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Sample records for liberty chambers polk

  1. Fort Polk EEAP. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, R.D.; Scheuch, K.E.; Shishman, T.T.

    1986-07-17

    This Final Presentation provides a summary of the work done under Increments A, B, E, and G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for Fort Polk Louisiana. The work was accomplished under Contract DACA63-80-C-0166 plus modifications with the Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers. The vast majority of consumed energy at Fort Polk consists of electricity and natural gas. In FY75, Fort Polk used 48,399,000 kWh of electricity at a cost of $600,000. During that same period, 782,637 MCF of natural gas was purchased for $484,000. The total FY75 energy use was 1,368,327 MBtu.

  2. Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clearwater-Polk Elec Coop Inc Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 218-694-6241 Website: www.clearwater-polk.com Outage...

  3. Polk County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IRFA Iowa Stored Energy Park Energy Generation Facilities in Polk County, Iowa Metro Methane Recovery Facility Biomass Facility Places in Polk County, Iowa Alleman, Iowa Altoona,...

  4. An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract The ...

  5. Polk County, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 4 Climate Zone Subtype C. Registered Energy Companies in Polk County, Oregon Diesel Brewing Places in Polk County, Oregon Dallas, Oregon Eola, Oregon Falls City, Oregon...

  6. Polk Power Station Unit 1, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornick, M.

    2007-10-15

    Problems encountered during the demonstration phase of the Polk River IGCC plant have been resolved and the plant is now operating reliably.

  7. BIOMASS COGASIFICATION AT POLK POWER STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McDaniel

    2002-05-01

    Part of a closed loop biomass crop was recently harvested to produce electricity in Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station Unit No.1. No technical impediments to incorporating a small percentage of biomass into Polk Power Station's fuel mix were identified. Appropriate dedicated storage and handling equipment would be required for routine biomass use. Polk Unit No.1 is an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. IGCC is a new approach to generating electricity cleanly from solid fuels such as coal, petroleum coke, The purpose of this experiment was to demonstrate the Polk Unit No.1 could process biomass as a fraction of its fuel without an adverse impact on availability and plant performance. The biomass chosen for the test was part of a crop of closed loop Eucalyptus trees.

  8. Polk-Burnett Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk-Burnett Electric Coop Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (800) 421-0283 Website: www.polkburnett.com Twitter:...

  9. Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk County Rural Pub Pwr Dist Place: Nebraska Phone Number: (888) 242-5265 Website: www.pcrppd.com Outage...

  10. Village of Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Village of Polk, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Polk Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402.765.6471 Website: www.polkcounty.ne.gov Outage...

  11. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Boyd, Brian K.; Horner, Jacob A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-11-17

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Polk, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Polk took place on February 16, 2010.

  12. Polk County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Missouri Halfway, Missouri Humansville, Missouri Morrisville, Missouri Pleasant Hope, Missouri Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePolkCounty,Missouri&...

  13. Polk County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 30.7150882, -94.8105955 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  14. Polk County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Nebraska: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.1526688, -97.5680595 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  15. Polk County, Tennessee: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Tennessee: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.1371578, -84.564147 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  16. Polk County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Arkansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.5268097, -94.1513764 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  17. Polk County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk County, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.0132398, -85.1479364 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  18. Polk City, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polk City, Iowa: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.7713764, -93.7129997 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservic...

  19. Solar Liberty | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Solar Liberty Place: Buffalo, New York Zip: 14201 Product: Distributor of PV modules and provides certified installers with complete turnkey PV systems including...

  20. Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production Project LIBERTY Biorefinery Starts Cellulosic Ethanol Production September 3, 2014 - 12:05pm Addthis News Media ...

  1. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  2. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC Project -- Project status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.E.

    1998-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 25 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located southeast of Tampa in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round III award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation in conjunction with a General Electric combined cycle with an advanced combustion turbine. This IGCC configuration demonstrates significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. It was placed into commercial operation on September 30, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update of actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall capacity, heat rate, and availability. Tests of four alternate feedstocks were conducted, and the resulting performance is compared to that achieved on their base coal. This paper also provides an update of the general operating experiences and shutdown causes of the gasification facility throughout 1997. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit will be addressed, as well as plans for future additional alternate fuel test burns.

  3. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station IGCC Project: Project Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, T.E.; Shelnut, C.A.; McDaniel, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    Over the last ten years, Tampa Electric Company (TEC) has taken the Polk Power Station from a concept to a reality. The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round III award. The Polk Power Station achieved first fire of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. It was placed in commercial operation on September 30, 1996. Since start-up in July, 1996, significant advances have occurred in the design and operation of the entire IGCC train. This presentation will feature an up-to-the-minute update of actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall capacity, heat rate, and availability. Several different coal feedstocks have been tested and the resulting performance will be compared to that achieved on the base coal. This paper also provides an update of the general operating experiences and shutdown causes of the gasification facility. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit will be addressed, as well as plans for future additional alternate fuel test burns.

  4. Liberty Power Corp. (Connecticut) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Connecticut) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Liberty Power Corp. Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.comresid Outage Hotline:...

  5. Liberty Green Renewables LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Renewables LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Liberty Green Renewables, LLC Place: Georgetown, Indiana Zip: 47122 Sector: Biomass Product: Biomass power plant developer...

  6. Liberty Utilities (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities' program for commercial natural gas customers provides incentives for energy efficient equipment installations and upgrades. Incentives are available for boilers, furnaces, unit...

  7. Liberty Power Corp. (Maryland) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phone Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.comresid Twitter: https:twitter.comlibertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage...

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing Company - 025 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing Company (025) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year:...

  9. Liberty Turbine Test Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Test Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Liberty Turbine Test Wind Farm Facility Liberty Turbine Test Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  10. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  11. POET Project Liberty, LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POET Project Liberty, LLC POET Project Liberty, LLC Benefits of integrating an innovative lignocellulose-to-ethanol biochemical process into an existing dry-grind corn processing infrastructure. poet_factsheet_12_17_08.pdf (14.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Broin Companies Applicant Organization: Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: POET

  12. Geothermal heat pumps at Fort Polk: Early results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    At Fort Polk, LA an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) is being converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under a performance contract. At the same time other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow water outlets, and attic insulation are being installed. If these contracts and this technology are to be used widely in US Department of Defense (DoD) facilities and other public buildings, better data from actual projects is the key. Being the first GHP project of this type and size, Fort Polk proved to be very challenging for all concerned. To get from RFP to start of construction took several years. This hard work by others created a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to address many of the due diligence issues that delayed the Fort Polk project. So that future projects can move faster, an evaluation has been undertaken to address the following barriers: absence of a documented large-scale demonstration of GHP energy, demand, and maintenance savings (a barrier to acceptance by federal customers, performance contractors, and investors); newness of large-scale facility capital renewal procurements at federal facilities under energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) or traditional appropriations (lack of case studies); and variability in current GHP design tools (increases risks and costs for federal customers, performance contractors, investors and designers). This paper presents early energy and demand savings results based on data collection through January 1996.

  13. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station IGCC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase of its new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This unique project incorporates the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for electric power production. The project is being partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), as part of the Clean Coal Technology Program. This will help to demonstrate this state-of-the-art technology, providing utilities with the ability to use a wide range of coals in an efficient, environmentally superior manner. During the summer of 1994, TEC began site development at the new Polk Power Station. Since that time, most of the Site work has been completed, and erection and installation of the power plant equipment is well underway. This is the first time that IGCC technology will be installed at a new unit at a greenfield site. This is a major endeavor for TEC in that Polk Unit No. 1 is a major addition to the existing generating capacity and it involves the demonstration of technology new to utility power generation. As a part of the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE, TEC will also be demonstrating the use of a new Hot Gas Clean-Up System which has a potential for greater IGCC efficiency.

  14. Liberty Power Corp. (Delaware) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp. Place: Delaware Phone Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.com Twitter: https:twitter.comlibertypower Facebook: http:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp...

  15. Liberty Power Corp. (Illinois) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.comresid Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline: 1-866-769-3799 References:...

  16. Liberty Power Corp. (Pennsylvania) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.comresid Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline: 1-866-769-3799 References:...

  17. Liberty Power Corp. (California) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.com Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data...

  18. Liberty Power Corp. (Massachusetts) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phone Number: (1-866-769-3799) Website: www.libertypowercorp.com Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline: (1-866-769-3799)...

  19. Liberty Utilities Iowa High Efficiency Equipment Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities offers a rebate to its Iowa residential and small business customers for the purchase of high efficiency ENERGY STAR natural gas home heating and water heating equipment....

  20. Liberty, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Liberty is a village in Adams County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 18th congressional district.12...

  1. An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A

    1998-08-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M&V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHPS systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  2. An evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The US Army, in cooperation with an energy services company (ESCO), used private capital to retrofit 4,003 family housing units on the Fort Polk, Louisiana, military base with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The project was performed under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that provides for the Army and the ESCO to share the cost savings realized through the energy retrofit over the 20-year life of the contract. Under the terms of the contract, the ESCO is responsible for maintaining the GHPs and provides ongoing measurement and verification (M and V) to assure cost and energy savings to the Army. An independent evaluation conducted by the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory indicates that the GHP systems in combination with other energy retrofit measures have reduced annual whole-community electrical consumption by 33%, and natural gas consumption by 100%. These energy savings correspond to an estimated reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 22,400 tons per year. Peak electrical demand has been reduced by 43%. The electrical energy and demand savings correspond to an improvement in the whole-community annual electric load factor from 0.52 to 0.62. As a result of the project, Fort Polk saves about $450,000 annually and benefits from complete renewal of the major energy consuming systems in family housing and maintenance of those systems for 20 years. Given the magnitude of the project, the cost and energy savings achieved, and the lessons learned during its design and implementation, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other housing-related energy savings performance contracts in both the public and private sectors.

  3. EIS-0210: Tampa Electric Company-Polk Power Station (Adopted)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prepared this statement to fulfill its National Environmental Policy Act requirements with respect to the potential issuance of a permit to the Tampa Electric Company under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for the 1,150-MW Polk Power Station, a new pollutant source. The U.S. Department of Energy served as a cooperating agency in the development of this document due to its potential role to provide cost-shared financial assistance for a 260-MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle unit at the Power Station under its Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, and adopted the document by August 1994.

  4. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  5. Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste as a Feedstock Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste as a Feedstock August 28, 2014 ...

  6. Landform technology at fort polk, louisiana: lessons learned. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.L.; Grafton, J.D.; Mann, D.K.

    1992-03-01

    Fort Polk, LA, is located in central Vernon Parish in West-Central Louisiana, about 6 miles southeast of the town of Leesville. In early 1983, a combination of factors prompted Fort Polk to explore alternatives for disposing of sewage sludge and contaminated soil. Changes in Louisiana's Solid Waste Rules and Regulations ended the practice of disposing of contaminated soil in the installation's landfill. Changing regulations were also affecting the disposal of sewage sludge. The technology investigated in this research is landfarming, a treatment process in which waste is mixed with the surface soil and is degraded, transformed, or immobilized. The surface soil is used as the treatment medium and the process is based primarily on the principle of aerobic decomposition of organic wastes. Compared to other land disposal treatments such as landfills and surface impoundments, landfarming has the potential to reduce monitoring and maintenance costs, as well as cleanup liabilities. Because of these reduced costs and liabilities, and the relatively low initial and operating costs, landfarming has received much attention as an ultimate disposal alternative.

  7. QER- Comment of Liberty Goodwin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    . ****************************************************************************** ********* SUBMITTED BY: LIBERTY GOODWIN, CO-OWNER, (WITH PAUL KLINKMAN) KLINKMAN SOLAR DESIGN (KSD), P.O. Box 40572, Providence, RI 02940, Tel. 401-351-9193, E-Mail: info@klinkmansolar.com, Website: www.klinkmansolar.com ******************************************************************************

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing Company

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - 025 Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing Company - 025 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Liberty Aircraft Manufacturing Company (025) Regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of New York. More information at http://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0201184&msspp=med Designated Name: Not Designated under FUSRAP Alternate Name: Liberty Industrial Finishing Location: Long Island, New York (alternate location: Farmingdale, New York) Evaluation Year: Not

  9. Liberty Power Corp. (Rhode Island) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Rhode Island Website: www.libertypowercorp.combusin Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline: 1-800-465-1212 Outage Map:...

  10. Liberty County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Liberty County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

  11. Liberty Utilities (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities offers incentives and technical support to help customers implement energy efficiency upgrades to existing homes or build an ENERGY STAR certified home. Eligible equipment...

  12. Liberty County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Places in Liberty County, Georgia Allenhurst, Georgia Flemington, Georgia Fort Stewart, Georgia Gumbranch, Georgia Hinesville, Georgia Midway, Georgia Riceboro, Georgia...

  13. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  14. Liberty Utilities- Residential and Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities provides a number of general rebate offerings to customers under the company's Residential Firm Service Rate or the Small Firm General Service Rate. Through this program, rebates...

  15. Liberty Utilities (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liberty Utilities offers qualified commercial customers zero interest financing for energy efficiency improvements. Customers may borrow up to $50,000 per project and up to $150,000 per year. Loans...

  16. Liberty Power Corp. (New York) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp. Place: New York Phone Number: 1-866-769-3799 Website: www.libertypowercorp.com Twitter: @libertypower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comLibertyPowerCorp Outage Hotline:...

  17. POET-DSM: Project Liberty | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... is used to generate the thermal power needed by Project LIBERTY-and much of that power required by the adjacent ... to POET's existing first-generation corn ethanol plant in ...

  18. National Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument National Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument Overview This energy savings performance contract (ESPC) focuses on improvements to the infrastructure, with the addition of energy-efficient lighting, variable-speed drives, and installation of energy management control systems. The contractor, CES/Way, is investing $1 million, and the utility, Public Service Electric & Gas Company, will provide a rebate of $1.3 million. The

  19. National Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy National Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument National Park Service Statue of Liberty National Monument Overview This energy savings performance contract (ESPC) focuses on improvements to the infrastructure, with the addition of energy-efficient lighting, variable-speed drives, and installation of energy management control systems. The contractor, CES/Way, is investing $1 million, and the utility, Public Service Electric & Gas Company, will provide a rebate of $1.3

  20. Target Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Who Partners with NIF? FAQs Visit Us home about how nif works beamline target chamber Target Chamber The "Grand Central Station" of the National Ignition Facility is the ...

  1. Methodology for the evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.; White, D.L.; Huang, H.L.

    1998-03-01

    The US Army and a private energy service company are developing a comprehensive energy efficiency project to upgrade the family housing at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The project includes converting the space conditioning systems of more than 4,000 housing units to geothermal (or ground-source) heat pumps (GHPs). This interim report describes the methodology of the evaluation associated with this project, including the field monitoring that has been conducted at the base.

  2. Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) Fort Polk airfield lighting; lighting retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing lighting types and levels at three different maintenance hangars (Buildings. No. 4262, No. 4295, and No. 4297) at Fort Polk and to make recommendations for the most economical and preferred new lighting fixtures, arrangements, and method of control. The Life Cycle Cost In Design (LCCID) program was used to determine the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) for the analyzed retrofit for a 20 year study life.

  3. Exposure chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure chamber includes an imperforate casing having a fluid inlet at the top and an outlet at the bottom. A single vertical series of imperforate trays is provided. Each tray is spaced on all sides from the chamber walls. Baffles adjacent some of the trays restrict and direct the flow to give partial flow back and forth across the chambers and downward flow past the lowermost pan adjacent a central plane of the chamber.

  4. Geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Gordon, R.; Giffin, T.

    1997-08-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk ESPC was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the ESPC has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk ESPC can provide a model for other ESPCs in both the public and the private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the ESPC was engineered and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the US Army) and the energy services company (ESCO) which is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, ESCOs and investors in the implementation of future ESPCs. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  5. Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Patrick; Shonder, John A; Gordon, Richard; Giffin, Tom

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of 4,003 military family housing units have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorecent lights, low-flow shower heads, and attic insulation, were installed. An independent evaluation of the Fort Polk energy savings performance contract was carried out. Findings indicate that the project has resulted in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing, for a typical meteorological year. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6,761 kW, which is 40.2% of the pre-retrofit peak demand. Natural gas savings are about 260,000 therms per year. In addition, the energy savings performance contract has allowed the Army to effectively cap its future expenditures for family housing HVAC maintenance at about 77% of its previous costs. Given these successful results, the Fort Polk performance contract can provide a model for other contracts in both the public and private sectors. The purpose of this paper is to outline the method by which the contract was engineed and implemented, both from the standpoint of the facility owner (the U.S. Army) and the energy services company that is carrying out the contract. The lessons learned from this experience should be useful to other owners, service companies, and investors in the implementation of future service contracts. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and not to be mistaken for the 'contract' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in the indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  6. Exposure chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R.

    1980-01-01

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  7. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  8. Orientation study in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karfunkel, B.S.

    1982-05-01

    An orientation study was conducted in Hillsborough and Polk Counties, west-central Florida, in preparation for a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. The study was conducted by the Savannah River Laboratory as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE). A total of 60 surface sites and 294 ground water sites were sampled. The study includes field data and neutron activation analyses for uranium and supplemental elements, as well as determination of helium by mass spectroscopy. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  9. Energy engineering analysis program, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Pre-final executive summary, increment `f`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1987-11-01

    Executive Order 12003, dated 19 July 1977, initiated the U.S. Army`s energy conservation effort. Specifically, the Executive Order led to the development of the Army Facilities Energy Plan which directs Army Staff and Major Army Commands to develop detailed implementation plans for energy conservation. As a result of these directives, the Fort Worth District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted for an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The EEAP included Increments `A`, `B`, `E`, and `O`.

  10. Wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  11. Energy Engineering Analysis Program, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Final executive summary, increment `f`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-06-01

    Executive Order 12003, dated 19 July 1977, initiated the U.S. Army`s energy conservation effort. Specifically, the Executive Order led to the development of the Army Facilities Energy Plan which directs Army Staff and Major Army Commands to develop detailed implementation plans for energy conservation. As a result of these directives, the Fort Worth District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted for an Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The EEAP included Increments `A`, `B`, `E`, and `G`. To accomplish the intent of Increment `P`, namely, providing low cost/no cost energy savings recommendations in the form of specific, practical instructions for use by the Facility Engineer, the following general steps were taken: (1) Consider treasures identified in Detailed Scope of Work. (2) identify other potential Low Cost/No Cost energy Conservation Measures (ECM) through discussions with Fort Polk personnel and field surveys by Graham Associates engineers. (3) Review Increments `A`, `B`, and `G` for ECM`s within the Facility Engineer`s funding authority; $200,000 for alteration projects and $1,000,000 for maintenance and repair type work. (4) Evaluate ECM`s using relevant data for other Increments of the ESAP, and develop new data where appropriate.

  12. Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project in Fort Polk's Utility Bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08

    Federal agencies have implemented many energy efficiency projects over the years with direct funding or alternative financing vehicles such as energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). While it is generally accepted that these projects save energy and costs, the savings are usually not obvious in the utility bills. This is true for many valid technical reasons, even when savings are verified in other ways to the highest degree of certainty. However, any perceived deficiency in the evidence for savings is problematic when auditors or other observers evaluate the outcome of energy projects and the achievements of energy management programs. This report discusses under what circumstances energy savings should or should not be evident in utility bills. In the special case of a large ESPC project at the Army's Fort Polk, the analysis of utility bills carried out by the authors does unequivocally confirm and quantify savings. The data requirements and methods for arriving at definitive answers through utility bill analysis are demonstrated in our discussion of the Fort Polk project. The following paragraphs address why the government generally should not expect to see savings from ESPC projects in their utility bills. We also review lessons learned and best practices for measurement and verification (M&V) that can assure best value for the government and are more practical, straightforward, and cost-effective than utility bill analysis.

  13. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  14. McCullough to Liberty fiber optics project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to replace an existing overhead static wire with a shield wire that contains optical fibers (OPGW) on transmission lines from McCullough Substation, south of Las Vegas, Nevada, to Liberty Substation near Phoenix, Arizona. The replacement will occur on the McCullough-Davis, Davis-Parker No. 2, and Parker-Liberty No. 1 230-kV transmission lines. Western is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the lines. Western prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) entitled ``McCullough to Liberty Fiber Optics Project`` (DOE/EA-1202). The EA contains the analysis of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the OPGW. Based on the analysis in the EA, Western finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. The preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and therefore, Western is issuing this Findings of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walenta, Albert H.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

  16. Ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walenta, A.H.

    An ionization chamber is described which has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionizes the gas.

  17. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  18. Energy Engineering Analysis Program - Fort Polk, Louisiana. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-03-01

    The CRS Group, Inc. is pleased to submit this Final Report covering Increments A, B, E, and G of the Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP) for Fort Polk, Louisiana work accomplished under Contract DACA63-80-C-0166 plus modifications with the Fort Worth District, Corps of Engineers. The work presented in these volumes presents the results in which 32 energy conserving measures (ECM`s) have been investigated for ECIP potential for Increments A (existing buildings including Family Housing) and B (existing utilities and energy distribution systems and a centralized Energy Monitoring and Control System-EMCS). Additionally, five scenarios for implementation of a Central Energy Plant (CEP) were studied under Increment E and an analysis of using waste POL as a fuel source in three scenarios was made. Four projects were analyzed under Increment G to identify additional energy savings.

  19. The evaluation of a 4000-home geothermal heat pump retrofit at Fort Polk, Louisiana: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.; Shonder, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    This report documents an independent evaluation of an energy retrofit of 4,003 family housing units at Fort Polk, Louisiana, under an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Replacement of the heating, cooling, and water heating systems in these housing units with geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) anchored the retrofit; low-flow shower heads and compact fluorescent lighting were also installed, as well as attic insulation where needed. Statistically valid findings indicate that the project will save 25.8 million kWh, or 32.5% of the pre-retrofit whole-community electrical consumption, and 100% of the whole-community natural gas previously used for space conditioning and water heating (260,000 therms) in a typical meteorological year. At the end-use level, the GHPs were found to save about 42% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption for heating, cooling, and water heating in housing units that were all-electric in the pre-retrofit period. This report also demonstrates an improved method of predicting energy savings. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-retrofit energy use data collected in the field, the method predicted actual energy savings on one of the electric feeders at Fort Polk with a very high degree of accuracy. The accuracy of this model was in turn dependent on data-calibrated models of the geothermal heat pump and ground heat exchanger that are described in this report. In addition this report documents the status of vertical borehole ground heat exchanger (BHEx) design methods at the time this project was designed, and demonstrates methods of using data collected from operating GHP systems to benchmark BHEx design methods against a detailed engineering model calibrated to date. The authors also discuss the ESPC`s structure and implementation and how the experience gained here can contribute to the success of future ESPCs.

  20. Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a Feedstock | Department of Energy for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste as a Feedstock Grand Opening for Project LIBERTY: Nation's First Plant to Use Corn Waste as a Feedstock August 28, 2014 - 12:33pm Addthis POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY in Emmetsburg, Iowa, will celebrate its grand opening September 3, 2014, becoming the first commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol plant to use corn waste as a feedstock. Developed through a joint venture between POET LLC in Sioux

  1. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  2. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  3. FIA-16-0024- In the Matter of the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On April 1, 2016, OHA issued a decision denying an appeal from a FOIA determination issued by the Office of Information Resources (OIR). In the Appeal, the American Civil Liberties Foundation ...

  4. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station Unit Number 1. Annual report, January--December, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report satisfies the requirements of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-91MC27363, novated as of March 5, 1992, to provide an annual update report on the year`s activities associated with Tampa Electric Company`s 250 MW IGCC demonstration project for the year 1993. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Approximately 50% of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 900 F and passed through a moving bed of zinc-based sorbent which removes sulfur containing compounds from the syngas. The remaining portion of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 400 F for conventional acid gas removal. Sulfur-bearing compounds from both cleanup systems are sent to a conventional sulfuric acid plant to produce a marketable, high-purity sulfuric acid by-product. The cleaned medium-BTU syngas from these processes is routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the combustion section of the combustion turbine. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam at three pressure levels for use throughout the integrated process. A highly modular, microprocessor-based distributed control system (DCS) is being developed to provide continuous and sequential control for most of the equipment on PPS-1.

  5. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  6. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-07-01

    Polk Power has decided that the Texaco gasification unit will not be sold to a third party. Therefore, including the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement is not an issue any more. The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised several times in this quarter. Polk power is making comments on the last draft that Texaco sent to them. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

  7. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTNG OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-04-01

    The cooperative agreement between Texaco and Polk Power has been revised by Polk Power and ChevronTexaco several times already. Lawyers from both Polk Power and ChevronTexaco are in the process to include the issues related to the ownership transfer of the Texaco gasification unit in the agreement and finalize the draft. The modification fieldwork and testing will start once the cooperative agreement is signed with Polk Power.

  8. Comparison of practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods to a Fort Polk data/model benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    The results of five practical vertical ground heat exchanger sizing programs are compared against a detailed simulation model that has been calibrated to monitored data taken from one military family housing unit at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The calibration of the detailed model to data is described in a companion paper. The assertion that the data/detailed model is a useful benchmark for practical sizing methods is based on this calibration. The results from the comparisons demonstrate the current level of agreement between vertical ground heat exchanger sizing methods in common use. It is recommended that the calibration and comparison exercise be repeated with data sets from additional sites in order to build confidence in the practical sizing methods.

  9. Project Liberty: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00245

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E. J.

    2010-08-01

    NREL hosted two teams of POET Project Liberty analysts for week-long biomass compositional analysis (wet chemical analysis) classes (one in 2008, one in 2009). NREL also performed biomass compositional on over 70 samples of corn stover feedstock and pretreated corn stover provided by POET.

  10. EIS-0100: Liberty-Coolidge 230-kV Transmission Line, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Western Area Power Administration prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic implications of various alternatives associated with an upgrade of electrical transmission capability between the Liberty and Coolidge Substations.

  11. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  12. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  13. Kathy Chambers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kathy Chambers About Us Kathy Chambers - Senior Science and Technical Information Specialist, OSTI Most Recent by Kathy Chambers A Shining Example of Dr. King's legacy January 9

  14. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  15. Health assessment for Cedartown Industries, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD95840674. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-29

    The Cedartown Industries, Inc. site has been proposed for the National Priorities List (NPL) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The 7-acre site is located in Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, in the northwest part of the State. In 1986, one sediment sample from an on-site impoundment and two soil samples (one background) were collected on-site and analyzed by EPD. Only Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity testing was performed on these samples. The test which measures the concentration of leachate generated from the soil showed leachate with lead concentrations up to 720 parts per million (ppm) and cadmium concentrations up to 1.4 ppm. Based on the information reviewed, ATSDR has concluded that the site is of potential public health concern because humans may be exposed to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section above, human exposure to lead may occur via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with surface water, sediments, soils, ground water, air, and food-chain entities.

  16. Estimated maintenance cost savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. These retrofits were performed by an energy services company at no up-front cost to the Army. The company has also assumed responsibility for maintenance of all the equipment installed. In return, it receives a percentage of the energy and maintenance savings realized by the Army. In developing the energy savings performance contract, the Army estimated its pre-retrofit maintenance costs from bids received on a request for proposals. In this paper, a more rigorous cost estimate is developed, based on a survey of maintenance records for the pre-retrofit HVAC equipment. The reliability of the equipment is also estimated using an actuarial method to determine the number of units requiring replacement each year and the effect of these replacements on annual maintenance costs.

  17. Low-risk and cost-effective prior savings estimates for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, the authors have collected energy use data which allowed them to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. They believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was totaled, and by adjusting thermostat setpoints and outdoor air infiltration parameters, the models were matched to field-collected energy consumption data for the entire feeder. The energy conservation measures were then implemented in the calibrated model: the air source heat pumps were replaced by geothermal heat pumps with desuperheaters; hot water loads were reduced to account for the low-flow shower heads; and lighting loads were reduced to account for fixture delamping and replacement with compact fluorescent lights. The analysis of pre- and post-retrofit data indicates that the retrofits have saved 30.3% of pre-retrofit electrical energy consumption on the feeder modeled in this paper.

  18. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  19. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Northrup, M. Allen; Beeman, Barton V.; Benett, William J.; Hadley, Dean R.; Landre, Phoebe; Lehew, Stacy L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  20. Public health assessment for Petro-Chemical, Inc. (Turtle Bayou) Liberty, Liberty County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980873350. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-30

    The Petro-Chemical Systems, Inc. site, located near Liberty, Texas, is a site where unauthorized disposal of petroleum-based oils has taken place. Although there is evidence of past exposure to site contaminants, the best available evidence does not indicate that humans are currently being exposed to site contaminants at levels that could cause adverse health effects. Contaminated ground water, surface water, soils, and surface water sediments have been found on the site. Although sampling was done for 144 priority pollutants, the primary contaminants of concern are benzene, ethylbenzene, xylene, naphthalene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and lead. Because the greatest threat to public health would be contamination of drinking water, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has recommended that necessary actions are taken to insure that private wells do not become contaminated with site contaminants.

  1. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  2. Improved wire chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  3. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  4. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  5. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  6. Low-Risk and Cost-Effective Prior Savings Estimates for Large-Scale Energy Conservation Projects in Housing: Learning from the Fort Polk GHP Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1997-08-01

    Many opportunities exist for large-scale energy conservation projects in housing: military housing, federally-subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers) to name a few. Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention, as a means to implement such projects. This paper proposes an improved method for prior (to construction) savings estimates for these projects. More accurate prior estimates reduce project risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction legal disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. The proposed approach to prior estimates is verified against data from Fort Polk, LA. In the course of evaluating the ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana, we have collected energy use data - both at the electrical feeder level and at the level of individual residences - which allowed us to develop calibrated engineering models which accurately predict pre-retrofit energy consumption. We believe that such calibrated models could be used to provide much more accurate estimates of energy savings in retrofit projects, particularly in cases where the energy consumption of large populations of housing can be captured on one or a few meters. The improved savings estimating approach described here is based on an engineering model calibrated to field-collected data from the pre-retrofit period. A dynamic model of pre-retrofit energy use was developed for all housing and non-housing loads on a complete electrical feeder at Fort Polk. The feeder serves 46 buildings containing a total of 200 individual apartments. Of the 46 buildings, there are three unique types, and among these types the only difference is compass orientation. The model included the heat transfer characteristics of the buildings, the pre-retrofit air source heat pump, a hot water consumption model and a profile for electrical use by lights and other appliances. Energy consumption for all 200 apartments was

  7. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  8. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  9. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2003-10-01

    Polk Power and ChevronTexaco have signed the cooperative agreement at the end of reporting period. ChevronTexaco is shipping the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power will start the modification fieldwork and installation of the system. The testing will start when the next opportunity is available.

  10. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Smith, Graham; Mahler, George J.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  11. Ionization chamber dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renner, Tim R.; Nyman, Mark A.; Stradtner, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    A method for fabricating an ion chamber dosimeter collecting array of the type utilizing plural discrete elements formed on a uniform collecting surface which includes forming a thin insulating layer over an aperture in a frame having surfaces, forming a predetermined pattern of through holes in the layer, plating both surfaces of the layer and simultaneously tilting and rotating the frame for uniform plate-through of the holes between surfaces. Aligned masking and patterned etching of the surfaces provides interconnects between the through holes and copper leads provided to external circuitry.

  12. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Mid-South Wood Products, Polk County, Arkansas, November 1986. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    The Mid-South Wood Products site is located in Polk County, Arkansas, approximately 1/2 mile southwest of Mena, Arkansas. The 57-acre site includes the following areas: the Old Plant site, the Small Old Pond and Old Pond areas, the North and South Landfarms, the landfill, Clear Lake and an existing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment plant. The Old Plant site was used to treat wood with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote; the Small Old Pond was the original impoundment for waste PCP and creosote. These two areas have been covered with soil. The Old Pond area was used to store PCP and creosote sludge and has since been graded and covered with soil; materials from the Old Pond were spread over the Landfarm areas and mixed into the soil; the Landfill area contains deposits of sawdust, woodchips, and other waste-wood products; Clear Lake receives runoff from all the above areas; the CCA treatment plant contains an ongoing wood-treating operation where the surface drainage from the plant is put in sumps.

  14. A high rate proportional chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.; Fraszer, W.; Openshaw, R.; Sheffer, G.; Salomon, M.; Dew, S.; Marans, J.; Wilson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Gas mixtures with high specific ionization allow the use of small interelectrode distances while still maintaining full efficiency. With the short electron drift distances the timing resolution is also improved. The authors have built and operated two 25 cm/sup 2/ chambers with small interelectrode distances. Also single wire detector cells have been built to test gas mixture lifetimes. Various admixtures of CF/sub 4/, DME, Isobutane, Ethane and Argon have been tested. Possible applications of such chambers are as beam profile monitors, position tagging of rare events and front end chambers in spectrometers.

  15. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J. Lamas; Neupane, S.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  16. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  17. Estimating the Energy, Demand and Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC Project at Fort Polk, LA Through Utility Bill Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are a method of financing energy conservation projects using the energy cost savings generated by the conservation measures themselves. Ideally, reduced energy costs are visible as reduced utility bills, but in fact this is not always the case. On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of individual buildings. Savings from an ESPC involving only a small number of these buildings will have little effect on the overall utility bill. In fact, changes in mission, occupancy, and energy prices could cause substantial increases in utility bills. For this reason, other, more practical, methods have been developed to measure and verify savings in ESPC projects. Nevertheless, increasing utility bills--when ESPCs are expected to be reducing them--are problematic and can lead some observers to question whether savings are actually being achieved. In this paper, the authors use utility bill analysis to determine energy, demand, and cost savings from an ESPC project that installed geothermal heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The savings estimates for the first year after the retrofits were found to be in substantial agreement with previous estimates that were based on submetered data. However, the utility bills also show that electrical use tended to increase as time went on. Since other data show that the energy use in family housing has remained about the same over the period, the authors conclude that the savings from the ESPC have persisted, and increases in electrical use must be due to loads unassociated with family housing. This shows that under certain circumstances, and with the proper analysis, utility bills can be used to estimate savings from ESPC projects. However, these circumstances are rare and over time the comparison may be invalidated by increases in energy use in areas unaffected by the ESPC.

  18. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  19. Neutron Detection via Bubble Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, David V.; Ely, James H.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Flake, Matthew; Knopf, Michael A.; Pitts, W. K.; Shaver, Mark W.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Smart, John E.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2005-10-06

    The results of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) exploratory research project investigating the feasibility of fast neutron detection using a suitably prepared and operated, pressure-cycled bubble chamber are described. The research was conducted along two parallel paths. Experiments with a slow pressure-release Halon chamber at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago showed clear bubble nucleation sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to the 662 keV gammas from a 137Cs source. Bubble formation was documented via high-speed (1000 frames/sec) photography, and the acoustic signature of bubble formation was detected using a piezo-electric transducer element mounted on the base of the chamber. The chamber’s neutron sensitivity as a function of working fluid temperature was mapped out. The second research path consisted of the design, fabrication, and testing of a fast pressure-release Freon-134a chamber at PNNL. The project concluded with successful demonstrations of the PNNL chamber’s AmBe neutron source sensitivity and 137Cs gamma insensitivity. The source response tests of the PNNL chamber were documented with high-speed photography.

  20. The Mark III vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.; Cassell, R.; Cheu, E.; Freese, T.; Grab, C.; Mazaheri, G.; Mir, R.; Odian, A.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 ..mu..m at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 ..mu..m using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  1. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  2. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Mode Stirred Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mode Stirred Chamber The Mode Stirred chamber is essentially a large microwave oven. It consists of a metal room that serves as a high-Q chamber and a metal paddle wheel to "stir" the chamber modes. Mixing the modes in this manner allows test objects, in a single orientation to be exposed to EM energy in many different angles of incidence and polarization. Electronic susceptibility tests can be performed, or test object electromagnetic transfer functions can be determined through

  4. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: light; diffusing; fiber; optic; chamber; light; diffusion; transmitting; light; target; light; transmitted; ...

  5. NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) NIF Target Chamber Dedicated NIF Target Chamber Dedicated Livermore, CA Secretary Richardson dedicates the National Ignition Facility target chamber at DOE's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  6. Cooperation Reliability Testing of the Clipper Windpower Liberty 2.5 MW Turbine: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-210

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.

    2012-05-01

    Clipper Windpower (CWP) has developed the Liberty 2.5 MW wind turbine. The development, manufacturing, and certification process depends heavily on being able to validate the full-scale system design and performance under load in both an accredited structural test facility and through accredited field testing. CWP requested that DOE/ NREL upgrade blade test capabilities to perform a scope of work including structural testing of the C-96 blade used on the CWP Liberty turbine. This funds-in CRADA was developed to upgrade NREL blade test capability, while enabling certification testing of the C-96 blade through the facility and equipment upgrades. NREL shared resource funds were used to develop hardware necessary to structurally attach a large wind turbine to the test stand at the NWTC. Participant funds-in monies were used for developing the test program.

  7. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  8. Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers Resources with Additional Information * Patents Georges Charpak Courtesy of CERN Nobel laureate Georges Charpak [was] a pioneer in the art and science of particle detection ... . [He] developed a host of particle detectors used throughout experimental particle physics. In 1968, he invented and developed the first multiwire proportional chamber, for which he won the [Physics] Nobel Prize in 1992 ... . The multiwire chamber differed from

  9. Internal combustion engine with rotary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine comprising: a block having at least one cylindrical wall surrounding a piston chamber, piston means located in the piston chamber means operable to reciprocate the piston means in the chamber, head means mounted on the block covering the chamber. The head means has an air and fuel intake passage, and exhaust gas passage, a rotary valve assembly operatively associated with the head means for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gas from rotary valve assembly and the piston chamber. The means has a housing with a bore open to the piston chamber accommodating the rotary valve assembly, the valve assembly comprising a cylindrical sleeve located in the bore, the sleeve having an inner surface, an ignition hole, and intake and exhaust ports aligned with the intake passage and exhaust gas passage, spark generating means mounted on the housing operable to generate a spark. The rotatable valving means is located within the sleeve for controlling the flow of air and fuel into the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber and the flow of exhaust gases out of the rotary valve assembly and piston chamber.

  10. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S.; Galambos, Paul C.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2015-10-27

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  11. Compact ion chamber based neutron detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2015-11-05

    A directional neutron detector has an ion chamber formed in a dielectric material; a signal electrode and a ground electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the signal and ground electrodes; and a signal processor electrically coupled to the readout circuitry. The ion chamber has a pair of substantially planar electrode surfaces. The chamber pressure of the neutron absorbing material is selected such that the reaction particle ion trail length for neutrons absorbed by the neutron absorbing material is equal to or less than the distance between the electrode surfaces. The signal processor is adapted to determine a path angle for each absorbed neutron based on the rise time of the corresponding pulse in a time-varying detector signal.

  12. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  13. RADIATION MONITOR CONTAINING TWO CONCENTRIC IONIZATION CHAMBERS AND MEANS FOR INSULATING THE SEPARATE CHAMBERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braestrup, C.B.; Mooney, R.T.

    1964-01-21

    This invention relates to a portable radiation monitor containing two concentric ionization chambers which permit the use of standard charging and reading devices. It is particularly adapted as a personnel x-ray dosimeter and to this end comprises a small thin walled, cylindrical conductor forming an inner energy dependent chamber, a small thin walled, cylindrical conductor forming an outer energy independent chamber, and polymeric insulation means which insulates said chambers from each other and holds the chambers together with exposed connections in a simple, trouble-free, and compact assembly substantially without variation in directional response. (AEC)

  14. History of the superconducting-magnet bubble chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrick, M.; Hyman, L.G.; Pewitt, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This review covers the development of superconducting magnets, small bubble chambers, and the early history of the 12-foot bubble chamber. (MOW)

  15. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test ...

  16. ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Bradner, H.; Solmitz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Bradner, H.; Solmitz, F. 08 HYDROGEN; 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BEVATRON; BUBBLE CHAMBERS; DETECTION; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROGEN; INVENTIONS;...

  17. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection and Tracking at High Rates: Final Status Repor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for ...

  18. Evolution of silicic magma chambers and their relationship to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Evolution of silicic magma chambers and their relationship to basaltic volcanism Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolution of silicic magma chambers and ...

  19. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology Prev Next Title: Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology You are accessing a document from the ...

  20. China New Energy Chamber of Commerce CNECC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chamber of Commerce CNECC Jump to: navigation, search Name: China New Energy Chamber of Commerce (CNECC) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100052 Product: A Chinese...

  1. DESIGN, FABRICATION AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF GASIFIER REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas F. Leininger; Hua-Min Huang

    2004-01-01

    ChevronTexaco has shipped the pyrometer system to Tampa, Florida. Polk Power is in the process of installing the mechanical, electrical and instrumentation of the pyrometer system as well as integrating the instrumentation to the test site Distributed Control System. The startup and field testing of the system will begin afterwards.

  2. POET Project Liberty, LLC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    largest ethanol producer, which currently operates 26 production facilities in the United States. The company produces and markets more than 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol ...

  3. Combustion chamber, especially for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, F.

    1980-04-29

    A combustion chamber is disclosed that has an end-wall at the inlet side and an axial inlet opening, which is adjoined by an essentially cylindrical wall section provided with secondary air inlet openings; the end-wall thereby adjoins the inlet opening approximately hemispherically shaped with a sphere diameter which is larger than the diameter of the cylindrical wall section while the adjoining combustion chamber portion is again reduced to the adjacent cylindrical wall section by way of a combustion chamber wall substantially continuing the sphere shape; the fuel injection device is provided upstream of the inlet opening which injects fuel into the inlet opening, itself covered off by a deflection means.

  4. Miniature reaction chamber and devices incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-10-17

    The present invention generally relates to miniaturized devices for carrying out and controlling chemical reactions and analyses. In particular, the present invention provides devices which have miniature temperature controlled reaction chambers for carrying out a variety of synthetic and diagnostic applications, such as PCR amplification, nucleic acid hybridization, chemical labeling, nucleic acid fragmentation and the like.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Petro-Chemical (Turtle Bayou), Liberty County, TX. (Second remedial action), September 1991. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-06

    The 500-acre Petro-Chemical (Turtle Bayou) site is in Liberty County, Texas. Current land use in the area is divided among cropland, pasture, range, forest, and small rural communities. Since 1971, numerous undocumented disposal activities occurred onsite involving primarily petrochemical wastes. The ROD for OU2 focuses on three areas of contamination at the site affecting soil and ground water contamination, known as the main waste area, the east disposal area, and the Bayou disposal area. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene and xylenes; other organics including PAHs; and metals including lead. The selected remedial action for the site includes treating 302,800 cubic yards of contaminated soil onsite using in-situ vapor extraction to remove VOCs, controlling vertical air infiltration using an engineered soil and synthetic liner cap; consolidating lead-contaminated soil in the Main Waste Area, followed by capping.

  6. Gas Injection Apparatus for Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almabouada, F.; Louhibi, D.; Hamici, M.

    2011-12-26

    We present in this article a gas injection apparatus which comprises the gas injector and its electronic command for vacuum chamber applications. Some of these applications are thin-film deposition by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or a cathodic arc deposition (arc-PVD) and the plasma generation. The electronic part has been developed to adjust the flow of the gas inside the vacuum chamber by controlling both of the injector's opening time and the repetition frequency to allow a better gas flow. In this case, the system works either on a pulsed mode or a continuous mode for some applications. In addition, the repetition frequency can be synchronised with a pulsed laser by an external signal coming from the laser, which is considered as an advantage for users. Good results have been obtained using the apparatus and testing with Argon and Nitrogen gases.

  7. Combustion chamber for a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzapfel, I.

    1982-09-21

    A combustion chamber for a gas turbine, in particular for motor vehicles, with an atomizer nozzle for the fuel fed to a prechamber, in which the inlet cross section for the primary air is changed by the longitudinal movement of a deflection member extending through the inlet opening of the combustion chamber. The deflection member serves as a flame holder for the stabilization of the combustion in the primary air zone while the air-atomizing nozzle is constructed ring-shaped and is provided with swirl slots in such a manner that the mixture of the fuel and of the atomizing air enters as an annular jet the primary air inlet channel, impinges approximately perpendicularly onto the primary air flow, penetrates the same and uniformly mixes with the same on its way to the inlet into the primary zone. The quantity of the primary air to be supplied is thereby automatically adjustable.

  8. The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago May 13, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Delivery by...

  9. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Automated soil gas monitoring chamber A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within ...

  10. OSTIblog Articles in the Tennessee Chamber of Commerce and Industry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We are proud to note that OSTI was featured in the Tennessee Chamber of Commerce & Industry'ssummer issue of its newsletter, the Business Insider. The Chamber says that OSTI and ...

  11. Minority Chamber of Commerce "How to do Business with Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minority Chamber of Commerce "How to do Business with Federal Government" Minority Chamber of Commerce "How to do Business with Federal Government" October 29, 2015 9:00AM to...

  12. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer, such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  13. Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harvey, A.

    1985-11-26

    A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

  14. Right/left assignment in drift chambers and proportional multiwire chambers (PWC's) using induced signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walenta, Albert H.

    1979-01-01

    Improved multiwire chamber having means for resolving the left/right ambiguity in the location of an ionizing event. The chamber includes a plurality of spaced parallel anode wires positioned between spaced planar cathodes. Associated with each of the anode wires are a pair of localizing wires, one positioned on either side of the anode wire. The localizing wires are connected to a differential amplifier whose output polarity is determined by whether the ionizing event occurs to the right or left of the anode wire.

  15. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Clark L.

    1982-01-01

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  16. Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, C.L.

    1980-10-14

    A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

  17. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  18. Quantum combustion chamber for the digital engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evers, L.W.; Baasch, V.

    1985-01-01

    For increasing fuel economy and reducing hydrocarbon emissions, a two-stoke-cycle, loop-scavenged single cylinder engine was modified by replacing the head with a head having three subchambers and incorporating a distributing pump fuel injection system. The fuel injection system allowed one subchamber to be operated at a time. The quantum combustion system demonstrated both lower fuel consumption and lower hydrocarbon emissions than a conventional homogeneous charge engine. The experimental evidence also indicates that the combustion essentially occurred in the one chamber into which fuel was injected. Establishing stratified charge combustion by mechanically separating the regions of air from the regions of air/fuel mixtures by means of subchambers is feasible.

  19. Jo Sexton, President, Cambridge Area Chamber of Commerce Panel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outliine for QER July 21, 2014 Jo Sexton, President, Cambridge Area Chamber of Commerce Panel 3 Public-Private Partnerships for Economic Growth and Workforce Development How a ...

  20. Saku Chamber of Commers Indsutry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Saku Chamber of Commers&Indsutry Place: Saku, Nagano, Japan Zip: 3850051 Product: An organization engages in improving the collaboration and...

  1. Chambers County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chambers County, Alabama: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.9028048, -85.354965 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  2. Chambers County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Texas Reliant Baytown Biomass Facility Places in Chambers County, Texas Anahuac, Texas Baytown, Texas Beach City, Texas Cove, Texas Mont Belvieu, Texas Old...

  3. Luis Alvarez, the Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, Tritium, and Dinosaurs

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Luis Alvarez, the Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, Tritium, and Dinosaurs Resources with ... standard of length, co-discovered the hydrogen isotope tritium, searched for hidden ...

  4. Donald Glaser, the Bubble Chamber, and Elementary Particles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biotech Pioneer Donald Glaser ... Donald A. Glaser, Ph.D.; The Bubble Chamber, ... Neurobiology (an interview) -- accepting agreement results in receiving the document Invention...

  5. Chamber of Commerce Recognizes Portsmouth Site Specific Advisory Board

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PIKETON, Ohio – The Pike County Chamber of Commerce recently recognized the Portsmouth Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) as its 2015 Organization of the Year.

  6. Paint coatings: Controlled field and chamber experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edney, E.O.

    1989-04-01

    To determine the impact of pollution levels on the weathering rates of coatings, laboratory chamber experiments and controlled field exposures at North Carolina and Ohio sites were conducted in such a manner to separate the contributions due to dry deposition, wet deposition, precipitation pH, etc. The results of these studies confirm that acidic gases such as SO/sub 2/ and HNO/sub 3/, as well as acids within rain, promote the dissolution of alkaline components including CaCO/sub 3/, ZnO, and Al flake from paint films. It is unclear from these studies whether the removal of these components reduces the service life or protective properties of the paint film. Other researchers within the Coatings Effects Program are conducting subsequent analyses to determine micro-damage of these paints. The uptake of acidic gases to painted surfaces is a complex process that depends on several factors. The deposition rate of SO/sub 2/ to a wet, painted surface may be controlled by the level of oxidants such as H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  7. Vacuum chamber for ion manipulation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-09

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. A predetermined number of pairs of surfaces are disposed in one or more chambers, forming a multiple-layer ion mobility cyclotron device.

  8. Turbine component cooling channel mesh with intersection chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

    2014-05-06

    A mesh (35) of cooling channels (35A, 35B) with an array of cooling channel intersections (42) in a wall (21, 22) of a turbine component. A mixing chamber (42A-C) at each intersection is wider (W1, W2)) than a width (W) of each of the cooling channels connected to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber promotes swirl, and slows the coolant for more efficient and uniform cooling. A series of cooling meshes (M1, M2) may be separated by mixing manifolds (44), which may have film cooling holes (46) and/or coolant refresher holes (48).

  9. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J.

    1995-05-01

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  10. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  11. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  12. MHK Technologies/Multi Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Column OWC principles Consists of 3 x 500kW independent chambers each with a Dresser Rand HydroAir turbine driving an induction generator Full power conversion system...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; MAPES,M.; TODD,R.; WEISS,D.

    2001-06-18

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with {approximately}100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented.

  14. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Chamber Characteristics Test (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x 30cm chamber integrated with the SLAC-developed 64 channel kPiX analog readout chip. ... 1cm x 1cm pad granularity with 64 channel 2-D simultaneous readout using the kPiX chip. ...

  15. Carrying Semiautomatic Pistols with a Round in the Chamber

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-10-28

    Sets forth requirements for a DOE security police officer who must carry a round in the chamber of a semiautomatic pistol while on duty. Does not cancel other directives.

  16. Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce Business Awards Gala

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce Business Awards Gala Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce Business Awards Gala WHEN: Jun 04, 2015 5:30 PM - 7:30 PM WHERE: Skylight 139 West San Francisco Street, Santa Fe CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description An event to recognize some of Santa Fe's best and brightest businesses in the following categories: Business Excellence, Small Business of the Year, Family Friendly Business, Green Business, and Woman Owned Business. Come dressed to impress for

  17. OSTIblog Articles in the Tennessee Chamber of Commerce and Industry Topic |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Tennessee Chamber of Commerce and Industry Topic TENNESSEE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY LAUDS OSTI by Kate Bannan 30 Jun, 2011 in Science Communications 4367 header_chamber.gif TENNESSEE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & INDUSTRY LAUDS OSTI Read more about 4367 We are proud to note that OSTI was featured in the Tennessee Chamber of Commerce & Industry'ssummer issue of its newsletter, the Business Insider. The Chamber

  18. Lifetime survivability of contaminated target-chamber optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, F.; Anderson, A.; Burnham, A.; Milam, D.; Turner, R.

    1996-11-01

    Target chambers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) expose laser optics to a very hostile environment, not only from high-fluence laser irradiation but also x-ray irradiation and particulate debris from targets and chamber wall materials. Expendable debris shields provide the first line of defense to more costly optics upstream in the laser beam path to contaminants generated within the target chamber. However, the replacement of a large number of debris shields is also an expensive proposition so that extending their usable lifetime within the chamber is important. We have conducted tests to show that optics can both be cleaned and damaged by laser irradiation at 355 nm after being contaminated with potential chamber-wall materials such as B{sub 4}C and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Such optics can survive from one to hundreds of laser shots, depending on degree of contamination and laser fluence levels. Similarly, we have studied the survivability of optics that have been exposed to direct contamination from representative target materials irradiated in the target chamber. We have also studied the effects on optics that were not directly exposed to targets, yet received secondary exposure from the above directly-exposed samples.

  19. POET-DSM Project LIBERTY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Standard fuel ethanol distillation and molecular sieves are used to purify the fermentation beer * Beer solids and evaporator solids are converted to steam in a solid fuel boiler. ...

  20. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  1. Atmosphere contamination following repainting of a human hyperbaric chamber complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Morris, J.W.; Caldwell, J.M.; Balk, D.M.; Flynn, E.T. )

    1990-09-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute currently conducts hyperbaric research in a Man-Rated Chamber Complex (MRCC) originally installed in 1977. Significant engineering alterations to the MRCC and rusting of some of its interior sections necessitated repainting, which was completed in 1988. Great care was taken in selecting an appropriate paint (polyamide epoxy) and in ensuring correct application and curing procedures. Only very low levels of hydrocarbons were found in the MRCC atmosphere before initial pressurization after painting and curing. After pressurization, however, significant chemical contamination was found. The primary contaminants were aromatic hydrocarbons: xylenes (which were a major component of both the primer and topcoat paint) and ethyl benzene. The role that pressure played in stimulating off-gassing from the paint is not clear; the off-gassing rate was observed to be similar over a large range in chamber pressures from 1.6 to 31.0 atm abs. Scrubbing the chamber atmosphere with the chemical absorbent Purafil was effective in removing the contaminants. Contamination has been observed to slowly decline with chamber use and is expected to continue to improve with time. However, this contamination experience emphasizes the need for a high precision gas analysis program at any diving facility to ensure the safety of the breathing gas and chamber atmosphere.

  2. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  3. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  4. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-15

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  5. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  6. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-08

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  7. The PEP-II Lower Pressure HER Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarger, S.; Metcalfe, S.; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; Wright, D.; /SLAC

    2006-03-13

    This new vacuum chamber has been installed from 12 to 21 meters upstream of the BaBar detector in the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER) to reduce lost particle backgrounds. The backgrounds from HER now dominate the backgrounds in the BaBar detector and the present vacuum pressure is 1 x 10{sup -9} Torr. The new chamber will increase the pumping significantly by adding 18 x 2000 l/s titanium sublimation pumps to the existing 5 x 440 l/s ion pumps, and is expected to reduce the pressure by about a factor of five. Features of the chamber include improved water cooling, improved vacuum conductance through copper RF screens featuring over 15,000 small square holes and the ability to sublimate titanium while the beam is still on.

  8. Operation of drift chambers with helium based mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A. ); Sauli, F. )

    1994-08-01

    Helium based gas mixtures have been investigated for lowering multiple scattering contributions to the momentum resolution for intermediate energy particles. The relevant transport parameters, namely drift velocity and diffusion have been calculated for several mixtures and compared to standard argon based mixtures. Some fast, low diffusion mixtures have been identified. The small Lorentz angle computed make them promising candidates for drift chamber operation in magnetic fields. Measurements on high accuracy drift chambers in a test beam with a helium-DME (dimethyl ether) (70-30) mixture have resulted in a spatial resolution ranging from 70[mu]m to 100[mu]m.

  9. Fuel subassembly leak test chamber for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Divona, Charles J.

    1978-04-04

    A container with a valve at one end is inserted into a nuclear reactor coolant pool. Once in the pool, the valve is opened by a mechanical linkage. An individual fuel subassembly is lifted into the container by a gripper; the valve is then closed providing an isolated chamber for the subassembly. A vacuum is drawn on the chamber to encourage gaseous fission product leakage through any defects in the cladding of the fuel rods comprising the subassembly; this leakage may be detected by instrumentation, and the need for replacement of the assembly ascertained.

  10. QER- Comment of PA Chamber of Business and Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On behalf of Gene Barr, President & CEO of the Pennsylvania Chamber of Business and Industry, please find attached our comments regarding Natural Gas Transmission, Storage & Distribution, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania July 21, 2014. Thanks in advance for the attention to our comments and for holding a hearing today in our state. All the best, Kevin

  11. METALLIZATION OF SNS RING INJECTION KICKER CERAMIC CHAMBERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; TODD,R.J.

    2002-06-03

    Ceramic chambers will be used in the pulsed kicker magnets for the injection of H{sup -} into the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, to avoid shielding of a fast-changing external magnetic field by metallic chamber walls and to reduce eddy current heating. The inner surfaces of the ceramic chambers will be coated with a conductive layer, possibly titanium (Ti) or copper (Cu) with a titanium nitride (TiN) overlayer, to reduce the beam coupling impedance, provide passage for beam image current and to reduce the secondary electron yields. This paper describes the development of sputtering method for the 0.83m long 16cm inner diameter (ID) ceramic chambers. Coatings of Ti, Cu and TiN with thickness up to 10 {micro}m were produced by means of DC magnetron sputtering. The difficulty of coating insulators was overcome with the introduction of an anode screen. Films with good adhesion, uniform longitudinal thickness, and conductivity were produced.

  12. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  13. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  14. HOM Sensitivity in the PEP-II HER Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; Sullivan, Mike; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    Synchrotron radiation is the main source of vacuum chamber heating in the PEP-II storage ring collider. This heating is reduced substantially as lattice energy is lowered. Energy scans over {Upsilon} energy states were performed by varying the high energy ring (HER) lattice energy at constant gap voltage and frequency. We observed unexpected temperature rise at particular locations when HER lattice energy was lowered from 8.6 GeV ({Upsilon}(3S)) to 8.0 GeV ({Upsilon}(2S)) while most other temperatures decreased. Bunch length measurements reveal a shorter bunch at the lower energy. The shortened bunch overheated a beam position monitoring electrode causing a vacuum breach. We explain the unexpected heating as a consequence of increased higher order mode (HOM) power generated by a shortened bunch. In this case, temperature rise helps to identify HOM sources and HOM sensitive vacuum chamber elements. Reduction of gap voltage helps to reduce this unexpected heating.

  15. Chamber for the optical manipulation of microscopic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buican, Tudor N.; Upham, Bryan D.

    1992-01-01

    A particle control chamber enables experiments to be carried out on biological cells and the like using a laser system to trap and manipulate the particles. A manipulation chamber provides a plurality of inlet and outlet ports for the particles and for fluids used to control or to contact the particles. A central manipulation area is optically accessible by the laser and includes first enlarged volumes for containing a selected number of particles for experimentation. A number of first enlarged volumes are connected by flow channels through second enlarged volumes. The second enlarged volumes act as bubble valves for controlling the interconnections between the first enlarged volumes. Electrode surfaces may be applied above the first enlarged volumes to enable experimentation using the application of electric fields within the first enlarged volumes. A variety of chemical and environmental conditions may be established within individual first enlarged volumes to enable experimental conditions for small scale cellular interactions.

  16. Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.; Cradeur, Robert R.

    1978-01-01

    A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

  17. The Mark III vertex chamber: Studies using DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, D.

    1987-04-01

    Studies have been performed using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. A 35 ..mu..m spatial resolution using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 bar and 30 ..mu..m using argon ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 bar was obtained. Preliminary studies show the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin.

  18. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Wen G.

    1997-01-01

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  19. Luis Alvarez, the Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, Tritium, and Dinosaurs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luis Alvarez, the Hydrogen Bubble Chamber, Tritium, and Dinosaurs Resources with Additional Information * Patents Luis Alvarez Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 'Luis W. Alvarez was an adventurer physicist. The two terms may seem an odd combination until one considers Alvarez's career. A member of the National Inventor's Hall of Fame, Alvarez developed the proton linear accelerator, patented three types of radar still used today, designed an instrument that for 15 years served as

  20. Azimuthal Instabilities in Annular Combustion Chambers | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Azimuthal Instabilities in Annular Combustion Chambers Authors: Wolf, P., Staffelbach, G., Balakrishnan, R., Roux, A., Poinsot, T. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of a full annular helicopter gas turbine combustor have been performed. Emphasis is placed on the azimuthal mode that often appears in real configurations. The current LES are shown to capture these self-excited modes, with limited impact of the grid resolution. The structure of the azimuthal mode is discussed and

  1. Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Measurements of IN Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) Measurements of IN Concentration Concentrations of Ice-Nucleating Aerosol (IN) as a function of Temperature and %Supersaturation Sarah Brooks and Andrew Glen, Texas A&M University Archived CFDC Data Flights April 8 through end of ISDAC ... CFDC operating conditions vary Date Flight Num 20080331 Flight 08 20080401 Flight 09 & 10 20080404 Flight 11 & 12 20080405 Flight 13 & 14 20080408 Flight 15, 16 & 17 20080413 Flight 18 & 19 20080414 Flight

  2. LAYOUT AND SIZING OF ESF ALCOVES AND REFUGE CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Beesley and Romeo S. Jurani

    1995-08-25

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish size requirements and approximate locations of Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) test and operations alcoves, including refuge chambers during construction of the Topopah Spring (TS) loop. Preliminary conceptual layouts for non-deferred test alcoves will be developed to examine construction feasibility based on current test plans and available equipment. The final location and configuration layout for alcoves will be developed when in-situ rock conditions can be visually determined. This will be after the TBM has excavated beyond the alcove location and the rock has been exposed. The analysis will examine the need for construction of walkways and electrical alcoves in the ramps and main drift. Niches that may be required to accommodate conveyor booster drives and alignments are not included in this analysis. The analysis will develop design criteria for refuge chambers to meet MSHA requirements and will examine the strategic location of refuge chambers based on their potential use in various ESF fire scenarios. This document supersedes DI:BABE00000-01717-0200-00003 Rev 01, ''TS North Ramp Alcove and Stubout Location Analysis'' in its entirety (Reference 5-6).

  3. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF3I Bubble Chamber...

  4. Los Alamos honored by Española Valley Chamber of Commerce

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL Honored By Española Valley Chamber of Commerce Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos honored by Española Valley Chamber of Commerce The Espanola Valley Chamber of Commerce recognized the Lab for its support to the chamber and the entire Espanola Valley with a President's Choice Award. February 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda

  5. CNS Joins Oak Ridge Chamber in Nashville | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joins Oak Ridge Chamber ... CNS Joins Oak Ridge Chamber in Nashville Posted: April 13, 2016 - 12:25pm Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam (front row center) greets Oak Ridge business leaders during Oak Ridge Chamber of Commerce's Day on the Hill. Also pictured: (back row) Kelly Callison, Gene Patterson, Rick Chinn, Ben Andrews, (front row) Stacy Myers, Parker Hardy, Patricia Myers and Lisa Copeland. Consolidated Nuclear Security and other area businesses recently joined the Oak Ridge Chamber of

  6. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW

  7. Performance parameters of a liquid filled ionization chamber array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppe, B.; Stelljes, T. S.; Looe, H. K.; Chofor, N.; Harder, D.; Willborn, K.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: In this work, the properties of the two-dimensional liquid filled ionization chamber array Octavius 1000SRS (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) for use in clinical photon-beam dosimetry are investigated.Methods: Measurements were carried out at an Elekta Synergy and Siemens Primus accelerator. For measurements of stability, linearity, and saturation effects of the 1000SRS array a Semiflex 31013 ionization chamber (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used as a reference. The effective point of measurement was determined by TPR measurements of the array in comparison with a Roos chamber (type 31004, PTW-Freiburg, Germany). The response of the array with varying field size and depth of measurement was evaluated using a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber as a reference. Output factor measurements were carried out with a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber, a diode (type 60012, PTW-Freiburg, Germany), and the detector array under investigation. The dose response function for a single detector of the array was determined by measuring 1 cm wide slit-beam dose profiles and comparing them against diode-measured profiles. Theoretical aspects of the low pass properties and of the sampling frequency of the detector array were evaluated. Dose profiles measured with the array and the diode detector were compared, and an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) field was verified using the Gamma-Index method and the visualization of line dose profiles.Results: The array showed a short and long term stability better than 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Fluctuations in linearity were found to be within 0.2% for the vendor specified dose range. Saturation effects were found to be similar to those reported in other studies for liquid-filled ionization chambers. The detector's relative response varied with field size and depth of measurement, showing a small energy dependence accounting for maximum signal deviations of 2.6% from the reference condition for the setup used. The ?-values of the

  8. Dual chamber system providing simultaneous etch and deposition on opposing substrate sides for growing low defect density epitaxial layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S. (Knoxville, TN); Kasica, Richard J. (Ashburn, VA) ,

    2011-03-08

    A dual-chamber reactor can include a housing enclosing a volume having a divider therein, where the divider defines a first chamber and a second chamber. The divider can include a substrate holder that supports at least one substrate and exposes a first side of the substrate to the first chamber and a second side of the substrate to the second chamber. The first chamber can include an inlet for delivering at least one reagent to the first chamber for forming a film on the first side of the substrate, and the second chamber can include a removal device for removing material from the second side of the substrate.

  9. Design of the OMEGA Laser Target Chamber Tritium Removal System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, Arthur; Reichert, Heidi; Janezic, Roger T.; Harding, David R.; Lund, Lance D.; Shmayda, Walter T.

    2003-06-15

    Preparations are currently underway at the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) to conduct direct drive laser implosion campaigns with inertial confinement fusion targets containing deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic ice layers. The OMEGA Cryogenic Target Handling System will fill plastic targets with high-pressure DT (150 MPa) at 300 to 500 K, cool them down to cryogenic temperature (<25 K), form the DT ice layer, and transport the targets to the OMEGA laser target chamber. Targets will then be shot with the 60-beam 30-kJ OMEGA laser. A tritium removal system has been designed to remove tritium from effluents associated with operation of the target chamber and its associated diagnostic antechambers, vacuum pumping systems, and target insertion systems. The design of the target chamber tritium removal system (TCTRS) is based on catalytic oxidation of DT and tritiated methane to tritiated water (DTO), followed by immobilization of DTO on molecular sieves. The design of the TCTRS presented a challenge due to the low tritium release limits dictated by the tritium license at UR/LLE. Aspen Plus, a commercial software package intended for the simulation and design of chemical processing systems operating at steady state, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS. A second commercial software package, Aspen ADSIM, was used to simulate and design the TCTRS molecular sieve beds, which operate at unsteady state. In this paper, we describe the design of the TCTRS and the benefits that were realized by use of the Aspen Plus and Aspen ADSIM software packages.

  10. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  11. Argon Time Projection Chamber(LArTPC) Data Jessica Esquivel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Techniques applied to Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber(LArTPC) Data Jessica Esquivel On Behalf of the MicroBooNE Collaboration Syracuse University Advisor: Mitch Soderberg 2 Outline ● LArTPC Technology ● MicroBooNE Overview ● What is Image Processing? ● Image Processing on MicroBooNE Data ● Future Directions 3 LArTPC Technology Credit: Jonathan Asaadi 4 LArTPC Technology 5 MicroBooNE Overview ● MicroBooNE is a 150 ton(cryostat) ~90 ton LArTPC ● TPC dimensions - 10.3m

  12. Polymer insulator profiles evaluated in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorur, R.S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Cherney, E.A. ); Hackam, R. )

    1990-04-01

    This paper presents the results of fog chamber experiments done to examine the tracking and erosion performance of polymer insulator profiles. The effect of weathershed material, construction, orientation, and ac and dc voltage are examined. Correlation between cylindrical rod specimens of materials and insulator profiles is shown. The protected leakage path provided by the weathershed is found to play a major role in the tracking and erosion performance of polymer insulators. The resistance to tracking and erosion of insulator profiles with dc is shown to be reduced in comparison to ac. Cylindrical rods of material yielded the same ranking of material performance as insulator profiles but in a shorter time.

  13. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-15

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  14. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Selwyn, Gary S.

    2001-01-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  15. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  16. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  17. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  18. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Retterer, Scott T.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L.; Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g. global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devicemore » contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Lastly, we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.« less

  19. Conceptual Design Report for the Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Barnes; J. Beller; K. Caldwell; K. Croft; R. Cherry; W. Landman

    1998-12-01

    This conceptual design supports the creation of Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers, which will replicate deep subsurface and subocean environments characterized by high pressure (2,000 psi) and subfreezing to high temperature (-4 to 300 degrees F) with differing chemical and saturation conditions. The design provides a system to support research and development that includes heat transfer, phase change issues in porous media, microbiology in extreme environments, and carbon sequestration and extraction. The initial system design is based on the research needs to support the commercial production of methane hydrates from subsurface sediments. The design provides for three pressure vessels: a Down Hole Test Vessel, a Vertical Multi-phase Test Vessel, and a Horizontal Multi-phase Test Vessel.

  20. Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

    2007-12-21

    Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

  1. Imaging performance of a multiwire proportional-chamber positron camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Mandez, V.; Del Guerra, A.; Nelson, W.R.; Tam, K.C.

    1982-08-01

    A new design - fully three-dimensional - Positron Camera is presented, made of six MultiWire Proportional Chamber modules arranged to form the lateral surface of a hexagonal prism. A true coincidence rate of 56000 c/s is expected with an equal accidental rate for a 400 ..mu..Ci activity uniformly distributed in a approx. 3 l water phantom. A detailed Monte Carlo program has been used to investigate the dependence of the spatial resolution on the geometrical and physical parameters. A spatial resolution of 4.8 mm FWHM has been obtained for a /sup 18/F point-like source in a 10 cm radius water phantom. The main properties of the limited angle reconstruction algorithms are described in relation to the proposed detector geometry.

  2. Effects of acidic deposition on paint: A chamber study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, J.W.; Lemmons, T.J.; Hou, Y.; Schadt, R.J.; Fornes, R.E.

    1993-08-01

    Exterior acrylic latex and alkyd architectural coatings were exposed to different conditions in a chamber exposure system involving simulated sunlight, dew, and photochemical smog-containing sulfur dioxide (SO2). A simulated sunlight exposure of the coating films in the presence of clean air was also incorporated into the experimental design. Changes in surface features after 1,370 hours of exposure were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX). Gaseous species that deposited to the films were determined by ion chromatography of the dew collections. Color-change measurements of the exposed films were recorded as Delta E values. Latex and alkyd films that were formulated with calcium carbonate (CACO3) as an extender pigment were found to undergo the most change in surface features, composition, and color.

  3. Reporting central tendencies of chamber measured surface emission and oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Chanton, Jeffery

    2011-05-15

    Methane emissions, concentrations, and oxidation were measured on eleven MSW landfills in eleven states spanning from California to Pennsylvania during the three year study. The flux measurements were performed using a static chamber technique. Initial concentration samples were collected immediately after placement of the flux chamber. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. When reporting overall surface emissions and percent oxidation for a landfill cover, central tendencies are typically used to report 'averages' of the collected data. The objective of this study was to determine the best way to determine and report central tendencies. Results showed that 89% of the data sets of collected surface flux have lognormal distributions, 83% of the surface concentration data sets are also lognormal. Sixty seven percent (67%) of the isotope measured percent oxidation data sets are normally distributed. The distribution of data for all eleven landfills provides insight of the central tendencies of emissions, concentrations, and percent oxidation. When reporting the 'average' measurement for both flux and concentration data collected at the surface of a landfill, statistical analyses provided insight supporting the use of the geometric mean. But the arithmetic mean can accurately represent the percent oxidation, as measured with the stable isotope technique. We examined correlations between surface CH{sub 4} emissions and surface air CH{sub 4} concentrations. Correlation of the concentration and flux values using the geometric mean proved to be a good fit (R{sup 2} = 0.86), indicating that surface scans are a good way of identifying locations of high emissions.

  4. Pressure Loads by Gas in an Enclosed Chamber in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, J; Badders, D C

    2002-08-08

    New algorithms that efficiently calculate the volume of a closed chamber are presented in this paper. The current pressure in the enclosed chamber can then be computed, based on the user-specified gas law, from the updated volume and the initial volume and pressure of the chamber. This pressure load function is very useful in modeling common features, such as air pocket, airbag, piston, and gun barrel, in structural analyses.

  5. The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago May 13, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you, Raymond. I appreciate the Chamber organizing this gathering this morning. The American Chamber here on Trinidad and Tobago is an important regional voice in support of the free market, so I want to commend you for hosting the Business Future of the Americas conference next month. Having

  6. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  7. Effective point of measurement of thimble ion chambers in megavoltage photon beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, Frederic; Kawrakow, Iwan

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Determine the effective point of measurement (EPOM) of 12 thimble ion chambers, including miniature chambers and three models widely used for clinical reference dosimetry. The EPOM is the point at which the measured dose would arise in the measurement medium in the absence of the probe: For cylindrical chambers, it is shifted upstream relative to the central axis of the chamber. Although current dosimetry protocols prescribe a blanket upstream EPOM shift of 0.6r, with r as the chamber cavity radius, it has been shown in recent years that the EPOM does, in fact, depend on every detail of the chamber design and on the beam characteristics. In the wake of this finding, the authors undertake a comprehensive study of the EPOM for a series of chambers in water. Methods: This work relies on EGSnrc Monte Carlo calculations for the central axis depth dose in a water phantom and in ion chambers. They use a full Elekta Precise linac treatment head simulation to generate realistic photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 25 MV and fields sizes of 10x10 and 40x40 cm{sup 2}. The correct EPOM shift for the 12 ion chambers, modeled in realistic detail, is taken as the one minimizing the deviation of the ratio between the dose to water and the dose to the gas of the chamber cavity, according to a method proposed and validated in previous work. Results: The analysis reveals that the actual EPOM shift is significantly smaller than the recommended value in current dosimetry protocols, by up to 25% for reference-class chambers and 80% for miniature chambers. The location of the EPOM also depends on the characteristics of the incident beam and varies in a well-defined way with the cavity length, the central electrode radius, and the thimble wall thickness. Conclusions: The authors confirm that an upstream EPOM shift of 0.6r is too large for thimble ion chambers in high energy photon beams. Proper values for the EPOM shift could be tabulated per beam and per chamber, but they

  8. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market ...

  9. Free surface modeling in OWC chamber with parabolic side walls using 3D BEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanabad, Madjid Ghodsi

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, BEM was used for free surface modeling in OWC chamber and out of it. Linear kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions were used for free surface out of OWC chamber and nonlinear forms were used for free surface in the chamber. These boundary conditions were discretized by finite differences method. Also, some thermodynamics relations were applied for trapped air behavior modeling in OWC chamber. Wave specifications in Chabahar region were used in modeling because these waves have an acceptable power for electricity generation. The results show a good agreement with results of other researches.

  10. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  11. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  12. Fluid intensifier having a double acting power chamber with interconnected signal rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C.

    2001-01-01

    A fluid driven reciprocating apparatus having a double acting power chamber with signal rods serving as high pressure pistons, or to transmit mechanical power. The signal rods are connected to a double acting piston in the power chamber thereby eliminating the need for pilot valves, with the piston being controlled by a pair of intake-exhaust valves. The signal rod includes two spaced seals along its length with a vented space therebetween so that the driving fluid and driven fluid can't mix, and performs a switching function to eliminate separate pilot valves. The intake-exhaust valves can be integrated into a single housing with the power chamber, or these valves can be built into the cylinder head only of the power chamber, or they can be separate from the power chamber.

  13. Polk County, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Four Corners, Florida Frostproof, Florida Fussels Corner, Florida Gibsonia, Florida Haines City, Florida Highland City, Florida Highland Park, Florida Hillcrest Heights, Florida...

  14. Polk County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.2686842, -82.1713632 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice...

  15. Polk County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centuria, Wisconsin Clam Falls, Wisconsin Clayton, Wisconsin Clear Lake, Wisconsin Dresser, Wisconsin Eureka, Wisconsin Frederic, Wisconsin Garfield, Wisconsin Laketown,...

  16. Polk County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crookston, Minnesota East Grand Forks, Minnesota Erskine, Minnesota Fertile, Minnesota Fisher, Minnesota Fosston, Minnesota Gully, Minnesota Lengby, Minnesota McIntosh, Minnesota...

  17. Characterization of a multi-axis ion chamber array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E.; Kahler, Darren; Li, Jonathan; Liu, Chihray

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to characterize a multi-axis ion chamber array (IC PROFILER; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL USA) that has the potential to simplify the acquisition of LINAC beam data. Methods: The IC PROFILER (or panel) measurement response was characterized with respect to radiation beam properties, including dose, dose per pulse, pulse rate frequency (PRF), and energy. Panel properties were also studied, including detector-calibration stability, power-on time, backscatter dependence, and the panel's agreement with water tank measurements [profiles, fractional depth dose (FDD), and output factors]. Results: The panel's relative deviation was typically within ({+-}) 1% of an independent (or nominal) response for all properties that were tested. Notable results were (a) a detectable relative field shape change of {approx}1% with linear accelerator PRF changes; (b) a large range in backscatter thickness had a minimal effect on the measured dose distribution (typically less than 1%); (c) the error spread in profile comparison between the panel and scanning water tank (Blue Phantom, CC13; IBA Schwarzenbruck, DE) was approximately ({+-}) 0.75%. Conclusions: The ability of the panel to accurately reproduce water tank profiles, FDDs, and output factors is an indication of its abilities as a dosimetry system. The benefits of using the panel versus a scanning water tank are less setup time and less error susceptibility. The same measurements (including device setup and breakdown) for both systems took 180 min with the water tank versus 30 min with the panel. The time-savings increase as the measurement load is increased.

  18. Tests of a single-wire drift chamber for possible use in low intensity beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-02-01

    A single cell drift chamber with two dimensional readout has been evaluated as a candidate for reliable and inexpensive momentum tagging of low intensity calibration beams. Charges induced on shaped cathode pads allow a measurement of the coordinate parallel to the wire, while the drift time allows a measurement of the coordinate perpendicular to the wire. Two chamber orientations were used during the tests. In one the chambers were arranged with their wires parallel. In this case the intrinsic resolution of the chambers was measured; the top and bottom cells were used to define a track coordinate and this was compared to the coordinate in the middle chamber. To see if either of the two coordinate measurements is linear in real space, the chambers were rearranged to the second orientation, with the middle chamber rotated 90/sup 0/. The drift time was plotted against the charge ratio. The conclusion drawn from this study is that while the drift time measurement has adequate resolution, the charge ratio measurement is not a viable option for beam line use. (LEW)

  19. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-07-15

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of {beta} particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10{sup 5} Bq/m{sup 3}.

  20. Cost comparisons among free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment, open-top chamber, and sunlit controlled-environment chamber methods of CO{sub 2} exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimball, B.A.

    1992-12-31

    Several techniques for exposing plants and ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2} were presented and the experimental characteristics of each were discussed in detail. However, one important factor which was not addressed is cost, which can easily dictate use of less than ideal methods. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate and compare the approximate costs of the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) method with two other popular techniques - open-top chambers (OTC) and sunlit controlled-environment chambers (Soil, Plant, Atmosphere Research chambers, SPAR). The primary comparison among the SPAR, OTC, and FACE techniques is a consideration of the relative costs incurred in the production of high-CO{sub 2}-grown plants. However, measurements of plant response must also be made, which requires scientific personnel and instruments, so the plant production costs will also be compared to the overall costs of conducting CO{sub 2}-enrichment experiments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. High Accuracy, Two-Dimensional Read-Out in Multiwire Proportional Chambers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Charpak, G.; Sauli, F.

    1973-02-14

    In most applications of proportional chambers, especially in high-energy physics, separate chambers are used for measuring different coordinates. In general one coordinate is obtained by recording the pulses from the anode wires around which avalanches have grown. Several methods have been imagined for obtaining the position of an avalanche along a wire. In this article a method is proposed which leads to the same range of accuracies and may be preferred in some cases. The problem of accurate measurements for large-size chamber is also discussed.

  2. APS storage ring vacuum chamber tests for dimensional stability after bakeout cycling while under vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehrle, R.; Nielsen, R.

    1990-09-01

    Vacuum chamber sections No. 1 and No. 2 were used for these tests. Section No. 1, a short straight section, is representative in these tests of Sections No. 3 and No. 5 as well. Section No. 2 is the longer curved section used within the dipole bend magnets and is representative of the similar Section No. 4. The combination of Sections No. 1 and No. 2 joined by a connected bellows was mounted as presently planned for the final installation. This afforded an early testing of chamber positional stability after bakeout cycling. Tests of chamber dimensional stability were also made during vacuum cycling.

  3. Liberty Utilities (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: Varies Lighting Controls: 20-50sensor Compressed Air: 120-200HP Variable Speed Drives (Retrofit): 1050-4400 Motors...

  4. Liberty Power Corp. | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Form 861 Data Utility Id 55781 Utility Location Yes Ownership R ISO CA Yes ISO Ercot Yes RTO PJM Yes ISO NY Yes ISO MISO Yes ISO NE Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes This article...

  5. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  6. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1990-03-19

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations (dB/dt) in the particle beam.

  7. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

  8. Parameters of a supersonic combustion chamber with organization of combustion at the flame front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solokhin, E.L.; Mironenko, V.A.; Ivanov, V.I.

    1985-10-25

    In some engineering problems, it is necessary to burn fuel in the combustion chamber with supersonic flow. As a rule, the scheme of organization of the process in such a chamber presupposes a separate accompanying feed of fuel and oxidant in which combustion of fuel takes place in a diffusion flame front. In this article we give theoretical results of investigation of a supersonic combustion chamber in which combustion of the fuel mixture takes place in a oblique flame front stabilized by an external source (analogous to the subsonic combustion chambers of ramjets). The possibility of the existence of such an oblique flame front in a supersonic flow of fuel mixture was previously proved experimentally.

  9. A sun-tracking environmental chamber for the outdoor quantification of CPV modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faiman, David Melnichak, Vladimir Bokobza, Dov Kabalo, Shlomo

    2014-09-26

    The paper describes a sun-tracking environmental chamber and its associated fast electronics, devised for the accurate outdoor characterization of CPV cells, receivers, mono-modules, and modules. Some typical measurement results are presented.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ?}) are provided. These factors

  11. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the ... so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an ...

  12. COUPP - a search for dark matter with a continuously sensitive bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collar, Juan,; Crum, Keith; Mishra, Smriti; Nakazawa, Dante; Odom, Brian; Rasmussen, Julia; Riley, Nathan; Szydagis, Matthew; Behnke, Ed; Levine, Ilan; Vander Werf, Nate; Cooper, Peter; Crisler, Mike; Hu, Martin; Ramberg, Erik; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Tschirhart, Robert; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    We propose to construct and operate a 60-kg room temperature CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber as a prototype dark matter (WIMP) detector. Operating in weakly-superheated mode, the chamber will be sensitive to WIMP induced nuclear recoils above 10 keV, while rejecting background electron recoils at a level approaching 10{sup 10}. We would first commission and operate this chamber in the MINOS near detector hall with the goal to demonstrate stable operation and measure internal contamination and any other backgrounds. This chamber, or an improved version, would then be relocated to an appropriate deep underground site such as the Soudan Mine. This detector will have unique sensitivity to spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon couplings, and even in this early stage of development will attain competitive sensitivity to spin-independent couplings.

  13. A novel fabrication technique for thin metallic vacuum chambers with low eddy current losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouptsidis, J.; Banthau, R.; Hartwig, H.

    1985-10-01

    Eddy current problems in synchrotrons have been avoided until now by using costly and thick ceramic vacuum chambers which reduce the free magnet aperture. These disadvantages are eliminated by a novel fabrication technique developed for the chambers of the new 9 GeV electron synchrotron DESY II operating with 12.5 Hz repetion rate. The elliptical chambers 80x40 mm are made from .3 mm thick stainless steel tubes reinforced by thin ribs. The ribs are brazed on the tubes by a high temperature Ni-base brazing alloy. The linear eddy current losses are 60 W/m and increase the chamber temperature to only 50/sup 0/C. The available beam aperture is now 93% of the magnet gap. A still higher repetion rate up to 100 Hz can be achieved by reducing the wall thickness to .1 mm and using tubes made from a Ti-alloy having higher resistivity than stainless steel.

  14. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glaser, Don

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  15. The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamum, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A,; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Adderley, Philip A.; Poelker, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

  16. Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.12 Space Chamber Reaches

  17. Performance of the beam chamber vacuum system of K = 500 cyclotron at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre Kolkata

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Gautam DuttaGupta, Anjan; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-07-15

    The beam chamber of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata's K = 500 superconducting cyclotron is pumped by liquid helium cooled cryopanel with liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. Performance of the vacuum system was evaluated by cooling the cryopanel assembly with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Direct measurement of beam chamber pressure is quite difficult because of space restrictions and the presence of high magnetic field. Pressure gauges were placed away from the beam chamber. The beam chamber pressure was evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulation software for vacuum system and compared with measurements. The details of the vacuum system, measurements, and estimation of pressure of the beam chamber are described in this paper.

  18. Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies, final rept (May 1997), Subcontract No. B291847

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, P.F.; Jin, H.; Scott, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. Various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the final optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 {Angstrom}) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change- outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. In addition to the work described briefly above, we performed extensive analysis of the target-chamber thermal response to in- chamber CO{sub 2} Cleaning and of work performed to model the behavior of silica vapor. The work completed this year has been published in several papers and a dissertation [1-6]. This report provides a summary of the work completed this year, as well as copies

  19. Mimicking Mars: A vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobrado, J. M. Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2014-03-15

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10{sup −6} mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  20. METALLIZATION OF CERAMIC VACUUM CHAMBERS FOR SNS RING INJECTION KICKER MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; TODD,R.J.

    2002-04-22

    Ceramic chambers will be used in the pulsed kicker magnets for the injection of H{sup -} into the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. There are two reasons for using ceramic chambers in kickers: (1) to avoid shielding of a fast-changing external magnetic field by metallic chamber walls; and (2) to reduce heating due to eddy currents. The inner surfaces of the ceramic chambers will be coated with a conductive layer, possibly titanium (Ti) or copper with a titanium nitride (TiN) overlayer, to reduce the beam coupling impedance and provide passage for beam image current. This paper describes the development of sputtering method for the 0.83m long 16cm inner diameter ceramic chambers. Coatings of Ti, Cu and TiN with thicknesses up to 10 {micro}m were produced by means of DC magnetron sputtering. The difficulty of coating insulators was overcome with the introduction of an anode screen. Films with good adhesion, uniform longitudinal thickness, and conductivity were produced.

  1. Note: Sample chamber for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelliccione, CJ; Timofeeva, EV; Katsoudas, JP; Segre, CU

    2014-12-01

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides element-specific characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and enables direct correlations between electrochemical performance and structural characteristics of cathode and anode materials. In situ XAS measurements are very demanding to the design of the experimental setup. We have developed a sample chamber that provides electrical connectivity and inert atmosphere for operating electrochemical cells and also accounts for x-ray interactions with the chamber and cell materials. The design of the sample chamber for in situ measurements is presented along with example XAS spectra from anode materials in operating pouch cells at the Zn and Sn K-edges measured in fluorescence and transmission modes, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Biofuels Market | Department of Energy Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Remarks as Prepared For Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you very much, Bruce, for that kind introduction. My thanks also to Tom Donahue and the leadership of the Chamber for inviting me to be with you today. I was quite pleased to

  3. Numerical Simulation of Earth Pressure on Head Chamber of Shield Machine with FEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouju; Kang Chengang [State Key Laboratory of structural analysis for industrial equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Wei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Shangguan Zichang [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute of Civil Engineering, Dalian Fishery University, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-21

    Model parameters of conditioned soils in head chamber of shield machine are determined based on tree-axial compression tests in laboratory. The loads acting on tunneling face are estimated according to static earth pressure principle. Based on Duncan-Chang nonlinear elastic constitutive model, the earth pressures on head chamber of shield machine are simulated in different aperture ratio cases for rotating cutterhead of shield machine. Relationship between pressure transportation factor and aperture ratio of shield machine is proposed by using aggression analysis.

  4. IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.

    2005-01-24

    For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

  5. Wafer chamber having a gas curtain for extreme-UV lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2001-01-01

    An EUVL device includes a wafer chamber that is separated from the upstream optics by a barrier having an aperture that is permeable to the inert gas. Maintaining an inert gas curtain in the proximity of a wafer positioned in a chamber of an extreme ultraviolet lithography device can effectively prevent contaminants from reaching the optics in an extreme ultraviolet photolithography device even though solid window filters are not employed between the source of reflected radiation, e.g., the camera, and the wafer. The inert gas removes the contaminants by entrainment.

  6. Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers as a Time-of-Flight System for the PHENIX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velkovska, Julia

    2013-12-08

    In this project a Time-of-Flight detector based on multi-gap resistive plate chambers was built and installed for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC.

  7. Nested reactor chamber and operation for Hg-196 isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for use in .sup.196 Hg separation and its method of operation. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a nested reactor chamber useful for .sup.196 Hg isotope separation reactions avoiding the photon starved condition commonly encountered in coaxial reactor systems.

  8. Nested reactor chamber and operation for Hg-196 isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-10-08

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for use in [sup 196]Hg separation and its method of operation. Specifically, the present invention is directed to a nested reactor chamber useful for [sup 196]Hg isotope separation reactions avoiding the photon starved condition commonly encountered in coaxial reactor systems. 6 figures.

  9. Stormwater treatment at critical areas: The multi-chambered treatment train (MCTT). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, R.; Peterson, B.; Barron, P.; Ayyoubi, A.; Clark, S.

    1999-02-01

    Past studies have identified urban runoff as a major contributor to the degradation of many urban streams and rivers. The objective of this research was to characterize typical toxicant concentrations in stormwater, and investigate the effectiveness of treatment processes to control the toxicants. A prototype treatment device (the multi-chambered treatment train, or MCTT) was tested during the final phase of this project. The MCTT is an underground device that has three main chambers: an initial grit chamber for trapping of the largest sediment and release of most volatile materials; a main setting chamber (providing initial aeration and sorbent pillows) for the trapping of fine sediment and associated toxicants and floating hydrocarbons; and a sand and peat mixed media filter (sorption-ion exchange) unit for the monitoring period. During monitoring of 13 storms at a parking facility, the pilot-scale MCTT was found to have the following overall median reduction rates: 96% for total toxicity, 98% for filtered toxicity, 83% for SS, 60% for COD, 40% for turbidity, 100% for lead, 91% for zinc, 100% for n-Nitro-di-n-proplamine, 100% for pyrene, and 99% for bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. the color was increased by about 50% due to staining from the peat and the pH decreased by about one-half pH unit, also from the peat media. Ammonia nitrogen was increased by several times, and nitrate nitrogen had low reductions (about 14%).

  10. Modelling of e-cloud build-up in grooved vacuum chambers usingPOSINST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco; Celata, C.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Pivi, Mauro

    2007-06-29

    Use of grooved vacuum chambers have been suggested as a wayto limitelectron cloud accumulation in the ILC-DR. We report onsimulations carried out using an augmented version of POSINST, accountingfor e-cloud dynamics in the presence of grooves, and make contact withprevious estimates of an effective secondary electron yield for groovedsurfaces.

  11. A Diffusion Cloud Chamber Study of Very Slow Mesons. II. Beta Decay of the Muon

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lederman, L. M.; Sargent, C. P.; Rinehart, M.; Rogers, K.

    1955-03-01

    The spectrum of electrons arising from the decay of the negative mu meson has been determined. The muons are arrested in the gas of a high pressure hydrogen filled diffusion cloud chamber. The momenta of the decay electrons are determined from their curvature in a magnetic field of 7750 gauss. The spectrum of 415 electrons has been analyzed according to the theory of Michel.

  12. Long-life micro vacuum chamber for a micromachined cryogenic cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Haishan E-mail: HaishanCao@gmail.com; Vermeer, Cristian H.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Holland, Harry J.; Brake, H. J. Marcel ter

    2015-11-15

    Micromachined cryogenic coolers can be used for cooling small electronic devices to improve their performance. However, for reaching cryogenic temperatures, they require a very good thermal insulation from the warm environment. This is established by a vacuum space that for adequate insulation has to be maintained at a pressure of 0.01 Pa or lower. In this paper, the challenge of maintaining a vacuum chamber with a volume of 3.6 × 10{sup −5} m{sup 3} and an inner wall area of 8.1 × 10{sup −3} m{sup 2} at a pressure no higher than 0.01 Pa for five years is theoretically analyzed. The possible sources of gas, the mechanisms by which these gases enter the vacuum space and their effects on the pressure in the vacuum chamber are discussed. In a long-duration experiment with four stainless steel chambers of the above dimensions and equipped with a chemical getter, the vacuum pressures were monitored for a period of two years. In that period, the measured pressure increase stayed within 0.01 Pa. This study can be used to guide the design of long-lifetime micro vacuum chambers that operate without continuous mechanical pumping.

  13. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-60 CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-10-26

    We reported new data from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 36.8 kg of CF3I and located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. PICO-60 is the largest bubble chamber to search for dark matter to date. With an analyzed exposure of 92.8 live-days, PICO-60 exhibits the same excellent background rejection observed in smaller bubble chambers. Alpha decays in PICO-60 exhibit frequency-dependent acoustic calorimetry, similar but not identical to that reported recently in a C3F8 bubble chamber. PICO-60 also observes a large population of unknown background events, exhibiting acoustic, spatial, and timing behaviors inconsistent with those expected from a dark matter signal. We found these behaviors allow for analysis cuts to remove all background events while retaining 48.2%of the exposure. Stringent limits on WIMPs interacting via spin-dependent proton and spin-independent processes are set, and the interpretation of the DAMA/LIBRA modulation signal as dark matter interacting with iodine nuclei is ruled out.

  14. Multi-property characterization chamber for geophysical-hydrological investigations of hydrate bearing sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo Choi, Jeong-Hoon; Dai, Sheng

    2014-08-01

    With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and morphological characterization of specimens. Samples of hydrate-bearing sediments are held within a rubber sleeve inside the chamber. The thick sleeve is more durable and versatile than thin membranes while also being much softer than oedometer-type chambers that are incapable of enabling flow tests. Bias introduced by the rubber sleeve during large deformation tests are also calibrated both theoretically and experimentally. This system provides insight into full characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments in the laboratory, as well as pressure core technology in the field.

  15. Combination of emulsion chamber and air shower array at Mt. Chacaltaya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasumi, N.; Tsushima, I.; Honda, K.; Hashimoto, K. ); Matano, T. ); Mori, K.; Inoue, N.; Ticona, R. ); Ohsawa, A. ); Tamada, M. ); Martinic, N.; Aliaga, Z.; Reguerin, A.; Aguirre, C. )

    1993-06-15

    Data of 34 familes with the accompanying air showers, observed by the combination of emulsion chamber and air shower array at Mt. Chacaltaya, are presented. Comparison with the simulation calculation concludes that a change is necessary in the characteristics of hadron interactions in [ital E][sub 0][ge]10[sup 15] eV.

  16. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations for reference dosimetry of electron beams with the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muir, B. R. Rogers, D. W. O.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios of the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for

  18. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an optical instrument by generating reactive ions using photon radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Hollenshead, Jeromy T.; Umstadter, Karl R.; Starodub, Elena; Zhuang, Guorong V.

    2015-10-13

    An optical instrument, including a chamber, an object exposed to an interior of the chamber, a source of low-pressure gas, the gas comprising at least one of low-pressure molecular hydrogen gas, low-pressure molecular oxygen and a low-pressure noble gas, the source of low pressure gas being fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the object and a remaining portion of the instrument that is exposed to the interior of the chamber so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an EUV/VUV light source adapted to direct EUV/VUV light through the low pressure gas in the chamber onto the object. In such a system, when the EUV/VUV light source is activated ions of the low-pressure gas are formed and directed to the object. The ions may be ions of Hydrogen, Oxygen or a noble gas.

  19. Neutron and gamma detector using an ionization chamber with an integrated body and moderator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Lestone, John Paul

    2006-07-18

    A detector for detecting neutrons and gamma radiation includes a cathode that defines an interior surface and an interior volume. A conductive neutron-capturing layer is disposed on the interior surface of the cathode and a plastic housing surrounds the cathode. A plastic lid is attached to the housing and encloses the interior volume of the cathode forming an ionization chamber, into the center of which an anode extends from the plastic lid. A working gas is disposed within the ionization chamber and a high biasing voltage is connected to the cathode. Processing electronics are coupled to the anode and process current pulses which are converted into Gaussian pulses, which are either counted as neutrons or integrated as gammas, in response to whether pulse amplitude crosses a neutron threshold. The detector according to the invention may be readily fabricated into single or multilayer detector arrays.

  20. The Drift Chamber for the Experiment to Study the Nature of the Confinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berdnikov, Vladimir V.; Somov, S. V.; Pentchev, Lubomir; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    The GlueX experiment was designed to search for hybrid mesons with exotic quantum numbers using a beam of linearly polarized photons incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The spectrum of these states and their mass splitting from normal mesons may yield information on confinement. The description of the GlueX spectrometer and Forward Drift Chambers (FDC) as a part of track reconstruction system is presented in the text. FDC‘s are multiwire chambers with cathode and anode read-out. The system allows reconstructing tracks of charged particles with ~200mkm accuracy with angles from 20° up to 1°. One of the detector features ismore » 1.64% X0 material amount in the active area. The cathode gain calibration procedure is presented. The results of such calibration using cosmic data and beam data are presented as well.« less

  1. Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murali, S. Krupakar; Emmert, G. A.; Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    2010-10-15

    Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the cathode. Experimentally, the grid temperature decreases as the chamber pressure increases; numerical simulations suggest that this is caused by the reduction of the hot ion current to the cathode as the pressure increases for constant power supply current. Such an understanding further supports the conclusion that the asymmetric heating of the cathode can be decreased by homogenizing the ion flow around the cathode.

  2. Hard disk drive based microsecond x-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Müller, O. Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R.

    2015-03-15

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few μs was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of μs to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper.

  3. A study of electromagnetic showers in the high density projection chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, E.; Berggren, M.; Cattai, A.; Fischer, H.G.; Flammier, M.; Gerutti, G.; Innocenti, P.G.; Iversen, P.S.

    1983-02-01

    A prototype module of a High density Projection Chamber (HPC) has been tested in an electron beam. The HPC, with the shower conversion separated from the charge collection, offers a simple, homogeneous large volume detector with an energy resolution of 12.5%/..sqrt..E and an exceptionally fine granularity both along and transverse to the shower axis. The results from the test are presented together with a description of the calorimeter system.

  4. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  5. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  6. OSTIblog Articles in the multiwire chamber Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information multiwire chamber Topic Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of Nobel Prizes for Two DOE-associated Researchers by Mary Schorn 05 Oct, 2012 in Science Communications 4261 AccompDOEnobels_slide.jpg Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of Nobel Prizes for Two DOE-associated Researchers Read more about 4261 DOE-associated researchers have contributed to the advancement of a variety of science disciplines as a result of research they have conducted. Twenty

  7. Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shielding. | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor Shielding. Hall thrusters have been established as a compact and reliable means for satellite applications. Erosion of the surfaces of such thrusters, however, has been a serious factor in limiting their lifetimes. Replacing eroded surfaces by replenishing them is generally unattractive because of the mechanical complexity and added weight that could be required. This

  8. Dark Matter Limits From a 2L C3F8 Filled Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alan Edward

    2015-12-01

    The PICO-2L C3F8 bubble chamber search forWeakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter was operated in the SNOLAB underground laboratory at the same location as the previous CF3I lled COUPP-4kg detector. Neutron calibrations using photoneutron sources in C3F8 and CF3I lled calibration bubble chambers were performed to verify the sensitivity of these target uids to dark matter scattering. This data was combined with similar measurements using a low-energy neutron beam at the University of Montreal and in situ calibrations of the PICO-2L and COUPP-4kg detectors. C3F8 provides much greater sensitivity to WIMP-proton scattering than CF3I in bubble chamber detectors. PICO-2L searched for dark matter recoils with energy thresholds below 10 keV. Radiopurity assays of detector materials were performed and the expected neutron recoil background was evaluated to be 1.6+0:3

  9. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  10. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  11. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  12. Microwave remote plasma enhanced-atomic layer deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechana, A.; Thamboon, P.; Boonyawan, D.

    2014-10-15

    A microwave remote Plasma Enhanced-Atomic Layer Deposition system with multicusp confinement chamber is established at the Plasma and Beam Physics research facilities, Chiang Mai, Thailand. The system produces highly-reactive plasma species in order to enhance the deposition process of thin films. The addition of the multicusp magnetic fields further improves the plasma density and uniformity in the reaction chamber. Thus, the system is more favorable to temperature-sensitive substrates when heating becomes unwanted. Furthermore, the remote-plasma feature, which is generated via microwave power source, offers tunability of the plasma properties separately from the process. As a result, the system provides high flexibility in choice of materials and design experiments, particularly for low-temperature applications. Performance evaluations of the system were carried on coating experiments of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers onto a silicon wafer. The plasma characteristics in the chamber will be described. The resulted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} filmsanalyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in channeling mode and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniqueswill be discussed.

  13. Comparative study of ionization chamber detectors vis-a-vis a CCD detector for dispersive XAS measurement in transmission geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poswal, A. K.; Agrawal, A.; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2013-02-05

    We have designed and fabricated parallel plate ionization chamber detectors and voltage vs. current characteristics (V-I curve) of the detectors were recorded with synchrotron radiation to qualify for use in X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. After qualifying the ionization chambers, the detectors were used in the dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at INDUS-2 SRS in Turbo-XAS geometry. Using the same setup and under the same setting, XAS spectra were also recorded with a CCD detector and the observation on relative performance of the ionization chamber vis-a-vis the CCD detector is presented in this paper.

  14. Technique for measuring air flow and carbon dioxide flux in large, open-top chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.M.; Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.

    1993-10-01

    Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) are commonly used to evaluate the effect of CO{sub 2},O{sub 3}, and other trace gases on vegetation. This study developed and tested a new technique for measuring forced air flow and net CO{sub 2} flux from OTCs. Experiments were performed with a 4.5-m diam. OTC with a sealed floor and a specialized air delivery system. Air flow through the chamber was computed with the Bernoulli equation using measurements of the pressure differential between the air delivery ducts and the chamber interior. An independent measurement of air flow was made simultaneously to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the Bernoulli relationship. The CO{sub 2} flux density was calculated as the product of chamber air flow and the difference in CO{sub 2} concentration between the air entering and exhausting from the OTC (C{sub in}-C{sub out}). Accuracy was evaluated by releasing CO{sub 2} within the OTC at known rates. Data were collected with OTCs at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} ({approx}700 {mu}mol{sup -1}). Results showed the Bernoulli equation, with a flow coefficient of 0.7, accurately measured air flow in the OTC within {+-}5% regardless of flow rate and air duct geometry. Experiments in ambient OTCs showed CO{sub 2} flux density ({mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), computed from 2-min averages of air flow and C{sub in} - C{sub out,} was typically within {+-} 10% of actual flux, provided that the exit air velocity at the top of the OTC was greater than 0.6 m s{sup -1}. Obtaining the same accuracy in CO{sub 2}-enriched OTCs required a critical exit velocity near 1.2 m s{sup -1} to minimize the incursion of ambient air and prevent contamination of exit gas sample. When flux data were integrated over time to estimate daily CO{sub 2} flux ({mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), actual and measured values agreed to within {+-}2% for both ambient and CO{sub 2}-enriched chambers, suggesting that accurate measurements of daily net C exchange are possible with this technique.

  15. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  16. Verifying Sensor Response to Difficult Chemicals with a New Test Chamber Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maughan, A. D.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Probasco, Kathleen M.

    2004-06-01

    In this article we discuss the application of technology innovations to optimize detection of hard-to-measure (less- or semi-volatile) compounds. These chemicals are found all around us: in pesticides and herbicides, the higher boiling polyaromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust, and linked polyurethane foams in products ranging from hiking boots to acoustic ceilings. They appear in low concentrations and evaporate very slowly. These heavier chemicals are rarely measured accurately because they stick to surfaces and sampling equipment and, consequently, are not reliably sampled or delivered to analytical detectors. Its like trying to identify cold, sticky honey by getting it to flow in through a sampling tube to a detector it will hardly move. Honey generally coats out on surfaces and sample lines to the extent that even if it is detected, the amount present is vastly underestimated. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) addressed the problem by developing a chamber facility with instrumentation that can overcome the under-reporting of these ubiquitous chemical compounds. The atmospheric chemistry chamber provides a controlled environment in which to certify the accuracy of and conditions under which sensors can best respond to volatile and semi-volatile chemicals. The facility is designed to handle and measure chemicals at the levels at which they are found in nature. Test environments can be created in which atmospheric concentrations are at low part-per-trillion concentrations. These concentrations are equivalent to an herbicide off-gassing from a commercially grown apple. The chamber can be set up to simulate releases ranging from industrial vents with high concentrations to releases from surfaces, soils, and/or vegetation where the concentrations are low.

  17. U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum June 16, 2008 - 1:30pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Delivery for Secretary Bodman Thank you very much, Ron, for that kind introduction and for the critically important work that you and your colleagues do at Lawrence Livermore. I also want to thank my good friend Secretary George Shultz - along with his esteemed co-chairs for this event, Peter Lougheed and Pedro Aspe, for inviting me

  18. Note: The design of thin gap chamber simulation signal source based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Kun; Wang, Xu; Li, Feng; Jin, Ge; Lu, Houbing; Liang, Futian

    2015-01-15

    The Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is an important part of ATLAS detector and LHC accelerator. Targeting the feature of the output signal of TGC detector, we have designed a simulation signal source. The core of the design is based on field programmable gate array, randomly outputting 256-channel simulation signals. The signal is generated by true random number generator. The source of randomness originates from the timing jitter in ring oscillators. The experimental results show that the random number is uniform in histogram, and the whole system has high reliability.

  19. PICASSO, COUPP and PICO - Search for dark matter with bubble chambers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; et al

    2015-05-29

    The PICASSO and COUPP collaborations use superheated liquid detectors to search for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These experiments, located in the underground laboratory of SNOLAB, Canada, detect phase transitions triggered by nuclear recoils in the keV range induced by interactions with WIMPs. We present details of the construction and operation of these detectors as well as the results, obtained by several years of observations. We also introduce PICO, a joint effort of the two collaborations to build a second generation ton-scale bubble chamber with 250 liters of active liquid.

  20. Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out conduits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.

    2015-10-28

    The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out conduits, and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS is presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out conduit.

  1. High-voltage crowbar protection for the large CDF axial drift chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binkley, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Stuermer, W.; Wagner, R.L.; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The Central Outer Tracker (COT) is a big cylindrical drift chamber that provides charged particle tracking for the Collider Detector at Fermilab experiment. To protect the COT, the large stored energy in the high voltage system needs to be removed quickly when a problem is sensed. For the high voltage switch, a special-order silicon-controlled-rectifier was chosen over more readily available integrated gate bipolar transistors because of layout and reliability questions. The considerations concerning the high voltage switch, the prototype performance, and the experience of more than two years of running are described.

  2. High-Accuracy Measurements of the Centre of Gravity of Avalanches in Proportional Chambers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Charpak, G.; Jeavons, A.; Sauli, F.; Stubbs, R.

    1973-09-24

    In a multiwire proportional chamber the avalanches occur close to the anode wires. The motion of the positive ions in the large electric fields at the vicinity of the wires induces fast-rising positive pulses on the surrounding electrodes. Different methods have been developed in order to determine the position of the centre of the avalanches. In the method we describe, the centre of gravity of the pulse distribution is measured directly. It seems to lead to an accuracy which is limited only by the stability of the spatial distribution of the avalanches generated by the process being measured.

  3. SU-E-T-343: Valencia Applicator Commissioning Using a Micro-Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmona-Meseguer, V; Palomo-Llinares, R; Candela-Juan, C; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Lliso-Valverde, F; Garcia-Martinez, T; Richart-Sancho, J; Granero, D; Ballester, F; Perez-Calatayud, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In the commissioning and QA of surface isotope-based applicators, source-indexer distance (SID) has a great influence in the flatness, symmetry and output. To these purposes, methods described in the literature are the use of a special insert at the entrance of dwell chamber or radiochromic films. Here we present the experience with a micro-chamber array to perform the commissioning and QA of Valencia applicators. Methods: Valencia applicators have been used, the classic and the new extra-shielded version. A micro-chamber array has been employed, 1000 SRS (PTW), with 977 liquid filled, 2.3×2.3×0.5 mm{sup 3} sized ion chambers covering 11×11 cm{sup 2}, which spacing is 2.5 mm in the central 5.5×5.5 cm{sup 2}, dedicated mainly in principle, in conjunction with Octavius 4D (PTW), to IMRT, VMAT, SBRT verifications. Verisoft software that allows for 3D and planar analysis has been used to evaluate the results. Applicators were located on the surface of the array. To verify the SID, measurements corresponding to the reference value, SID ± 1 mm and SID ± 2 mm were acquired (integration time was fixed in order to discard the influence of the source entrance/exit). Once SID was determined, standard protocol treatments corresponding to 3 Gy and 7 Gy were acquired in order to establish typical patient dose distribution. Results: The method is fast and sensitive. The SID obtained was 1321 mm which is the nominal value included in the applicator manual. For example at 1319 mm an asymmetry of ±8% with respect to the central value was measured, along with a central deviation of −4% referred to 1321 mm. Conclusion: A practical method for the commissioning and QA of Valencia applicators has been described. It has been shown that it is an efficient and accurate tool for these purposes as well as for the verification of the absolute output constancy.

  4. Some remarks on antenna response in a reverberation chamber - Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 43, NO. 2, MAY 2001 239 Some Remarks on Antenna Response in a Reverberation Chamber L. K. Warne and K. S. H. Lee Abstract-The simple formula, = ( )( 8 ), for the received power of an antenna with a matched load in an over-moded cavity actually holds for an antenna of any shape and size. This can be seen from the close connection between the correlation tensor of the cavity field at two different points and the imaginary part of the free-space dyadic Green's

  5. Response to high-energy photons of PTW31014 PinPoint ion chamber with a central aluminum electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agostinelli, S.; Garelli, S.; Piergentili, M.; Foppiano, F.

    2008-07-15

    Since its introduction the PinPoint (PTW-Freiburg) micro-ionization chamber has been proposed for relative dosimetry (output factors, depth dose curves, and beam profiles) as well as for determination of absolute dose of small high-energy photon beams. This paper investigates the dosimetric performance of a new design (type 31014) of the PinPoint ion chamber with a central aluminum electrode. The study included characterization of inherent and radiation-induced leakage, ion collection efficiency and polarity effect, relative response of the chamber, measurement of beam profiles, and depth dose curves. The 6 and 15 MV photon beams of a Varian 2100 C/D were considered. At the nominal operating voltage of 400 V the PinPoint type 31014 chamber was found to present a strong field size dependence of the polarity correction factor and an excess of the collected charge, which can lead to an underestimation of the collection efficiency if determined with the conventional ''two-voltage'' method. In comparison to the original PinPoint design (type 31006) the authors found for type 31014 chamber no overresponse to large-area fields if polarity correction is applied. If no correction is taken into consideration, the authors found the chamber's output to be inaccurate for large-area fields (0.5% accuracy limited up to the 12x12 and 20x20 cm{sup 2} field for the 6 and 15 MV beams, respectively), which is a direct consequence of the stem and polarity effects due to the chamber's very small sensitive volume (0.015 cc) and cable irradiation. Beam profiles and depth dose curves measured with type 31014 PinPoint chamber for small and medium size fields were compared to data measured with a 0.125 cc ion chamber and with high-resolution Kodak EDR2 films. Analysis of the penumbra (80%-20% distance) showed that the spatial resolution of type 31014 PinPoint ion chamber approaches (penumbra broadening {<=}0.6 mm) EDR2 film results.

  6. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 1010 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  7. Method And Apparatus For Launching Microwave Energy Into A Plasma Processing Chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DOUGHTY, FRANK C.; [et al

    2001-05-01

    A method and apparatus for launching microwave energy to a plasma processing chamber in which the required magnetic field is generated by a permanent magnet structure and the permanent magnet material effectively comprises one or more surfaces of the waveguide structure. The waveguide structure functions as an impedance matching device and controls the field pattern of the launched microwave field to create a uniform plasma. The waveguide launcher may comprise a rectangular waveguide, a circular waveguide, or a coaxial waveguide with permanent magnet material forming the sidewalls of the guide and a magnetization pattern which produces the required microwave electron cyclotron resonance magnetic field, a uniform field absorption pattern, and a rapid decay of the fields away from the resonance zone. In addition, the incorporation of permanent magnet material as a portion of the waveguide structure places the magnetic material in close proximity to the vacuum chamber, allowing for a precisely controlled magnetic field configuration, and a reduction of the amount of permanent magnet material required.

  8. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of a toroidal combustion chamber for stratified-charge engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiros, E.N.; Adams, J.W.; Otis, D.R.; Myers, P.S.

    1990-03-02

    Maximum efficiency of cyclic combustion engines (CCE) is achieved when using stratified charge and high compression ratio with controlled air circulation and combustion. A description is given of a varying-area, toroidal-shaped combustion chamber designed to achieve the above objectives by: obtaining initial circulatory air motion induced by the piston late in the compression stroke; increasing this piston-induced velocity using the momentum of fuel injected tangentially to the center line of the toroid; and by using combustion to further increase the circulation rate. Four combustion chamber configurations were studied in a bomb with zero initial air velocity to ascertain whether significant rotation could be achieved by injection and combustion. Gas pressure was measured and high speed photographs were taken of the injection and combustion process. The ideal situation, at full load, is to have one rotation of the gas during the time allocated to combustion. The experimental results, with zero initial velocity, show that fuel momentum plus combustion produces from one-half to three-quarters of a rotation in the available time. Modeling suggests that the use of initial, piston-induced velocities would result in the desired one rotation in the available time.

  9. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate eventsmore » exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.« less

  10. Dark matter search results from the PICO-2L C$_3$F$_8$ bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.

    2015-06-11

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2 liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg days at four different energy thresholds below 10 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron-recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds. The chamber exhibits an electron-recoil sensitivity of < 3.5 × 10–10 and an alpha rejection factor of > 98.2%. These data also include the first observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. Lastly, these data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with significant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  11. Open loop compensation for the eddy current effect in the APS storage ring vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Y.; Bridges, J.; Emery, L.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    In the third generation synchrotron light sources, closed orbit stabilization against external vibrations is critical to ensure low emittance and high brightness. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will use a large number (678) of correction magnets to create local bumps and to achieve global orbit stabilization. In this paper, we will present the result of the effort to counter the effect due to the finite inductance of the magnet and the eddy current in the 1/2 in.-thick aluminum storage ring vacuum chamber. The amplitude attenuation and the phase shift of the correction magnet field inside the APS storage ring vacuum chamber were measured. A circuit to compensate for this effect was then inserted between the signal source and the magnet power supply. The amplitude was restored with an error of less than 20% of the source signal amplitude and the phase shift was reduced from 80{degrees} to 12{degrees} at 10 Hz. Incorporation of this circuit in the closed loop feedback scheme and the resulting beneficial effect in the closed orbit stabilization will be discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Direct Measurement of the Bubble Nucleation Energy Threshold in a CF3I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Benjamin, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harnish, C.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Moan, T.; Nania, T.; Neilson, R.; Ramberg, E.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; RIvera, R. A.; Uplegger, L.

    2013-07-30

    Here, we measured the energy threshold and efficiency for bubble nucleation from iodine recoils in a CF3I bubble chamber in the energy range of interest for a dark matter search. These interactions cannot be probed by standard neutron calibration methods, so we develop a new technique by observing the elastic scattering of 12 GeV/c negative pions. The pions are tracked with a silicon pixel telescope and the reconstructed scattering angle provides a measure of the nuclear recoil kinetic energy. The bubble chamber was operated with a nominal threshold of (13.6±0.6) keV. Interpretation of the results depends on the response to fluorine and carbon recoils, but in general we find agreement with the predictions of the classical bubble-nucleation theory. Moreover, this measurement confirms the applicability of CF3I as a target for spin-independent dark matter interactions and represents a novel technique for calibration of superheated fluid detectors.

  13. Effects of discharge chamber length on the negative ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Jung, Bong-Ki; An, YoungHwa; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    In a volume-produced negative hydrogen ion source, control of electron temperature is essential due to its close correlation with the generation of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region as well as the generation of negative hydrogen ions by dissociative attachment in the extraction region. In this study, geometric effects of the cylindrical discharge chamber on negative ion generation via electron temperature changes are investigated in two discharge chambers with different lengths of 7.5 cm and 11 cm. Measurements with a radio-frequency-compensated Langmuir probe show that the electron temperature in the heating region is significantly increased by reducing the length of the discharge chamber due to the reduced effective plasma size. A particle balance model which is modified to consider the effects of discharge chamber configuration on the plasma parameters explains the variation of the electron temperature with the chamber geometry and gas pressure quite well. Accordingly, H{sup −} ion density measurement with laser photo-detachment in the short chamber shows a few times increase compared to the longer one at the same heating power depending on gas pressure. However, the increase drops significantly as operating gas pressure decreases, indicating increased electron temperatures in the extraction region degrade dissociative attachment significantly especially in the low pressure regime. It is concluded that the increase of electron temperature by adjusting the discharge chamber geometry is efficient to increase H{sup −} ion production as long as low electron temperatures are maintained in the extraction region in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  14. Chamber wall interactions with HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Ohashi, Tomohiro; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2015-07-15

    The authors have studied the interaction of HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas with reactor chamber wall deposits, with and without Si etching, using the spinning wall technique. The spinning wall is part of the reactor chamber walls, allowing near-real-time analysis of the composition of surface layers via Auger electron spectrometry and determination of species desorbing off the walls by mass spectrometry. In HBr plasmas with no bias voltage on the Si substrate, and hence no Si etching, HBr is ?30% dissociated, and H{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} form in the plasma. Layers deposited on the reactor chamber contained little if any Br under these conditions. Adding O{sub 2} to an HBr plasma leads to formation of H{sub 2}O and increased Br{sub 2} (compared to a pure HBr plasma) products that desorb from the spinning wall. H{sub 2}O has a very long residence time on the surface. With bias voltage applied to the Si substrate in an HBr plasma, mass spectrometer signals are prominent for SiBr and SiBr{sub 3}, and weaker for SiBr{sub 2}, SiBr{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 5}, and Si{sub 2}OBr{sub 5}. Under these conditions, a SiO{sub x}Br{sub y} layer deposits on the spinning wall. Adding 20% O{sub 2} to HBr stops etching and eliminates Br from the surface layer, indicating that Br on the reactor walls is a result of SiBr{sub x} impingement and not from bromination by impinging Br. With HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas and no bias on the stage, a SiO{sub x}Cl{sub y} layer deposits, and no Br is detected. HCl, BrCl, and Br{sub 2} were detected in the line-of-sight leak, around the spinning wall, of a HBr/Cl{sub 2} (1:1) gas mixture in the absence of a plasma. Residence time analysis of species in the chamber and a change in the product distribution with a change in the composition of the layer deposited on the chamber wall suggest that reactions forming these products in the absence of a plasma occur on the reactor walls. With a plasma and bias on the Si

  15. A Proposal for a Ton Scale Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collar, Juan; Dahl, C.Eric; Fustin, Drew; Robinson, Alan; Behnke, Ed; Behnke, Joshua; Breznau, William; Connor, Austin; Kuehnemund, Emily Grace; Levine, Ilan; Moan, Timothy; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-10-07

    The nature of non-baryonic dark matter is one of the most intriguing questions for particle physics at the start of the 21st century. There is ample evidence for its existence, but almost nothing is known of its properties. WIMPs are a very appealing candidate particle and several experimental campaigns are underway around the world to search for these particles via the nuclear recoils that they should induce. The COUPP series of bubble chambers has played a significant role in the WIMP search. Through a sequence of detectors of increasing size, a number of R&D issues have arisen and been solved, and the technology has now been advanced to the point where the construction of large chambers requires a modest research effort, some development, but mostly just engineering. It is within this context that we propose to build the next COUPP detector - COUPP-500, a ton scale device to be built over the next three years at Fermilab and then deployed deep underground at SNOLAB. The primary advantages of the COUPP approach over other technologies are: (1) The ability to reject electron and gamma backgrounds by arranging the chamber thermodynamics such that these particles do not even trigger the detector. (2) The ability to suppress neutron backgrounds by having the radioactively impure detection elements far from the active volume and by using the self-shielding of a large device and the high granularity to identify multiple bubbles. (3) The ability to build large chambers cheaply and with a choice of target fluids. (4) The ability to increase the size of the chambers without changing the size or complexity of the data acquisition. (5) Sensitivity to spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP couplings. These key advantages should enable the goal of one background event in a ton-year of exposure to be achieved. The conceptual design of COUPP-500 is scaled from the preceding devices. In many cases all that is needed is a simple scaling up of components previously used

  16. A multi-chambered stormwater treatment train for the treatment of stormwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, R.; Robertson, B.; Field, R.

    1995-10-01

    Runoff from paved parking and storage areas, and especially gas station areas, has been observed to be heavily contaminated with concentrations of many pollutants being 3 to 600 times greater than typical receiving water criteria. These paved areas are usually found to contribute most of the toxicant pollutant loadings to the stormwater outfalls in residential and commercial areas. PAHs, the most commonly detected toxic organic compounds found in urban runoff, are mostly from fossil fuel combustion. These compounds are very hard to control by eliminating their use, and, unfortunately, their control by typical stormwater management practices is not well understood. The major benefit of this research project will be to better understand how these toxicants can be controlled at critical source areas, especially automobile service facilities, with the use of a special treatment device or Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT).

  17. Silicon nitride swirl lower-chamber for high power turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, S.; Murachi, M.; Kawamoto, H.; Kato, S.; Kawakami, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes application of sintered silicon nitride to the swirl lower-chamber in order to improve performance of turbocharged diesel engines. Various stress analyses by finite element method and stress measurements have been applied to determine the design specifications for the component, which compromise brittleness of ceramic materials. Material development was conducted to evaluate strength, fracture toughness, and thermal properties for the sintered bodies. Ceramic injection molding has been employed to fabricate components with large quantities. In the present work. Quality assurance for the components can be made by reliability evaluation methods as well as non-destructive and stress loading inspections. It is found that the engine performance with ceramic component has been increased in the power out put of 9ps as compared to that of conventional engines.

  18. Cryogenic argon ionization chamber detector for analysis of radioactive noble gases. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, S.R.

    1982-03-01

    Two ionization chamber detectors, using liquid or solid argon as their medium were designed, constructed and tested as an improved means of analyzing quantitatively xenon 131m and xenon 133. Problems with the first detector, including vibrational noise and inadequate temperature control, limited its use to studies using solid argon. In the second design, many operating problems of the first detector were corrected. Properties of the detectors were studied using external gamma sources and xenon 131m dispersed inside the detector medium. The xenon sample and argon were purified and cryogenically pumped into the detector for spectral analysis. Both the purity of the argon and bias voltages affected resolution by changing the trapping distance of the electrons in the medium. Lower temperatures increased detection efficiency by condensing more of the sample into the cell. No clearly recognizable energy peak could be found in spectra from external or internal sources.

  19. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  20. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  1. Dark Matter Search Results from the PICO-2L C3F8 Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amole, C.; Ardid, M.; Asner, David M.; Baxter, D.; Behnke, E.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Borsodi, H.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Clark, K.; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C. E.; Daley, S.; Das, Madhusmita; Debris, F.; Dhungana, N.; Farine, J.; Felis, I.; Filgas, R.; Fines-Neuschild, M.; Girard, Francoise; Giroux, G.; Hai, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, O.; Jackson, C. M.; Jin, M.; Krauss, C. B.; Lafreniere, M.; Laurin, M.; Lawson, I.; Levine, I.; Lippincott, W. H.; Mann, E.; Martin, J. P.; Maurya, D.; Mitra, Pitam; Neilson, R.; Noble, A. J.; Plante, A.; Podviianiuk, R. B.; Priya, S.; Robinson, A. E.; Ruschman, M.; Scallon, O.; Seth, S.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Starinski, N.; Stekl, I.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Wells, J.; Wichoski, U.; Zacek, V.; Zhang, J.

    2015-06-12

    New data are reported from the operation of a 2-liter C3F8 bubble chamber in the 2100 meter deep SNOLAB underground laboratory, with a total exposure of 211.5 kg-days at four different recoil energy thresholds ranging from 3.2 keV to 8.1 keV. These data show that C3F8 provides excellent electron recoil and alpha rejection capabilities at very low thresholds, including the rst observation of a dependence of acoustic signal on alpha energy. Twelve single nuclear recoil event candidates were observed during the run. The candidate events exhibit timing characteristics that are not consistent with the hypothesis of a uniform time distribution, and no evidence for a dark matter signal is claimed. These data provide the most sensitive direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering to date, with signicant sensitivity at low WIMP masses for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering.

  2. Focusing, in-chamber spectrometer triplet for high resolution measurements on the Sandia Z facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenger, D. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Porter, J. L.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2006-10-15

    An early prototype of a focusing spectrometer with one-dimensional (1D) spatial resolution (FSSR) instrument was previously developed for use in the vacuum chamber of the Sandia Z facility [Sinars et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 595 (2006)]. This instrument used a single, spherically bent crystal to measure time-integrated Ar spectra from 0.295-0.378 nm with {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}>2000 and a 1D axial spatial resolution of {approx}50 {mu}m. We present the design of a final version of this instrument that improves the shielding, can be aligned more accurately, and uses three crystals instead of one. The last change enables coverage of multiple spectral ranges if different crystals are used, or multiple times if identical crystals and time-gated detectors are used. We also present results from initial prototyping tests on the Z facility using two crystals in a time-integrated mode.

  3. Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

    2014-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

  4. An exposure chamber for studies on human perception of DC electric fields and ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Maruvada, P.S. )

    1994-10-01

    Direct current (DC) transmission lines are often used, for technical and economic reasons, as interconnections in modern high voltage power systems, which are essentially of the alternating current (AC) type. Significant differences exist, however, between the field effects produced in the vicinity of AC and DC transmission lines. DC electric fields induce charges, on the surface of a conducting body such as a human being and may therefore be ''perceived'' by humans due to hair stimulation and other sensations experienced by the skin. A human being exposed to the ionized field of a DC transmission line experiences not only surface charges but also the conducted ion currents. A systematic laboratory study has been undertaken by Hydro Quebec to investigate human perception, using well established psycho physical techniques, of DC electric fields and ions. The design, construction and operation of an exposure chamber for this purpose, in the high voltage laboratory of IREQ, are described in this paper.

  5. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  6. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Martin, Walter H.; Myers, David W.; Keville, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk.

  7. 2014 National Small Business Contracting Summit- US Women’s Chamber of Commerce & National Association of Small Business Contractors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Association of Small Business Contractors and the U.S. Women's Chamber of Commerce present the 2014 National Small Business Federal Contracting Summit. The event will include sessions on securing a fair share of federal contracting, legal issues, trends and opportunities.

  8. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  9. Time-resolved dosimetry using a pinpoint ionization chamber as quality assurance for IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louwe, Robert J. W. Satherley, Thomas; Day, Rebecca A.; Greig, Lynne; Wendling, Markus; Monshouwer, René

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a method to verify the dose delivery in relation to the individual control points of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using an ionization chamber. In addition to more effective problem solving during patient-specific quality assurance (QA), the aim is to eventually map out the limitations in the treatment chain and enable a targeted improvement of the treatment technique in an efficient way. Methods: Pretreatment verification was carried out for 255 treatment plans that included a broad range of treatment indications in two departments using the equipment of different vendors. In-house developed software was used to enable calculation of the dose delivery for the individual beamlets in the treatment planning system (TPS), for data acquisition, and for analysis of the data. The observed deviations were related to various delivery and measurement parameters such as gantry angle, field size, and the position of the detector with respect to the field edge to distinguish between error sources. Results: The average deviation of the integral fraction dose during pretreatment verification of the planning target volume dose was −2.1% ± 2.2% (1 SD), −1.7% ± 1.7% (1 SD), and 0.0% ± 1.3% (1 SD) for IMRT at the Radboud University Medical Center (RUMC), VMAT (RUMC), and VMAT at the Wellington Blood and Cancer Centre, respectively. Verification of the dose to organs at risk gave very similar results but was generally subject to a larger measurement uncertainty due to the position of the detector at a high dose gradient. The observed deviations could be related to limitations of the TPS beam models, attenuation of the treatment couch, as well as measurement errors. The apparent systematic error of about −2% in the average deviation of the integral fraction dose in the RUMC results could be explained by the limitations of the TPS beam model in the calculation of the beam penumbra. Conclusions: This

  10. Performance of a Drift Chamber Candidate for a Cosmic Muon Tomography System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anghel, V.; Jewett, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Thompson, M.; Armitage, J.; Botte, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Erlandson, A.; Oakham, G.; Bueno, J.; Bryman, D.; Liu, Z.; Charles, E.; Gallant, G.; Cousins, T.; Noel, S.; Drouin, P.-L.; Waller, D.; Stocki, T. J.

    2011-12-13

    In the last decade, many groups around the world have been exploring different ways to probe transport containers which may contain illicit Special Nuclear Materials such as uranium. The muon tomography technique has been proposed as a cost effective system with an acceptable accuracy. A group of Canadian institutions (see above), funded by Defence Research and Development Canada, is testing different technologies to track the cosmic muons. One candidate is the single wire Drift Chamber. With the capability of a 2D impact position measurement, two detectors will be placed above and two below the object to be probed. In order to achieve a good 3D image quality of the cargo content, a good angular resolution is required. The simulation showed that 1mrad was required implying the spatial resolution of the trackers must be in the range of 1 to 2 mm for 1 m separation. A tracking system using three prototypes has been built and tested. The spatial resolution obtained is 1.7 mm perpendicular to the wire and 3 mm along the wire.

  11. Radial force on the vacuum chamber wall during thermal quench in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2015-12-15

    The radial force balance during a thermal quench in tokamaks is analyzed. As a rule, the duration τ{sub tp} of such events is much shorter than the resistive time τ{sub w} of the vacuum chamber wall. Therefore, the perturbations of the magnetic field B produced by the evolving plasma cannot penetrate the wall, which makes different the magnetic pressures on its inner and outer sides. The goal of this work is the analytical estimation of the resulting integral radial force on the wall. The plasma is considered axially symmetric; for the description of radial forces on the wall, the results of V.D. Shafranov’s classical work [J. Nucl. Energy C 5, 251 (1963)] are used. Developed for tokamaks, the standard equilibrium theory considers three interacting systems: plasma, poloidal field coils, and toroidal field coils. Here, the wall is additionally incorporated with currents driven by ∂B/∂t≠0 accompanying the fast loss of the plasma thermal energy. It is shown that they essentially affect the force redistribution, thereby leading to large loads on the wall. The estimates prove that these loads have to be accounted for in the disruptive scenarios in large tokamaks.

  12. Reduction of combustion emissions using hydrogen peroxide in a pilot scale combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.I.; Corredor, L.F.; Tamara, W.

    1997-12-31

    A hydrogen peroxide injection system was designed and installed in the stack of a 5,274 million J/hr industrial pilot plant scale combustion chamber using natural gas as fuel. The concentration of peroxide in the gas stream was precisely controlled by continuous injection using an electromagnetic dosage pump, the liquid 50% peroxide solution was finely dispersed into the gases by a water cooled custom designed delivery system with a spray nozzle at the tip. Residence times between 0.1 and 1.8 seconds and concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} between 280 ppm and 4,000 ppm were used during the test runs. CEMS for total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, as well as an ultrasonic gas flow monitor were used to measure the effect of hydrogen peroxide in reducing the emissions of these pollutants. Destruction removal efficiencies between 25% and 100% were observed for hydrocarbons, and concentrations of CO, as well as NO{sub x}. were reduced about 50%. The results indicate that this labscale proved technology yields similar results in reducing combustion emissions in pilot applications, and also a reliable injection system has been developed and tested successfully.

  13. Liberty County, Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Montana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 48.4917189, -110.9704148 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goo...

  14. Liberty Power Corp. (District of Columbia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 55781 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Average Rates Commercial: 0.0866kWh...

  15. City of West Liberty, Iowa (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iowa Phone Number: (319) 627-2418 or (319) 627-4314 Website: www.cityofwestlibertyia.orgsi Outage Hotline: (319) 627-4314 or (319) 627-2418 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data...

  16. Liberty Hill, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hill, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 30.5149244, -95.1435483 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

  17. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang

    2015-04-28

    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  18. Characterization and use of a 2D-array of ion chambers for brachytherapy dosimetric quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yewondwossen, Mammo

    2012-10-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array MatriXX Evolution is one of the 2D ionization chamber arrays developed by IBA Dosimetry (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) for megavoltage real-time absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the performance of ion chamber array for submegavoltage range brachytherapy beam dose verification and quality assurance (QA) and (2) use the end-to-end dosimetric evaluation that mimics a patient treatment procedure and confirm the primary source strength calibration agrees in both the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment delivery console computers. The dose linearity and energy dependence of the 2D ion chamber array was studied using kilovoltage X-ray beams (100, 180 and 300 kVp). The detector calibration factor was determined using 300 kVp X-ray beams so that we can use the same calibration factor for dosimetric verification of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The phantom used for this measurement consists of multiple catheters, the IBA MatriXX detector, and water-equivalent slab of RW3 to provide full scattering conditions. The treatment planning system (TPS) (Oncentra brachy version 3.3, Nucletron BV, Veenendaal, the Netherlands) dose distribution was calculated on the computed tomography (CT) scan of this phantom. The measured and TPS calculated distributions were compared in IBA Dosimetry OmniPro-I'mRT software. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma ({gamma}) index (with 3% delta dose and distance criterion of 2 mm) for 9 sets of plans. Using a dedicated phantom capable of receiving 5 brachytherapy intralumenal catheters a QA procedure was developed for end-to-end dosimetric evaluation for routine QA checks. The 2D ion chamber array dose dependence was found to be linear for 100-300 kVp and the detector response (k{sub user}) showed strong energy dependence for 100-300 kVp energy range. For the Ir-192 brachytherapy

  19. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known inscattering effect, whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the inout balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the inout balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time

  20. Reactor Chamber and Balance-of-Plant Characteristics for a Fast-Ignition Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medin, Stanislav; Churazov, Mikhail; Koshkarev, Dmitri; Sharkov, Boris; Orlov, Yurii; Suslin, Viktor; Zemskov, Eugeni

    2003-05-15

    The concept of a fast-ignition heavy-ion fusion (FIHIF) power plant involves a cylindrical target and superhigh energy ion beams. The driver produces one plus/minus charge state multimass platinum ions with energy of 100 GeV. The driver efficiency and the target gain are taken as 0.25 and 100, respectively. The preliminary data on the energy fluxes delivered to the reactor chamber wall by the 500-MJ fusion yield are presented. The reactor chamber designed has two sections. In the first section, the microexplosions occur, and in the second section of bigger volume the expansion and condensation of vapors take place. The response of the blanket and the thin liquid film at the first-wall surface is evaluated. Lithium-lead eutectic is taken as a coolant. The evaporated mass and the condensation time are estimated, taking into account major thermophysical effects. The estimated neutron spectrum from the FIHIF target gives an average neutron energy of 11.9 MeV. The mechanical stresses in the construction material due to neutron energy release are evaluated. The outlet coolant chamber temperature is taken as 550 deg. C. The heat conversion system consisting of three coolant loops provides a net efficiency of the FIHIF power plant of 0.37.

  1. EDDY CURRENT EFFECT OF THE BNL-AGS VACUUM CHAMBER ON THE OPTICS OF THE BNL-AGS SYNCHROTRON.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TSOUPAS,N.; AHRENS,L.; BROWN,K.A.; GLENN,J.W.; GARDNER,K.

    1999-03-29

    During the acceleration cycle of the AGS synchrotron, eddy currents are generated within the walls of the vacuum chambers of the AGS main magnets. The vacuum chambers have elliptical cross section, are made of inconel material with a wall thickness of 2 mm and are placed within the gap of the combined-function main magnets of the AGS synchrotron. The generation of the eddy currents in the walls of the vacuum chambers, creates various magnetic multipoles, which affect the optics of the AGS machine. In this report these magnetic multipoles are calculated for various time interval starting at the acceleration cycle, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is {approx}0.1 T, and ending before the beam extraction process, where the magnetic field of the main magnet is almost constant at {approx}1.1 T. The calculations show that the magnetic multipoles generated by the eddy-currents affect the optics of the AGS synchrotron during the acceleration cycle and in particular at low magnetic fields of the main magnet. Their effect is too weak to affect the optics of the AGS machine during beam extraction at the nominal energies.

  2. SU-E-T-415: An Ionization Chamber Array with High Spatial Resolution for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Togno, M; Wilkens, J; Menichelli, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To characterize an ionization chamber array technology with high spatial resolution and high charge collection efficiency for external beam radiotherapy. Methods: The prototype under test is a linear array of air vented ionization chambers developed by IBA Dosimetry, consisting of 80 pixels with 3.5mm spatial resolution and 4mm{sup 3} sensitive volume. The detector was characterized in a plastic phantom with {sup 60} Co radiation and MV X-rays from an ELEKTA Agility LINAC (with flattened and unflattened beam qualities). Bias voltage was varied in order to evaluate charge collection efficiency. A commercial array of ionization chambers (MatriXX Evolution, IBA Dosimetry) and an amorphous silicon flat panel in direct conversion configuration were used as references. Results: Repeatability (0.4%) and stability under continuous gamma irradiation (0.3%) are very good, in spite of low active volume and sensitivity (?200pC/Gy). Charge collection efficiency is higher than 99% already at 150V with ?2mGy dose per pulse, leading to a 1.1% sensitivity change with dose per pulse in the range 0.09-2mGy (covering all flattened and unflattened applications). Measured dose profiles are in agreement with MatriXX for fields larger than 22cm{sup 2}, in which case the linear array offers a much better characterization of the penumbra region. Down to 11cm{sup 2}, measured profiles are in very good agreement with the flat panel. Conclusion: The array represents a valuable tool for the characterization of treatment fields in which high spatial resolution is required, together with the dosimetric performance of air vented ionization chambers. Such a technology would be particularly valuable in association with advanced treatment modalities such as rotational radiotherapy, stereotactic treatments (even with unflattened beam qualities) and proton therapy, due to the insensitivity of the chambers on dose per pulse. In the future, a two dimensional prototype based on this technology

  3. EA-1946: Salem-Albany Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Polk, Benton, Marion, and Linn Counties, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of the 24-mile Salem-Albany No. 1 and 28-mile Salem-Albany No. 2 transmission lines between Salem and Albany, Oregon.

  4. EA-1867: Scale-up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology, Polk County, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide cost-shared funding to RTI International (RTI) for its proposed project to demonstrate the precommercial scale-up of RTI’s high-temperature syngas cleanup and carbon capture and sequestration technologies.

  5. PP-420 Nogales Transmission L.L.C.- Comment from Nogales-Santa Cruz County Chamber of Commerce Visitor & Tourism Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public comment from the Nogales-Santa Cruz County Chamber of Commerce on the Nogales Interconnection Project to construct, operate and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S. - Mexico...

  6. Enhancement of microarcing at a grounded chamber wall by nonvanishing ion sheath in a radio-frequency capacitive discharged plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwok, Dixon T.K.; Yin Yongbai; Bilek, Marcela M.M.; McKenzie, David

    2005-10-31

    One-dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations in cylindrical r coordinate, with particle ions and Boltzmann's distribution of electrons, are used to investigate the arcing effect in radio-frequency (rf) capacitively coupled discharged plasma. The simulation shows that the arcing at the chamber wall is enhanced by the nonvanishing ion sheath at the surface, such that the emission electrons current will last for several tens of rf cycles. On the other hand, at the inner electrode, the electron emission occurs only during certain phases of the rf cycle and does not promote arc growth.

  7. Experimental verification of the method for detection of water microleakages in plasma vacuum chambers by using the hydroxyl spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antipenkov, A. B.; Afonin, O. N.; Ochkin, V. N.; Savinov, S. Yu.; Tskhai, S. N.

    2012-03-15

    Experimental determination of the sensitivity of the method for detection of water microleakages in the cooling systems of the plasma vacuum chambers of complex electrophysical devices (such as tokamaks, fuel elements of nuclear reactors, and plasmachemical reactors) is considered. It was shown that the spectroscopic method for detection of water microleakages by using the hydroxyl radiation spectrum makes it possible to detect leakages at a level of 10{sup -5} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1}. The spatial resolution of the method allows one to localize defects with an accuracy of several centimeters.

  8. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Hall, J.; Hinnefeld, J.H.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg-day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides the strongest direct detection constraint to date on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses > 20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi; Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki; Kawamura, Shinji

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol

  10. P-SV conversions at a shallow boundary beneath Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) - evidence for the magma chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrucci, F.; Hirn, A.; De Natale, G.; Virieux, J.; Mirabile, L. Inst. de Physique du Globe, Paris Osservatorio Vesuviano, Naples CNRS, Inst. de Geodynamique, Valbonne Ist. Universitario Navale, Naples )

    1992-10-01

    Seismograms from an active seismic experiment carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (near Naples, Italy), show a large-amplitude SV-polarized shear wave, following by less than 1.5-s P waves reflected at wide angle from a deep crustal interface. Early arriving SV-polarized waves, with the same delay to direct P waves, are also observed in seismograms from a regional 280 km-deep, magnitude 5.1 earthquake. Such short delays of S to P waves are consistent with a P-SV conversion on transmission occurring at a shallow boundary beneath the receivers. The large amplitude of the converted-SV phase, along with that the P waves are near vertical, requires a boundary separating a very low rigidity layer from the upper caldera fill. The converted phases are interpreted as a seismic marker of a magma chamber. The top of this magma chamber is located slightly deeper than the deepest earthquakes observed during the 1982-1984 unrest of Campi Flegrei. 8 refs.

  11. Characterization of a two-dimensional liquid-filled ion chamber detector array used for verification of the treatments in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miljenko Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Jurkovic, Ines-Ana; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled ion chamber detector array, which is used for the verification of radiotherapy treatment plans that use small field sizes of up to 10 10 cm. Methods: The device used in this study was Octavius 1000 SRS model (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Its 2D array of detectors consists of 977 liquid-filled ion chambers arranged over an area of 11 11 cm. The size of the detectors is 2.3 2.3 0.5 mm (volume of 0.003 cm{sup 3}) and their spacing in the inner area of 5.5 5.5 cm is 2.5 mm center-to-center, whereas in the outer area it is 5 mm center-to-center. The detector reproducibility, dose linearity, and sensitivity to positional changes of the collimator were tested. Also, the output factors of field sizes ranging from 0.5 0.5 to 10 10 cm{sup 2} both for open and wedged fields have been measured and compared against those measured by a pin-point ionization chamber, liquid filled microchamber, SRS diode, and EDR2 film. Results: Its short-term reproducibility was within 0.2% and its medium and long-term reproducibility was within 0.5% (verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements), which is an excellent result taking into account the daily fluctuation of the linear accelerator and the errors in the device setup reproducibility. The dose linearity and dose rate dependence were measured in the range of 0.585 Gy and 0.510 Gy?min{sup ?1}, respectively, and were verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements was within 3%. The measurements of the sensitivity showed that the 2D Array could detect millimetric collimator positional changes. The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 0.3% with the pinpoint chamber and microliquid filled chamber for the field sizes between 3 3 and 10 10 cm{sup 2}. For field sizes down to 1 1 cm{sup 2}, the agreement with SRS diode and microliquid filled chamber is better

  12. Determining fissile content in PWR spent fuel assemblies using a passive neutron Albedo reactivity with fission chambers technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    State regulatory bodies and organizations such as the IAEA that are concerned with preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons are interested in a means of quantifying the amount of plutonium in a given spent fuel assembly. The complexity of spent nuclear fuel makes the measurement of plutonium content challenging. There are a variety of techniques that can measure various properties of spent nuclear fuel including burnup, and mass of fissile content. No single technique can provide all desired information, necessitating an approach using multiple detector systems and types. This paper presents our analysis of the Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity Fission Chamber (PNAR-FC) detector system. PNAR-FC is a simplified version of the PNAR technique originally developed in 1997. This earlier research was performed with a high efficiency, {sup 3}He-based system (PNAR-3He) with which multiplicty analysis was performed. With the PNAR technique a portion of the spent fuel assembly is wrapped in a 1 mm thick cadmium liner. Neutron count rates are measured both with and without the cadmium liner present. The ratio of the count rate with the cadmium liner to the count rate without the cadmium liner is calculated and called the cadmium ratio. In the PNAR-3He technique, multiplicity measurements were made and the cadmium ratio was shown to scale with the fissile content of the material being measured. PNAR-FC simplifies the PNAR technique by using only a few fission chambers instead of many {sup 3}He tubes. Using a simplified PNAR-FC technique provides for a cheaper, lighter, and thus more portable detector system than was possible with the PNAR-3He system. The challenge with the PNAR-FC system are two-fold: (1) the change in the cadmium ratio is weaker as a afunction of the changing fissile content relative to multiplicity count rates, and (2) the efficiency for the fission chamber based system are poorer than for the {sup 3}He based detectors. In this paper, we present our

  13. An Integrated Front-End Readout And Feature Extraction System for the BaBar Drift Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinlong; /Colorado U.

    2006-08-10

    The BABAR experiment has been operating at SLAC's PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory since 1999. The accelerator has achieved more than three times its original design luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with plans for an additional factor of three in the next two years. To meet the experiment's performance requirements in the face of significantly higher trigger and background rates, the drift chamber's front-end readout system has been redesigned around the Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA. The new system implements analysis and feature-extraction of digitized waveforms in the front-end, reducing the data bandwidth required by a factor of four.

  14. New structural limits on magma chamber locations at the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallmann, P.C.; Pollard, D.D. ); Hildreth, W. ); Eichelberger, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    New structural data from the Novarupta basin, Katmai National Park, Alaska, site of the largest volcanic eruption of this century (1912), provide limits for the location of magma chambers associated with this eruption. To investigate the subsurface structure of the 1912 vents, and to support an interdisciplinary study of this young volcanic system, a project of geologic mapping of surficial and bedrock structures in the vent region of the 1912 eruption has been undertaken. Landslide scarps, arcuate grabens, a monoclinal fold, and truncated ridges circumscribe the Novarupta basin, marking the inferred outer rim of the vent. A set of radial fissures crosses the southern margin of the basin, striking {approximately}140{degree}, subparallel to the dominant bedrock joint set. These fissures and joints, along with the local plate-motion vector and the inferred regional stress orientation, are consistent with a feeder dike propagating from a reservoir beneath Trident volcano to the eruptive vent.

  15. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; et al

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the currentmore » efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.« less

  16. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Artrip, D.; Baller, B.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; B. Carls; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; Epprecht, L.; Dharmapalan, R.; Foreman, W.; Hahn, A.; Johnson, M.; Jones, B. J.P.; Junk, T.; Lang, K.; Lockwitz, S.; Marchionni, A.; Mauger, C.; Montanari, C.; Mufson, S.; Nessi, M.; Back, H. Olling; Petrillo, G.; Pordes, S.; Raaf, J.; Rebel, B.; Sinins, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spooner, N.; Stancari, M.; Strauss, T.; Terao, K.; Thorn, C.; Tope, T.; Toups, M.; Urheim, J.; Water, R. Van de; Wang, H.; Wasserman, R.; Weber, M.; Whittington, D.; Yang, T.

    2015-07-28

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  17. Summary of the Second Workshop on Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Research and Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, R.; et al.

    2015-04-21

    The second workshop to discuss the development of liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) in the United States was held at Fermilab on July 8-9, 2014. The workshop was organized under the auspices of the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors, a body that was initiated by the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields. All presentations at the workshop were made in six topical plenary sessions: i) Argon Purity and Cryogenics, ii) TPC and High Voltage, iii) Electronics, Data Acquisition and Triggering, iv) Scintillation Light Detection, v) Calibration and Test Beams, and vi) Software. This document summarizes the current efforts in each of these areas. It primarily focuses on the work in the US, but also highlights work done elsewhere in the world.

  18. Levitation and collection of diamond fine particles in the rf plasma chamber equipped with a hot filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, S.; Shimizu, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Jacob, W.

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate the levitation of diamond fine particles in a H{sub 2} rf plasma chamber equipped with a hot filament and heated electrodes. The levitation conditions should be carefully chosen to compensate the strong thermophoretic forces caused by the filament and the electrodes. This levitation technique with the existence of a hot filament can be applied, e.g., for the efficient growth of diamond layers on seed particles injected and levitated in an rf plasma with reactive gases, e.g., CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}. Additionally, the method for direct capture of levitated particles on a planar substrate was established, which is useful if it is necessary to analyze the particles after the levitation.

  19. SU-E-T-242: Monte Carlo Simulations Used to Test the Perturbation of a Reference Ion Chamber Prototype Used for Small Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez Quino, L; Calvo, O; Huerta, C; DeWeese, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the perturbation due to the use of a novel Reference Ion Chamber designed to measure small field dosimetry (KermaX Plus C by IBA). Methods: Using the Phase-space files for TrueBeam photon beams available by Varian in IAEA-compliant format for 6 and 15 MV. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc to investigate the perturbation introduced by a reference chamber into the PDDs and profiles measured in water tank. Field sizes ranging from 1×1, 2×2,3×3, 5×5 cm2 were simulated for both energies with and without a 0.5 mm foil of Aluminum which is equivalent to the attenuation equivalent of the reference chamber specifications in a water phantom of 30×30×30 cm3 and a pixel resolution of 2 mm. The PDDs, profiles, and gamma analysis of the simulations were performed as well as a energy spectrum analysis of the phase-space files generated during the simulation. Results: Examination of the energy spectrum analysis performed shown a very small increment of the energy spectrum at the build-up region but no difference is appreciated after dmax. The PDD, profiles and gamma analysis had shown a very good agreement among the simulations with and without the Al foil, with a gamma analysis with a criterion of 2% and 2mm resulting in 99.9% of the points passing this criterion. Conclusion: This work indicates the potential benefits of using the KermaX Plus C as reference chamber in the measurement of PDD and Profiles for small fields since the perturbation due to in the presence of the chamber the perturbation is minimal and the chamber can be considered transparent to the photon beam.

  20. Impact of chamber wall loss of gaseous organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol formation: Explicit modeling of SOA formation from alkane and alkene oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    La, Y. S.; Camredon, M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Valorso, R.; Matsunaga, A.; Lannuque, V.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.

    2016-02-08

    Recent studies have shown that low volatility gas-phase species can be lost onto the smog chamber wall surfaces. Although this loss of organic vapors to walls could be substantial during experiments, its effect on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation has not been well characterized and quantified yet. Here the potential impact of chamber walls on the loss of gaseous organic species and SOA formation has been explored using the Generator for Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of the Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) modeling tool, which explicitly represents SOA formation and gas–wall partitioning. The model was compared with 41 smog chambermore » experiments of SOA formation under OH oxidation of alkane and alkene series (linear, cyclic and C12-branched alkanes and terminal, internal and 2-methyl alkenes with 7 to 17 carbon atoms) under high NOx conditions. Simulated trends match observed trends within and between homologous series. The loss of organic vapors to the chamber walls is found to affect SOA yields as well as the composition of the gas and the particle phases. Simulated distributions of the species in various phases suggest that nitrates, hydroxynitrates and carbonylesters could substantially be lost onto walls. The extent of this process depends on the rate of gas–wall mass transfer, the vapor pressure of the species and the duration of the experiments. Furthermore, this work suggests that SOA yields inferred from chamber experiments could be underestimated up a factor of 2 due to the loss of organic vapors to chamber walls.« less

  1. Modeling and validation of single-chamber microbial fuel cell cathode biofilm growth and response to oxidant gas composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ou, Shiqi; Zhao, Yi; Aaron, Douglas S.; Regan, John M.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2016-08-15

    This work describes experiments and computational simulations to analyze single-chamber, air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance and cathodic limitations in terms of current generation, power output, mass transport, biomass competition, and biofilm growth. Steady-state and transient cathode models were developed and experimentally validated. Two cathode gas mixtures were used to explore oxygen transport in the cathode: the MFCs exposed to a helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) produced higher current and power output than the group of MFCs exposed to air or a nitrogen-oxygen mixture (nitrox), indicating a dependence on gas-phase transport in the cathode. Multi-substance transport, biological reactions, and electrochemical reactions inmore » a multi-layer and multi-biomass cathode biofilm were also simulated in a transient model. The transient model described biofilm growth over 15 days while providing insight into mass transport and cathodic dissolved species concentration profiles during biofilm growth. Lastly, simulation results predict that the dissolved oxygen content and diffusion in the cathode are key parameters affecting the power output of the air-cathode MFC system, with greater oxygen content in the cathode resulting in increased power output and fully-matured biomass.« less

  2. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  3. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikezic, D. Stajic, J. M.; Yu, K. N.

    2014-02-15

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK-TEST.F90 and TRACK-VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

  4. Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers

  5. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6622 RTI International Res Triangle Park, NC (1) Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station, Polk County, FL (approximately 40 miles southeast of Tampa and approximately 60 miles...

  6. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briant, James K.; Driver, Crystal J.

    1992-01-01

    An exposure system for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder.

  7. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  8. NIOSH tests refuge chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-04-15

    A NIOSH report questions the viability of the shelters already certified by West Virginia. 1 tab., 6 photos.

  9. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

    1992-05-05

    An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

  10. Harmonics suppression of vacuum chamber eddy current induced fields with application to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy Booster (LEB) Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1991-12-04

    This memo presents the formulation of an expression for eddy currents induced in a thin-walled conductor due to a time-dependent electromagnet field excitation. Then follows an analytical development for prediction of vacuum chamber eddy current induced field harmonics in iron-core electromagnets. A passive technique for harmonics suppression is presented with specific application to the design of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Low Energy B (LEB) Magnets.

  11. A Multi-Chamber System for Analyzing the Outgassing, Deposition,and Associated Optical Degradation Properties of Materials in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singal, Jack; Schindler, Rafe; Chang, Chihway; Czodrowski, Patrick; Kim, Peter; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2009-12-11

    We report on the Camera Materials Test Chamber, a multi-vessel apparatus which analyzes the outgassing consequences of candidate materials for use in the vacuum cryostat of a new telescope camera. The system measures the outgassing products and rates of samples of materials at different temperatures, and collects films of outgassing products to measure the effects on light transmission in six optical bands. The design of the apparatus minimizes potential measurement errors introduced by background contamination.

  12. Overview of the Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT): mechanistic chamber studies on the oxidation of biogenic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, R. H.; Teng, A. P.; Bates, K. H.; Zhang, X.; St. Clair, J. M.; Brune, W. H.; Tyndall, G. S.; Keutsch, F. N.; et al

    2014-12-19

    The Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT) was a collaborative atmospheric chamber campaign that occurred during January 2014. FIXCIT is the laboratory component of a synergistic field and laboratory effort aimed toward (1) better understanding the chemical details behind ambient observations relevant to the southeastern United States, (2) advancing the knowledge of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of important biogenic hydrocarbons, and (3) characterizing the behavior of field instrumentation using authentic standards. Approximately 20 principal scientists from 14 academic and government institutions performed parallel measurements at a forested site in Alabama and at the atmospheric chambers at Caltech.more » During the 4 week campaign period, a series of chamber experiments was conducted to investigate the dark- and photo-induced oxidation of isoprene, α-pinene, methacrolein, pinonaldehyde, acylperoxy nitrates, isoprene hydroxy nitrates (ISOPN), isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in a highly controlled and atmospherically relevant manner. Pinonaldehyde and isomer-specific standards of ISOPN, ISOPOOH, and IEPOX were synthesized and contributed by campaign participants, which enabled explicit exploration into the oxidation mechanisms and instrument responses for these important atmospheric compounds. The present overview describes the goals, experimental design, instrumental techniques, and preliminary observations from the campaign. This work provides context for forthcoming publications affiliated with the FIXCIT campaign. Insights from FIXCIT are anticipated to aid significantly in interpretation of field data and the revision of mechanisms currently implemented in regional and global atmospheric models.« less

  13. Overview of the Focused Isoprene eXperiments at California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT): mechanistic chamber studies on the oxidation of biogenic compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, T. B.; Crounse, J. D.; Schwantes, R. H.; Teng, A. P.; Bates, K. H.; Zhang, X.; St. Clair, J. M.; Brune, W. H.; Tyndall, G. S.; Keutsch, F. N.; et al

    2014-08-25

    The Focused Isoprene eXperiment at the California Institute of Technology (FIXCIT) was a collaborative atmospheric chamber campaign that occurred during January 2014. FIXCIT was the laboratory component of a synergistic field and laboratory effort aimed toward (1) better understanding the chemical details behind ambient observations relevant to the Southeastern United States, (2) advancing the knowledge of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms of important biogenic hydrocarbons, and (3) characterizing the behavior of field instrumentation using authentic standards. Approximately 20 principal scientists from 14 academic and government institutions performed parallel measurements at a forested site in Alabama and at the atmospheric chambers at Caltech.more » During the four-week campaign period, a series of chamber experiments was conducted to investigate the dark- and photo-induced oxidation of isoprene, α-pinene, methacrolein, pinonaldehyde, acylperoxy nitrates, isoprene hydroxy nitrates (ISOPN), isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH), and isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) in a highly-controlled and atmospherically-relevant manner. Pinonaldehyde and isomer-specific standards of ISOPN, ISOPOOH, and IEPOX were synthesized and contributed by campaign participants, which enabled explicit exploration into the oxidation mechanisms and instrument responses for these important atmospheric compounds. The present overview describes the goals, experimental design, instrumental techniques, and preliminary observations from the campaign. Insights from FIXCIT are anticipated to significantly aid in interpretation of field data and the revision of mechanisms currently implemented in regional and global atmospheric models.« less

  14. How reduced vacuum pumping capability in a coating chamber affects the laser damage resistance of HfO2/SiO2 antireflection and high reflection coatings.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Field, Ella Suzanne; Bellum, John Curtis; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coatings with the highest laser damage thresholds rely on clean conditions in the vacuum chamber during the coating deposition process. A low base pressure in the coating chamber, as well as the ability of the vacuum system to maintain the required pressure during deposition, are important aspects of limiting the amount of defects in an optical coating that could induce laser damage. Our large optics coating chamber at Sandia National Laboratories normally relies on three cryo pumps to maintain low pressures for e-beam coating processes. However, on occasion, one or more of the cryo pumps have been out ofmore » commission. In light of this circumstance, we explored how deposition under compromised vacuum conditions resulting from the use of only one or two cryo pumps affects the laser-induced damage thresholds of optical coatings. Finally, the coatings of this study consist of HfO2 and SiO2 layer materials and include antireflection coatings for 527 nm at normal incidence, and high reflection coatings for 527 nm, 45⁰ angle of incidence (AOI), in P-polarization (P-pol).« less

  15. Quantifying Contaminant Mass for the Feasibility Study of the DuPont Chambers Works FUSRAP Site - 13510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Carl; Rahman, Mahmudur; Johnson, Ann; Owe, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) - Philadelphia District is conducting an environmental restoration at the DuPont Chambers Works in Deepwater, New Jersey under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Discrete locations are contaminated with natural uranium, thorium-230 and radium-226. The USACE is proposing a preferred remedial alternative consisting of excavation and offsite disposal to address soil contamination followed by monitored natural attenuation to address residual groundwater contamination. Methods were developed to quantify the error associated with contaminant volume estimates and use mass balance calculations of the uranium plume to estimate the removal efficiency of the proposed alternative. During the remedial investigation, the USACE collected approximately 500 soil samples at various depths. As the first step of contaminant mass estimation, soil analytical data was segmented into several depth intervals. Second, using contouring software, analytical data for each depth interval was contoured to determine lateral extent of contamination. Six different contouring algorithms were used to generate alternative interpretations of the lateral extent of the soil contamination. Finally, geographical information system software was used to produce a three dimensional model in order to present both lateral and vertical extent of the soil contamination and to estimate the volume of impacted soil for each depth interval. The average soil volume from all six contouring methods was used to determine the estimated volume of impacted soil. This method also allowed an estimate of a standard deviation of the waste volume estimate. It was determined that the margin of error for the method was plus or minus 17% of the waste volume, which is within the acceptable construction contingency for cost estimation. USACE collected approximately 190 groundwater samples from 40 monitor wells. It is expected that excavation and disposal of

  16. Health assessment for Cedartown Municipal Landfill NPL Site, Cedartown, Polk County, Georgia, Region 4. CERCLIS No. GAD980495402. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-08

    In compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has prepared Health Assessment reports for sites currently on, or proposed for, the National Priorities List. In the report, the presence and nature of health hazards at this site are assessed, and the public health implications specific to this site are evaluated. The Health Assessment is based on such factors as the nature, concentration, toxicity, and extent of contamination at the site; the existence of potential pathways for the human exposure; the size and nature of the community likely to be exposed; and any other information available.

  17. SU-E-T-96: Demonstration of a Consistent Method for Correcting Surface Dose Measurements Using Both Solid State and Ionization Chamber Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, T; Gerbi, B; Higgins, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the surface dose (SD) measured using a PTW 30-360 extrapolation chamber with different commonly used dosimeters (Ds): parallel plate ion chambers (ICs): RMI-449 (Attix), Capintec PS-033, PTW 30-329 (Markus) and Memorial; TLD chips (cTLD), TLD powder (pTLD), optically stimulated (OSLs), radiochromic (EXR2) and radiographic (EDR2) films, and to provide an intercomparison correction to Ds for each of them. Methods: Investigations were performed for a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian Clinac 2300, 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field, SSD = 100 cm). The Ds were placed at the surface of the solid water phantom and at the reference depth dref=1.7cm. The measurements for cTLD, OSLs, EDR2 and EXR2 were corrected to SD using an extrapolation method (EM) indexed to the baseline PTW 30-360 measurements. A consistent use of the EM involved: 1) irradiation of three Ds stacked on top of each other on the surface of the phantom; 2) measurement of the relative dose value for each layer; and, 3) extrapolation of these values to zero thickness. An additional measurement was performed with externally exposed OSLs (eOSLs), that were rotated out of their protective housing. Results: All single Ds measurements overestimated the SD compared with the extrapolation chamber, except for Attix IC. The closest match to the true SD was measured with the Attix IC (− 0.1%), followed by pTLD (0.5%), Capintec (4.5%), Memorial (7.3%), Markus (10%), cTLD (11.8%), eOSL (12.8%), EXR2 (14%), EDR2 (14.8%) and OSL (26%). The EM method of correction for SD worked well for all Ds, except the unexposed OSLs. Conclusion: This EM cross calibration of solid state detectors with an extrapolation or Attix chamber can provide thickness corrections for cTLD, eOSLs, EXR2, and EDR2. Standard packaged OSLs were not found to be simply corrected.

  18. Improved Limits on Spin-Dependent WIMP-Proton Interactions from a Two Liter CF{sub 3}I Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Hinnefeld, J. H.; Levine, I.; Shepherd, T.; Brice, S. J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Cooper, P. S.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Hu, M.; Ramberg, E.; Sonnenschein, A.; Collar, J. I.; Dahl, C. E.; Fustin, D.; Szydagis, M.

    2011-01-14

    Data from the operation of a bubble chamber filled with 3.5 kg of CF{sub 3}I in a shallow underground site are reported. An analysis of ultrasound signals accompanying bubble nucleations confirms that alpha decays generate a significantly louder acoustic emission than single nuclear recoils, leading to an efficient background discrimination. Three dark matter candidate events were observed during an effective exposure of 28.1 kg day, consistent with a neutron background. This observation provides strong direct detection constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formed with an aerosol flow reactor and environmental reaction chambers: effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time and seed particles on chemical composition and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; et al

    2014-12-02

    We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0×108 to 2.2×1010 molec cm-3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2×106 to 2×107 molec cm-3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, butmore » the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. A linear correlation analysis of the mass spectra (m=0.91–0.92, r2=0.93–0.94) and carbon oxidation state (m=1.1, r2=0.58) of SOA produced in the flow reactor and environmental chambers for OH exposures of approximately 1011 molec cm-3 s suggests that the composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and chambers is the same within experimental accuracy as measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors, rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are

  20. Venango County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pennsylvania Pleasantville, Pennsylvania Polk, Pennsylvania Rouseville, Pennsylvania Seneca, Pennsylvania Sugarcreek, Pennsylvania Utica, Pennsylvania Woodland Heights,...

  1. Conception and realization of a parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber for the absolute dosimetry of an ultrasoft X-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groetz, J.-E. Mavon, C.; Fromm, M.; Ounoughi, N.; Belafrites, A.

    2014-08-15

    We report the design of a millimeter-sized parallel plate free-air ionization chamber (IC) aimed at determining the absolute air kerma rate of an ultra-soft X-ray beam (E = 1.5 keV). The size of the IC was determined so that the measurement volume satisfies the condition of charged-particle equilibrium. The correction factors necessary to properly measure the absolute kerma using the IC have been established. Particular attention was given to the determination of the effective mean energy for the 1.5 keV photons using the PENELOPE code. Other correction factors were determined by means of computer simulation (COMSOL™and FLUKA). Measurements of air kerma rates under specific operating parameters of the lab-bench X-ray source have been performed at various distances from that source and compared to Monte Carlo calculations. We show that the developed ionization chamber makes it possible to determine accurate photon fluence rates in routine work and will constitute substantial time-savings for future radiobiological experiments based on the use of ultra-soft X-rays.

  2. SU-E-P-35: Real-Time Patient Transit Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy by a 2D Ionization Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the real-time dose verification method in volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) with a 2D array ion chamber array. Methods: The 2D ion chamber array was fixed on the panel of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Source-detector distance (SDD)was 140cm. 8mm RW3 solid water was added to the detector panel to achieve maximum readings.The patient plans for esophageal, prostate and liver cancers were selected to deliver on the cylindrical Cheese phantom 5 times in order to validate the reproducibility of doses. Real-time patient transit dose measurements were performed at each fraction. Dose distributions wereevaluated using gamma index criteria of 3mm DTA and 3% dose difference referred to the firsttime Result. Results: The gamma index pass rate in the Cheese phantom were about 98%; The gamma index pass rate for esophageal, liver and prostate cancer patient were about 92%,94%, and 92%, respectively; Gamma pass rate for all single fraction were more than 90%. Conclusion: The 2D array is capable of monitoring the real time transit doses during VMAT delivery. It is helpful to improve the treatment accuracy.

  3. Study of trajectories and combustion of fuel-oil droplets in the combustion chamber of a power-plant boiler with the use of a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enyakin, Yu.P.; Usman, Yu.M.

    1988-03-01

    A mathematical model was developed to permit study of the behavior of fuel-oil droplets in a combustion chamber, and results are presented from a computer calculation performed for the 300-MW model TGMP-314P boiler of a power plant. The program written to perform the calculations was organized so that the first stage would entail calculation of the combustion (vaporization) of a droplet of liquid fuel. The program then provided for a sudden decrease in the mass of the fuel particle, simulating rupture of the coke shell and ejection of some of the liquid. The program then considered the combustion of a hollow coke particle. Physicochemical parameters characteristic of fuel oil M-100 were introduced in the program in the first stage of computations, while parameters characteristic of the coke particle associated with an unburned fuel-oil droplet were included in the second stage.

  4. Consolidated Online Data Management Strategy in Support of Environmental Remediation Activities at the Dupont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (Fusrap) Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, K.A.; Desai, N.B.; Samus, J.E.; Bock, G.O.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has developed and implemented an innovative online data management application in support of site characterization and remediation activities at the DuPont Chambers Works Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Site. The password-protected, web-based application was implemented to centralize project data, facilitate project communications, and provide a large and diverse group of project team members with access to the data and analytical tools they need to efficiently and effectively manage the ongoing characterization and remediation efforts. Centralizing resources using the online application and web-based strategy streamlines data access and communications, allowing the team to effectively keep the project on track while reducing the costs associated with data requests, data duplication, document review and retrieval, software requirements, and lapses in communication or data transfer. (authors)

  5. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife unit reference field using ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aragn-Martnez, Nestor Massillon-JL, Guerda; Gmez-Muoz, Arnulfo

    2014-11-07

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism{sup 1}. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm 10 cm and 5.4 cm 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  6. WE-A-17A-01: Absorbed Dose Rate-To-Water at the Surface of a Beta-Emitting Planar Ophthalmic Applicator with a Planar, Windowless Extrapolation Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, A; Soares, C; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Currently there is no primary calibration standard for determining the absorbed dose rate-to-water at the surface of β-emitting concave ophthalmic applicators and plaques. Machining tolerances involved in the design of concave window extrapolation chambers are a limiting factor for development of such a standard. Use of a windowless extrapolation chamber avoids these window-machining tolerance issues. As a windowless extrapolation chamber has never been attempted, this work focuses on proof of principle measurements with a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber to verify the accuracy in comparison to initial calibration, which could be extended to the design of a hemispherical, windowless extrapolation chamber. Methods: The window of an extrapolation chamber defines the electrical field, aids in aligning the source parallel to the collector-guard assembly, and decreases the backscatter due to attenuation of lower electron energy. To create a uniform and parallel electric field in this research, the source was made common to the collector-guard assembly. A precise positioning protocol was designed to enhance the parallelism of the source and collector-guard assembly. Additionally, MCNP5 was used to determine a backscatter correction factor to apply to the calibration. With these issues addressed, the absorbed dose rate-to-water of a Tracerlab 90Sr planar ophthalmic applicator was determined using National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) calibration formalism, and the results of five trials with this source were compared to measurements at NIST with a traditional extrapolation chamber. Results: The absorbed dose rate-to-water of the planar applicator was determined to be 0.473 Gy/s ±0.6%. Comparing these results to NIST's determination of 0.474 Gy/s yields a −0.6% difference. Conclusion: The feasibility of a planar, windowless extrapolation chamber has been demonstrated. A similar principle will be applied to developing a primary

  7. Best Practices Case Study: S&A Homes, East Liberty, PIttsburgh, PA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    S&A Homes worked with Building America's IBACOS and architects Pfaffmann & Associates and Moss Associates to design energy-efficient homes for urban in-fill lots. This is a new market for S&A Homes, which builds over 500 homes a year using suburban designs.

  8. Microsoft Word - Rev1_Attachment_I_Liberty_CNTA_Final June08.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    DOE-LM/1612 Task Order LM00-502 Control Number 09-0311 December 19, 2008 U. S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management ATTN: Mark Kautsky Site Manager 2597 B ¾ Road Grand Junction, CO 81503 SUBJECT: Contract No. DE-AM01-07LM00060, S. M. Stoller Seismic Survey Report for Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface, Correction Action Unit 443, Revision 1 REFERENCE: LM-502-07-613-101, Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Dear Mr. Kautsky: This letter report summarizes the results of a seismic survey

  9. SU-E-T-625: Use and Choice of Ionization Chambers for the Commissioning of Flattened and Flattening-Filter-Free Photon Beams: Determination of Recombination Correction Factor (ks)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucchi, C; Mongioj, V; Carrara, M; Pignoli, E; Bonfantini, F; Bresolin, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the recombination effect for some ionization chambers to be used for linacs commissioning for Flattened Filter (FF) and Flattening Filter Free (FFF) photon beams. Methods: A Varian TrueBeam linac with five photon beams was used: 6, 10 and 15 MV FF and 6 and 10 MV FFF. Measurements were performed in a water tank and in a plastic water phantom with different chambers: a mini-ion chamber (IC CC01, IBA), a plane-parallel ion chamber (IC PPC05, IBA) and two Farmer chambers (NE2581 and FPC05-IBA). Measurement conditions were Source- Surface Distance of 100 cm, two field sizes (10x10 and 40x40 cm2) and five depths (1cm, maximum buildup, 5cm, 10cm and 20cm). The ion recombination factors (kS), obtained from the Jaffe's plots (voltage interval 50-400 V), were evaluated at the recommended operating voltage of +300V. Results: Dose Per Pulse (DPP) at dmax was 0.4 mGy/pulse for FF beams, 1.0 mGy/pulse and 1.9 mGy/pulse for 6MV and 10 MV FFF beams respectively. For all measurement conditions, kS ranged between 0.996 and 0.999 for IC PPC05, 0.997 and 1.008 for IC CC01. For the FPC05 IBA Farmer IC, kS varied from 1.001 to 1.011 for FF beams, from 1.004 to 1.015 for 6 MV FFF and from 1.009 to 1.025 for 10 MV FFF. Whereas, for NE2581 IC the values ranged from 1.002 to 1.009 for all energy beams and measurement conditions. Conclusion: kS depends on the chamber volume and the DPP, which in turn depends on energy beam but is independent of dose rate. Ion chambers with small active volume can be reliably used for dosimetry of FF and FFF beams even without kS correction. On the contrary, for absolute dosimetry of FFF beams by Farmer ICs it is necessary to evaluate and apply the kS correction. Partially supported by Lega Italiana Lotta contro i Tumori (LILT)

  10. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  11. Los Alamos ChamberFest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alike to showcase their products and services to the public. Entertainment will include music, a car show, pet activity area, and the always popular, kids activity area featuring...

  12. Chemistry of α-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products generated in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber as measured by acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in high resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made possible the direct detection of atmospheric organic compounds in real-time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, for the first time, we examine gas-phase O3 and OH oxidation products of α-pinene and naphthalene formed in the PAM flow reactor with an HR-ToF-CIMS using acetate reagent ion chemistry. Integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec cm−3 s, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 daysmore » of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. We present a method that estimates vapor pressures of organic molecules using the measured O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and carbon number for each compound detected by the CIMS. The predicted condensed-phase SOA average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous AMS measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  13. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M; Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M; Boss, M; Berman, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  14. CARS study of linewidths of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules at high temperatures in a pulsed high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M

    2005-03-31

    The results of measurements of individual line widths of the Q-branch of a hydrogen molecule and the corresponding coefficients of broadening caused by collisions with water molecules at T = 2700 K in a repetitively pulsed high-pressure (50-200 atm) hydrogen-oxygen combustion chamber are presented. CARS spectra of individual Q{sub 1}-Q{sub 7} hydrogen lines, pressure pulses, and the broadband CARS spectra of the entire Q-branch of hydrogen are recorded simultaneously during a single laser pulse. The shape of line profiles was analysed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The temperature in the volume being probed was determined from the 'broadband' CARS spectra. The entire body of the experimental results gives information on the spectral linewidths, temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber during CARS probing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. Accuracy of the electron transport in mcnp5 and its suitability for ionization chamber response simulations: A comparison with the egsnrc and penelope codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koivunoro, Hanna; Siiskonen, Teemu; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Hippelaeinen, Eero; Savolainen, Sauli

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: In this work, accuracy of the mcnp5 code in the electron transport calculations and its suitability for ionization chamber (IC) response simulations in photon beams are studied in comparison to egsnrc and penelope codes. Methods: The electron transport is studied by comparing the depth dose distributions in a water phantom subdivided into thin layers using incident energies (0.05, 0.1, 1, and 10 MeV) for the broad parallel electron beams. The IC response simulations are studied in water phantom in three dosimetric gas materials (air, argon, and methane based tissue equivalent gas) for photon beams ({sup 60}Co source, 6 MV linear medical accelerator, and mono-energetic 2 MeV photon source). Two optional electron transport models of mcnp5 are evaluated: the ITS-based electron energy indexing (mcnp5{sub ITS}) and the new detailed electron energy-loss straggling logic (mcnp5{sub new}). The electron substep length (ESTEP parameter) dependency in mcnp5 is investigated as well. Results: For the electron beam studies, large discrepancies (>3%) are observed between the mcnp5 dose distributions and the reference codes at 1 MeV and lower energies. The discrepancy is especially notable for 0.1 and 0.05 MeV electron beams. The boundary crossing artifacts, which are well known for the mcnp5{sub ITS}, are observed for the mcnp5{sub new} only at 0.1 and 0.05 MeV beam energies. If the excessive boundary crossing is eliminated by using single scoring cells, the mcnp5{sub ITS} provides dose distributions that agree better with the reference codes than mcnp5{sub new}. The mcnp5 dose estimates for the gas cavity agree within 1% with the reference codes, if the mcnp5{sub ITS} is applied or electron substep length is set adequately for the gas in the cavity using the mcnp5{sub new}. The mcnp5{sub new} results are found highly dependent on the chosen electron substep length and might lead up to 15% underestimation of the absorbed dose. Conclusions: Since the mcnp5 electron

  16. EA-1867: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida

  17. Evaluation of solidification/stabilization for treatment of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sludge from Fort Polk Army Installation, Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Channell, M.G.; Preston, K.T.

    1996-09-01

    In the course of normal operations and training, soldiers and civilian personnel operate many Army vehicles on a day-today basis. These vehicles must be cleaned before they can be returned to the motor pool area of an Army base. The cleaning of these vehicles bas posed a problem with the operation and maintenance of oil/water separators located at vehicle washrack facilities. An oily sludge forms in the oil/water separator and is hard to handle and cannot be disposed of in an ordinary manner. This study used solidification/stabilization to treat the oily sludge found in the vehicle washrack oil/water separators. Solidification/stabilization is usually used to treat soils and sludges that contain heavy metals. Organic compounds, such as petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge, interfere with the setting of the solidification binding materials and thus produce a material that is not desirable for a treatment alternative. This study incorporates the use of dicalcium silicate as an additive to the solidification process to increase the strength and reduce the leachability of the petroleum hydrocarbons found in the sludge. This study shows that dicalcium silicate improves the handling characteristics of the sludge and reduces the leachability of the contaminants from the washrack sludge.

  18. Effect of canopy structure and open-top chamber techniques on micrometeorological parameters and the gradients and transport of water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone in the canopies of plum trees (`prunus salicina`) in the San Joaquin valley. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grantz, D.A.; Vaughn, D.L.; Metheny, P.A.; Malkus, P.; Wosnik, K.

    1995-03-15

    Plum trees (Prunus salicina cv. Casselman) were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers (OTC) or chamberless plots, and trace gas concentrations and microenvironmental conditions were monitored within tree canopies inside the outside the OTC. Concentrations of ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapor, leaf and air temperature, light intensity, and wind speed were measured at nine positions in the tree canopies. The objectives were to: (1) map the distribution of microenvironmental parameters within the canopies inside and outside the OTC; (2) determine transport parameters for gas exchange, and (3) calculate ozone flux. Significant vertical and horizontal gradients were observed; gradients were diminished and often inverted inside relative to outside the OTC due to air distribution at the bottom of the OCT. Ozone flux was readily modeled from measures of stomatal conductance, nonstomatal conductance and ozone concentration at the leaf surface.

  19. Poster Thur Eve 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-08-15

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (?8 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (?20 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ? 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Mode Stirred Chamber

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic susceptibility tests can be performed, or test object electromagnetic transfer ... on six customer data channels at one time, up to 40 GHz, with the spectrum analyzers. ...

  1. Auditing Focus Matthew Chambers (Michigan Technological University...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Syscalls) 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 wall chmod chown mkdir rmdir Time (Miliseconds) Command Syscalls Aduitd Off Auditd On Hybrid Benchmark Init Calculate...

  2. Vacuum Chamber - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printed circuit board and two 0.25 diameter locating pins to insure reproducible positioning. Specifications for such a board are detailed here. Target Positioning System The...

  3. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  4. Target_Chamber_1A.dra

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  5. On the Analysis of Bubble Chamber Tracks

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bradner, H; Solmitz, F.

    1958-06-01

    No abstract provided. Prepared for the Second U.N. International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, 1958

  6. TU-F-BRE-03: Application of a Novel Mass-Density Compensation Optimization Method to Improve the Response of a Liquid-Filled Ionization Chamber in Nonstandard Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamio, Y; Bouchard, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the response of the microLion detector (PTW 31018) in small field conditions by optimizing the density of the detector's non-sensitive components using a novel method based on the detector's dose response function. Methods: The central values h(0,0) of the perturbation functions for the microLion detector and a volume of water equivalent to its sensitive volume were calculated using the Monte Carlo user code egs-chamber by scoring the dose absorbed by a 6 MV photon pencil beam incident on their centroids. Values of h(0,0) were plotted as a function of the density of the microLion's graphite electrode with the detector placed in the axial orientation. The optimized density was found by finding the minimal value of h(0,0). Results: A density of 1.37 g/cm3 was found to minimize the perturbation function of the microLion detector. The modified microLion's response was then evaluated in small square fields with sides in the range of 5 – 40 mm and found to be consistent with highly watere-quivalent detectors such as a scintillating detector (Exradin W1) and a generic alanine detector in both axial and radial orientations. Conclusion: This work illustrates a novel method which can used to optimize the design of radiation detectors in small fields. This method should also work with other optimization parameters (e.g. thickness of electrode). Density-compensated detectors have the potential to eliminate the need to evaluate nonstandard field correction factors as described by the IAEA-AAPM formalism (Alfonso et al.) and simplify future dosimetry protocols for SRS/SBRT modalities. Finally, we also expect an improvement in the response of density-compensated detectors for composite IMRT fields.

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflective Roofs, Tankless Water Heater Liberty Utilities- Residential and Small Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Liberty Utilities provides a number of general...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs Liberty Utilities has assumed National Grid's customers base in the state of New Hampshire. Customers should contact Liberty Utilities for questions regarding...

  9. EERE Energy Impacts: Biorefineries Give Local Farmers Opportunities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stock piled outside of POET-DSMs Project LIBERTY cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. ... stover stock piled outside of POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. ...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Incentive Programs Liberty Utilities has assumed National Grid's customers base in the state of New Hampshire. Customers should contact Liberty Utilities for questions...

  11. EA-1867: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    No Significant Impact RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011) DOE...

  12. EA-1867: Draft Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RTI International Scale-Up of High-Temperature Syngas Cleanup and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies, Polk County, Florida (October 2011)

  13. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and successful R&D, it concludes that green products, technologies, and practices ... August 2000 An Evaluation of the Fort Polk Energy Savings Performance Contract Hughes, ...

  14. Climate Zone 7A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minnesota Polk County, Minnesota Price County, Wisconsin Ramsey County, North Dakota Red Lake County, Minnesota Renville County, North Dakota Rolette County, North Dakota...

  15. Ashland County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hayesville, Ohio Jeromesville, Ohio Loudonville, Ohio Mifflin, Ohio Perrysville, Ohio Polk, Ohio Savannah, Ohio Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAshlandCou...

  16. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contract at Fort Polk, LA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at ...

  17. EA-1628: Supplement Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Construction and Operation of a Proposed Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, POET Project LIBERTY, LLC, Emmetsburg, Iowa

  18. EA-1628: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Proposed Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, POET Project LIBERTY, LLC, Emmetsburg, Iowa

  19. CX-001538: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Polk County, Florida Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant - Statement of Work Building Control Systems Energy Efficiency Retrofits (S)CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 03/31/2010Location(s): Polk County, FloridaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  20. Liquid Wall Chambers (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ... public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. ...

  1. OSTIblog Articles in the multiwire chamber Topic | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from then nearly all detectors, major discoveries and observation in particle physics followed, from Z and W bosons in 1983 at CERN to the top quark at Fermilab in Chicago. ...

  2. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  3. Development of Microstrip Gas Chambers for Radiation Detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  4. Coal-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustion chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gall, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fuel-feeding mechanism for a fluidized bed combustor. In accordance with the present invention a perforated conveyor belt is utilized in place of the fixed grid normally disposed at the lower end of the fluidized bed combustion zone. The conveyor belt is fed with fuel, e.g. coal, at one end thereof so that the air passing through the perforations dislodges the coal from the belt and feeds the coal into the fluidized zone in a substantially uniform manner.

  5. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-07-25

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at {approx}89 K) are discussed.

  6. Donald Glaser, the Bubble Chamber, and Elementary Particles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Now a Professor of the Graduate School, Glaser's research has shifted to the construction of computational models that shed light on the physics and physiology of human ...

  7. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-05-01

    We simulate electron cloud build-up in a grooved vacuumchamber including the effect of space charge from the electrons. Weidentify conditions for e-cloud suppression and make contact withprevious estimates of an effective secondary electron yield for groovedsurfaces.

  8. Liquid Wall Chambers (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by approx10 x x, so that steel ...

  9. Donald Glaser, the Bubble Chamber, and Elementary Particles

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Courtesy of and The University of California, Berkeley The 1960 Nobel Prize in ... Glaser joined the University of California faculty in 1959. Five years later, he ...

  10. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-12-31

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed.

  11. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  12. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI)...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... An international partnership, FutureGEN will work to create a near zero-emissions coal-fired plant that will produce hydrogen and sequester CO2 underground. The potential benefits ...

  13. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  14. Estimating the Energy, Demand and Cost Savings from a Geothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of ... heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of ... heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. ...

  16. CX-000012: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eagle Junction Clearwire Wireless Communication FacilitiesCX(s) Applied: B1.7, B1.15, B1.19Date: 12/02/2009Location(s): Polk County, OregonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  17. Consumers Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    serving members in parts of six counties: Benton, Lincoln, Lane, Linn, Polk, and Marion. Coordinates: 44.540135, -123.368594 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  18. Salem, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Salem is a city in Marion County and Polk County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 5th congressional...

  19. Mitchellville, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mitchellville is a city in Jasper County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  20. Grimes, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Grimes is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  1. Alleman, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Alleman is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  2. Four Corners, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a census-designated place in Lake County and Orange County and Osceola County and Polk County, Florida.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved...

  3. Runnells, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Runnells is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  4. Urbandale, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Urbandale is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  5. Bondurant, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Bondurant is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  6. Altoona, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Altoona is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  7. Ankeny, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ankeny is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 US Recovery Act...

  8. Clive, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Clive is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and Iowa's 3rd...

  9. Elkhart, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Elkhart is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  10. Albany, OR * Fairbanks, AK * Morgantown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    run at the Eastman Chemical Company's Kingsport, TN, site; at Tampa Electric Company's Polk Power Station in Lakeland, FL; and at the Wabash River Power Station in Terre Haute,...

  11. Saylorville, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Saylorville is a census-designated place in Polk County, Iowa.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from...

  12. Windsor Heights, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Windsor Heights is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 References US...

  13. Carlisle, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carlisle is a city in Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district and...

  14. Johnston, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Johnston is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12 Registered Energy...

  15. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, March 7, 2012-Former New York Times reporter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more than 30 years and also worked at Esquire and Time. He was twice awarded the George Polk Award for National Reporting and for Foreign Affairs Reporting. Now a consulting...

  16. Granger, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Granger is a city in Dallas County and Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district.12 References US...

  17. Willamina, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Willamina is a city in Polk County and Yamhill County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 5th congressional district...

  18. Norwalk, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Norwalk is a city in Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district.12...

  19. Sheldahl, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sheldahl is a city in Boone County and Polk County and Story County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 4th congressional district and...

  20. West Des Moines, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. West Des Moines is a city in Dallas County and Polk County and Warren County, Iowa. It falls...

  1. Pleasant Hill, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pleasant Hill is a city in Polk County, Iowa. It falls under Iowa's 3rd congressional district.12...

  2. Major Demonstrations | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant, Tampa Electric's Polk Power ... The ability of coal-fired generation to help meet this demand ...

  3. EA-1482: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot Experiment for Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Aquifer Brine Formations, Frio Formation, Liberty County, Texas

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    regarding incentive availability. Liberty Utilities' program for existing commercial buildings provides incentives for energy efficient equipment installations. Incentives are...

  5. Applicant Organization: | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    66 KB) More Documents & Publications Broin Companies POET Project Liberty, LLC Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: POET

  6. Okmulgee County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Oklahoma Beggs, Oklahoma Dewar, Oklahoma Grayson, Oklahoma Henryetta, Oklahoma Hoffman, Oklahoma Liberty, Oklahoma Morris, Oklahoma Okmulgee, Oklahoma Schulter, Oklahoma...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs Liberty Utilities' program for commercial natural gas customers provides incentives for energy efficient equipment installations and...

  8. Major Gains in Ion Production for Radioactive Beams | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations A state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant, Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station produces enough electricity to serve 75,000 homes. A state-of-the-art integrated coal gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant, Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station produces enough electricity to serve 75,000 homes. The Office of Fossil Energy is co-funding large-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies in three different

  9. EERE Blog | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    bales of corn stover stock piled outside of POET-DSM's PROJECT LIBERTY cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Selling the corn plant residue after their corn harvest has generated a...

  10. DIRECT COSTS OF DISABLING WORKPLACE INJURIES GROW 2.5 PERCENT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    April 7, 2003 Annual Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index Shows Direct Costs of the Three Leading Causes of Workplace Incidents Grew Significantly Faster...

  11. PDF Document (5127k)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whatcom Spokane Marion Clackamas Clatsop Garfield Snohomish King Malheur Cache Rich Weber Box Elder Yellowstone Beaverhead Garfield Fergus Liberty Chouteau Stillwater Hill...

  12. EA-1628: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Proposed Lignocellulosic Biorefinery, Emmetsburg, Iowa The ... Project LIBERTY, LLC (POET) for the construction and operation of the lignocellulosic ...

  13. Waldo County, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maine Brooks, Maine Burnham, Maine Frankfort, Maine Freedom, Maine Islesboro, Maine Jackson, Maine Knox, Maine Liberty, Maine Lincolnville, Maine Monroe, Maine Montville, Maine...

  14. Energy Department Recognizes Landlords, Tenants Working Together...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Akridge Brandywine Realty Trust The Bullitt Foundation Empire State Realty Trust Jamestown, L.P. Kilroy Realty Corporation Kimco Realty Corporation Liberty Property Trust Oxford ...

  15. Green Leasing Deployment Portfolio

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group * Kimco Realty * Liberty Property Trust * National Real Estate Investor * Newmark ... Partners, Subcontractors, and Collaborators: DOE collaborated with IMT, a trusted policy ...

  16. Johnson County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iowa Coralville, Iowa Hills, Iowa Iowa City, Iowa Lone Tree, Iowa North Liberty, Iowa Oxford, Iowa Shueyville, Iowa Solon, Iowa Swisher, Iowa Tiffin, Iowa University Heights, Iowa...

  17. Sustainable Technology Capital, LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital, LP Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sustainable Technology Capital, LP Name: Sustainable Technology Capital, LP Address: 625 Liberty Ave., Suite 3200 Place: Pittsburgh,...

  18. Scott County, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Iowa Dixon, Iowa Donahue, Iowa Durant, Iowa Eldridge, Iowa Le Claire, Iowa Long Grove, Iowa Maysville, Iowa McCausland, Iowa New Liberty, Iowa Panorama Park, Iowa Park...

  19. Industry Terms and Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terms and Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Industry Terms and Definitions Author Liberty Pioneer educational materials...

  20. Characterization of the Upper Arkansas Basin, Chafee County,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Colorado Authors Batzle, M., Li, Y., Krahenbuhl, R., van Wijk, K., Liberty and L. Organization Colorado School of Mines and Boise State University Published Colorado...

  1. Characterization of the upper Arkansas Basin, Chaffee County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    M., Krahenbuhl, R., Revel, A., Jakubowicz, H., Wood, S., van Wijk, K., Liberty and L. Organizations Colorado School of Mines, Boise State University and and Imperial...

  2. Energy Department Finalizes $105 Million Loan Guarantee forFirst...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cellulosic ethanol plants. Project LIBERTY, sponsored by POET, will be built in Emmetsburg, Iowa and is expected to produce up to 25 million gallons of ethanol per year. ...

  3. FOA for the Demonstration of an Integrated Biorefinery System: POET Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liberty, LLC | Department of Energy POET Project Liberty, LLC FOA for the Demonstration of an Integrated Biorefinery System: POET Project Liberty, LLC FOA for the Demonstration of an Integrated Biorefinery System: POET Project Liberty, LLC. Award No. DE-FC36-07GO17026, Part 1 (8.63 MB) Award No. DE-FC36-07GO17026, Part 2 (8.26 MB) Technology Investment Agreement (TIA) Award No. DE-FO36-08GO18121 (7.39 MB) More Documents & Publications FOA for the Demonstration of an Integrated

  4. Recovery Act | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Albany's new student housing center, Liberty Terrace, is the school's first LEED Gold certified facility. The building has high-efficiency lighting and uses 45 percent less...

  5. Secretary Moniz Tours Kemper Carbon Capture and Storage Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Friday, Nov. 8, 2013, Secretary Moniz and international energy officials toured Kemper, the nation's largest carbon capture and storage facility, in Liberty, Mississippi.

  6. Climate Zone 6B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basin County, Montana Lake County, Montana Laramie County, Wyoming Lemhi County, Idaho Lewis and Clark County, Montana Liberty County, Montana Lincoln County, Montana Madison...

  7. Largest Cellulosic Ethanol Plant in the World Opened in October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... representative from biofuels company POET-DSM stand between square and round bales of corn stover stock piled outside of POET-DSM's Project LIBERTY cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. ...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Business Program Business customers of Berkshire Gas, Cape Light Compact, Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, National Grid, Eversource, Unitil, and Liberty Utilities may be...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MeasuresWhole Building, CustomOthers pending approval, Yes; specific technologies not identified, Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Liberty Utilities...

  10. Manhattan Project: Nuclear Proliferation, 1949-Present

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... he noted that no control organization could function effectively if it had to rely on an autocratic nation dependent on secret political police who denied basic civil liberties. ...

  11. Characterization of the Upper Arkansas Basin, Chaffee County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chaffee County, Colorado Authors Batzle, M., Raynolds, B., Jakubowicz, H., Collins, G., van Wijk, K., Liberty, L. and et al. Organizations Colorado School of Mines, Boise...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs Liberty Utilities' program for commercial natural gas customers provides incentives for energy efficient equipment installations and...

  13. CX-002417: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Date: 05252010 Location(s): Liberty County, Texas Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Universal GeoPower LLC (UGP) would demonstrate the ...

  14. Whitewater Valley Rural EMC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Rural EMC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Whitewater Valley Rural EMC Address: P.O. Box 349 Place: Liberty, Indiana Zip: 47353 Sector: Transmission Phone Number: (765)...

  15. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Taylor, Rob D

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  16. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition chamber and process with multiple gas inlets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming; Povolny, Henry S.

    2004-06-29

    A thin film deposition method uses a vacuum confinement cup that employs a dense hot filament and multiple gas inlets. At least one reactant gas is introduced into the confinement cup both near and spaced apart from the heated filament. An electrode inside the confinement cup is used to generate plasma for film deposition. The method is used to deposit advanced thin films (such as silicon based thin films) at a high quality and at a high deposition rate.

  17. Review of internal combustion engine combustion chamber process studies at NASA Lewis Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of internal combustion stratified-charge engines is highly dependent on the in-cylinder fuel-air mixing processes occurring in these engines. Current research concerning the in-cylinder airflow characteristics of rotary and piston engines is presented. Results showing the output of multidimensional models, laser velocimetry measurements and the application of a holographic optical element are described. Models which simulate the four-stroke cycle and seal dynamics of rotary engines are also discussed.

  18. OSTIblog Posts by Kathy Chambers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Read more... The Legendary Richard Feynman Published on Sep 25, 2015 Richard Feynman visits National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) December 1972. Fermilab photo 72-0910-04. ...

  19. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  20. Demonstration of a light-redirecting skylight system at the Palm Springs Chamber of Commerce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.S.; Beltran, L.O.; Selkowitz, S.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lau, H.; Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison, San Dimas, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    As part of a demonstration project to provide a comprehensive energy upgrade to a 294 m{sup 2} (3168 ft{sup 2}) commercial building, an advanced skylight design was developed using optical light control materials and geometry to provide daylight to two adjoining offices. The skylight system was developed using outdoor physical model tests and simulation tools Limited on-site measurements and occupant polls were conducted. Market issues were addressed. The skylight systems were found to improve lighting quality and to control excessive daylight illuminance levels compared to a conventional diffusing bubble skylight. Daylighting principles developed in earlier work for vertical glazing systems (light shelves and light pipes) were shown to be applicable in skylight designs at full-scale.