Mu; Min Min; Brian Krohn; Kimberley A. Mullins; Roger Ruan; Jason Hill

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

277

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS: COMPARING PLA PLASTIC FOOD USE PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yin (Judy) Lee CHBE 484 April 14, 2009 #12;Executive Summary A life cycle analysis (LCA) was conducted sections--agriculture, manufacture and transport. Energy inputs for each of these sections were determined ............................................................................................................... 6 4 Agriculture

278

Incorporating uncertainty in the Life Cycle Cost Analysis of pavements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is an important tool to evaluate the economic performance of alternative investments for a given project. It considers the total cost to construct, maintain, and operate a pavement over its ...

Swei, Omar Abdullah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Life Cycle and Mesoscale Frontal Structure of an Intermountain Cyclone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-resolution analyses and MesoWest surface observations are used to examine the life cycle and mesoscale frontal structure of the “Tax Day Storm,” an intermountain cyclone that produced the second lowest sea level pressure observed in Utah ...

Gregory L. West; W. James Steenburgh

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Life Cycle Modeling of Propulsion Materials | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation pm034das2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Life Cycle...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Uranium Mining Life-Cycle Energy Cost vs. Uranium Resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long-term viability of nuclear energy systems depends on the availability of uranium and on the question, whether the overall energy balance of the fuel cycle is positive, taking into account the full life-cy...

W. Eberhard Falck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Public Facilities (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All facilities using public funds for construction or renovation must undergo a life cycle analysis, which will consider energy efficiency and on-site energy equipment using the sun, wind, oil,...

283

U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATABASE ROADMAP rsed e Goals of the U.S. LCI Database Project * Maintain data quality and transparency. * Cover commonly used materials, products, and processes in the United States with up-to-date, critically reviewed LCI data. * Support the expanded use of LCA as an environmental decision-making tool. * Maintain compatibility with international LCI databases. * Provide exceptional data accessibility.

284

Role of Recycling in the Life Cycle of Batteries  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ROLE OF RECYCLING IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF BATTERIES ROLE OF RECYCLING IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF BATTERIES J.L. Sullivan, L. Gaines, and A. Burnham Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division Keywords: battery, materials, recycling, energy Abstract Over the last few decades, rechargeable battery production has increased substantially. Applications including phones, computers, power tools, power storage, and electric-drive vehicles are either commonplace or will be in the next decade or so. Because advanced rechargeable batteries, like those

285

Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FTR: Fischer-Tropsch reactor LCA: life cycle analysis LCI:software. Life cycle analyses (LCA) using a modified GREETfor the process. Keywords: LCA, Fischer-Tropsch, avation

Hu, Sangran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Technology Analysis - Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling and Life Cycle Analysis diagram of the battery recycling life cycle Several types of recycling processes are available, recovering materials usable at different stages of the production cycle- from metallic elements to materials that can be reused directly in new batteries. Recovery closer to final usable form avoids more impact-intensive process steps. Portions courtesy of Umicore, Inc. To identify the potential impacts of the growing market for automotive lithium-ion batteries, Argonne researchers are examining the material demand and recycling issues related to lithium-ion batteries. Research includes: Conducting studies to identify the greenest, most economical recycling processes, Investigating recycling practices to determine how much of which

287

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Water and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Alternative Fuel Production Speaker(s): Corinne Scown Date: January 31, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Sohn If the goal of science is to understand the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world, and the goal of engineering is to design, build, and manage systems that serve society's needs, then the study of civil infrastructure systems acts as a link between the two. Understanding the reliance of engineered systems on constrained natural resources, as well as their impact on human well-being and the environment, is key to building and maintaining infrastructure that is sustainable in the broader sense. This talk will explore the important role of life-cycle assessment and optimization in assessing such questions as: a.)

289

Life Cycle Analysis of wind–fuel cell integrated system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada’s Kyoto greenhouse gas (GHG) emission target is 571 Mt of CO2 equivalent emitted per year by 2010; however, if current emission trends continue, a figure of 809 Mt is projected by 2010 (Cote C. Basic of clean development mechanism—joint implementation and overview of CDM project cycle, 2003 regional workshop on CDM-JI, February 2003, Halifax). This underscores the need for additional reduction of 240 Mt. The Federal Government Action Plan 2000 aims to reduce this gap from 240 to 65 Mt (Cote C. Basic of clean development mechanism—joint implementation and overview of CDM project cycle, 2003 regional workshop on CDM-JI, February 2003, Halifax). In order to accomplish this goal, renewable energy use in all sectors will be required, and this type of energy is particularly applicable in power generation. Traditional power generation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions after industrial and transportation sectors (Environment Canada. Canada’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–1998. Final submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat, 2002 [Available from: http://www.ec.gc.ca/climate/resources_reportes-e.html]. Although wind energy, solar power and other forms of renewable energy are non-GHG emitting in their operation, there are GHG emissions in their different stages of life cycle (i.e. material extraction, manufacturing, construction and transportation, etc.). These emissions must be accounted for in order to assess accurately their capacity to reduce GHG emission and meet Kyoto targets. The current trend in electricity generation is towards integrated energy systems. One such proposed system is the wind–fuel cell integrated system for remote communities. This paper presents a detailed Life Cycle Analysis of the wind–fuel cell integrated system for application in Newfoundland and Labrador. The study confirms that wind–fuel integrated system is a zero emission system while in operation. There are significant emissions of \\{GHGs\\} during the production of the various components (wind turbine, fuel cell and electrolyzer). However, the global warming potential (GWP) of wind-integrated system is far lower (at least by two orders of magnitude) than the conventional diesel system, presently used in remote communities.

Faisal I. Khan; Kelly Hawboldt; M.T. Iqbal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Evaluation of Process- and Input–Output-based Life Cycle Inventory Data with Regard to Truncation and Aggregation Issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life cycle assessments (LCA) and environmentally extended input–output (EEIO) analyses both strive to account for direct and indirect environmental impacts of goods and services. ... Agriculture, Forestry, Fishingd ...

Guillaume Majeau-Bettez; Anders Hammer Strømman; Edgar G. Hertwich

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

291

Life-Cycle Implications of Using Crop Residues for Various Energy Demands in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The remaining 34.5% was accounted for by field burning and by a collection-loss component. ... P&Hdigestion represents a biogas power plant with gas turbines >1 MWelectr and with a conversion efficiency of 0.85 divided between electricity (0.40) and heat (0.45). ... Jia Youjian, Y. Z.; Chuangzhi, Wu. Life cycle assessment of a 4MWe biomass integrated gasification gas engines-steam turbine combined cycles power plant Acta Energiae Solaris Sin. ...

Wei Lu; Tianzhu Zhang

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Life Cycle Inventory Energy Consumption and Emissions for Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fueled Construction Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Inventory Energy Consumption and Emissions for Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fueled Construction Vehicles ... In general, LCI emissions of HC and CO are lower if NSPS-compliant soyoil plants are used. ... The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and ... ...

Shih-Hao Pang; H. Christopher Frey; William J. Rasdorf

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fuzzy Logic-based energy efficiency Life Cycle Assessment with a case study of corn-based fuel ethanol in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A fuzzy logic based method of energy efficiency assessment of Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol (BFE) production is introduced in this paper. Energy relevant inventory variables are defined and described by fuzzy sets representing the differences in energy inventory data between the BFE system and its reference. A fuzzy reasoning process is developed to derive the energy efficiency from the fuzzificated inventory data. This method distinguishes itself by simple calculation, lower requirements of data accuracy and capability of processing subjectivity. A case study of corn-based fuel ethanol from Northeast China is conducted to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

Suiran Yu; Jing Tao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Hybrid Life Cycle Inventory of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Manufacturing ... There is a need to both quantify unit process emissions and the impacts of auxiliary equipment at the facility scale; (iii) There is a need for streamlined methodologies to assess upstream impacts of manufacturing chemicals, materials and equipment infrastructure. ...

Nikhil Krishnan; Sarah Boyd; Ajay Somani; Sebastien Raoux; Daniel Clark; David Dornfeld

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

296

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Life-Cycle Cost Analysis October 16, 2013 - 4:41pm Addthis Constructed Costs of a Net-Zero Office Building Facility: Research Support Facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado Operational: August 2010 Constructed cost: $259/ft2 to achieve 50% less energy use than code Constructed cost of similar office buildings in area: $225 to $300/ft2 Reaching Net-Zero: A 1.27 MW photovoltaic system was added to the project in two phases to bring the system to net-zero. This system was financed through a power purchase agreement and did not add to the constructed cost of the building. If those costs were included in the capital costs, the total constructed cost would have been 291/ft2 to reach net-zero energy use. Learn more about the Research Support

297

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Microalgal Biodiesel – A CA-GREET Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Microalgal Biodiesel – A CA-GREET Model ... A life cycle assessment (LCA) focused on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of microalgal biodiesel was carried out based on a detailed engineering and economic analysis. ... Based on detailed mass and energy balances, calculated GHG emissions from this algal biodiesel system are 70% lower than those of conventional diesel fuel, meeting the minimum 50% GHG reduction requirements under the EPA RFS2 and 60% for the European Union Renewable Energy Directive. ...

Ian C. Woertz; John R. Benemann; Niu Du; Stefan Unnasch; Dominick Mendola; B. Greg Mitchell; Tryg J. Lundquist

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

NREL: U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - About the LCI Database Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

About the LCI Database Project About the LCI Database Project The U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database is a publicly available database that allows users to objectively review and compare analysis results that are based on similar data collection and analysis methods. Finding consistent and transparent LCI data for life cycle assessments (LCAs) is difficult. NREL works with LCA experts to solve this problem by providing a central source of critically reviewed LCI data through its LCI Database Project. NREL's High-Performance Buildings research group is working closely with government stakeholders, and industry partners to develop and maintain the database. The 2009 U.S. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data Stakeholder meeting was an important step in the ongoing improvement of the database. Prior to that event, NREL conducted a poll of current and

299

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WAR & PEACE & WAR THE LIFE CYCLES OF IMPERIAL NATIONS PETER TURCHIN A Review of Chapters 13 & 14: Strong North-South gradient · North: Piedemont, Lombardia in Po Valley · South: Calabria, Sicily OF IMPERIAL NATIONS because, "we still make babies the old-fashioned way, we kill each

White, Douglas R.

300

Design for, and Evaluation of Life Cycle Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?. DESIGN FOR, AND EVALUATION OF LIFE CYCLE PERFORMANCE David J. Ahner Eldon W. Hall GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT EQUIPMENT DEGRADATION Project evaluation necessarily requires performance estimates over..., operating procedures, equipment availabilities, etc. This paper discusses the general nature, and the ther mal interaction of power plant components as individual equipment degradation occurs, describing overall plant performance trends and quant...

Ahner, D. J.; Hall, E. W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

2007 american chemical Society Life-cycle analyses are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thorough analysis and quantifica- tion of impacts resulting from agriculture. LCA studies have shown initiatives. A life-cycle analysis (LCA) of bioproduction sys- tems is needed to evaluate potential benefits (5, 6); however, modern agricultural systems are respon- sible for significant environmental impacts

Illinois at Chicago, University of

302

Life Cycle Approaches to Sustainable Consumption: A Critical Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Approaches to Sustainable Consumption: A Critical Review ... Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. ... Spain faces the challenge of 80–95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050 (European Energy Roadmap). ...

Edgar G. Hertwich

2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

303

Life-cycle cost analysis of floating offshore wind farms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this article is to put forward a methodology in order to evaluate the Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) of a Floating Offshore Wind Farm (FOWF). In this paper CBS is evaluated linked to Life-Cycle Cost System (LCS) and taking into account each of the phases of the FOWF life cycle. In this sense, six phases will be defined: definition, design, manufacturing, installation, exploitation and dismantling. Each and every one of these costs can be subdivided into different sub-costs in order to obtain the key variables that run the life-cycle cost. In addition, three different floating platforms will be considered: semisubmersible, Tensioned Leg Platform (TLP) and spar. Several types of results will be analysed according to each type of floating platform considered: the percentage of the costs, the value of the cost of each phase of the life-cycle and the value of the total cost in each point of the coast. The results obtained allow us to become conscious of what the most important costs are and minimize them, which is one of the most important contributions nowadays. It will be useful to improve the competitiveness of floating wind farms in the future.

Castro-Santos Laura; Diaz-Casas Vicente

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis for Condensate Receiving System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine the life-cycle costs of several options relevant to the Condensate Removal System serving the Compressed Air System (CAS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The best option (least present value) will be selected as the preferred configuration to construct.

C Mellen

1995-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Biomass feedstocks Biomass feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest Σ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to pre-harvest levels... ...the net emissions over this time are zero. single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Time Time Biomass energy Fossil fuel energy single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative

306

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The international technology roadmap for semiconductors,The international technology roadmap for semiconductors:The international technology roadmap for semiconductors,

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts . . . . . . . LCA of Electronics and InformationChemical LCA Data Sources, part 1: Processdata . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical LCA Data Sources, part

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nm node 120 nm kg/wafer GWG CF4 CHF3 C2F6 CH4 CO2 NF3 C4F6120 nm node 90nm kg/wafer GWG CF4 CHF3 C2F6 CH4 CO2 NF3 C4F690 nm node 65 nm kg/wafer GWG CF4 CHF3 C2F6 CH4 CO2 NF3 C4F6

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use/ Reuse/ Maintenance Recycling Material and Energy Inputs Releases to the Environment Process on portion of total water received (3%) #12;Reclamation: Scottsdale Reclaims wastewater for use (Reclaimed Plant) Wastewater treatment, advanced water treatment, and groundwater recharge and extraction

Keller, Arturo A.

310

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hybrid LCA studies [29, 98]. Chemical production and fab infrastructure (Hybrid LCA data from previ- ous studies are used for transportation and impacts associated with the water supply infrastructure.

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Life cycle sustainability assessment of products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sustainability was adopted by UNEP in Rio de ... original definition given in the Brundtland report, sustainability comprises three components: environment, economy and social aspects. These components or “pillars

Walter Kloepffer

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), CO, NO X , ethyl lactate andHMDS: hexa-methyl disilizane IPA: isopropyl alcohol OMCTS:liquid H 2 SO 4 HCl NH 4 OH IPA oxide CMP slurry, chemicals

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primary energy consumption per memory capacity (MJ/GB), overPrimary energy consumption per memory capacity (MJ/OS), overpaired trends, primary energy consumption per gigabyte (GB)

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

less primary energy and water and results in lower globalPrimary energy and water consumption, as well as global

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

taken from the EPA [28]. Small hydro is considered to haveEPA [28] Geothermal EPA Small Hydro Horvath, Pacca Wind

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Integrated life cycle management of aggregates quarrying, processing and recycling: definition of a common LCA methodology in the SARMa project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the environmental knowledge, presently used to understand or design sustainable industrial systems, is derived from an application of life cycle assessment (LCA). The mining/quarrying industry is probably one of the sectors where there has been relatively less use of LCA tools, or where LCA has received less consensus. A key issue is the integration between three interdependent life cycles: project, asset and product life cycles. Given the unique features of mining LCAs, this paper presents a common methodology implemented within the EU sustainable aggregates resource management project in order to boost adoption of LCA in the aggregate industry in South Eastern Europe.

Gian Andrea Blengini; Elena Garbarino

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Combining biogas LCA reviews with stakeholder interviews to analyse life cycle impacts at a practical level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biogas presents an increasing energy production form in municipalities and rural locations, and it is also a feasible waste management option. In terms of environmental life cycle assessments (LCA), biogas production seems to offer a unique opportunity to combine nutrient recycling with energy production using various underutilised resources such as municipal biowastes or manure. \\{LCAs\\} of biogas production suggest benefits related to CO2 emission savings and the replacement of chemical fertilisers, for example. Existing biogas plants have varying practices related to biogas production and actualisation of the life cycle benefits is influenced by policies, local contexts, and the purposes of the biogas production activity. This paper identifies and explores critical points related to biogas production by reviewing LCA studies and comparing them to actual choices made at Finnish biogas plants based on stakeholder interviews. The most critical points related to biogas production involve the end use of the biogas and the end use of the digestate. The practical implementation and site-specific conditions of biogas plants can lead to significant differences between life cycle impacts. Therefore, we emphasise the importance of site-specific LCA studies for reliable impact assessments. In addition, we suggest the incorporation of stakeholder interviews to support LCA at different phases and better implementation of life cycle thinking in policy design.

Suvi Huttunen; Kaisa Manninen; Pekka Leskinen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Life assessments of a boiler economizer unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An economizer which experienced pitting corrosion during a cleaning accident was subject to recurring corrosion fatigue failures. A condition assessment was undertaken to assess the risk of further failures through metallurgical assessment, extreme value pitting assessments, and on-site NDT condition assessment with on-site extreme value pitting analysis. This was followed by a fatigue life assessment in accordance with PD6493. Condition assessment work and lifetime prediction progressed from initial failure investigation through to final recommendations in a stepwise process. Each stage of the work was followed by a review of the findings and an economic assessment of the alternative options i.e. continue with assessment, full economizer replacement or partial replacement. Selective replacement of a portion of the economizer was recommended.

Lichti, K.A.; Thomas, C.W.; Wilson, P.T. [Industrial Research Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Julian, W. [Contact Energy Ltd., New Plymouth (New Zealand). New Plymouth Power Station

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Life cycle water use for electricity generation: a review and harmonization of literature estimates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of selected electricity generating technologies, which includes component manufacturing, fuel acquisition, processing, and transport, and power plant operation and decommissioning. Estimates were gathered through a broad search of publicly available sources, screened for quality and relevance, and harmonized for methodological differences. Published estimates vary substantially, due in part to differences in production pathways, in defined boundaries, and in performance parameters. Despite limitations to available data, we find that: water used for cooling of thermoelectric power plants dominates the life cycle water use in most cases; the coal, natural gas, and nuclear fuel cycles require substantial water per megawatt-hour in most cases; and, a substantial proportion of life cycle water use per megawatt-hour is required for the manufacturing and construction of concentrating solar, geothermal, photovoltaic, and wind power facilities. On the basis of the best available evidence for the evaluated technologies, total life cycle water use appears lowest for electricity generated by photovoltaics and wind, and highest for thermoelectric generation technologies. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research.

J Meldrum; S Nettles-Anderson; G Heath; J Macknick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Life cycle analysis in refurbishment of the buildings as intervention practices in energy saving  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents the energy savings in refurbishment of the buildings using Life Cycle Assessment at material level by comparing three insulation materials that offer higher thermal performance and greater environmental sustainability. The comparison is made on products having the same insulation performance (U-value). After the enumeration of intervention practices for energy saving in buildings, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology in refurbishment of the buildings is applied at material level using Life Cycle Inventory to transform material volume input into impact on the environment as output. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was carried out according to the requirements of the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD). After assessing the building performance before and after isolation, the “embodied energy”, which comes from the materials manufacturing as phases of the refurbishment of the buildings, was determinate and compared with the operational energy of the building. This LCA methodology in refurbishment of the buildings at material level was evaluated for Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) and Rigid polyurethane (PUR) insulation products. This methodology has been used on a building in Galati, Romania (School No. 9). A spider diagram was used to represent the criteria in a consistent, graphical way in relative units. The extreme values for a given criteria indicate the poor performance of the insulation material. Finally, the assessment of the building performance before and after using the insulation and the determination of the “embodied energy” compared to the operational energy of the building resulted in a 55% energy saving in the use stage of the building after refurbishment.

Badea Nicolae; Badea George-Vlad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Frostbite Theater - Monarch Butterflies - Life Cycle of the Monarch  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measure the Diameter of the Sun! Measure the Diameter of the Sun! Previous Video (Let's Measure the Diameter of the Sun!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Monarch Butterfly Pupation) Monarch Butterfly Pupation Life Cycle of the Monarch Butterfly Follow the life cycle of the Monarch butterfly from egg to adult! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a field that used to house a bunch of ugly trailers that were used for office space. A couple of years ago the Lab tore them down and in an effort to cut the cost of lawn maintanence, they planted a bunch of wild flowers in their place. Steve: Last year Joanna and I planted this plant. This is milkweed. It's a

324

Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Life Cycle Optimization of Automobile Replacement:? Model and Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Optimization of Automobile Replacement:? Model and Application ... Moreover, manufacturers have been exploring new propulsion systems and fuels, such as hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. ... The catalytic activity of samples taken from an oxidation catalyst mounted on diesel-driven automobiles and aged under road conditions was recovered to a significant extent by washing with a dilute solution of citric acid. ...

Hyung Chul Kim; Gregory A. Keoleian; Darby E. Grande; James C. Bean

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 2: Data Gathering and Analysis Project Description It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher first costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches.

327

Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

328

Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123 Guide describes the clarification of...

329

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

2 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2012 Report provides tables of present-value factors for use in the life-cycle cost analysis of capital...

330

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 | Department...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14 This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to...

331

Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Handbook Final Version 9-30-14  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This handbook provides procedures, information, examples, and tools to develop consistent and defensible life-cycle cost estimates (LCCE) and perform appropriate life-cycle cost analyses (LCCA) for capital projects. LCC Handbook – Final, September 2014

332

Life-Cycle Civil Engineering Biondini & Frangopol (eds) 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-46857-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adopted as a framework for designing and constructing pave- ment systems. Life cycle assessment (LCA of pavement systems. An integrated LCA and LCCA model (LCA- LCCA) was developed to provide sustainability indi disposal. LCA is an analytical technique for assessing poten- tial environmental burdens and impacts. LCA

Lepech, Michael D.

333

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

importation, or wastewater recycling. Identifying regionsWastewater Recycling Life-Cycle Inputs for Wastewater Recycling (Data Source: (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Guidance on Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Required by Executive Order 13123  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Guide describes the clarification of how agencies determine the life-cycle cost for investments required by Executive Order 13123.

335

An algorithm for a decomposition of weighted digraphs --with applications to life cycle analysis in ecology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ecology L. Sun M. Wang § Abstract In the analysis of organism life cycles in ecology, comparisons of life the decomposition was formalized by Wardle [Ecology 79(7), 2539-2549 (1998)]. However there are difficulties no such simple cycles are obtainable. When applied to life cycle analysis in ecology, the proposed method

Wang, Mei

336

Methodological approach towards sustainability by integration of environmental impact in production system models through life cycle analysis: Application to the Rioja wine sector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes the integration of life cycle analysis within the production system models as a tool for decision making (whether at the strategic, tactical or operational levels) attending not only economic and technical criteria but also the environmental ... Keywords: decision making, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, modeling and simulation, production systems, sustainability

Emilio Jiménez; Eduardo Martínez; Julio Blanco; Mercedes Pérez; Charmery Graciano

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of concrete – A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global climate change is one of the most significant environmental impacts at the moment. One central issue for the building and construction industry to address global climate change is the development of credible carbon labelling schemes for building materials. Various carbon labelling schemes have been developed for concrete due to its high contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, as most carbon labelling schemes adopt cradle-to-gate as system boundary, the credibility of the eco-label information may not be satisfactory because recent studies show that the use and end-of-life phases can have a significant impact on the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete in terms of carbonation, maintenance and rehabilitation, other indirect emissions, and recycling activities. A comprehensive review on the life cycle assessment of concrete is presented to holistically examine the importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG quantification of concrete. The recent published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products – requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication also mandates the use of cradle-to-grave to provide publicly available eco-label information when the use and end-of-life phases of concrete can be appropriately simulated. With the support of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other simulation technologies, the contribution of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete should not be overlooked in future studies.

Peng Wu; Bo Xia; Xianbo Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the NEPA and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report. Specifically, costs for high-level waste are found in this section, as well as supplemental costs for additional low-level waste and hazardous waste alternatives.

Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

BuildingPI: A future tool for building life cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditionally building simulation models are used at the design phase of a building project. These models are used to optimize various design alternatives, reduce energy consumption and cost. Building performance assessment for the operational phase of a buildings life cycle is sporadic, typically working from historical metered data and focusing on bulk energy assessment. Building Management Systems (BMS) do not explicitly incorporate feedback to the design phase or account for any changes, which have been made to building layout or fabric during construction. This paper discusses a proposal to develop an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) compliant data visualization tool Building Performance Indicator (BuildingPI) for performance metric and performance effectiveness ratio evaluation.

O'Donnell, James; Morrissey, Elmer; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac,Vladimir

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

340

Life cycle considerations in propulsion alternatives for fast vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast vessels are being built and operated for a large range of passenger-carrying applications. Fast cargo-carrying vessels are being considered in a variety of sizes as well. A major decision in design and construction of these vessels is the propulsion system; this decision has major impacts on the operation economics as well as the operational capabilities of the vessels. Factors involved in consideration of propulsion alternatives for fast vessels are examined, with emphasis upon the total life cycle operating implications of these factors. A methodology for considering the factors is suggested, and an example is presented with results of the consideration tradeoffs.

Luck, D.L. [General Electric Co., Evendale, OH (United States). GE Marine and Industrial Engines

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Electrical energy storage systems: A comparative life cycle cost analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy (namely wind energy and solar PV) may entail new challenges in power systems and more volatility in power prices in liberalized electricity markets. Energy storage can diminish this imbalance, relieving the grid congestion, and promoting distributed generation. The economic implications of grid-scale electrical energy storage technologies are however obscure for the experts, power grid operators, regulators, and power producers. A meticulous techno-economic or cost-benefit analysis of electricity storage systems requires consistent, updated cost data and a holistic cost analysis framework. To this end, this study critically examines the existing literature in the analysis of life cycle costs of utility-scale electricity storage systems, providing an updated database for the cost elements (capital costs, operational and maintenance costs, and replacement costs). Moreover, life cycle costs and levelized cost of electricity delivered by electrical energy storage is analyzed, employing Monte Carlo method to consider uncertainties. The examined energy storage technologies include pumped hydropower storage, compressed air energy storage (CAES), flywheel, electrochemical batteries (e.g. lead–acid, NaS, Li-ion, and Ni–Cd), flow batteries (e.g. vanadium-redox), superconducting magnetic energy storage, supercapacitors, and hydrogen energy storage (power to gas technologies). The results illustrate the economy of different storage systems for three main applications: bulk energy storage, T&D support services, and frequency regulation.

Behnam Zakeri; Sanna Syri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and conventional gas are not significantly...harmonized estimates of life cycle GHG emissions...unconventional gas used for electricity...combined cycle turbine (NGCC) compared...explanation of the remaining harmonization...evaluated shale gas LCAs: inclusion of missing life cycle stages...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that could be powered entirely by electricity using plug- in vehicles. Thus, plug-in vehicles have assessment Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a b s t r a c t We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas

Michalek, Jeremy J.

345

How car material life-cycle emissions are considered in environmental rating methodologies? Suggestion of expedite models and discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper reviews existing vehicle environmental rating methodologies worldwide and focuses on how these methodologies deal with alternative vehicle technologies (plug-in vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles) and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4) and pollutants (NOx, VOC, CO, SOx, PM10 and PM2.5) derived from embodied materials life cycle. United States, Mexico, Europe and Australia have public access data and websites with top 10 rankings. The ways the scores are calculated for each vehicle have differences in what regards the considered boundaries for the emissions analysis. In Europe, there is still not a unique rating methodology or ranking system, e.g., Belgium, Germany and United Kingdom have their specific scoring schemes. Multilinear regression models were developed as an attempt to estimate the vehicle embodied emissions as a function of vehicle lifecycle mileage, electricity mix, vehicle mass, battery mass and fuel cell power to cope with different production regions and different alternative vehicle technologies. The regression models were validated against Volkswagen life cycle assessments (LCAs), and compared against American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) – Green Book linear functions for material assessment and UK 12 material dataset for materials assessment. The developed models proved to be useful in applications related to rating methodologies using life-cycle concepts, with good reliability for comparisons considering the complexity of processes involved in vehicle materials life-cycle assessment.

Gonçalo N. Correia; Teresa P. Batista; Sara S. Marques; Carla M. Silva

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Simulation Model for the Waterfall Software Development Life Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Software development life cycle or SDLC for short is a methodology for designing, building, and maintaining information and industrial systems. So far, there exist many SDLC models, one of which is the Waterfall model which comprises five phases to be completed sequentially in order to develop a software solution. However, SDLC of software systems has always encountered problems and limitations that resulted in significant budget overruns, late or suspended deliveries, and dissatisfied clients. The major reason for these deficiencies is that project directors are not wisely assigning the required number of workers and resources on the various activities of the SDLC. Consequently, some SDLC phases with insufficient resources may be delayed; while, others with excess resources may be idled, leading to a bottleneck between the arrival and delivery of projects and to a failure in delivering an operational product on time and within budget. This paper proposes a simulation model for the Waterfall development proce...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published scientific literature contains many studies estimating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PVs). Despite the volume of published work, variability in results hinders generalized conclusions. Most variance between studies can be attributed to differences in methods and assumptions. To clarify the published results for use in decision making and other analyses, we conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies, harmonizing key performance characteristics to produce more comparable and consistently derived results. Screening 397 life cycle assessments (LCAs) relevant to PVs yielded 13 studies on crystalline silicon (c-Si) that met minimum standards of quality, transparency, and relevance. Prior to harmonization, the median of 42 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from those 13 LCAs was 57 grams carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44 to 73. After harmonizing key performance characteristics, irradiation of 1,700 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year (kWh/m{sup 2}/yr); system lifetime of 30 years; module efficiency of 13.2% or 14.0%, depending on module type; and a performance ratio of 0.75 or 0.80, depending on installation, the median estimate decreased to 45 and the IQR tightened to 39 to 49. The median estimate and variability were reduced compared to published estimates mainly because of higher average assumptions for irradiation and system lifetime. For the sample of studies evaluated, harmonization effectively reduced variability, providing a clearer synopsis of the life cycle GHG emissions from c-Si PVs. The literature used in this harmonization neither covers all possible c-Si installations nor represents the distribution of deployed or manufactured c-Si PVs.

Hsu, D. D.; O'Donoughue, P.; Fthenakis, V.; Heath, G. A.; Kim, H. C.; Sawyer, P.; Choi, J. K.; Turney, D. E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

An expandable software model for collaborative decision making during the whole building life cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Decisions throughout the life cycle of a building, from design through construction and commissioning to operation and demolition, require the involvement of multiple interested parties (e.g., architects, engineers, owners, occupants and facility managers). The performance of alternative designs and courses of action must be assessed with respect to multiple performance criteria, such as comfort, aesthetics, energy, cost and environmental impact. Several stand-alone computer tools are currently available that address specific performance issues during various stages of a building's life cycle. Some of these tools support collaboration by providing means for synchronous and asynchronous communications, performance simulations, and monitoring of a variety of performance parameters involved in decisions about a building during building operation. However, these tools are not linked in any way, so significant work is required to maintain and distribute information to all parties. In this paper we describe a software model that provides the data management and process control required for collaborative decision making throughout a building's life cycle. The requirements for the model are delineated addressing data and process needs for decision making at different stages of a building's life cycle. The software model meets these requirements and allows addition of any number of processes and support databases over time. What makes the model infinitely expandable is that it is a very generic conceptualization (or abstraction) of processes as relations among data. The software model supports multiple concurrent users, and facilitates discussion and debate leading to decision making. The software allows users to define rules and functions for automating tasks and alerting all participants to issues that need attention. It supports management of simulated as well as real data and continuously generates information useful for improving performance prediction and understanding of the effects of proposed technologies and strategies.

Papamichael, K.; Pal, V.; Bourassa, N.; Loffeld, J.; Capeluto, G.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model Agency/Company /Organization: National Energy Technology Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/results.asp?ptype=Models/Too References: NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model [1] NETL - Petroleum-Based Fuels Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis 2005 Baseline Model This model calculates the 2005 national average life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for petroleum-based fuels sold or distributed in the United

350

Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of ballast life-cycle cost and payback period  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper introduces an innovative methodology for evaluating the relative significance of energy-efficient technologies applied to fluorescent lamp ballasts. The method involves replacing the point estimates of life cycle cost of the ballasts with uncertainty distributions reflecting the whole spectrum of possible costs, and the assessed probability associated with each value. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses will help analysts reduce effort in data collection and carry on analysis more efficiently. These methods also enable policy makers to gain an insightful understanding of which efficient technology alternatives benefit or cost what fraction of consumers, given the explicit assumptions of the analysis.

McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin; Turiel, Ike; Hakim, Sajid; Fisher, Diane

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

0 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2010 Report describes the 2010 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing...

353

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Analysis-2013 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis-2013 Handbook describes the annual supplements to the NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special...

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive life cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Selected European Automobile Manufacturers Summary: Umweltinformatik 1.3. Users of LCA in the automotive industry According to the Life Cycle Initiative launched... of the...

355

Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Developing life-cycle phases for the DoDAF using ISO15704 Annex A (GERAM)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a development of the US Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) based on life-cycle concept of the Generalized Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology (GERAM) framework/ISO 15704:2000 requirements. Previous ... Keywords: DoDAF, Enterprise architecture, GERAM, ISO15704, Life-cycle

Kamal Chaharsooghi; Mohammad Ahmadi Achachlouei

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

A Cyberinfrastructure for Integrated Monitoring and Life-Cycle Management of Wind Turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Cyberinfrastructure for Integrated Monitoring and Life-Cycle Management of Wind Turbines Kay Abstract. Integrating structural health monitoring into life-cycle management strategies for wind turbines data) can effectively be used to capture the operational and structural behavior of wind turbines

Stanford University

358

Advanced Life Assessment Methods for Gas Turbine Engine Components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In combustion systems for aircraft applications, liners represent an interesting challenge from the engineering point of view regarding the state of stress, including high temperatures (up to 1500 °C) varying over time, high thermal gradients, creep related phenomena, mechanical fatigue and vibrations. As a matter of fact, under the imposed thermo-mechanical loading conditions, some sections of the liner can creep; the consequent residual stresses at low temperatures can cause plastic deformations. For these reasons, during engine operations, the material behaviour can be hardly non-linear and the simulation results to be time expensive. Aim of this paper is to select and implement some advanced material life assessment methods to gas turbine engine components such as combustor liners. Uniaxial damage models for Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF), based on Coffin-Manson, Neu-Sehitoglu and Chaboche works, have been implemented in Matlab®. In particular, experimental LCF and TMF results for full size specimens are compared to calibrate these models and to assess TMF life of specimens. Results obtained in different testing conditions have been used for validation. In particular, each model needs specific parameter calibrations to characterize the investigated materials; these parameters and their relation with temperature variation have been experimentally obtained by testing standard specimens.

Vincenzo Cuffaro; Francesca Curà; Raffaella Sesana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

U.S. Department of Energy Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project U.S. Department of Energy Releases Revised Total System Life Cycle Cost Estimate and Fee Adequacy Report for Yucca Mountain Project August 5, 2008 - 2:40pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released a revised estimate of the total system life cycle cost for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 2007 total system life cycle cost estimate includes the cost to research, construct and operate Yucca Mountain during a period of 150 years, from the beginning of the program in 1983 through closure and decommissioning in 2133. The new cost estimate of $79.3 billion, when updated to 2007 dollars comes to $96.2 billion, a 38 percent

360

Reducing California's Greenhouse Gas Emissions through ProductLife-Cycle Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product life-cycle optimization addresses the reduction ofenvironmental burdens associated with the production, use, andend-of-life stages of a product s life cycle. In this paper, we offer anevaluation of the opportunities related to product life-cycleoptimization in California for two key products: personal computers (PCs)and concrete. For each product, we present the results of an explorativecase study to identify specific opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions reductions at each stage of the product life cycle. We thenoffer a discussion of the practical policy options that may exist forrealizing the identified GHG reduction opportunities. The case studiesdemonstrate that there may be significant GHG mitigation options as wellas a number of policy options that could lead to life-cycle GHG emissionsreductions for PCs and concrete in California.

Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Worrell,Ernst

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT TANK TO WHEELS EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT TANK TO WHEELS EMISSIONS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION Prepared For: California to Tank, Criteria Pollutants, Multi-media impacts, EMFAC #12;#12;vii Table of Contents Acknowledgements

362

Summary and recommendations: Total fuel cycle assessment workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities of the Total Fuel Cycle Assessment Workshop held in Austin, Texas, during October 6--7, 1994. It also contains the proceedings from that workshop.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

364

Applying Human Factors during the SIS Life Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) are widely used in U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nonreactor nuclear facilities for safety-critical applications. Although use of the SIS technology and computer-based digital controls, can improve performance and safety, it potentially introduces additional complexities, such as failure modes that are not readily detectable. Either automated actions or manual (operator) actions may be required to complete the safety instrumented function to place the process in a safe state or mitigate a hazard in response to an alarm or indication. DOE will issue a new standard, Application of Safety Instrumented Systems Used at DOE Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, to provide guidance for the design, procurement, installation, testing, maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of SIS used in safety significant functions at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. The DOE standard focuses on utilizing the process industry consensus standard, American National Standards Institute/ International Society of Automation (ANSI/ISA) 84.00.01, Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industry Sector, to support reliable SIS design throughout the DOE complex. SIS design must take into account human-machine interfaces and their limitations and follow good human factors engineering (HFE) practices. HFE encompasses many diverse areas (e.g., information display, user-system interaction, alarm management, operator response, control room design, and system maintainability), which affect all aspects of system development and modification. This paper presents how the HFE processes and principles apply throughout the SIS life cycle to support the design and use of SIS at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities.

Avery, K.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

John Sullivan

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

366

Life Cycle analysis data and results for geothermal and other electricity generation technologies  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Life cycle analysis (LCA) is an environmental assessment method that quantifies the environmental performance of a product system over its entire lifetime, from cradle to grave. Based on a set of relevant metrics, the method is aptly suited for comparing the environmental performance of competing products systems. This file contains LCA data and results for electric power production including geothermal power. The LCA for electric power has been broken down into two life cycle stages, namely plant and fuel cycles. Relevant metrics include the energy ratio and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios, where the former is the ratio of system input energy to total lifetime electrical energy out and the latter is the ratio of the sum of all incurred greenhouse gases (in CO2 equivalents) divided by the same energy output. Specific information included herein are material to power (MPR) ratios for a range of power technologies for conventional thermoelectric, renewables (including three geothermal power technologies), and coproduced natural gas/geothermal power. For the geothermal power scenarios, the MPRs include the casing, cement, diesel, and water requirements for drilling wells and topside piping. Also included herein are energy and GHG ratios for plant and fuel cycle stages for the range of considered electricity generating technologies. Some of this information are MPR data extracted directly from the literature or from models (eg. ICARUS – a subset of ASPEN models) and others (energy and GHG ratios) are results calculated using GREET models and MPR data. MPR data for wells included herein were based on the Argonne well materials model and GETEM well count results.

Sullivan, John

367

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Life-cycle GHG emission Factors of Final Energy in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this manuscript, a model for the estimation of the life-cycle GHG emission factors of final energy and an empirical study of China is presented. A linear programming method is utilized to solve the problem that several forms of final energy are utilized in the life-cycle of one certain type of final energy. Nine types of final energy are considered, including raw coal, crude oil, raw natural gas, treated coal, diesel, gasoline, fuel oil, treated natural gas, and electricity. The results indicate that the life-cycle GHG emission factors of final energy in China slightly decreased in recent years.

Jiang Lixue; Ou Xunmin; Ma Linwei; Li Zheng; Ni Weidou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Freshwater Consumption in LCA. Environmental Science &of Freshwater Consumption in LCA. Environmental Science &Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) US 2002 (428) model. Carnegie

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European rapeseed and Brazilian soybeans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogenic greenhouse gas emissions linked to the life cycles of biodiesel derived from European 2008 Abstract Biogenic emissions of carbonaceous greenhouse gases and N2O turn out to be important determinants of life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases linked to the life cycle of biodiesel from European

371

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions ... Life cycle GHG emissions were found to decrease by less than 4% in almost all scenarios modeled. ... Resulting changes in fuel use, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are estimated. ...

Aranya Venkatesh; Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

372

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

373

TRPLSC-658; No of Pages 7 Review Life-cycle analysis and the ecology of biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuels have been proposed as an ecologically benign alternative to fossil fuels. There is, however, considerable uncertainty in the scientific literature about their ecological benefit. Here, we review studies that apply life-cycle analysis (LCA), a computational tool for assessing the efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of energy systems, to biofuel feedstocks. Published values for energy efficiency and GHG differ significantly even for an individual species, and we identify three major sources of variation in these LCA results. By providing new information on biogeochemistry and plant physiology, ecologists and plant scientists can increase the accuracy of LCA for biofuel production systems. Plant science in the energy industry Plant biomass as a source of liquid fuel for transportation

unknown authors

374

Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings Life-Cycle Analysis and Energy Efficiency in State Buildings < Back Eligibility State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heating Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Bioenergy Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Energy Sources Solar Water Wind Program Info State Missouri Program Type Energy Standards for Public Buildings Provider Office of Administration Several provisions of Missouri law govern energy efficiency in state facilities. In 1993 Missouri enacted legislation requiring life-cycle cost analysis for all new construction of state buildings and substantial

375

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows:...

376

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On May 29, 2014, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy announced the availability for public review and comment the report Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting...

377

Product Life Cycle, and Market Entry and Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A key characteristic of the product life cycle (PLC) is the depletion of the product’s market potential due to technological obsolescence. Based on this concept, we develop a stochastic model for evaluating market entry and exit decisions during...

Chi, Tailan; Liu, John

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Michael Wang, Senior Scientist, Energy Systems, Argonne National Laboratory

379

Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy  and  GHG performance of Chicago and New York is the Chicago and New York systems where energy and  emissions CO 2 e).  For New York, life?cycle energy and GHG emissions 

Chester, Mikhail V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Analyses of Algae Biofuels Production Transportation Energy The Issue Algae biofuels directly address the Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research fuels more carbonintensive than conventional biofuels. Critics of this study argue that alternative

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Component  Sources  Energy  (Sources, Energy, & GHG) GHG (CO 2 e)  GJ/veh.   GJ/veh.   GJ/veh.   GJ/veh.   MJ/an average trip. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 480 g

Chester, Mikhail V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Life-Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies.

383

A FMEA-Aided Equipment Life-Cycle-Cost Measurement System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research tries to establish an optimum life cycle cost (LCC) based strategy model of equipments’ purchasing and maintenance. The study integrates the technique of failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) and...

Chee-cheng Chen; Hong Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Life cycle and matrix analyses for re-refined Oil in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unstable market systems and consumer preferences for virgin oil have inhibited the development of waste oil re-refining in Japan. In this papery comparative life cycle inventories were developed for re-refining w...

Chie Nakaniwa; Thomas E. Graedel

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation 10.1073/pnas.1309334111...of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas...best-performing coal-fired generation under certain...

Garvin A. Heath; Patrick O’Donoughue; Douglas J. Arent; Morgan Bazilian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis- 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report describes the 2010 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities.

387

Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

Heath, G.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Highlights Hydrogen's Potential for Electrical Energy Storage (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in analyzing life-cycle costs for hydrogen storage in comparison with other energy storage technologies. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

144 Figure 63: Impact of Hydroelectricity on the Life-Cycle157 Figure 64: Impact of Hydroelectricity on the Water68 Table 14: Hydroelectricity-Related FWSE (Data Source: (

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fuel Life-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen vs. Conventional Transportation Fuels.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fuel life-cycle analyses were performed to compare the affects of hydrogen on annual U.S. light-duty transportation emissions in future year 2030. Five scenarios were developed… (more)

DeGolyer, Jessica Suzanne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Water Loss Control Using Pressure Management: Life-cycle Energy and Air Emission Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...

Jennifer R. Stokes; Arpad Horvath; Reinhard Sturm

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

A Framework to Analyze the Reduction Potential of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile manufacturers are increasingly obligated to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicle fleets. In this paper a framework to analyze the reduction potential of the life cycle CO2 emissions of ...

Christoph Herrmann; Karsten Kieckhäfer…

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Life Cycle Analysis System to Support D and D, Pollution Prevention, and Asset Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a life cycle analysis system (LCAS) developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) decision-making regarding deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), pollution prevention (P2), and asset recovery, and its deployment to analyze the disposition of facilities and capital assets. Originally developed for use at the Oak Ridge East Tennessee Technology Park, this approach has been refined through application at Ohio Operations Office sites and is now being deployed at a number of DOE sites. Programs such as National Metals Recycle, the D and D Focus Area, P2, and Asset Utilization are successfully using the system to make better decisions resulting in lower cost to the taxpayer and improved environmental quality. The LCAS consists of a user-friendly, cost-effective, and analytically-sound decision-aiding process and a complementary suite of automated tools to handle data administration and multiple criteria life cycle analysis (LCA). LCA is a systematic and comprehensive process for identifying, assessing, and comparing alternatives for D and D, P2, and asset recovery at government sites, and for selecting and documenting a preferred alternative. An LCA includes all of the impacts (benefits and costs) that result from a course of action over the entire period of time affected by the action. The system also includes visualizations that aid communication and help make decision-making transparent. The LCAS has three major components related to data collection, decision alternative assessment, and making the decisions. Each component is discussed in-depth using the example of deployment of the LCAS to support asset recovery.

Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Yuracko, K.L.

1999-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Impacts of the Manufacturing and Recycling Stages on Battery Life Cycles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

IMPACTS OF THE MANUFACTURING AND RECYCLING STAGES ON BATTERY IMPACTS OF THE MANUFACTURING AND RECYCLING STAGES ON BATTERY LIFE CYCLES J. B. Dunn 1 , L. Gaines 1 , M. Barnes 2 , and J.L. Sullivan 1 1 Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 362 Argonne, IL 60439-4815, USA 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering The Pennsylvania State University 157E Hammond Building University Park, PA 16802 Keywords: battery, materials, manufacturing, life cycle, recycling Abstract

395

Alternative water sources: Desalination model provides life-cycle costs of facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Story by Danielle Supercinski tx H2O | pg. 8 Alternative water sourcees Desalination model provides life-cycle costs of facility platform and design standards as DESAL ECONOMICS?, but created to analyze con- ventional surface water treatment... to determine the economic and financial life-cycle costs of building and operating four water treatment facilities in South Texas. One facility was the Southmost Regional Water Authority Regional Desalination Plant near Brownsville. Sturdi- vant said...

Supercinski, Danielle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Total Quality Commissioning for HVAC Systems to Assure High Performance Throughout the Whole Life Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOTAL QUALITY COMMISSIONING FOR HVAC SYSTEMS TO ASSURE HIGH PERFORMANCE THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE LIFE CYCLE By: Grahame E. Maisey, P.E., and Beverly Milestone, LEED AP Building Services Consultants INTRODUCTION Current HVAC systems... are not coming close to approaching life cycle performance expectations for energy, operation and maintenance, occupant comfort and productivity and longevity. HVAC systems in buildings claiming to be sustainable, with integrated, energy conscious design...

Maisey, G.; Milestone, B.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Life Cycle Analysis for the Walter H. Gage Residence The life cycle analysis (LCA) being carried out for this project is one of thirteen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The life cycle analysis (LCA) being carried out for this project is one of thirteen others that are being to the many uncertainties associated with carrying out LCA. Uncertainties and assumptions inherent this project is that the use of LCA on will most definitely be an important tool to be used for the future

398

Stochastic Life-cycle Analysis of Deteriorating Infrastructure Systems and an Application to Reinforced Concrete Bridges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposes RTLCA, a renewal theory based LCA model, to predict the life-cycle performance of deteriorating systems taking into account not only the life-time reliability but also the costs associated with operating a system. In addition, this research...

Ramesh Kumar, 1982-

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

399

Supporting the Full BPM Life-Cycle Using Process Mining and Intelligent Redesign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supporting the Full BPM Life-Cycle Using Process Mining and Intelligent Redesign Wil M.P. van der.aalst,m.netjes,h.a.reijers@tm.tue.nl Abstract. Business Process Management (BPM) systems provide a broad range of facilities to enact and manage operational business processes. Ideally, these systems should provide support for the complete BPM life

van der Aalst, Wil

400

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO TANK ENERGY INPUTS,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO TANK ENERGY INPUTS, EMISSIONS, AND WATER IMPACTS Prepared For be divided into two parts: · Well-to-Tank (WTT) Feedstock extraction, transport, storage, processing, distribution, transport, and storage · Tank-to-Wheels (TTW) Refueling, consumption and evaporation The full

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

FULL FUEL CYCLE ASSESSMENT WELL TO WHEELS ENERGY INPUTS,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, air toxics emissions, and multimedia impacts on a full fuel cycle basis for alternative-fueled vehicles is important when assessing the overall control, and assumptions regarding feedstock sources and fuel production conversion efficiency

402

Electrons, life and the evolution of Earth's oxygen cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled-compete denitrification, a new stable electron `market' emerged in which oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration of energy. The hallmark of biological energy transduction is non-equilibrium redox chemi- stry. Indeed

403

Contributing to Lowest Life Cycle Cost of High Speed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to enable constant production quality and high work safety Special developed machineries : Rail laying on rubber tyres #12;13 Repetitive construction interval of 2160 m in a 20 day cycle (single access tunnel) Production capacity 220 m linear slab track in15h Exceptional Track Quality Achieved ongoing Performance #12

Greenaway, Alan

404

Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near-term programmatic decisions affect life cycle costs and commitments. (authors)

Dunford, Gary [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)] [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)] [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States); Smith, Rick [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)] [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Life-cycle energy and emission analysis of power generation from forest biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Forest harvest residues, which include limbs, branches, and tree tops, have the potential to generate energy. This paper uses a life-cycle assessment to determine the energy input-to-output ratios for each unit operation in the use of these residues for power generation. Two preparation options for obtaining the biomass were evaluated. For Option 1, the forest residues were chipped at the landing, while for Option 2 they were bundled and chipped at the power plant. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were found for power plants sizes ranging from 10 to 300 MW. For power plants with capacities greater than 30 MW, the transportation of either bundles or woodchips to the power plant used the most energy, especially at larger power plant sizes. Option 1 used less energy than Option 2 for all power plant sizes, with the difference between the two becoming smaller for larger power plants. For the life-cycle GHG emissions, Option 1 ranges from 14.71 to 19.51 g-CO2eq/kW h depending on the power plant size. Option 2 ranges from 21.42 to 20.90 g-CO2eq/kW h. The results are not linear and are close to equal at larger power plant sizes. The GHG emissions increase with increasing moisture content. For a 300 MW power plant with chipping at the landing, the GHG emissions range from 11.17 to 22.24 g-CO2eq/kW h for moisture contents from 15% to 50%. The sensitivity analysis showed both energy use and GHG emissions are most sensitive to moisture content and then plant lifetime. For the equipment, both the energy use and GHG emissions are most sensitive to changes in the fuel consumption and load capacity of the chip van and the log-haul truck used to transport either bundles or wood chips to the power plant.

Amit Thakur; Christina E. Canter; Amit Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Accelerated quantification of critical parameters for predicting the service life and life cycle costs of chloride-laden reinforced concrete structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of corrosion resistant steels (instead of conventional carbon steels) and/or high performance concrete can increase the overall service life and can reduce the life cycle cost (LCC) of reinforced concrete (RC) structures exposed to chloride...

Pillai Gopalakrishnan, Radhakrishna

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

The association between research and development expenditure and firm performance: testing a life cycle hypothesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although prior studies provide evidence that investment in research and development (R&D) expenditure enhances a firm's performance, very little evidence is available on the impact of a firm's life cycle stages on the association between R&D expenditures and firm performance. We classify firms into three-life cycle stages, namely, growth, mature and stagnant, and choose four-life cycle classification variables which are dividends, sales growth, capital expenditure and firm age. Using 769-firm-year observations over a period of 11-years in Australia, we find that the abnormal returns to unexpected expensed R&D amounts are significantly negative. Further, our results suggest that market reaction to expensed R&D is more negatively pronounced during the stagnant phase of a firm's life cycle, suggesting that the market perceives that firms have limited prospects to derive benefits arising out of expensed R&D expenditures. The results suggest that the relationship between performance and investment in R&D is not linear but is moderated by a firm's life cycle which should be taken into account when making policy that is based on stock-based performance.

Kamran Ahmed; Mohammed Jinan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Life cycle study of coal-based dimethyl ether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) as a vehicle fuel is established for China. Its life cycle from well to wheel are divided into three phases. They are feedstock extraction, fuel production and fuel consumption in vehicle. The primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) of CBDME pathway are analyzed and compared with coal-based diesel (CBD) as a latent rival to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD). This study demonstrates that the LCA methodology is very suitable and effective for the choice of vehicle fuels. One result is that the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of coal-based vehicle fuel pathways is usually concentrated on fuel production stage. The percentages of CBDME and CBD pathways both exceed 60%. The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is helpful for coal-based vehicle fuel pathways to improve their global warming effect dramatically. Compared with CBD pathway, CBDME pathway consumes less PEC and emits less \\{GHGs\\} emission as well. Even though the CCS and CH4-fired generation are used, the advantages of CBDME are still kept. For saving petroleum energy and reducing global warming effect, CBDME has greater potential than CBD to substitute CPBD under current fuel synthesis technologies. If the hurdles such as the maturity of engine and vehicle technologies, corresponding regulations and standards and infrastructures are reliably solved, CBDME will have better prospect in China.

Liang Zhang; Zhen Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Estimation and Analysis of Life Cycle Costs of Baseline Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Geothermal Analysis Project Description In pursuit of the goal of reducing EGS costs, this project will facilitate the following: - A clear understanding of the current cost structure - Its dependence on markets - The benefits of innovation - The impact of synergistic process configurations, and - Widespread dissemination of the findings for use by the geothermal community

410

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle LCA can help determine environmental burdens from "cradle to grave" and facilitate more consistent comparisons of energy technologies. Figure 1. Generalized life cycle stages for energy technologies Source: Sathaye et al. (2011) Life cycle GHG emissions from renewable electricity generation technologies are generally less than those from fossil fuel-based technologies, based on evidence assembled by this project. Further, the proportion of GHG emissions from each life cycle stage differs by technology. For fossil-fueled technologies, fuel combustion during operation of the facility emits the vast majority of GHGs. For nuclear and renewable energy technologies, the majority of GHG emissions occur upstream of operation. LCA of Energy Systems

411

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5 5 (Rev. 5/10) Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2010 Annual Supplement to Amy S. Rushing NIST Handbook 135 and Joshua D. Kneifel NBS Special Publication 709 Barbara C. Lippiatt U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology Prepared for United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program April 2005 May 2010 ENERGY PRICE INDICES AND DISCOUNT FACTORS FOR LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 Data for the Federal Methodology for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis, Title 10, CFR, Part 436, Subpart A; and for the Energy Conservation Mandatory Performance Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings,

412

Improving building life-cycle information management through documentation and communication of project objectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most currently available computer tools for the building industry proffer little more than productivity improvement in the transmission of graphical drawings and textual specifications, without addressing more fundamental changes in building life-cycle information management. This paper describes preliminary research into the development of a framework for the documentation and communication of the project objectives of a building project. When implemented in an interactive networked environment, this framework is intended to promote multiple participant involvement in the establishment and use of a common set of explicit goals, from the earliest phase of a project throughout its life cycle. A number of potential applications for this framework are identified. The requirements for integrating this life-cycle information with a product model of the physical design of a building, in an attempt to document and communicate design intent, are also discussed.

Hitchcock, R.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2011  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

April 2005 April 2005 NISTIR 85-3273-26 (Rev. 9/11) Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2011 Annual Supplement to Amy S. Rushing NIST Handbook 135 and Joshua D. Kneifel NBS Special Publication 709 Barbara C. Lippiatt U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology Prepared for United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program September 2011 NISTIR 85-3273-26 ENERGY PRICE INDICES AND DISCOUNT FACTORS FOR LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2012 Data for the Federal Methodology for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis, Title 10, CFR, Part 436, Subpart A; and for the Energy Conservation Mandatory Performance Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings,

414

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of several life-cycle energy analyses of prospective electric vehicle batteries are presented. The batteries analyzed were: Nickel-zinc; Lead-acid; Nickel-iron; Zinc-chlorine; Sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte); Sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte); Lithium-metal sulfide; and Aluminum-air. A life-cycle energy analysis consists of evaluating the energy use of all phases of the battery's life, including the energy to build it, operate it, and any credits that may result from recycling of the materials in it. The analysis is based on the determination of three major energy components in the battery life cycle: Investment energy, i.e., The energy used to produce raw materials and to manufacture the battery; operational energy i.e., The energy consumed by the battery during its operational life. In the case of an electric vehicle battery, this energy is the energy required (as delivered to the vehicle's charging circuit) to power the vehicle for 100,000 miles; and recycling credit, i.e., The energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life-cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. The analysis of the life-cycle energy requirements consists of identifying the materials from which each battery is made, evaluating the energy needed to produce these materials, evaluating the operational energy requirements, and evaluating the amount of materials that could be recycled and the energy that would be saved through recycling. Detailed descriptions of battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling, and the operational energy for an electric vehicle, and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

Sullivan, D; Morse, T; Patel, P; Patel, S; Bondar, J; Taylor, L

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cycle Assessment 10(1), 68–76. NETL (2008). Development offossil carbon in the fuel (NETL, 2008). The upstream portionof the carbon in the fuel (NETL, 2008), which is directly

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Life cycle inventory for palm based plywood: A gate-to-gate case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oil palm industry heavily relies on the world market. It is essential to ensure that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the demands and expectation of these overseas customers on the environmental performance of the oil palm industry. Malaysia produces 13.9 million tons of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunk (OPT) frond and empty fruits bunches (EFB) annually. OPT felled in some oil palm plantations during replanting is transported to various industries and one such industry is the plywood factories. In order to gauge the environmental performance of the use of OPT as plywood a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted for palm based plywood. LCA is an important tool to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the heart of a LCA study. This LCI study has a gate-to-gate system boundary and the functional unit is 1 m3 palm plywood produced and covers three types of plywood; Moisture Resistance Plywood (MR) Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 1 (WBP Grade 1) at Factory D and Weather Boiling Proof Plywood Grade 2 (WBP Grade 2) at Factory E. Both factories use two different types of drying processes; conventional drying at Factory D and kiln drying at Factory E. This inventory data was collected from two factories (D and E) representing 40% of Malaysia palm plywood industry. The inputs are mainly the raw materials which are the oil palm trunks and tropical wood veneers and the energy from diesel and electricity from grid which is mainly used for the drying process. The other inputs include water urea formaldehyde phenol formaldehyde flour and melamine powder. The outputs are the biomass waste which consists of oil palm trunk off-cut and emission from boiler. Generally all types of plywood production use almost same materials and processing methods in different quantities. Due to the different process efficiency Factory D uses less input of raw materials and energy compared to Factory E.

Shamim Ahmad; Ismail Sahid; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Muhamad; Anis Mokhtar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Genomic DNA methylation at specific stages in the life cycle of two fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Member) John R, Gold (Member) J. A. ang (Head of De artment) August 1985 ABSTRACT Genomic DNA Methylation at Specific Stages in the Life Cycle of Two Fungi. (August 1985) Eldon Ralph Jupe, B. S. , Texas A df M University Chairman of Advisory... Member) John R, Gold (Member) J. A. ang (Head of De artment) August 1985 ABSTRACT Genomic DNA Methylation at Specific Stages in the Life Cycle of Two Fungi. (August 1985) Eldon Ralph Jupe, B. S. , Texas A df M University Chairman of Advisory...

Jupe, Eldon Ralph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Comment on “Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Automobile Fule/Propulsion Technologies”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comment on “Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Automobile Fule/Propulsion Technologies” ... It should also be noted that the GHG emissions attributable to electric vehicles are not reported at all, except in Table 1 where they are listed as comparable to the 1998 Ford Taurus, which serves as the baseline vehicle. ... A life-cycle perspective analyzed fossil fuels (conventional unleaded and reformulated gasolines, low S reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas [CNG]), biomass ethanol, and electricity together with current and advanced internal combustion engines (ICE, indirect [port] and direct injection, spark, and compression ignited) and elec. ...

Thomas P. Seager; Randy L. Brown

2001-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization.

Thapat Silalertruksa; Shabbir H. Gheewala; Masayuki Sagisaka; Katsunobu Yamaguchi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Life-cycle analysis and the ecology of Sarah C. Davis1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

far been used for bioenergy LCA [5,9]. We conducted a literature search of published studies, however, consider- able uncertainty in the scientific literature about their ecological benefit. Here, we review studies that apply life-cycle analysis (LCA), a computational tool for asses- sing the efficiency

DeLucia, Evan H.

423

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United Statesy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

delivery to large end-users? 6. How does natural gas power generation compare to coal-fired powerLife Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Natural Gas Extraction & Delivery in the United Statesy of natural gas in the United States? 3. Who uses natural gas in the U.S.? 4 Wh d t l f ?4. Where does natural

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

424

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric...efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in...average car vs. $0.004mi for an electric car on an average driving time and location...

Jeremy J. Michalek; Mikhail Chester; Paulina Jaramillo; Constantine Samaras; Ching-Shin Norman Shiau; Lester B. Lave

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

TOWARDS LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF WIND TURBINES BASED ON STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOWARDS LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF WIND TURBINES BASED ON STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING K. Smarsly1) strategies can enable wind turbine manufacturers, owners, and operators to precisely schedule maintenance behavior of wind turbines and to reduce (epistemic) uncertainty. Both the resistance parameters

Stanford University

426

The optimization of repair decision using life-cycle cost Parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of life cycle, operating time, inflation...of production, training, support equipment...development and technician training. These costs are...COST PARAMETERS 407 operating at various locations...of equipment and personnel, or alternatively...the independent selection of subsystem and......

LILIAN L. BARROS

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Quality engineering process for the Program Design Phase of a generic software life cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quality engineering process for the Program Design Phase of a generic software life cycle Witold.georgiadou@mdx.ac.uk Abstract This paper presents the design of a quality engineering process applicable in the program design place between the program designer and the software quality engineer. The paper also discusses

Suryn, Witold

428

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Analysis (LCA or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;LCA of Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Complex #12;2 LCA of Doug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports Centre Submitted by

429

Transportation Center Seminar... Life-Cycle Analysis of Transportation Fuels and Vehicle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with life-cycle analysis (LCA). In fact, LCA of transportation fuels and vehicle systems has a history of more than 30 years. Over this period, LCA methodologies have evolved and critical data have become readily available. This is especially true in the past ten years when LCA has been applied extensively

Bustamante, Fabián E.

430

WATER USE IN LCA Life cycle consumptive water use for oil shale development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER USE IN LCA Life cycle consumptive water use for oil shale development and implications Heidelberg 2013 Abstract Purpose Oil shale is an unconventional petroleum source that can be produced domestically in the USA. Oil shale resources are primarily located in Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, within

Jaramillo, Paulina

431

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Current Oil Sands Technologies: Surface Mining and In Situ Applications ... efficiency - gas turbine ?GT ... The studied uncertainties include, (1) uncertainty in emissions factors for petroleum substitutes, (2) uncertainties resulting from poor knowledge of the amt. of remaining conventional petroleum, and (3) uncertainties about the amt. of prodn. of petroleum substitutes from natural gas and coal feedstocks. ...

Joule A. Bergerson; Oyeshola Kofoworola; Alex D. Charpentier; Sylvia Sleep; Heather L. MacLean

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

432

Uncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses involving coal. Greenhouse gas emissions from fuel use and methane releases at coal mines, fuel.5 million metric tons of methane emissions. Close to 95% of domestic coal was consumed by the electricityUncertainty in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from United States Coal Aranya Venkatesh

Jaramillo, Paulina

433

Is otolith strontium a useful scalar of life cycles in estuarine shes?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Is otolith strontium a useful scalar of life cycles in estuarine ®shes? David H. Secor* , Jay R. In this paper, we review investigations that used otolith strontium (Sr) to chart estuarine movements of ®shes microchemistry; Strontium 1. Introduction Estuaries serve as important and productive nur- series for many marine

Rooker, Jay R.

434

Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles mustValuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits Jeremy J

Michalek, Jeremy J.

435

Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller...

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

BUILDINGPI: A FUTURE TOOL FOR BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS James O'Donnell1&2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) programs. Using IFC as a standard for data storage, building geometric data can be seamlessly transferredBUILDINGPI: A FUTURE TOOL FOR BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS James O'Donnell1&2 , Elmer Morrissey1 National Laboratory, Berkeley, 94720 ­ U.S.A. ABSTRACT Traditionally building simulation models are used

438

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the preparation of well pad consist of two parts: the carbon

Jaramillo, Paulina

439

Home ownership as wealth over the life cycle European Household Motivation for Residential Assets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Home ownership as wealth over the life cycle European Household Motivation for Residential Assets Current situation and future prospects INTRODUCTION Encouraging Home Ownership Most countries encourage a country's wealth and the proportion of home owners. 44 Homeownership rates in Western Europe (Source: EMF

Birmingham, University of

440

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis- 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Report provides tables of present-value factors for use in the life-cycle cost analysis of capital investment projects for federal facilities. It also provides energy price indices based on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts from 2012 to 2042.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propagating Uncertainty in Solar Panel Performance for Life Cycle Modeling in Early Stage Design. This work is conducted in the context of an amorphous photovoltaic (PV) panel, using data gathered from the National Solar Radiation Database, as well as realistic data collected from an experimental hardware setup

Yang, Maria

442

Electrochimica Acta 51 (2006) 20122022 A generalized cycle life model of rechargeable Li-ion batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­discharge model to simulate the cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries has been developed. The model and Newman [4] made a first attempt to model the parasitic reaction in Li-ion batteries by assuming a solvent and reversible capacity loss due to the growth and dissolution of SEI film in Li-ion batteries. Ramadass et al

Popov, Branko N.

443

The Role of Institutions in Transatlantic Employment Differences: A Life-Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Role of Institutions in Transatlantic Employment Differences: A Life-Cycle View Arnaud Chéron [2008] have acknowledged that any quantitative anal- ysis of transatlantic differences in the labor more particularly on a transatlantic comparison between France and the US: · Fact 1: The age

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Toward a more rigorous application of margins and uncertainties within the nuclear weapons life cycle : a Sandia perspective.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the conceptual framework that is being used to define quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) for application in the nuclear weapons (NW) work conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. The conceptual framework addresses the margins and uncertainties throughout the NW life cycle and includes the definition of terms related to QMU and to figures of merit. Potential applications of QMU consist of analyses based on physical data and on modeling and simulation. Appendix A provides general guidelines for addressing cases in which significant and relevant physical data are available for QMU analysis. Appendix B gives the specific guidance that was used to conduct QMU analyses in cycle 12 of the annual assessment process. Appendix C offers general guidelines for addressing cases in which appropriate models are available for use in QMU analysis. Appendix D contains an example that highlights the consequences of different treatments of uncertainty in model-based QMU analyses.

Klenke, Scott Edward; Novotny, George Charles; Paulsen Robert A., Jr.; Diegert, Kathleen V.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Life cycle cost analysis of wind power considering stochastic uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a long-term cost analysis of wind power and compares its competitiveness to non-renewable generating technologies. The analysis considers several important attributes related to wind intermittency that are sometimes ignored in traditional generation planning or LCOE (levelized cost of energy) studies, including the need for more nameplate capacity due to intermittency, hourly fluctuations in wind outputs and cost for reserves. The competitiveness of wind power is assessed by evaluating four scenarios: 1) adding natural gas generating capacity to the power grid; 2) adding coal generating capacity to the power grid; 3) adding wind capacity to the power grid; and, 4) adding wind capacity and energy storage to the power grid where an energy storage device is used to cover wind intermittency. A case study in the state of Michigan is presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology, in which a time horizon from 2010 to 2040 is considered. The results show that wind energy will still be more expensive than natural gas power plants in the next three decades, but will be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. Furthermore, if the costs of carbon emissions and environmental externalities are considered, wind generation will be a competitive option for grid capacity expansion.

Chiao-Ting Li; Huei Peng; Jing Sun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Title Development of the Household Sample for Furnace and Boiler Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-55088 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Whitehead, Camilla Dunham, Victor H. Franco, Alexander B. Lekov, and James D. Lutz Document Number LBNL-55088 Pagination 22 Date Published May 31 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated.The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

447

Evalua&ng Forest Biomaterials with Environmental Life Cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulosic ethanol and pyrolysis bio-oil C Accoun1ng: Model GHG emissions for use by Michigan Society of American Foresters October 3-4, 2013, Traverse City, MI David · The importance of forests in global carbon and greenhouse emissions · Case Study

448

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

train (size, efficiency, diesel or electric) can change whenthe type of train (diesel or electric) and the production ofdiesel (western United States and Canada) and electric (

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...than conventional fuels, mainly because...over conventional fuels before any tax exemptions...and their specific effects, thus missing a...been available, average market mixes have...estimating mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion...C. Hellweg S. , Effects of consumptive water use...

Stefanie Hellweg; Llorenç Milà i Canals

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

450

Life Cycle Assessment of Automobile/Fuel Options  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assuming that the demand response is proportional to price, this experience suggests that a further tripling of price would be required to induce drivers to choose a vehicle mix that averaged 4.7 L/100 km (50 mpg). ...

Heather L. MacLean; Lester B. Lave

2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

451

NREL: Energy Analysis - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Results...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA, as well as, the harmonization of unconventional gas published in the Proceedings of...

452

Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

October 30, 2009. Accepted November 17, 2009. Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil dependent on the costs of feedstock production, pyrolysis, and the value of C offsets. Biomass sources-3). Biochar is the stable, carbon- rich charcoal that results from pyrolysis of biomass materials. Used

Lehmann, Johannes

453

Supporting Information for: "Life cycle assessment of biochar systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feedstock transport to the pyrolysis facility S6 Biomass pre-processing S6 Slow pyrolysis: Biochar emissions S10 Pyrolysis plant construction and decommissioning S11 Construction materials S12 Electricity-pass harvest (2) technologies are not yet available. The stover removal rate is 50% of the above ground biomass

Lehmann, Johannes

454

Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...on environmental benefits and costs before money is invested in new...Acidification impacts of hydro and nuclear are not shown because they were negligible...1021/es2030577 16 BSI, BS EN 15804:2012 + A1:2013 Sustainability...mass, fuel consumption and costs of energy conversion equipments...

Stefanie Hellweg; Llorenç Milà i Canals

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

455

Identifying Improvement Potentials in Cement Production with Life Cycle Assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Average heat contribution from waste, excluding petcoke, is 18% (4) (see Supporting Information S3 for waste types). ...

Michael Elias Boesch; Stefanie Hellweg

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

456

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hvistendahl M (2007). Coal ash is more radioactive thanconcrete. 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), Covington, Kentuky,Feuerborn H-J (2005). Coal ash utilisation over the world

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Guayule Automobile Tires.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Natural rubber and rubber products can be produced from the guayule plant (Parthenium argentatum Gray), which is a low input perennial shrub native to Mexico… (more)

Rasutis, Daina

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The life cycle assessment of concrete manufacturing in Kuwait  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concrete is the second most widely used material in the world after water. Annually 9,120 million tons of concrete are produced, which is an equivalent of 1.3 tons of concrete per individual. As the world's primary ...

El Mostafa, Mayce (Mayce A.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

blood pressure drops, and the pulse rate increases. Dilation of blood vessels in the brain leads to headaches. Additionally, 70 acute circulatory collapse and fainting are also...

460

Life-cycle assessment of NAND flash memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SSD VS . HDD Primary energy consumption MJ 96 GB ?ashpaired trends, primary energy consumption per gigabyte (GB)have been Fig. 2. Primary energy consumption per memory

Boyd, Sarah; Horvath, A; Dornfeld, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "life cycle assessment" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

75&28;F) Cool (&6; 35&28;F) Relative humidity Low, usually hot and dry High, usually foggy Time air pollution peaks Noon to evening Early morning When the impacts of emissions are being...

462

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Belgium. April 2009. Engelhaupt, E. (2008). "Do compact fluorescent bulbs reduce mercury pollution?" Environmental Science & Technology 42(22): 8176-8176. Page 41 EPA (1996). EPA...

463

Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

global warming potential (GWP100a) CML2001 kg CO 2 -eq AP Acidification Potential air pollution acidification potential CML2001 kg SO 2 -eq POCP Photochemical Ozone...

464

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

05 1.0E-04 1) Disposal in landfill or lagoon 1.5E-04 2 . 0Disposal of fly ash in landfill or lagoon (based on ChapterTrain Inert material landfill, infrastructure Inert material

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economic allocation of less than 1% of the impacts from the coal-economic allocation should be used to allocate part of the impacts of the coal-economic system associated with fly ash should be set up in a way that will avoid any incentive to increase the coal-

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Vehicle Manufacturing Futures in Transportation Life-cycle Assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead Acid, Ni-Mh, and Li-ion battery manufacturing isMh battery, HEV Page 4 of 10 with a Li-ion battery, PHEV20with a Li-ion battery, PHEV60 with a Li-ion battery, and

Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Life Cycle Assessment of Offshore Wind Electricity Generation in Scandinavia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this study a Multi Regional Input Output model has been developed for the base year 2000, and thereafter extended and hybridized to enable… (more)

Tveten, Åsa Grytli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Fabrication and life cycle assessment of organic photovoltaics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Increasing demand for renewable energy has resulted in a new interest for alternative technologies such as organic photovoltaics. With efficiencies exceeding 8% for both polymer… (more)

Anctil, Annick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leads to a change in the energy mix, energy efficiency,production. Concerning the energy mix, and especially thesensitive to either the energy mix or to the transportation

Humbert, Sebastien

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Ethanol production in biorefineries using lignocellulosic feedstock – GHG performance, energy balance and implications of life cycle calculation methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Co-production of high-value biobased products in biorefineries is a promising option for optimized utilization of biomass. Lignocellulosic materials such as agricultural and forest residues have been identified as attractive alternative feedstocks because of their high availability and low resource demand. This study assessed the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance and energy balance of ethanol co-production with biogas and electricity in biorefineries using straw and forest residues. Two calculation methods were used: Method I (ISO), which applied the international standard for life cycle assessment, and Method II, which applied the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) methodology. These methods differed in allocation procedure, functional unit and system boundaries. Analysis of the importance of significant methodological choices and critical parameters showed that the results varied depending on calculation method, with co-product handling and the inclusion of upstream impacts from residue harvesting explaining most of the differences. Important life cycle steps were process inputs in terms of enzymes and changes in soil organic carbon content due to removal of residues. Ethanol produced from forest residues generally gave lower GHG emissions than straw-based ethanol. The GHG savings for both feedstocks were 51–84% relative to fossil fuel. Omission of upstream impacts from residue recovery in agriculture and forestry in the RED method means that it risks overlooking important environmental effects of residue reuse. Furthermore, the default allocation procedure used in the RED method (energy allocation) may need revision for biorefineries where multiple products with different characteristics are co-produced.

Hanna Karlsson; Pål Börjesson; Per-Anders Hansson; Serina Ahlgren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Methodology of CO{sub 2} emission evaluation in the life cycle of office building facades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction industry is one of the greatest sources of pollution because of the high level of energy consumption during its life cycle. In addition to using energy while constructing a building, several systems also use power while the building is operating, especially the air-conditioning system. Energy consumption for this system is related, among other issues, to external air temperature and the required internal temperature of the building. The facades are elements which present the highest level of ambient heat transfer from the outside to the inside of tall buildings. Thus, the type of facade has an influence on energy consumption during the building life cycle and, consequently, contributes to buildings' CO{sub 2} emissions, because these emissions are directly connected to energy consumption. Therefore, the aim is to help develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. The results, based on the parameters used in this study, show that facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle, followed by brick facades covered with compound aluminum panels or ACM (Aluminum Composite Material), facades using structural glazing and reflective glass and brick facades with plaster coating. On the other hand, the typology of facade that emits less CO{sub 2} is brickwork and mortar because its thermal barrier is better than structural glazing facade and materials used to produce this facade are better than brickwork and ACM. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to verify the accuracy of the results attained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This methodology is based in LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use an uncertainty analysis to verify the accuracy of the results attained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study three typologies of facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle.

Taborianski, Vanessa Montoro; Prado, Racine T.A., E-mail: racine.prado@poli.usp.br

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs.

Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-024 Site-Selection Process  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LIFE LIFE CYCLE ASSET MANAGEMENT Good Practice Guide GPG-FM-024 Site-Selection Process March 1996 Department of Energy Office of Field Management Office of Project and Fixed Asset Management This page intentionally left blank. Contents GPG-FM-024 March 1996 iii 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Site Selection, NEPA, and Comprehensive Land-Use Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1 Formal (Program Directed or Competed) Site Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.1 The Site-Selection Official . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.2 Site-Selection Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1.3 Determining Task Scope

474

LBNL-54244 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

44 44 Life-cycle Cost and Payback Period Analysis for Commercial Unitary Air Conditioners Greg Rosenquist, Katie Coughlin, Larry Dale, James McMahon, Steve Meyers Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 March 2004 This work was supported by the Office of Building Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. ii iii ABSTRACT This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results

475

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis-2013  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8 8 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2013 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 Amy S. Rushing Joshua D. Kneifel Barbara C. Lippiatt http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.85-3273-28 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology Prepared for United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program April 2005 NISTIR 85-3273-28 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2013 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 Amy S. Rushing Joshua D. Kneifel Barbara C. Lippiatt Applied Economics Office Engineering Laboratory http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.85-3273-28

476

A Review of Battery Life-Cycle Analysis: State of Knowledge and Critical Needs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Battery Life-Cycle Analysis: Battery Life-Cycle Analysis: State of Knowledge and Critical Needs ANL/ESD/10-7 Energy Systems Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is also available on paper to the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, for a processing fee, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box 62 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0062 phone (865) 576-8401 fax (865) 576-5728 reports@adonis.osti.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor UChicago Argonne, LLC, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express

477

Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 7 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2012 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 Amy S. Rushing Joshua D. Kneifel Barbara C. Lippiatt http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.85-3273-27 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Technology Administration National Institute of Standards and Technology Prepared for United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program April 2005 NISTIR 85-3273-27 Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis - 2012 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 Amy S. Rushing Joshua D. Kneifel Barbara C. Lippiatt Applied Economics Office Engineering Laboratory http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.85-3273-27

478

Data Life Cycle Labs, A New Concept to Support Data-Intensive Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many sciences the increasing amounts of data are reaching the limit of established data handling and processing. With four large research centers of the German Helmholtz association the Large Scale Data Management and Analysis (LSDMA) project supports an initial set of scientific projects, initiatives and instruments to organize and efficiently analyze the increasing amount of data produced in modern science. LSDMA bridges the gap between data production and data analysis using a novel approach by combining specific community support and generic, cross community development. In the Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCL) experts from the data domain work closely with scientific groups of selected research domains in joint R&D where community-specific data life cycles are iteratively optimized, data and meta-data formats are defined and standardized, simple access and use is established as well as data and scientific insights are preserved in long-term and open accessible archives.

van Wezel, Jos; Jung, Christopher; Stotzka, Rainer; Halstenberg, Silke; Rigoll, Fabian; Garcia, Ariel; Heiss, Andreas; Schwarz, Kilian; Gasthuber, Martin; Giesler, André

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Long-Term Shifts in Life-Cycle Energy Efficiency and Carbon Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

System-level life-cycle efficiency may decrease as mitigation efforts intensify, since low-efficiency renewable systems with high output have much lower GHG emissions than some high-efficiency fossil fuel systems. ... Climate policies accelerate both improvements in EF and the adoption of renewable technologies, resulting in considerably lower primary energy demand and GHG emissions. ... Schipper, L.; Saenger, C.; Sudardshan, A.Transport and carbon emissions in the United States: The Long View Energies 2011, 4, 563– 581 ...

Sonia Yeh; Gouri Shankar Mishra; Geoff Morrison; Jacob Teter; Raul Quiceno; Kenneth Gillingham; Xavier Riera-Palou

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

480

Quantifying Variability in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventories of Alternative Middle Distillate Transportation Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of variability in life cycle analysis (LCA) is inherent due to both inexact LCA procedures and variation of numerical inputs. ... Carbon storage in soils of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture up to 6 m depth (185 t ha-1) was not significantly lower than under a primary forest (196 t ha-1) but declined significantly under (semi-) permanent cultures (to 146-167 t ha-1). ...

Russell W. Stratton; Hsin Min Wong; James I. Hileman

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

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481

A building life-cycle information system for tracking building performance metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Buildings often do not perform as well in practice as expected during pre-design planning, nor as intended at the design stage. While this statement is generally considered to be true, it is difficult to quantify the impacts and long-term economic implications of a building in which performance does not meet expectations. This leads to a building process that is devoid of quantitative feedback that could be used to detect and correct problems both in an individual building and in the building process itself. One key element in this situation is the lack of a standardized method for documenting and communicating information about the intended performance of a building. This paper describes the Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS); designed to manage a wide range of building related information across the life cycle of a building project. BLISS is based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability. A BLISS extension to th e IFC that adds classes for building performance metrics is described. Metracker, a prototype tool for tracking performance metrics across the building life cycle, is presented.

Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast characteristics summary. Volumes 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the physical waste forms, hazardous waste constituents, and radionuclides of the waste expected to be shipped to the CWC from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site (assumed to extend to 2070). In previous years, forecast data has been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to two previous reports: the more detailed report on waste volumes, WHC-EP-0900, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary and the report on expected containers, WHC-EP-0903, FY1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Container Summary. All three documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on two main characteristics: the physical waste forms and hazardous waste constituents of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major generators for each waste category and waste characteristic are also discussed. The characteristics of low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A. In addition, information on radionuclides present in the waste is provided in Appendix B. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste is expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters. The range is primarily due to uncertainties associated with the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program, including uncertainties regarding retrieval of long-length equipment, scheduling, and tank retrieval technologies.

Templeton, K.J.

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

483