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  1. Liberia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Liberia Population 3,476,608 GDP 1,735,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LR 3-letter ISO code LBR Numeric ISO...

  2. Haiti-IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti1 IAEA is working with Haiti to strengthen the management and development of energy sources. References "IAEA Project database- Haiti" Retrieved from "http:...

  3. Liberia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation Jump to: navigation, search Name Liberia-US Forest Service Climate Change Technical Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization...

  4. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Liberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass resources meet about 99.5% of the Liberian population?s energy needs so they are vital to basic welfare and economic activity. Already, traditional biomass products like firewood and charcoal are the primary energy source used for domestic cooking and heating. However, other more efficient biomass technologies are available that could open opportunities for agriculture and rural development, and provide other socio-economic and environmental benefits.The main objective of this study is to estimate the biomass resources currently and potentially available in the country and evaluate their contribution for power generation and the production of transportation fuels. It intends to inform policy makers and industry developers of the biomass resource availability in Liberia, identify areas with high potential, and serve as a base for further, more detailed site-specific assessments.

  5. Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Haiti-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  6. Haiti-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Haiti-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  7. Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad , New Mexico 88221 DEC 1 6 2011 New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe , New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Class 1 Permit Modification to the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Dear Mr. Kieling : Enclosed is the following Class 1 Permit Modification Notification: * Continuing Training Tim eframe We

  8. Yozmot HaEmek Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Yozmot HaEmek Ltd Place: Israel Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References: Yozmot HaEmek...

  9. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  10. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  12. CILogon-HA. Higher Assurance Federated Identities for DOE Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basney, James

    2015-08-01

    The CILogon-HA project extended the existing open source CILogon service (initially developed with funding from the National Science Foundation) to provide credentials at multiple levels of assurance to users of DOE facilities for collaborative science. CILogon translates mechanism and policy across higher education and grid trust federations, bridging from the InCommon identity federation (which federates university and DOE lab identities) to the Interoperable Global Trust Federation (which defines standards across the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, the Open Science Grid, and other cyberinfrastructure). The CILogon-HA project expanded the CILogon service to support over 160 identity providers (including 6 DOE facilities) and 3 internationally accredited certification authorities. To provide continuity of operations upon the end of the CILogon-HA project period, project staff transitioned the CILogon service to operation by XSEDE.

  13. The Muon Collider as a $H/A$ factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichten, Estia; Martin, Adam

    2014-01-01

    We show that a muon collider is ideally suited for the study of heavy H/A scalars, cousins of the Higgs boson found in two-Higgs doublet models and required in supersymmetric models. The key aspects of H/A are: (1) they are narrow, yet have a width-to-mass ratio far larger than the expected muon collider beam-energy resolution, and (2) the larger muon Yukawa allows efficient s-channel production. We study in detail a representative Natural Supersymmetry model which has a 1.5 Tev H/A with $m_H$- $m_A$ = 10 Gev. The large event rates at resonant peak allow the determination of the individual H and A resonance parameters (including CP) and the decays into electroweakinos provides a wealth of information unavailable to any other present or planned collider.

  14. The Muon Collider as a $H/A$ factory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eichten, Estia; Martin, Adam; Univ. of Notre Dame, IN

    2013-11-22

    We show that a muon collider is ideally suited for the study of heavy H/A scalars, cousins of the Higgs boson found in two-Higgs doublet models and required in supersymmetric models. The key aspects of H/A are: (1) they are narrow, yet have a width-to-mass ratio far larger than the expected muon collider beam-energy resolution, and (2) the larger muon Yukawa allows efficient s-channel production. We study in detail a representative Natural Supersymmetry model which has a 1.5 Tev H/A with $m_H$- $m_A$ = 10 Gev. The large event rates at resonant peak allow the determination of the individual Hmore » and A resonance parameters (including CP) and the decays into electroweakinos provides a wealth of information unavailable to any other present or planned collider.« less

  15. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti Part 1: Results from the Water Boiling Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booker, Kayje; Han, Tae Won; Granderson, Jessica; Jones, Jennifer; Lsk, Kathleen; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-06-01

    In April 2010, a team of scientists and engineers from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL) and UC Berkeley, with support from the Darfur Stoves Project (DSP), undertook a fact-finding mission to Haiti in order to assess needs and opportunities for cookstove intervention. Based on data collected from informal interviews with Haitians and NGOs, the team, Scott Sadlon, Robert Cheng, and Kayje Booker, identified and recommended stove testing and comparison as a high priority need that could be filled by LBNL. In response to that recommendation, five charcoal stoves were tested at the LBNL stove testing facility using a modified form of version 3 of the Shell Foundation Household Energy Project Water Boiling Test (WBT). The original protocol is available online. Stoves were tested for time to boil, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, and the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2}. In addition, Haitian user feedback and field observations over a subset of the stoves were combined with the experiences of the laboratory testing technicians to evaluate the usability of the stoves and their appropriateness for Haitian cooking. The laboratory results from emissions and efficiency testing and conclusions regarding usability of the stoves are presented in this report.

  16. VEE-0074- In the Matter of H.A. Mapes, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 30, 2000, H.A. Mapes, Inc., (Mapes) of Springvale, Maine, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  17. Possible detection of the stellar donor or remnant for the type Iax supernova 2008ha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McCully, Curtis; Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Narayan, Gautham [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719-4933 (United States); Rest, Armin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-01

    Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are thermonuclear explosions that are related to SNe Ia, but are physically distinct. The most important differences are that SNe Iax have significantly lower luminosity (1%-50% that of typical SNe Ia), lower ejecta mass (?0.1-0.5 M {sub ?}), and may leave a bound remnant. The most extreme SN Iax is SN 2008ha, which peaked at M{sub V} = 14.2 mag, about 5 mag below that of typical SNe Ia. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of UGC 12682, the host galaxy of SN 2008ha, taken 4.1 yr after the peak brightness of SN 2008ha. In these deep, high-resolution images, we detect a source coincident (0.86 HST pixels; 0.''043; 1.1?) with the position of SN 2008ha with M {sub F814W} = 5.4 mag. We determine that this source is unlikely to be a chance coincidence, but that scenario cannot be completely ruled out. If this source is directly related to SN 2008ha, it is either the luminous bound remnant of the progenitor white dwarf (WD) or its companion star. The source is consistent with being an evolved >3 M {sub ?} initial mass star, and is significantly redder than the SN Iax 2012Z progenitor system, the first detected progenitor system for a thermonuclear SN. If this source is the companion star for SN 2008ha, there is a diversity in SN Iax progenitor systems, perhaps related to the diversity in SN Iax explosions. If the source is the bound remnant of the WD, it must have expanded significantly. Regardless of the nature of this source, we constrain the progenitor system of SN 2008ha to have an age of <80 Myr.

  18. Thrombomodulin exerts cytoprotective effect on low-dose UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Kawabata, Hisashi; Ito, Takashi; Mera, Kentaro; Biswas, Kamal Krishna; Tancharoen, Salunya; Higashi, Yuko; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto

    2008-12-12

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell surface anticoagulant glycoprotein that performs antimetastatic, angiogenic, adhesive, and anti-inflammatory functions in various tissues. It is also expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. We found that a physiological dose (10 mJ/cm{sup 2}) of mid-wavelength ultraviolet irradiation (UVB) significantly induced TM expression via the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/cyclic AMP response element (CRE) signaling pathway in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT; this shows that TM regulates the survival of HaCaT cells. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, significantly decreased TM expression and the viability of cells exposed to UVB. Furthermore, overexpression of TM markedly increased cell viability, and it was abrogated by TM small interfering RNA (siRNA), suggesting that TM may play an important role in exerting cytoprotective effect on epidermal keratinocytes against low-dose UVB.

  19. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  20. HA' R$,kAW CH EM I CAL CO,M i=ANY A

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    TH Ii ' HA' R$,kAW CH EM I CAL CO,M i=ANY A December 30, 1955 U. S. Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge OperationwOfflce Post Office Box "E" Oak Ridge, Tennessee Attention: Mr. T. Carberry Dear Mr. Carberry: ' ..> In the process of removing 'classified documents from the safes at the Main Office for des$ruction we discovered two sample cylinders of hexafluorlde. If memory serves us right these sample6 were prepared at the request of the Commission and shipped to the Unl- versity of

  1. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, William

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  2. Liberia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    volume of work justifies the need for dedicated staff. The counterpart Off-Grid Power and Renewable Energy Unit is expected to be established concurrently. The Grid and Off-Grid...

  3. Haiti earthquake survivor to speak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Laboratory Auditorium and is open to Laboratory badge holders and escorted media. Members of the news media who wish to attend the talk should contact the LANL...

  4. An efficient Volumetric Arc Therapy treatment planning approach for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jin; Bender, Edward; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Basavatia, Amar; Hong, Linda; Bodner, William; Garg, Madhur K.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and simple class solution is proposed for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) planning using the Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) delivery technique following the NRG Oncology protocol NRG-CC001 treatment planning guidelines. The whole-brain planning target volume (PTV) was subdivided into subplanning volumes that lie in plane and out of plane with the hippocampal-avoidance volume. To further improve VMAT treatment plans, a partial-field dual-arc technique was developed. Both the arcs were allowed to overlap on the in-plane subtarget volume, and in addition, one arc covered the superior out-of-plane sub-PTV, while the other covered the inferior out-of-plane subtarget volume. For all plans (n = 20), the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria were met. Mean values of volumes for the hippocampus and the hippocampal-avoidance volume were 4.1 cm{sup 3} ± 1.0 cm{sup 3} and 28.52 cm{sup 3} ± 3.22 cm{sup 3}, respectively. For the PTV, the average values of D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} were 36.1 Gy ± 0.8 Gy and 26.2 Gy ± 0.6 Gy, respectively. The hippocampus D{sub 100%} mean value was 8.5 Gy ± 0.2 Gy and the maximum dose was 15.7 Gy ± 0.3 Gy. The corresponding plan quality indices were 0.30 ± 0.01 (homogeneity index), 0.94 ± 0.01 (target conformality), and 0.75 ± 0.02 (confirmation number). The median total monitor unit (MU) per fraction was 806 MU (interquartile range [IQR]: 792 to 818 MU) and the average beam total delivery time was 121.2 seconds (IQR: 120.6 to 121.35 seconds). All plans passed the gamma evaluation using the 5-mm, 4% criteria, with γ > 1 of not more than 9.1% data points for all fields. An efficient and simple planning class solution for HA-WBRT using VMAT has been developed that allows all protocol constraints of NRG-CC001 to be met.

  5. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Robertson, L.W.; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA ; Ludewig, G.

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  6. Liberia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  7. Liberia-NREL Biomass Resource Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are more than enough to cover the country's annual electricity consumption of 297 GWh and oil consumption of 206 dam3. While the contribution of food crop residues, animal manure,...

  8. Haiti-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publics, Transports et Communications (Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Communication). References "NREL International Program" Retrieved from "http:...

  9. Haiti: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lack of investment in the energy infrastructure, caused in part by the fact that prices are artificially held below the true cost of production and delivery. Power supply is...

  10. Mr. J . Kieling, Acting Chief Ha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    month of the anniversary date when the training was previously completed. A-5 C3-14 Special Training Requirements and Certifications Before performing activities that affect WAP...

  11. Haiti-Designing and Communicating Low Carbon Energy Roadmaps...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partner International Climate Initiative Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment...

  12. Haiti-Facility for Environmentally Friendly Transport Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    entitled Navigating Transport NAMAs, which is tailored to each target group, outlines the instruments and technologies available as well as the context for climate negotiations...

  13. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liberte Hinche 06-JAN-2014 3.5.1 50 0 Port-au-Prince Jacmel Les Cayes Jeremie 50 100 Kilometers DOMINI REPUBL CAN IC The wind resource estimates on this map are from model...

  14. Haiti-Low-Carbon Energy Roadmaps for the Greater Antilles | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute Partner Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, National Energy Commission Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Economic Development,...

  15. Gateway:Amrica Latina | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti Haiti Honduras Honduras Mexico Mexico Nicaragua Nicaragua Panama Panama Paraguay Paraguay Peru Peru Republica Dominicana Dominican Republic Uruguay Uruguay Venezuela...

  16. CX-008556: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Haiti Renewable Resource Study CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 07/23/2012 Location(s): Haiti Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  17. OAiC RiDGE NATIONAL LABORAl-ORY LKCKKBSP HAITI MANA%ED AND OPERATED...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of the former ACL building and the residential property to the northeast . . . . . . . ... Restoration, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-ACO5960R22464 with ...

  18. Don-Hyung Ha > Postdoc - MIT (Shao-Horn Group) > Center Alumni...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group, he received his PhD in September 2014. He continues his research as a member of the Electrochemical Energy Lab at MIT under the leadership for Professor Yang Shao-Horn...

  19. EARLY- AND LATE-TIME OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2008ha: ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We also present late-time imaging and spectroscopy that are consistent with this scenario. Authors: Foley, Ryan J. ; Challis, Peter J. ; Kirshner, Robert P. 1 ; Brown, Peter J. ...

  20. Phototoxicity of nano titanium dioxides in HaCaT keratinocytesGeneration of reactive oxygen species and cell damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Liu, Jun; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Roberts, Joan E.; Fu, Peter P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Zhao, Baozhong

    2012-08-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is among the top five widely used nanomaterials for various applications. In this study, we determine the phototoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) with different molecular sizes and crystal forms (anatase and rutile) in human skin keratinocytes under UVA irradiation. Our results show that all nano-TiO{sub 2} particles caused phototoxicity, as determined by the MTS assay and by cell membrane damage measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, both of which were UVA dose- and nano-TiO{sub 2} dose-dependent. The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. The level of photocytotoxicity and cell membrane damage is mainly dependent on the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Using polyunsaturated lipids in plasma membranes and human serum albumin as model targets, and employing electron spin resonance (ESR) oximetry and immuno-spin trapping as unique probing methods, we demonstrated that UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2} can induce significant cell damage, mediated by lipid and protein peroxidation. These overall results suggest that nano-TiO{sub 2} is phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes, and that this phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation. Highlights: ? We evaluate the phototoxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} with different sizes and crystal forms. ? The smaller the particle size of the nano-TiO{sub 2} the higher the cell damage. ? The rutile form of nano-TiO{sub 2} showed less phototoxicity than anatase nano-TiO{sub 2}. ? ESR oximetry and immuno-spin trapping techniques confirm UVA-induced cell damage. ? Phototoxicity is mediated by ROS generated during UVA irradiation of nano-TiO{sub 2}.

  1. OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  2. Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  3. OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  4. Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  5. Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    internatio Country Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint...

  6. Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enpraxis95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto...

  7. NREL: Wind Research - International Wind Resource Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cuba Dominican Republic El Salvador Fiji Islands Ghana Guatemala Haiti Honduras Indonesia (specific areas) Laos Mexico (specific areas) Mongolia Nicaragua Pakistan Papua New Guinea ...

  8. Humane Society International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    clinic for animals on the streets in Haiti, campaigns against factory farming in Mexico, improving farming practices in Brazil, and biodiversity conservation efforts in...

  9. NREL International Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NREL has assisted in bringing these basic services to clinics in Mexico, Ecuador, and Haiti, among others. For example, one Haitian hospital's surgery, dental clinic, lavatory, and ...

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Dominican Republic, a Caribbean nation that shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti to the west.

  11. Category:Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. B Benin Burkina Faso C Cape Verde G Gambia Ghana G cont. Guinea Guinea-Bissau I Ivory Coast L Liberia M Mali N Niger Nigeria...

  12. Category:Latin America Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guatemala Guyana H Haiti Honduras J Jamaica M Martinique Mexico N Nicaragua P Panama Paraguay Peru S Saint Barthlemy Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the...

  13. BPA-2014-00122-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a campaign or expedition for which a campaign medal has been authorized, such as El Salvador, Lebanon, Granada, Panama, Southwest Asia, Somalia, and Haiti. You must submit a copy...

  14. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  15. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haiti earthquake survivor to speak June 14, 2010 Los Alamos summer student describes mission to help rescuers LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, June 14, 2010-When an earthquake struck Haiti last January, Christa Brelsford, a LANL student employee, was almost instantly trapped and partly crushed in the falling concrete of a building. She was saved by her brother and a friend, who hauled away debris for more than an hour before she was free. Now, with a prosthetic lower leg and a new view of life, the

  16. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  17. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  18. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  19. CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis PI Name: Thomas Jordan PI Email: tjordan@usc.edu Institution: University of Southern California Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 2,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Earth Science Recent destructive earthquakes including Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand( 2011), and Japan (2011) highlight the national and international need for improved seismic hazard

  20. Slide 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    integration * Issues missed in the implementation of the STD - Level of hazard analysis (HA) as a function of design stage - Nuclear criticality safety not included in HA and...

  1. 9C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements 1965HA09: 9C; measured + delayed-proton decay, T12. 1971ESZR, 1972ES05: 9C; measured -delayed p-spectrum, T12. 1971HA05: 9C; measured T12. 1971MO01: 9C; ...

  2. Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to have neutralizing activity against divergent HA subtypes such as H3, H1, H2, and H5.2 The antibody binding site was mapped near the HA receptor binding site on the basis of...

  3. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, ... USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots ...

  4. A=11C (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973SA30, 1974ME19). Cluster and collective model: (1972LE1L). Special levels: (1969HA1G, 1969HA1F, 1972MS01,...

  5. Microsoft Word - 1918flu.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 1. Ribbon representation of the hemagglutinin HA0 trimer from the 1918 influenza virus. Each monomer possesses two important sites: 1) the 'Receptor binding site' (blue shade) for virus attachment to the host lung epithelial cells via sialic acid containing host cell receptors. 2) the 'Cleavage site' where for full infectivity, the single chain (HA0) is cut into two chains (HA1 colored red and HA2 colored green). At the N-terminal end of the HA2 chain is the fusion peptide which is

  6. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  7. Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Department of Energy Earned Value Management Survey Results Humphreys & Associates, Inc. (H&A) conducted a survey of ...

  8. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    waste (LAW) Melter Off-gas system; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with responsible Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss observations. ...

  9. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  10. Investigating the presence of 500 μm submillimeter excess emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States) Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United ...

  11. A first site of galaxy cluster formation: complete spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chiba 277-8582 (Japan) Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom) Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, ...

  12. Unveiling the Nature of the Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources IV...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Paggi, A. ; Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ. ; Massaro, F. ; SLAC KIPAC, Menlo Park ; D'Abrusco, R. ; Smith, H.A. ; Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ. ; Masetti, N. ; IASF, ...

  13. South Dakota State University SGI/DOE Regional Biomass Feedstock...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... corn stover, sorghum, and switchgrass * GIS analyses revealed that railroads and ... TX, July. * Ha, M., C. Munster, S. Capareda, D. Vietor, T. Provin, and M. Palma. 2011. GIS ...

  14. Most Viewed Documents - Geosciences | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geosciences Temperature Profiles and Hydrologic Implications from the Nevada Test Site David Gillespie (2005) 3-D full waveform inversion of seismic data; Part I. Theory Lee, Ki Ha ...

  15. Hydroxylapatite Otologic Implants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Beale, B.; Johnson, R.

    2000-01-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and Smith and Nephew Richards Inc. of Bartlett, TN, was initiated in March 1997. The original completion date for the Agreement was March 25, 1998. The purpose of this work is to develop and commercialize net shape forming methods for directly creating dense hydroxylapatite (HA) ceramic otologic implants. The project includes three tasks: (1) modification of existing gelcasting formulations to accommodate HA slurries; (2) demonstration of gelcasting to fabricate green HA ceramic components of a size and shape appropriate to otologic implants: and (3) sintering and evaluation of the HA components.

  16. Hr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    No additional cments are included; therefore, a careful editoria review of these documents should be made when the documents are finalized. t 1. Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, HA ...

  17. Letter Report Final SA _01-17-01_.PDF

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    01 Constitution Avenue, NW, HA274, Washington, DC 20418 Telephone (202) 334 3376 Fax (202) 334 3370 Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment January 17, 2001...

  18. Wind Energy Hearthstanes Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hearthstanes Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wind Energy (Hearthstanes) Ltd Place: LONDON, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC4R 9HA Sector: Wind energy Product: Special purpose...

  19. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Title: Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Authors: Ha, ...

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using a High Resolution Numerical Weather Model Braun, J., Ha, S.Y., Rocken, C., and Kuo, Y.H., UCARCOSMIC Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team...

  1. Chemical Process Hazards Analysis (DOE-HDBK-1100-2004)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Department of Transportation ERPG Emergency Response Planning Guideline EVC Equilibrium Vapor ... In addition, the PrHA team may determine that human factors problems are of ...

  2. A=20Ne (1998TI06)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1988CS01), distribution of -particle strength (1988LE05), cluster formation in the cluster-orbital shell model (1990HA38), the microscopic complex effective interaction for...

  3. Plovdiv Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The project developer Plovdiv Solar Ltd. and Sinosol Group will jointly realize photovoltaic power plants on a 330 ha project site near Lyubimets. References: Plovdiv Solar1...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (1) energy facilities (1) energy planning, policy and ... for grid storage Ha, Seungbum ; Gallagher, Kevin G. November 2015 , Elsevier Estimating the system price of redox ...

  5. Microsoft Word - ViArray_Fact_ Sheet_SAND2011-3935P_updated_format...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    decoupling ude: & Control tion itoring Parts & FPG vironment op ility System boratories ha pplications. services" wi me custom ra aging, test, fa om microele Hard S tructured Ap...

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (LW) radiative cooling and evaporative cooling at the cloud top (Wood 2012; Shin and Ha 2009). The vertical and horizontal structures of stratocumulus are strongly tied to the...

  7. Polypeptide Grafted Hyaluronan: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Messman, Jamie M; Mays, Jimmy; Baskaran, Durairaj

    2010-01-01

    Poly(L-leucine) grafted hyaluronan (HA-g-PLeu) has been synthesized via a Michael addition reaction between primary amine terminated poly(L-leucine) and acrylate-functionalized HA (TBAHA-acrylate). The precursor hyaluronan was first functionalized with acrylate groups by reaction with acryloyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide. 1H NMR analysis of the resulting product indicated that an increase in the concentration of acryloylchoride with respect to hydroxyl groups on HA has only a moderate effect on functionalization efficiency, f. A precise control of stoichiometry was not achieved, which could be attributed to partial solubility of intermolecular aggregates and the hygroscopic nature of HA. Michael addition at high [PLeu- NH2]/[acrylate]TBAHA ratios gave a molar grafting ratio of only 0.20 with respect to the repeat unit of HA, indicating grafting limitation due to insolubility of the grafted HA-g-PLeu. Soluble HA-g-PLeu graft copolymers were obtained for low grafting ratios (<0.039) with <8.6% by mass of PLeu and were characterized thoroughly using light scattering, 1H NMR, FT-IR, and AFM techniques. Light scattering experiments showed a strong hydrophobic interaction between PLeu chains, resulting in aggregates with segregated nongrafted HA segments. This yields local networks of aggregates, as demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed a -sheet conformation for aggregates of poly(L-leucine).

  8. A=19O (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EL68, GU68A, HA68H, HA68T, MO68A, FE69C, HO69U, KU69G, MA69N, TA70H, AR71L, WI71B). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (CH63A, FE65B, FE69C). Astrophysical questions:...

  9. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  10. A=7Be (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 7.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965VO1A, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1967FA1A, 1968GO01, 1969TA1H, 1971CO28, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster model: (1965NE1B, 1968HA1G, 1971NO02, 1972HI16, 1972KU12, 1972LE1L). Rotational and deformed models: (1965VO1A, 1966EL08). Special levels: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967FA1A, 1969HA1G, 1969HA1F, 1971CO28, 1971NO02, 1972BB26, 1973AS02, 1973FE1J).

  11. Actual versus predicted impacts of three ethanol plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddlemon, G.K.; Webb, J.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Miller, R.L.

    1993-03-15

    To help reduce US dependence on imported petroleum, Congress passed the Energy Security Act of 1980 (public Law 96-294). This legislation authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to promote expansion of the fuel alcohol industry through, among other measures, its Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program. Under this program, selected proposals for the conversion of plant biomass into fuel-grade ethanol would be granted loan guarantees. of 57 applications submitted for loan guarantees to build and operate ethanol fuel projects under this program, 11 were considered by DOE to have the greatest potential for satisfying DOE`s requirements and goals. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), DOE evaluated the potential impacts of proceeding with the Loan Guarantee Program in a programmatic environmental assessment (DOE 1981) that resulted in a finding of no significant impact (FANCY) (47 Federal Register 34, p. 7483). The following year, DOE conducted site-specific environmental assessments (EAs) for 10 of the proposed projects. These F-As predicted no significant environmental impacts from these projects. Eventually, three ethanol fuel projects received loan guarantees and were actually built: the Tennol Energy Company (Tennol; DOE 1982a) facility near Jasper in southeastern Tennessee; the Agrifuels Refining Corporation (Agrifuels; DOE 1985) facility near New Liberia in southern Louisiana; and the New Energy Company of Indiana (NECI; DOE 1982b) facility in South Bend, Indiana. As part of a larger retrospective examination of a wide range of environmental effects of ethanol fuel plants, we compared the actual effects of the three completed plants on aquatic and terrestrial resources with the effects predicted in the NEPA EAs several years earlier. A secondary purpose was to determine: Why were there differences, if any, between actual effects and predictions? How can assessments be improved and impacts reduced?

  12. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. ); Smit, J. ); Lowrie, W. ); Asaro, F. ); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. ); Kastner, M. ); Hildebrand, A.R. )

    1992-08-01

    Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

  13. Prospects for coal briquettes as a substitute fuel for wood and charcoal in US Agency for International Development Assisted countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.; Stevenson, G.G.; Shelton, R.B.

    1986-02-01

    Fuelwood shortages and potential shortages are widespread throughout the developing world, and are becoming increasingly more prevalent because of the clearing of land for subsistence and plantation agriculture, excessive and inefficient commercial timber harvesting for domestic and export construction, and charcoal production to meet rising urban demands. Further, the environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the resulting deforestation are both pervasive and complex. This report focuses on the substitution of coal briquettes for fuelwood. Although substantial adverse health effects could be expected from burning non-anthracite coal or coal briquettes, a well-developed technique, carbonization, exists to convert coal to a safer form for combustion. The costs associated with briquetting and carbonizing coal indicate that ''smokeless'' coal briquettes can be produced at costs competitive with fuelwood and charcoal. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is working on implementing this energy option in Haiti and Pakistan by (1) evaluating resources, (2) assessing markets, (3) analyzing technologies, (4) studying government policy and planning, and (5) packaging the idea for the private sector to implement. 26 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  15. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  16. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanolmore » (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.« less

  17. Ethanol and High-Value Terpene Co-Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Cymbopogon martinii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Blake L.; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Sykes, Robert; Cantrell, Charles L.; Hamilton, Choo; Mann, David G. J.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Astatkie, Tess; C. Neal Stewart Jr.

    2015-10-05

    Cymbopogon flexuosus, lemongrass, and C. martinii, palmarosa, are perennial grasses grown to produce essential oils for the fragrance industry. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate biomass and oil yields as a function of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization, and (2) to characterize their utility for lignocellulosic ethanol compared to Panicum virgatum (switchgrass). Mean biomass yields were 12.83 Mg lemongrass ha-1 and 15.11 Mg palmarosa ha-1 during the second harvest year resulting in theoretical biofuel yields of 2541 and 2569 L ethanol ha-1 respectively compared to reported 1749–3691 L ethanol ha-1 for switchgrass. Pretreated lemongrass yielded 198 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1 and pretreated palmarosa yielded 170 mL ethanol (g biomass) -1. Additionally, lemongrass yielded 85.7 kg essential oil ha-1 and palmarosa yielded 67.0 kg ha-1 with an estimated value of USD $857 and $1005 ha-1. These data suggest that dual-use crops such as lemongrass and palmarosa may increase the economic viability of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  18. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Ningbo Wang, Xin Qin, Lei Guo, Zhengze Li, Dehua

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  19. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  20. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, Michinao; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Kenjiro; Okinaga, Toshinori; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and

  1. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  2. High Availability Electronics Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  3. Sandia Energy - Elucidating the Role of Twin Boundaries in Deformation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metals Authors J.G. Brons, J.A. Hardwick, H.A. Padilla II, K. Hattar, G.B. Thompson, B.L. Boyce Scientific Achievement Simulation results suggest that twins don't just...

  4. Office of Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In addition, the HAT developed the event descriptions and content in a systematic, ... for the RLD system HA in Reference 6. EA review of the HLW HCPHFPGFR and RLD hazard ...

  5. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste (LAW) Facility Melter and Off-gas systems; observed a portion of the HA activities; and met with Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) personnel to discuss HE table comments. ...

  6. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the HA for the LAW Secondary Off-gas System, and met with Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI) responsible individuals to discuss both previous and more recent HSS observations. ...

  7. si

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... per minute per 100 square centimeters EML EPA ESSAP ft3 FUSRAP GM ha kg km MeV ZI NBL NIST ORISE PMC ZnS Environmental Measurement Laboratories Environmental Protection ...

  8. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seal-out of waste material from upper section of GB HA-9A. * Small package of filter media waste (1lb), removed from Glove Box via 11" transfer sleeve. * During umbilical...

  9. Microsoft Word - PB-II.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.S. Magyar & H.A. Godwin, Northwestern University Lead poisoning can damage the brain and nervous system and is particularly dangerous for young children who are still developing. ...

  10. SREL Reprint #3008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    many species, sometimes for years at a time. We studied the movement patterns and demography of seven species of semi-aquatic snakes at Ellenton Bay, an isolated 10-ha...

  11. EA-1042: Proposed Changes to the Sanitary Sludge Land Application Program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennesee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to raise the sludge land application loading limits from the current, self-imposed conservative 48 metric tons/ha lifetime loading to the...

  12. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (BES). Operation of the ALS is supported by DOE BES. Publication about this research: E. Gross, X.-Z. Shu, S. Alayoglu, H.A. Bechtel, M.C. Martin, F.D. Toste, and G.A. Somorjai,...

  13. A=16N (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1986NO04, 1990HA35, 1992WA1L). See also the measurement reported in (1990BL1H) and the calculation of (1990CH13). 19. 16O(, +)16N Qm -149.986 Pion spectra have been...

  14. License Iso. CM35

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Reither this license nor my right under this licewe shall be uslgned or otherwise traneferred in violation of the pmvislont of the Atalc Finer&y Act oi 19%. ' Ibis licenae haJ..l ...

  15. A=17F (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    32 states are in good agreement with shell model 2p - 1h calculations using realistic Kuo-Brown interaction matrix elements (1975HA06). The (0 + 1) yield at 90 has been...

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS Slant Wet Delays and Its Impact on the Short-Range Weather Prediction Ha, S.-Y. and Kuo, Y.-H., National Center for Atmospheric Research Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation...

  17. A=17F (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T 32 states are in good agreement with shell model 2p-1h calculations using realistic Kuo-Brown interaction matrix elements (1975HA06). The (0 + 1) yield at 90 has been...

  18. Clean soil at Eniwetok and Johnston Atolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramlitt, E.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency has managed two large-scale soil cleanups (landmass decontaminations) of plutonium contamination. Both are at Pacific Ocean atolls formerly used for nuclear weapons tests. The Eniwetok Atoll (EA) cleanup between 1977 and 1980 evaluated 390 ha of contaminated land and cleaned 50 ha by removing 80,000 m[sup 3] of contaminated soil. The Johnston Atoll (JA) cleanup is in process. It has checked 270 ha, will clean 15 ha, and plans for removal of 80,000 m[sup 3] of soil. The cleanups are similar in other respects including carbonate-based soil, in situ radiation surveys, contamination characteristics, soil excavation methods, safety, and weather. The two cleanups are in contrast relative to planning time, agencies involved, funding, documentation, environmental considerations, cleanup workforce, site beneficiaries, waste characterization, regulatory permits, management, and project duration. The most noteworthy differences are the rationale for cleanup, the cleanup process, the definition of clean, and the cost.

  19. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and optimization of the catalytic reaction. Research conducted by: E. Gross, X.-Z. Shu, S. Alayoglu, F.D. Toste, and G.A. Somorjai (Univ. of California, Berkeley), and H.A....

  20. ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne,...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). ... of about 400 ha (1,000 acres) and is a residential community of more than 45,000 people; ...

  1. ACTION DESCRIPTION MEMORANDUM PROPOSED DECONTAMINATION OF THREE...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... of about 400 ha (1000 acres) and is a residential community of more than 45,000 people, ... As part of FUSRAP, the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations, is proposing to ...

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steel Creek Bay The Steel Creek Bay Set-Aside is a 81.6-acre (33 ha) Area comprised of a semi-permanent, open-waterherbaceous pond surrounded by a partial buffer area of various ...

  3. Contrasting Eruption Styles Of The 147 Kimberlite, Fort A La...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that period. The 147 Kimberlite is located in the SE section of the field's main cluster and is part of the large ( 377.5 ha) Orion North volcanic complex. Based on logging...

  4. Structural Basis of Pre-existing Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    virus. The Sa site is located on the top of the HA trimer and colored in magenta. (B) Residual differences between CA04 and selected human H1 HAs in the Sa antigenic site ...

  5. Me. John Ki

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Me. John Ki eling , Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JAN 131m New Mexico Environment...

  6. AmeriFlux US-ARb ARM Southern Great Plains burn site- Lamont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Site Description - The ARM SGP Burn site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots, ...

  7. SREL Reprint #3021

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests. In second-growth forests of the Savannah River system, data from five 1-ha plots established in 1979 and monitored for 22 years indicate a steady increase in liana...

  8. BPA-2015-00987-FOIA Correspondence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Administration (BPA) . Your request was received on March 11 , 2015, and ha been assigned control number BPA-201 5-00987-F. Please use this number in any...

  9. Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Single-Molecule Catalysis on Modular Multilayer Nanocatalysts Author(s): R. Han, J-W. Ha, C. Xiao, Y. Pei, Z. Qi, B. Dong, N. L. Bormann, W. Huang, and N. Fang Article Link:...

  10. Microsoft Word - WIPP9000.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    88221 Fo WIPP r October 7 (WIPP) rec arking an cold war. nt mileston RU waste PP team ha ctive of the pment, wh PP at abou aste Treatm half of the IPP has re RU waste s Environm...

  11. Pythagoras Solar Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pythagoras Solar Ltd Place: Ramat HaSharon, Israel Zip: 47800 Product: Early-stage company developing a stationary low-concentration PV system. References: Pythagoras Solar Ltd1...

  12. A=20F (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1978WI1B, 1982HA43, 1983BR29, 1984FO16, 1984RA13, 1986CA27, 1986COZZ, 1986VO05, 1986WA1R, 1987HA08, 1987IA1B). Complex reactions involving 20F:(1983BE02, 1983DE26, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HO23, 1984KO25, 1985BE40, 1985HA1N, 1985PO11, 1986GA1I, 1986HA1B, 1986ME06, 1986PO06, 1987RI03, 1987RO10). Hypernuclei:(1984AS1D). Other topics:(1978WI1B, 1983AR1J,

  13. A=20O (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1978WI1B, 1982SH30, 1984CH1V, 1984HA14, 1984RA13, 1984SA37, 1985HA15, 1985HU08, 1985LE1L, 1986COZZ, 1986HE13, 1986HU1G, 1986VO07, 1986WA1R, 1987IA1B). Complex reactions involving 20O:(1983FR1A, 1983WI1A, 1984HI1A, 1985HA1N, 1985PO11, 1986HA1B, 1986IR01, 1986PO06, 1986PO15, 1987RI03). Other topics:(1978WI1B, 1983SH32, 1984PO11, 1984SA37, 1985AN28,

  14. A=7Be (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 7.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1978RE1A, 1979WI1B, 1980HA1M, 1981KU13, 1982FI13, 1983WA1M). Astrophysical questions: (1978BU1B, 1979MO04, 1979RA20, 1979RA1C, 1980CA1C, 1980LA1G, 1980WI1M, 1983LI01). Applied work: (1979LA1E, 1982HA1D, 1983HA1W). Complex reactions involving 7Be: (1978DI1A, 1978DU1B, 1978HA40, 1978HE1C, 1979BO22, 1979KA07, 1979LO11, 1979PO10, 1979RA20, 1979SC1D,

  15. A=7Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 7.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1965KU09, 1965VO1A, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1966WI1E, 1967BO1C, 1967BO22, 1967CO32, 1967FA1A, 1969GU03, 1969TA1H, 1969VA1C, 1970ZO1A, 1971CO28, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03). Cluster model: (1965NE1B, 1968HA1G, 1968KU1B, 1969ME1C, 1969SM1A, 1969VE1B, 1969WI21, 1970BA1Q, 1972HA06, 1972HI16, 1972JA23, 1972KU12, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03, 1973KU12).

  16. A=12N (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 12N) GENERAL: See also (1968AJ02) and Table 12.25 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1973HA49, 1973KU1L, 1973SA30). Muon and neutrino interactions:...

  17. A=16N (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16N) GENERAL: See also (1977AJ02) and Table 16.4 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1979RO1J, 1980HA35). Reactions...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on hyaluronic acid and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Ainee Fatimah; Mohd, Hur Munawar Kabir; Taqiyuddin Mawardi bin Ayob, Muhammad; Rosli, Nur Ratasha Alia Md; Mohamed, Faizal; Radiman, Shahidan; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2014-09-03

    DPPC lipids are the major component constituting the biological membrane, and their importances in various physiological functions are well documented. Hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint fluid functions as a lubricant, shock absorber and a nutrient carrier. Gamma irradiation has also been found to be effective in depolymerizing and cleaving molecular chains related to free radicals, thus extends with changes in chemical composition as well as its physiological functions. This research are conducted to investigate the hyaluronic acid (HA) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) interaction in form of vesicles and its effect to gamma radiation. The size of DPPC vesicles formed via gentle hydration method is between 100 to 200 nm in diameter. HA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) was added into the vesicles and characterized by using TEM to determine vesicle size distributions, fusion and rupture of DPPC structure. The results demonstrated that the size of the vesicles approximately between 200 to 300 nm which caused by vesicles fusion with HA and formed even larger vesicles. After being irradiated by 0 to 200 Gy, the size of vesicles decreased as HA was degraded. To elucidate the mechanism of these effects, FTIR spectra were carried out and have shown that at absorption bands at 17001750 cm{sup ?1} due to formation of carboxylic acid and leads to alteration of HA structure.

  19. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  2. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; et al

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, orderedmore » restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks.« less

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4?}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  4. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  5. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  6. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T.K.

    2011-02-01

    Acidic uranium (U) contaminated plumes have resulted from acid-extraction of plutonium during the Cold War and from U mining and milling operations. A sustainable method for in-situ immobilization of U under acidic conditions is not yet available. Here, we propose to use humic acids (HAs) for in-situ U immobilization in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory batch experiments show that HA can adsorb onto aquifer sediments rapidly, strongly and practically irreversibly. Adding HA greatly enhanced U adsorption capacity to sediments at pH below 5.0. Our column experiments using historically contaminated sediments from the Savannah River Site under slow flow rates (120 and 12 m/y) show that desorption of U and HA were non-detectable over 100 pore-volumes of leaching with simulated acidic groundwaters. Upon HA-treatment, 99% of the contaminant [U] was immobilized at pH < 4.5, compared to 5% and 58% immobilized in the control columns at pH 3.5 and 4.5, respectively. These results demonstrated that HA-treatment is a promising in-situ remediation method for acidic U waste plumes. As a remediation reagent, HAs are resistant to biodegradation, cost effective, nontoxic, and easily introducible to the subsurface.

  7. The cowpox virus fusion regulator proteins SPI-3 and hemagglutinin interact in infected and uninfected cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Peter C. . E-mail: rmoyer@ufl.edu

    2006-03-30

    The serpin SPI-3 and the hemagglutinin (HA) encoded by cowpox virus (CPV) block cell-cell fusion, and colocalize at the cell surface. wtCPV does not fuse cells, but inactivation of either gene leads to fusion. SPI-3 mAb added to wtCPV-infected cells caused fusion, confirming that SPI-3 protein at the cell surface prevents fusion. The SPI-3 mAb epitope mapped to an 85-amino acid region at the C-terminus. Removal of either 44 residues from the SPI-3 C-terminus or 48 residues following the N-terminal signal sequence resulted in fusion. Interaction between SPI-3 and HA proteins in infected cells was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. SPI-3/HA was not associated with the A27L 'fusion' protein. SPI-3 and HA were able to associate in uninfected cells in the absence of other viral proteins. The HA-binding domain in SPI-3 resided in the C-terminal 229 residues, and did not include helix D, which mediates cofactor interaction in many other serpins.

  8. Switchgrass Cultivar/Ecotype Selection and Management for Biofuels in the Upper Southeast USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemus, Rocky; Parrish, David J.; Wolf, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass indigenous to the eastern USA, has potential as a biofuels feedstock. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of upland and lowland switchgrass cultivars under different environments and management treatments. Four cultivars of switchgrass were evaluated from 2000 to 2001 under two management regimes in plots established in 1992 at eight locations in the upper southeastern USA. Two management treatments included 1) a single annual harvest (in late October to early November) and a single application of 50 kg N/ha/yr and 2) two annual harvests (in midsummer andmore » November) and a split application of 100 kg N/ha/yr. Biomass yields averaged 15 Mg/ha/yr and ranged from 10 to 22 Mg/ha/yr across cultivars, managements, locations, and years. There was no yield advantage in taking two harvests of the lowland cultivars (Alamo and Kanlow). When harvested twice, upland cultivars (Cave-in-Rock and Shelter) provided yields equivalent to the lowland ecotypes. Tiller density was 36% lower in stands cutting only once per year, but the stands appeared vigorous after nine years of such management. Lowland cultivars and a one-cutting management (after the tops have senesced) using low rates of applied N (50 kg/ha) are recommended.« less

  9. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  10. Three-Stage Production Cost Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matthew; Guo, Tao

    2015-07-30

    This paper introduces a Production Cost Modeling (PCM) approach to evaluate the benefits of intra-hour scheduling between Balancing Authorities (BAs). The system operation is modeled in a three-stage sequential manner: day ahead (DA)-hour ahead (HA)-real time (RT). In addition to contingency reserve, each BA will need to carry out “up” and “down” load following and regulation reserve capacity requirements in the DA and HA time frames. In the real-time simulation, only contingency and regulation reserves are carried out as load following is deployed. To model current real-time operation with hourly schedules, a new constraint was introduced to force each BA net exchange schedule deviation from HA schedules to be within NERC ACE limits. Case studies that investigate the benefits of moving from hourly exchange schedules between WECC BAs into 10-min exchange schedules under two different levels of wind and solar penetration (11% and 33%) are presented.

  11. A=13N (1976AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13N) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 13.23 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1971AR1R, 1972DE1H, 1972EL1C, 1972LE1L, 1973DE13, 1973HA49, 1973SA30, 1974PH1D, 1975ME24). Speacial levels: (1970PE18, 1971AR03, 1971AR1R, 1971JA13, 1971SE1C, 1972BE1E, 1972DE1H, 1973JO1G, 1973SA30, 1974HA1G, 1974PH1D, 1974VA24, 1975KU21, 1975ME24). Electromagnetic transitions: (1971JA13, 1972NA05, 1973HA1Q, 1973LE06, 1973MA1K, 1973SA25, 1973SA30,

  12. A=15N (70AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15N) GENERAL: See Table 15.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(HA57B, BR59M, FE59E, TA60L, BA61N, BU63D, KU63I, MA64HH, CO65I, FA65A, GR65E, GU65A, ZA65B, EL66B, SO66A, CO67M, EL67C, PA67K, EL68E, HO68, MA68DD, SH68D, WA68E, ZH68A, CH69, EL69B). General calculations and reviews:(EV64, BE65G, OL66B, WI66E, FA67A, LO67E, BI68C, ZH68, HA69M, IW69A). Electromagnetic transitions:(RO65O, HA66O, PO66F, RO66C, RO66M, WA66D, KU67J,

  13. Prioritization methodology using hazard analysis results at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, M.K.; Hall, M.; Stack, D.; Brooks, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    Risk management activities, such as prioritizing risk-reducing projects, often are commissioned for facilities as special tasks supported by special task forces and conducted independently of other on-going risk assessment and risk management activities. Many DOE facilities have completed hazard analyses (HAs) as part of their efforts to upgrade their SARs to meet the new DOE standard that was issued in 1994. Although a complete SAR would contain more resource allocation information than the HA, the HA usually is completed before the SAR. This paper describes how SAR results, and particularly HA results, can be used directly to support managers` risk-based prioritization of project funding. This can reduce the time to conduct prioritization modeling, increase the quality of the results, and, perhaps most importantly, integrate the results into the on-going risk management activities of the site.

  14. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  15. A=9B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 9.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967ST1C, 1971CO28, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Special levels: (1966BA26, 1966EL08, 1967BA59, 1967ST1C, 1969HA1G, 1970TO1E, 1971CO28, 1971LI30, 1972BE1E). Astrophysical questions: (1970BA1M). Other topics: (1967CA17, 1967CH1H, 1970SA05, 1972AN05, 1972HA57, 1972CA37, 1972LE1L, 1972PN1A, 1973JU2A). Ground state properties: (1966BA26,

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  17. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  18. Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets abrogate hypoxia dysregulation of human keratinocyte gelatinases and inhibitors: New insights for chronic wound healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khadjavi, Amina; Magnetto, Chiara; Panariti, Alice; Argenziano, Monica; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Rivolta, Ilaria; Cavalli, Roberta; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Guiot, Caterina; Prato, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    Background: : In chronic wounds, efficient epithelial tissue repair is hampered by hypoxia, and balances between the molecules involved in matrix turn-over such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are seriously impaired. Intriguingly, new oxygenating nanocarriers such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane-based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) might effectively target chronic wounds. Objective: : To investigate hypoxia and chitosan-shelled OLN effects on MMP/TIMP production by human keratinocytes. Methods: : HaCaT cells were treated for 24 h with 10% v/v OLNs both in normoxia or hypoxia. Cytotoxicity and cell viability were measured through biochemical assays; cellular uptake by confocal microscopy; and MMP and TIMP production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or gelatin zymography. Results: : Normoxic HaCaT cells constitutively released MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Hypoxia strongly impaired MMP/TIMP balances by reducing MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, without affecting TIMP-1 release. After cellular uptake by keratinocytes, nontoxic OLNs abrogated all hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP secretion, restoring physiological balances. OLN abilities were specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion from OLN core. Conclusion: : Chitosan-shelled OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia-dependent dysregulation of MMP/TIMP balances in human keratinocytes. Therefore, topical administration of exogenous oxygen, properly encapsulated in nanodroplet formulations, might be a promising adjuvant approach to promote healing processes in hypoxic wounds. - Highlights: • Hypoxia impairs MMP9/TIMP1 and MMP2/TIMP2 balances in HaCaT human keratinocytes. • Chitosan-shelled oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs) are internalised by HaCaT cells. • OLNs are not toxic to HaCaT cells. • OLNs effectively counteract hypoxia effects on MMP/TIMP balances in HaCaT cells. • OLNs appear as promising and cost-effective therapeutic tools for hypoxic

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 This 460-acre (186.2 ha) Set-Aside Area is a long narrow stretch of land located along the eastern floodplain and bluffs of Upper Three Runs Creek. This Set-Aside supplements the original SREL Reserve Area--Oak-Hickory Forest 1 Set-Aside (Area #5), which is only 84.5 acres (34.2 ha). Area #12 represents hardwood forest types that are transitional between bottomland forests and drier upland pine or sandhills communities. Oak-hickory forests once were a dominant community type characteristic of

  20. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rainbow Bay Amphibian Reserve This 87.5-acre (35.4 ha) Set-Aside Area is comprised of Rainbow Bay, a 200-m forested buffer area that encircles the entire bay, and a wedge-shaped corridor extending to a tributary of Fourmile Creek. This corridor was established to maintain a forested connection between Rainbow Bay, Bullfrog and Pickerel Ponds, and the Fourmile Creek drainage. Rainbow Bay is a 2.4-acre (1 ha) relatively undisturbed, isolated, wetland depression similar to a true Carolina bay,

  1. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ginger's Bay This relatively small 38.5-acre (15.6 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the temporary pond Ginger’s Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area of planted pines, mixed pine/hardwood, and upland-to-mesic hardwood communities. The bay has virtually no buffer on the northwest side that borders Road A. Ginger’s Bay is 3.7 acres (1.5 ha) and is a relatively intact bay-like wetland depression which lacks the morphology and orientation of a true Carolina bay. Like Rainbow Bay (Area #16), this

  2. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Little Cypress Bay This 68.4-acre (27.7 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of Little Cypress Bay and a relatively undisturbed 200-m buffer zone of maturing pine and upland hardwood communities. Little Cypress Bay is a 9.9-acre (4.0 ha) herbaceous bay with a partial forest of pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens). There is no evidence of historical ditching associated with this bay. Little Cypress Bay is a relatively undisturbed Carolina bay which represents a wetland habitat whose interior basin is

  3. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bay The 66-acre (26.7 ha) Cypress Bay Set-Aside includes Cypress Bay (also called Bay #92); a 200-meter buffer of maturing loblolly pines (Pinus taeda); and portions of Bay #91 and Bay #93. The basins of these forested bays are ringed with older bottomland hardwoods and pine. All have evidence of historical disturbance from ditching or SRS rail line construction. The focal bay of this Area is Cypress Bay, which is a relatively small (3.1 acres, 1.3 ha), relatively undisturbed bay. It is unique

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mona Bay and Woodward Bay Woodward (on left) and Mona The 156.7-acre (63.4 ha) Mona Bay/Woodward Bay Set-Aside is an isolated assemblage of three Carolina bays (temporary ponds), surrounded primarily by a buffer area of recently established and maturing pine plantations. The paired Mona and Woodward Bays are relatively intact bays with shallow water depths, dominated by open herbaceous vegetation. Mona Bay is 27.9 acres (11.3 ha) in size and rivals Ellenton Bay (Area #1) as the second largest

  5. A=8B (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 8.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1983SH38). Special states: (1982PO12, 1988KH03). Complex reactions involving 8B: (1982AL08, 1983OL1A, 1984GR08, 1986HA1B, 1987TAZU, 1988AR05, 1988KI05). Astrophysical questions: (1984HA1B, 1985BO1E, 1985GI1C, 1985KL1A, 1985LA1C, 1988BA86). Reactions involving pions: (1983SP06). Hypernuclei: (1983SH38). Other topics: (1985AN28). Ground state of

  6. Cleaning Up the Hanford River Corridor and Improving Site Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doug Shoop, Deputy Manager April 13, 2016 2 3 Continue Cleanup of the Central Plateau * Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) - Completed last glove box (HA-9A) - Re-sequenced high-hazard work at PFP to focus on one project at a time using "Level B" suits - Grouted Plutonium Reclamation Facility canyon floor, began decontaminating walls Glove box HA-9A before (left) and after (right) Vacuuming "strongbacks" (left) and painting canyon floor (right) 4 K Basin Sludge Transfer * All

  7. Study of Organosilicon Plasma Polymer Used in Composite Layers with Biomedical Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeva, E.; Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Iacob, E.; Vanzetti, L.; Dimitrova, R.; Krasteva, N.; Spassov, T.

    2010-01-21

    In this work we study the ability of plasma polymer (PP) films obtained from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) on silica glass (SG) to induce hydroxyapatite (HA)-based composite layers from a mixture of simulated body fluid (SBF) and clear solution of detonation nanodiamond (DND) by a biomimetic process. The grown composites (PPHMDS/HADND) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) techniques. FTIR spectra of the PPHMDS indicated diminishing of the polymer characteristic bands when the polymer is immersed in DND clear solution. Furthermore, after sample immersion in the SBF-DND mixture, the FTIR spectra showed the presence of carbonate-containing HA through the characteristic vibration modes of P-O in the phosphate group and C-O in the carbonate group. The formation of HA layers, rich in silica and/or carbon was confirmed by RBS and SEM. The cell viability measured after 7 days on the polymer surface is more then 95% for all samples. The results show that the PPHMDS is promising as a substrate for growing HA/DND layers and that the materials obtained are biocompatible. The variations of plasma polymerization conditions and modification of the composite layers will aid in using such materials for biomedical applications.

  8. A=17O (71AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO69B, NO69G, PA69D, PI69, SA69, SC69F, SC69O, BA70A, HA70L, MC70Q, SU70A). Ground state: -1.89371 0.00009 nm (SH67N); Q 26.5 3.0 mb (LI64H). See also (FA59E,...

  9. Submitting Organization Sandia National ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...PS-PVP). 2-(4'-Hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid (HBBA) was used as the HA. For a typical synthesis, we added a 2 wt % solution of HBBA in dioxane to a 2-4 wt % solution of PS-PVP in ...

  10. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  11. Structural Basis for a Switch in Receptor Binding Specificity of Two H5N1 Hemagglutinin Mutants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Xueyong; Viswanathan, Karthik; Raman, Rahul; Yu, Wenli; Sasisekharan, Ram; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-11-01

    Avian H5N1 influenza viruses continue to spread in wild birds and domestic poultry with sporadic infection in humans. Receptor binding specificity changes are a prerequisite for H5N1 viruses and other zoonotic viruses to be transmitted among humans. Previous reported hemagglutinin (HA) mutants from ferret-transmissible H5N1 viruses of A/Viet Nam/1203/04 and A/Indonesia/5/05 showed slightly increased, but still very weak, binding to human receptors. From mutagenesis and glycan array studies, we previously identified two H5N1 HA mutants that could more effectively switch receptor specificity to human-like α2-6 linked sialosides with avidity comparable to wild-type H5 HA binding to avian-like α2-3 linked sialosides.more »Here, crystal structures of these two H5 HA mutants free and in complex with human and avian glycan receptor analogues reveal the structural basis for their preferential binding to human receptors. These findings suggest continuous surveillance should be maintained to monitor and assess human-to-human transmission potential of H5N1 viruses.« less

  12. A=5He (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1970IR01, 1970RA1D, 1970ZO1A, 1971RA15, 1971WA08, 1972KA38, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster calculations: (1965NE1B, 1966HO06, 1967BE1G, 1969ME1C, 1969WI1C, 1971LE1N, 1972DE30)....

  13. A=11B (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1970CO1H, 1971BA2Y, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03, 1973SA30, 1974ME19). Cluster and collective models: (1969BA1J, 1970BA1Q, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03). Special...

  14. A=17O (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1977HA1Z, 1977PO16, 1978CH26, 1978KR02, 1979KA06, 1980BR13, 1980VA05). Collective and cluster models: (1978CH26, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1980FU1G). Special states: (1977HE18,...

  15. A=10Li (74AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10B: see (HA68V), the mass excess of 10Li, (M - A) 33.10 0.06 MeV (AB73D). The breakup energy into 9Li + n is then -0.06 0.06 MeV. Using the calculated values suggested...

  16. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  17. A=17N (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    See also (1971AJ02) and Table 17.1 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews: (1973PA1F, 1973RE17, 1973TO16, 1973WI15, 1974HA61, 1975BE31). Experimental...

  18. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    62 1957GR1D Groshev and Demidov, Sov. J. At. Energy 3 (1957) 853 1957HA1K S.S. Hanna and L. Meyer-Schutzmeister, Phys. Rev. 108 (1957) 1644 1957HE1C Hebbard, Ph.D.Thesis, Univ. of...

  19. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  20. Structure of a highly acidic β-lactamase from the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter sp. 560 and the discovery of a Cs{sup +}-selective binding site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Okazaki, Nobuo; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Shibazaki, Chie; Shimizu, Rumi; Yamada, Mitsugu; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Kawamoto, Masahide; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2015-03-01

    The tertiary structure of a β-lactamase derived from the halobacterium Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined by X-ray crystallography. Three unique Sr{sup 2+}-binding sites and one Cs{sup +}-binding site were discovered in the HaBLA molecule. Environmentally friendly absorbents are needed for Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +}, as the removal of the radioactive Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} that has leaked from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant is one of the most important problems in Japan. Halophilic proteins are known to have many acidic residues on their surface that can provide specific binding sites for metal ions such as Cs{sup +} or Sr{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of a halophilic β-lactamase from Chromohalobacter sp. 560 (HaBLA) was determined to resolutions of between 1.8 and 2.9 Å in space group P3{sub 1} using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, the locations of bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions were identified by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The location of one Cs{sup +}-specific binding site was identified in HaBLA even in the presence of a ninefold molar excess of Na{sup +} (90 mM Na{sup +}/10 mM Cs{sup +}). From an activity assay using isothermal titration calorimetry, the bound Sr{sup 2+} and Cs{sup +} ions do not significantly affect the enzymatic function of HaBLA. The observation of a selective and high-affinity Cs{sup +}-binding site provides important information that is useful for the design of artificial Cs{sup +}-binding sites that may be useful in the bioremediation of radioactive isotopes.

  1. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  2. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  4. Growth and elemental accumulation by canola on soil amended with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Murray, B.R.; Nissanka, S.P.

    2008-05-15

    To explore the agronomic potential of an Australian coal fly ash, we conducted two glasshouse experiments in which we measured chlorophyll fluorescence, CO{sub 2} assimilation (A), transpiration, stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, seed yield, and elemental uptake for canola (Brassica napus) grown on soil amended with an alkaline fly ash. In Experiment 1, application of up to 25 Mg/ha of fly ash increased A and plant weight early in the season before flowering and seed yield by up to 21%. However, at larger rates of ash application A, plant growth, chlorophyll concentration, and yield were all reduced. Increases in early vigor and seed yield were associated with enhanced uptake of phosphorus (P) by the plants treated with fly ash. Fly ash application did not influence accumulation of B, Cu, Mo, or Zn in the stems at any stage of plant growth or in the seed at harvest, except Mo concentration, which was elevated in the seed. Accumulation of these elements was mostly in the leaves, where concentrations of Cu and Mo increased with any amount of ash applied while that of B occurred only with ash applied at 625 Mg/ha. In Experiment 2, fly ash applied at 500 Mg/ha and mixed into the whole 30 cm soil core was detrimental to growth and yield of canola, compared with restricting mixing to 5 or 15 cm depth. In contrast, application of ash at 250 Mg/ha with increasing depth of mixing increased A and seed yield. We concluded that fly ash applied at not more than 25 Mg/ha and mixed into the top 10 to 15 cm of soil is sufficient to obtain yield benefits.

  5. Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Chung, Changik; Cyphers, Soreen Y.; Rinaldi, Vera D.; Marcano, Valerie C.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza HA cleavage activation. • Biochemical and cell biological analysis of HAI-2 as an inhibitor of influenza virus infection. • Comparative analysis of HAI-2 for vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type-1. • Analysis of the activity of HAI-2 in a mouse model of influenza. - Abstract: Influenza virus remains a significant concern to public health, with the continued potential for a high fatality pandemic. Vaccination and antiviral therapeutics are effective measures to circumvent influenza virus infection, however, multiple strains have emerged that are resistant to the antiviral therapeutics currently on the market. With this considered, investigation of alternative antiviral therapeutics is being conducted. One such approach is to inhibit cleavage activation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is an essential step in the viral replication cycle that permits viral-endosome fusion. Therefore, targeting trypsin-like, host proteases responsible for HA cleavage in vivo may prove to be an effective therapeutic. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 2 (HAI-2) is naturally expressed in the respiratory tract and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin-like serine proteases, some of which have been determined to cleave HA. In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza.

  6. Magnetic properties of CeFe11-xCoxTi with ThMn12 structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, C; Pinkerton, FE; Herbst, JF

    2014-05-07

    A series of novel alloys CeFe11-xCoxTi (0 <= x <= 11) with ThMn12 structure has been successfully prepared by melt-spinning. The Curie temperature T-c increases with Co content x, reaching a maximum of 689 degrees C at x = 9 and declining to 664 degrees C at complete Co filling (x = 11). The room temperature saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s and magnetocrystalline anisotropy H-a have been estimated by fitting the first quadrant demagnetization curve with the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. 4 pi M-s first increases with increasing Co up to x = 3, then decrease. H-a has a complex dependence on Co content, which is indicative of a change in the easy magnetization direction from axis to plane and back as the Co content increases. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. A=10B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 10.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1966HA18, 1966MA1P, 1966WI1E, 1967CO32, 1967EV1C, 1967HS1A, 1967PI1B, 1968GO01, 1969VA1C, 1970CO1H, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973JO1K, 1973KU03, 1973SA30). Cluster and α-particle model: (1965NE1B, 1967TA1C, 1969BA1J, 1969HU1F, 1969NA1M, 1970NA06, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03). Special levels: (1967CO32, 1967HS1A, 1968GO01,

  8. A=10B (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 10.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell and deformed models: (1983VA31, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1987KI1C, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04). Cluster and α-particle models: (1983SH38, 1984NI12, 1985KW02). Special states: (1983BI1C, 1983FE07, 1983VA31, 1984NI12, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985GO1A, 1985HA18, 1985HA1J, 1986BA1X, 1986XU02, 1987AB1H, 1987BA2J, 1987KI1C, 1988KW02). Electromagnetic transitions and giant resonances:

  9. A=12C (1985AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also (1980AJ01) and Table 12.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977ME05, 1978RA1B, 1979HA59, 1979IN05, 1980CA12, 1980GI05, 1980HA35, 1980OH07, 1981AM08, 1981BO1Y, 1981DE2G, 1981LU1B, 1981RA06, 1982AR03, 1982BA52, 1982BR08, 1983VA31, 1984DE04, 1984VA06). Deformed models: (1979UE03, 1980BA1T, 1980BA44, 1980CA12, 1980FU1H, 1981DE2G, 1981RA06, 1981SE03, 1982AS03, 1982BR08, 1982KU1K, 1982SA1U, 1983LO04, 1983SA12,

  10. A=13N (1986AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13N) GENERAL: See also (1981AJ01) and Table 13.14 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1983SH38). Special states: (1981KO1Q, 1983AU1B, 1983WI15, 1984RO05). Electromagnetic transitions:(1980BA54, 1980RI06, 1981KO1Q, 1983AD1B, 1984MA2J). Astrophysical questions: (1980BA1P, 1983LI01, 1985GI1C). Applied work: (1982BO1N, 1982HA1V, 1982HI1H, 1982MA1T, 1982PI1H, 1982YA1C, 1983HA1W, 1983KO1Q, 1984HI1D, 1984MO1Q, 1984MO1R, 1984NI1C). Complex

  11. A=13O (1976AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    76AJ04) (See the Isobar Diagram for 13O) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 13.29 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theoretical papers: (1973HA49, 1973RO1R, 1973SP1A, 1975GR03, 1975BE31, 1975HU14). Review papers: (1972CE1A, 1972WA07, 1973HA77). Mass of 13O: From the Q-value of the 16O(3He, 6He)13O reaction [Q0 = -30.508 ± 0.010 MeV] the atomic mass excess of 13O is determined to be 23.105 ± 0.010 MeV (1971TR03). 13O is then bound with respect to 12N + p and 11C + 2p by 1.528 and

  12. A=15C (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15C) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 15.1 preview 15.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1988MI1J, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E). Electromagnetic transitions:(1984VA06). Astrophysical questions:(1989KA1K). Complex reactions involving 15C:(1985PO11, 1986AV1B, 1986BI1A, 1986DU11, 1986HA1P, 1986HA1B, 1986PO06, 1987RI03, 1987SA25, 1987SN01, 1987VI02, 1988CA06, 1988JO1B, 1988MI28, 1988RU01, 1988SA19, 1989AS1B, 1989OG1B,

  13. A=17Ne (1977AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See also (1971AJ02) and Table 17.20 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews: (1971HA1Y, 1973HA77, 1973RE17, 1975BE31). Mass of 17Ne: The mass excess of 17Ne, determined from a measurement of the Q-value of 20Ne(3He, 6He)17Ne is 16.48 ± 0.05 MeV (1970ME11, 1972CE1A). Then 17Ne - 17F = 14.53 MeV and Eb for p, 3He and α are, respectively, 1.50, 6.46 and 9.05 MeV. See also (1971AJ02). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.93

  14. 17Ne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ne β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1964MC16: 17Ne; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1966HA22: 17Ne; deduced log ft. 1967ES02: 17Ne; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1967FI10: 17Ne. 1971ESZR, 1971HA05: 17Ne; measured β-delayed proton spectra, Eγ, Iγ, T1/2, pγ-coin; deduced log ft. 17F deduced levels, antianalog state, isospin mixing. 1988BO39: 17Ne(β+p), (β+α); measured T1/2, β-delayed E(p), E(α), I(p), I(α), β(particle)-coin. 17Ne deduced

  15. Herbaceous crops for energy in Italy: Present status of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenone, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a synthesis of the main results of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company) on herbaceous energy crops. The objective of the program is to evaluate the potentials of different species and cultivars for biomass fuel production in Italy. For the most promising species, all the links of the chain from cultivation to delivery at the plant gate at the lowest possible cost have to be organized. So far the following species gave annual productivities above 20 dry tons/ha: fiber sorghum (Sorghum sp.); miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis); and giant reed (Arundo donax). The highest biomass yields, well above 40 dry tons/ha in several trials, were given by giant reed.

  16. A=18F (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.13 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978WI1B, 1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1983KI13, 1984MI1H, 1984MI17, 1985LE1K, 1986YU1B). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (1983ME12, 1984QU1A, 1985BA1A, 1987ER05). Special states: (1978WI1B, 1982ZH01, 1983BI1C, 1983BR29, 1983ME12, 1983KI13, 1984AD1E, 1984HA14, 1984HO1H, 1984MI1H, 1984MI17, 1985AD1A, 1985HA18, 1985LE1K, 1985MI10, 1985SO12, 1985YU1B, 1986AN07,

  17. A=18Ne (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See Table 18.23 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell and cluster model calculations: (1957WI1E, 1969BE1T, 1970BA2E, 1970EL08, 1970HA49, 1972KA01). Electromagnetic transitions: (1970EL08, 1970HA49). Special levels: (1966MI1G, 1969KA29, 1972KA01). Pion reactions: (1965PA1F). Other theoretical calculations: (1965GO1F, 1966KE16, 1968BA2H, 1968BE1V, 1968MU1B, 1968NE1C, 1968VA1J, 1968VA24, 1969BA1Z, 1969GA1G, 1969KA29, 1969MU09, 1969RA28,

  18. A=20F (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See Table 20.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1959BR1E, 1963KU19, 1964MO1E, 1965DE1H, 1965DE1M, 1966CH1G, 1966PI1B, 1967BO09, 1967GU05, 1967GU1D, 1968AR02, 1968CO11, 1968GU1E, 1968HA17, 1968HA1P, 1969HO32, 1970AN27, 1970BA66, 1971AR25, 1971JO01, 1971WI01). Other theoretical calculations: (1967ST1N, 1968CE1A, 1968DW1A, 1969SC14, 1971LE1H, 1971TE06). General experimental work: (1970FA01, 1971AR02). Ground state: μ

  19. A=20Na (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.39 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1973HA77, 1973SU1B, 1974HA17, 1976CH1T, 1977SH13). J = 2 (1975SC20); μ = 0.3694 ± 0.0002 nm (1975SC20). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.37 (in PDF or PS). The half-life of 20Na is 442 ± 5 msec (1971GO18, 1971WI07), 446 ± 8 msec (1972MO08), 448 ± 4 msec

  20. A=20O (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20O) GENERAL: See Table 20.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calulations: (1959BR1E, 1960TA1C, 1962TA1B, 1963PA03, 1964CO24, 1964MO1E, 1964PA1D, 1964TR1A, 1965DE1H, 1965FE02, 1966AR10, 1966BR04, 1966TR02, 1967FE01, 1967FL13, 1967LA1H, 1967PI1B, 1968AR02, 1968BE1U, 1968CO1N, 1968FL1C, 1968GU1E, 1968HA17, 1968HA1P, 1968MO1G, 1968PA1Q, 1969FE1A, 1969KU1G, 1969SO08, 1971AR25). Other theoretical calculations: (1961JA1E, 1966KE16, 1967ST1N,

  1. A=5Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 5.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model calculations: (1966FR1B, 1968GO01, 1969GO1G, 1970RA1D, 1971RA15, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49). Cluster calculations: (1965NE1B, 1971HE05). Special levels: (1970HE1D, 1971HE05, 1971RA15, 1973JO1J). Electromagnetic transitions:(1973HA49). General reviews: (1966DE1E). Special reactions: (1971CH31). Other topics: (1968GO01, 1970RA1J, 1971CH50, 1971ZA1D, 1972CA37,

  2. A=6Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 6.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1966BA26, 1966GA1E, 1966HA18, 1966WI1E, 1967BO1C, 1967CO32, 1967PI1B, 1967WO1B, 1968BO1N, 1968CO13, 1968GO01, 1968LO1C, 1968VA1H, 1969GU10, 1969RA1C, 1969SA1C, 1969VA1C, 1970LA1D, 1970SU13, 1970ZO1A, 1971CO28, 1971JA06, 1971LO03, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1972LO1M, 1972VE07, 1973HA49, 1973JO1K, 1973KU03). Cluster and α-particle model:

  3. A=8B (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8B) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 8.11 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1966BA26, 1973HA49). Special levels: (1966BA26). Electromagnetic transitions: (1966BA26, 1973HA49). Special reactions: (1968BA1M, 1968BH1A, 1969BA1L, 1970BA44, 1972AG01). Astrophysical questions: (1967BA1J, 1967SH1F, 1968BA2E, 1968BA2F, 1969FO1D, 1970BA1M, 1972PA1C). Other topics: (1966KE16, 1966TO04, 1967DI1B, 1969GA1G, 1972AN05, 1973RO1R). Ground-state

  4. A=8Be (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Be) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 8.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978RA1B, 1979EL04, 1981BO1Y, 1981RA06, 1981ST22, 1982FI13). Collective, rotational and deformed models: (1978CA1D, 1979EL04, 1979MA1J, 1980FI09, 1981RA06, 1981ST22, 1982FI13). Cluster and α-particle models: (1977WU1A, 1979GO24, 1979GR1F, 1979PA22, 1979ZH1C, 1980FU1G, 1980HA1M, 1980IK1B, 1981GA1J, 1981KA1P, 1981KN12, 1981KR1J, 1981ST22, 1982HA1M, 1982TS1A,

  5. A=8Li (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Li) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 8.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Special states: (1980OK01). Complex reactions involving 8Li: (1978BO1B, 1978DU1B, 1979BO22, 1979IV1A, 1980AN1T, 1980BO31, 1980GR10, 1980WI1L, 1981BO1X, 1981MO20, 1982BO35, 1982BO1Y, 1982GO1E, 1982GU1H, 1982MO1N). Muon and neutrino interactions: (1978BA1G). Reactions involving pions and other mesons: (1977VE1C, 1979BA16, 1980HA29, 1981JU1A, 1981NI03, 1982HA57).

  6. A=9Be (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1961KO1A, 1965CO25, 1965GR18, 1965VO1A, 1966AD06, 1966BA26, 1966HA18, 1966MA1P, 1966WI1E, 1967CO32, 1967ST1C, 1968GO01, 1969BO1V, 1969BO19, 1969BO33, 1969GU03, 1969VA1C, 1970CO1H, 1971CO28, 1971GR02, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973HA49, 1973KU03). Aplha and cluster models: (1965NE1B, 1966HI1A, 1967TA1C, 1968KU1B, 1969BA1J, 1969NE1C, 1970BA1Q, 1971LE1N, 1971NO02,

  7. A=9Be (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1988AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Be) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 9.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1983VA31, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985AN16, 1987KI1C, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04). Cluster and α-particle models: (1981PL1A, 1982DZ1A, 1983JA09, 1983MI1E, 1983SH38, 1985HA1P, 1985KW02, 1986CR1B, 1987VOZU). Special states: (1981PL1A, 1983AU1B, 1983GO28, 1983MI08, 1983VA31, 1984BA49, 1984KO40, 1984VA06, 1984WO09, 1984ZW1A, 1985GO1A, 1985HA1J, 1985PO19, 1985SH24,

  8. Risk of Hippocampal Metastases in Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients at Presentation and After Cranial Irradiation: A Safety Profile Study for Hippocampal Sparing During Prophylactic or Therapeutic Cranial Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundapur, Vijayananda; Ellchuk, Tasha; Ahmed, Shahid; Gondi, Vinai

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Neurocognitive impairment (NI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) is a significant cause of morbidity. Hippocampal avoidance (HA) during WBRT may mitigate or prevent NI in such patients. However, this has not been tested in SCLC patients. The estimated risk of metastases in the HA region (HM) in patients with SCLC at diagnosis or after WBRT is unknown. Our study aimed to determine the risk of HM in patients with SCLC and to assess correlated clinical factors. Methods and Materials: Patients with SCLC who experienced brain metastases (BM) at presentation (de novo) or after WBRT treated at the Saskatoon Cancer Centre between 2005 and 2012 were studied. Relevant neuroimaging was independently reviewed by a neuroradiologist. HM was defined as metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess correlation between various clinical variables and HM. Results: Seventy eligible patients were identified. Of 59 patients presenting with de novo BM, 3 patients (5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-10.7%) had HM. Collectively there were 359 (range, 1-33) de novo BM with 3 (0.8%, 95% CI: 0%-1.7%) HM deposits. Twenty patients experienced progression of metastatic disease in the brain after WBRT. Of the 20 patients, only 1 patient (5%, 95% CI: 0%-14.5%) experienced HM. On logistic regression, no factors significantly correlated with HM. Conclusion: The overall incidence of HM before or after WBRT in SCLC patients is low, providing preliminary support for the safety of HA during planned clinical trials of HA-WBRT for SCLC.

  9. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combination of the Separation of Variable and the T-matrix Method for Computing Optical Properties of Spheroidal Particles Schulz, F.M., Eide, H.A., and Stamnes, K., University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Stamnes, J.J., University of Bergen, Norway Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting The growing interest in nonspherical particles in recent years has led to significant improvements of various light scattering models for different kinds of nonspherical particles. One

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Transfer in a Medium Containing Non-spherical Particles: Applications to the Atmosphere Eide, H.A. and Stamnes, K., Stevens Institute of Technology Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting We present results obtained for problems involving energy transmission in a medium containing non-spherical particles, specifically for the case of light propagating in the atmosphere-ocean system. We have developed new algorithms that enables us to solve rigorously the

  12. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Representing a Spheroidal Particle by a Collection of Equal Volume to Surface Area Spheres: A Comprehensive Study of the Applicability to Radiative Transfer Eide, H.A. and Stamnes, K.H., Stevens Institute of Technology Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting For the purpose of modeling energy transport in a medium containing non-spherical particles, some results indicate that a representation of a non-spherical particle by a collection of spheres with the same

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Approach for Obtaining Advection Profiles: Application to the SHEBA Column Morrison, H.(a) and Pinto, J.O.(b), University of Colorado (a), NCAR/University of Colorado (b) Thirteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Time-averaged vertically-integrated 3-D advections are inferred from heat and moisture budgets obtained from observations at SHEBA for April, May, June and July. Advection was a source of heat and moisture in the column budgets during the time period,

  14. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  15. ETATP12rev0.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... si io on n b ba at tt te er ry y p pa ac ck k a an nd d m mo od du ul le e v vo ol lt ta ... F Fu ur rt th he er r, , t th he e B BM MS S s sh ha al ll l a au ut to om ma at ti ic ca ...

  16. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  17. Example process hazard analysis of a Department of Energy water chlorination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On February 24, 1992, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released a revised version of Section 29 Code of Federal Regulations CFR Part 1910 that added Section 1910.119, entitled ``Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (the PSM Rule). Because US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5480.4 and 5483.1A prescribe OSHA 29 CFR 1910 as a standard in DOE, the PSM Rule is mandatory in the DOE complex. A major element in the PSM Rule is the process hazard analysis (PrHA), which is required for all chemical processes covered by the PSM Rule. The PrHA element of the PSM Rule requires the selection and application of appropriate hazard analysis methods to systematically identify hazards and potential accident scenarios associated with processes involving highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs). The analysis in this report is an example PrHA performed to meet the requirements of the PSM Rule. The PrHA method used in this example is the hazard and operability (HAZOP) study, and the process studied is the new Hanford 300-Area Water Treatment Facility chlorination process, which is currently in the design stage. The HAZOP study was conducted on May 18--21, 1993, by a team from the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Battelle-Columbus, the DOE, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The chlorination process was chosen as the example process because it is common to many DOE sites, and because quantities of chlorine at those sites generally exceed the OSHA threshold quantities (TQs).

  18. 1918 Influenza Pandemic Strain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James Stevens1 and Ian A. Wilson1,2 1Department of Molecular Biology and 2Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 Figure 1. Ribbon representation of the hemagglutinin HA0 trimer from the 1918 influenza virus. Each monomer possesses two important sites: 1) the 'Receptor binding site' (blue shade) for virus attachment to the host lung epithelial cells via sialic acid containing host cell receptors. 2) the 'Cleavage

  19. Microsoft Word - 2013 IWD #3155 Trident Target Area Operations.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2100 (4/12) Form 2100 Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information IWD #: 3155 Activity/Task Title Trident Target Area Operations Work Document # Planner/Preparer (Name/Z #/Date) Sha-Marie Reid TA 35 Building 189 Room 108, 120 Other Location(s)(TA) as required Activity Description/Overview: This IWD covers operation of both Trident target areas including normal maintenance, setting up beam lines, firing laser shots, and other misc activities. Hazard Analysis (HA) Method

  20. HP XC System Cast Briefing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linux in High Performance Computing vendor perspective Scott McClellan CTO/HPTCD Salishan Conference - April '03 page 2 HP Confidential Perspective * My Role/Background - CTO of the HPTCD division in the new HP - Background: * pm-HP (1984); commercial computing; OS development (lead architect MPE); telecom(carrier-grade severs & HA architect); joined HPTCD in June/'02 * This presentation represents my personal opinion, not the official position of HP. * HP is - HW vendor (servers - Total

  1. Hans Joachim Lewerenz - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HaNS JOACHIM LEWERENZ Principal Investigator Email: lewerenz@caltech.edu Dr. Lewerenz's research interests involve: advancing photoelectrochemical solar cells that operate in the photovoltaic or photoelectrocatalytic mode; semiconductor materials science and directed development and optimization of light absorbers; surface analyses related to wet processing and in situ operation of semiconductors and metals including synchrotron radiation methods; and model experiments for analysis of surface

  2. A=19F (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RI67J, SH67K, ZA67C, EI68A, HA68M, RI68N, UN68, BE69G, BH69, CU69B, KR69A, WA70B, LE72). Cluster model: (WI59D, SH60C, MA63Q, MA64HH, ME68H, BA69E, HI69, ME69K, TA69G, BA70F)....

  3. Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor Mimicry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Antibody Recognition of the Influenza Hemagglutinin by Receptor Mimicry Sunday, November 30, 2014 There has been a long-standing interest in blocking agents against influenza entry, such as inhibitors that can target the receptor binding site on the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein (HA) to prevent viral attachment to host cells. Molecules have been designed based on the sialic acid receptor, although with very little success since sialic acid only

  4. Available for Checkout Equipment Inventory | Sample Preparation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratories Available for Checkout Equipment Inventory « Equipment Resources Title Description Agate Mortar & Pestle Sets Agate mortar & pestle sets (100mm, 65 mm, & 50mm sizes). Buchi V-700 Vacuum Pump & condenser Chemically resistant vacuum pump, flow rate 1.8m^3/h, ultimate vacuum less than 10mbar. The secondary condenser (Buchi 047180) is a complete module with insulation and 500mL receiving flask. Campden Instruments Vibrating Manual Tissue Cutter HA 752 Campden

  5. AmeriFlux US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-FR2 Freeman Ranch- Mesquite Juniper. Site Description - Freeman Ranch is a 4200 ha research area owned by Texas State University. It is located on the easter Edwards Plateau in central Texas and overlies and recharges the Edwards Aquifer. Most of the ranch is occupied by upland habitats.

  6. Cleaning Up the Hanford River Corridor and Improving Site Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 3, 2016 2 3 Continue Cleanup of the Central Plateau * Plutonium Finishing Plant - Grouted Plutonium Reclamation Facility canyon floor - Working on last glove box (HA-9A) - Respiratory equipment Removal of high-hazard glove box in progress Grouting canyon floor in Plutonium Reclamation Facility 4 K Basin Sludge Transfer * External, independent review of cost and schedule completed * Plan for 2016 - Continue installing equipment in K West Reactor basin and annex - Continue procurements

  7. Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters | Photosynthetic Antenna Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Conference Abstracts & Book Chapters Collins AM, Wen J and Blankenship RE (2011) Photosynthetic Light Harvesting Complexes. In Molecular Solar Fuels, T. Wydrzynski and W. Hillier, Eds., Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. Frank HA, Magdaong N, Niedzwiedzki DM, LaFountain AM, Gardiner AT, Carey A-M, Gibson GN, and Cogdell RJ (2014) Investigation of the excited state spectra and dynamics of rhodopinal glucoside from Rhodoblastus

  8. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  9. Method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Yufei; Campbell, Allison A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of coating a substrate with a calcium phosphate compound using plasma enhanced MOCVD. The substrate is a solid material that may be porous or non-porous, including but not limited to metal, ceramic, glass and combinations thereof. The coated substrate is preferably used as an implant, including but not limited to orthopaedic, dental and combinations thereof. Calcium phosphate compound includes but is not limited to tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and combinations thereof. TCP is preferred on a titanium implant when implant resorbability is desired. HA is preferred when the bone bonding of new bone tissue into the structure of the implant is desired. Either or both of TCP and/or HA coated implants may be placed into a solution with an agent selected from the group of protein, antibiotic, antimicrobial, growth factor and combinations thereof that can be adsorbed into the coating before implantation. Once implanted, the release of TCP will also release the agent to improve growth of new bone tissues and/or to prevent infection.

  10. Potential producers and their attitudes toward adoption of biomass crops in central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    A recent study by the University of Florida, Center for Biomass Programs (1996) showed that biomass crops have potential as a new agricultural commodity in central Florida. Both herbaceous and woody biomass crops have high yields, and weather and soil conditions are favorable. In the Polk County area over 40,371 ha (100,000 A) of phosphate-mined land and about 161,486 ha (400,000 A) of pastureland may be available for biomass production at low opportunity cost. Phosphate land is owned by a few mining companies while pastureland is owned by or rented to cattlemen. Infrastructure for large-scale crop production, such as in the Midwest United States, does not presently exist in central Florida. Personal interviews were conducted with phosphate company managers and a mail survey was conducted with 940 landowners, with at least 16 ha (40 A) of agricultural land. Data were gathered related to decision making factors in growing biomass and other new crops. Results suggested that economic factors, particularly availability of an established market and an assured high return per acre were considered the most important factors. Lack of familiarity with new crops was an important barrier to their adoption. Potential net returns and production costs were considered the most important information needed to make decisions about growing biomass crops.

  11. Mitigation options for fish and wildlife resources affected by port and other water-dependent developments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dial, R.S.; Deis, D.R.

    1986-06-01

    Ten past restoration projects in Tampa Bay were evaluated. Habitats included Spartina marsh, mangrove forests, Juncus marsh, and subtidal habitat. Success was difficult to determine because goals for each project had not been defined. In-kind losses of habitat occurred in all but one project. Permanent losses occurred in at least three projects. Restoration of Spartina and Juncus marshes was recommended. Mangroves will recruit into Spartina marshes, provided a seed source is available; planting of mangroves alone is not recommended. Seagrass restoration is not recommended at this time. Twelve sites, most less than 50 ha, were identified as potential restoration sites to give 344 ha of subtidal habitat to be made shallower and 176 ha of uplands to be scraped down. The current management program's legal and policy needs for improving environmental management, the role of mitigation, and the information needed to develop mitigation plans are discussed. This report will be useful to decisionmakers concerned with wetland habitat loss and restoration in Tampa Bay, Florida, and other areas with similar habitats.

  12. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-05

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  13. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Eaton, Laurence M.

    2016-03-03

    To date, feedstock resource assessments have evaluated cellulosic and algal feedstocks independently, without consideration of demands for, and resource allocation to, each other. We assess potential land competition between algal and terrestrial feedstocks in the United States, and evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 × 109 L yr–1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. Under this scenario, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 × 106 ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial biomass feedstocks would use 14.0 × 106 ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysismore » indicates that potential competition for land under this scenario would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 × 106 ha of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. Furthermore, a land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county's pastureland, representing 2%–5% of total pastureland in the U.S.; therefore suggesting little overall competition between algae production, terrestrial energy feedstocks and alternative uses for existing agricultural production such as livestock grazing.« less

  14. Bioactive glass coatings with hydroxyapatite and Bioglass (registered) particles on Ti-based implants. 1. Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    Silicate-based glasses with thermal expansion coefficients that match those of Ti6Al4V were prepared and used to coat Ti6Al4V by a simple enameling technique. Bioglass (BG) (registered) or hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were embedded on the coatings in order to enhance their bioactivity. HA particles were partially embedded during heating and remained firmly embedded on the coating after cooling. There was no apparent reaction at the glass/HA interface at the temperatures used in this work (800-840 degrees C). In contrast, BG particles softened and some infiltration into the glass coating took place during heat treatment. In this case, particles with sizes over 45 (mu)m were required, otherwise the particles became hollow due to the infiltration and crystallization of the glass surface. The concentration of the particles on the coating was limited to 20% of surface coverage. Concentrations above this value resulted in cracked coatings due to excessive induced stress. Cracks did not prop agate along the interfaces when coatings were subjected to Vickers indentation tests, indicating that the particle/glass and glass/metal interfaces exhibited strong bonds. Enameling, producing excellent glass/metal adhesion with well-attached bioactive particles on the surface, is a promising method of forming reliable and lasting implants which can endure substantial chemical and mechanical stresses.

  15. Engineering study on conveyor system for HC-21C project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-02-02

    The sludge stabilization process thermally stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing materials in a muffle furnace. This process is used to prepare the material for long term storage in the vaults. The process is conducted in Room 230A and 230B. The furnaces are located in glovebox HC-21C. Glovebox HC-21A is used for preparation of the charge and packaging of the high fired oxide. The feed for the process is located throughout the PRF and RMC-line gloveboxes, with over half of the feedstock currently being located in HA-23S. For readiness assessment, the sludge stabilization process at PFP was reviewed by the ALARA team to see how the process could be improved. One suggestion was made that the conveyor system be used to transfer items from HA-23S to the process glovebox (HA-21A) instead of sealing items in and out of the gloveboxes. The following discussion describes and compares past and current methods. In addition, actions are addressed that would need to be completed before the conveyor method could be used. The transportation of the feedstock to the process and all the different influencing factors will be examined to determine the best method. This assessment is being performed considering only the current campaign for HC-21C. However, there is a possibility that in the future, additional furnaces will be installed and further campaigns done.

  16. Fabrication of nano structural biphasic materials from phosphogypsum waste and their in vitro applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Khaled R.; Mousa, Sahar M.; El Bassyouni, Gehan T.

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schema of the process, (b) TEM of nano particles of biphasic materials and (c) SEM of post-immersion. - Highlights: Ratio of HA and ?-TCP phases were controlled by thermal treatment. HA partially decomposed into ?-TCP with other bioactive phases. Calcined HA at 900 C is the best for the bioactivity behavior. - Abstract: In this study, a novel process of preparing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) is proposed. Also its bioactivity for the utilization of the prepared BCP as a biomaterial is studied. A mixture of calcium hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) could be obtained by thermal treatment of HAP which was previously prepared from phosphogypsum (PG) waste. The chemical and phase composition, morphology and particle size of prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was investigated by soaking of the calcined samples in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results confirmed that the calcination temperatures played an important role in the formation of calcium phosphate (CP) materials. XRD results indicated that HAP was partially decomposed into ?-TCP. The in vitro data confirmed that the calcined HAP forming BCP besides other phases such as pyrophosphate and silica are bioactive materials. Therefore, BCP will be used as good biomaterials for medical applications.

  17. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces betweenmore » plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration reported in broader meta-analyses of N amendment effects in mesic ecosystems. The large effect sizes at low N

  18. Soil microbial responses to nitrogen addition in arid ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinsabaugh, Robert L.; Belnap, Jayne; Rudgers, Jennifer; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Martinez, Noelle; Sandquist, Darren

    2015-08-14

    The N cycle of arid ecosystems is influenced by low soil organic matter, high soil pH, and extremes in water potential and temperature that lead to open canopies and development of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). We investigated the effects of N amendment on soil microbial dynamics in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa shrubland site in southern Nevada USA. Sites were fertilized with a NO3-NH4 mix at 0, 7, and 15 kg N ha-1 y-1 from March 2012 to March 2013. In March 2013, biocrust (0–0.5 cm) and bulk soils (0–10 cm) were collected beneath Ambrosia canopies and in the interspaces between plants. Biomass responses were assessed as bacterial and fungal SSU rRNA gene copy number and chlorophyll a concentration. Metabolic responses were measured by five ecoenzyme activities and rates of N transformation. With most measures, nutrient availability, microbial biomass, and process rates were greater in soils beneath the shrub canopy compared to the interspace between plants, and greater in the surface biocrust horizon compared to the deeper 10 cm soil profile. Most measures responded positively to experimental N addition. Effect sizes were generally greater for bulk soil than biocrust. Results were incorporated into a meta-analysis of arid ecosystem responses to N amendment that included data from 14 other studies. Effect sizes were calculated for biomass and metabolic responses. Regressions of effect sizes, calculated for biomass, and metabolic responses, showed similar trends in relation to N application rate and N load (rate × duration). The critical points separating positive from negative treatment effects were 88 kg ha-1 y-1 and 159 kg ha-1, respectively, for biomass, and 70 kg ha-1 y-1 and 114 kg ha-1, respectively, for metabolism. These critical values are comparable to those for microbial biomass, decomposition rates and respiration

  19. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  20. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  1. Human monoclonal antibodies derived from a patient infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A virus broadly cross-neutralize group 1 influenza viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Yang; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Du, Anariwa; and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: Influenza infection can elicit heterosubtypic antibodies to group 1 influenza virus. Three human monoclonal antibodies were generated from an H1N1-infected patient. The antibodies predominantly recognized ?-helical stem of viral hemagglutinin (HA). The antibodies inhibited HA structural activation during the fusion process. The antibodies are potential candidates for future antibody therapy to influenza. - Abstract: Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to human public health because of their ability to evolve rapidly through genetic drift and reassortment. Three human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) were generated in this study, 1H11, 2H5 and 5G2, and they cross-neutralize a diverse range of group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H5N1 and H9N2. The three HuMAbs were prepared by fusing peripheral blood lymphocytes from an H1N1pdm-infected patient with a newly developed fusion partner cell line, SPYMEG. All the HuMAbs had little hemagglutination inhibition activity but had strong membrane-fusion inhibition activity against influenza viruses. A protease digestion assay showed the HuMAbs targeted commonly a short ?-helix region in the stalk of the hemagglutinin. Furthermore, Ile45Phe and Glu47Gly double substitutions in the ?-helix region made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAbs. These two amino acid residues are highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1, H5N1 and H9N2 viruses. The HuMAbs reported here may be potential candidates for the development of therapeutic antibodies against group 1 influenza viruses.

  2. A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the hemagglutinin globular head of H1 and H9 influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Panthong, Sumolrat; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Phuygun, Siripaporn; Waicharoen, Sunthareeya; Prachasupap, Apichai; Yasugi, Mayo; Ono, Ken-ichiro; and others

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: A human monoclonal antibody against influenza virus was produced from a volunteer. The antibody was generated from the PBMCs of the volunteer using the fusion method. The antibody neutralized heterosubtypically group 1 influenza A viruses (H1 and H9). The antibody targeted a novel epitope in globular head region of the hemagglutinin. Sequences of the identified epitope are highly conserved among H1 and H9 subtypes. - Abstract: Most neutralizing antibodies elicited during influenza virus infection or by vaccination have a narrow spectrum because they usually target variable epitopes in the globular head region of hemagglutinin (HA). In this study, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (HuMAb), 5D7, that was prepared from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of a vaccinated volunteer using the fusion method. The HuMAb heterosubtypically neutralizes group 1 influenza A viruses, including seasonal H1N1, 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) and avian H9N2, with a strong hemagglutinin inhibition activity. Selection of an escape mutant showed that the HuMAb targets a novel conformational epitope that is located in the HA head region but is distinct from the receptor binding site. Furthermore, Phe114Ile substitution in the epitope made the HA unrecognizable by the HuMAb. Amino acid residues in the predicted epitope region are also highly conserved in the HAs of H1N1 and H9N2. The HuMAb reported here may be a potential candidate for the development of therapeutic/prophylactic antibodies against H1 and H9 influenza viruses.

  3. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  4. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  5. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  6. Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Analysis of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    2014-12-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55% (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the eight week study, cecal and distal-colon contents samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal-colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  7. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ruth Patrick - Myers Branch Set-Aside Meyers Branch is a second order stream whose watershed encompasses 12,565 acres (5,085 ha), approximately one half of the Steel Creek drainage. The boundaries of this Set-Aside were delineated and marked to include Meyers Branch and its tributaries, their associated 100-year floodplain and hydric soils, the most erodible adjacent slopes (15% or steeper slopes), and all upland hardwood and mixed species stands that are connected to the drainage. As a

  8. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Whipple/OHER Study Site This Set-Aside Area is 183.6 acres (74.3 ha) and is found within a fourth order reach segment of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC). This Set-Aside represents one of seven long-term vegetation study areas on the SRS. The site was named for its use in the Whipple-Good vegetation studies of the early 1980s, and in SREL's stream ecology studies for the DOE-HQ-Ofiice of Health, Environment, and Research (OHER). This site is representative of black gum-red bay (Nyssa

  9. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Craig's Pond and Sarracenia Bay Sarracenia Bay (upper left) and Craig's Pond The 142.9-acre (57.84 ha) Craig’s Pond and Sarracenia Bay Set-Aside contains the paired Craig’s Pond and Sarracenia Bay which are semi-permanent, open-water, aquatic/herbaceous Carolina bays. A partial 200 m buffer area comprised of natural and recently planted plantation pines, mixed pine/hardwoods, and sandhill scrub oak/pine communities surrounds these bays. Craig’s Pond is one of the largest true bays on the SRS,

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boiling Springs Natural Area The Boiling Springs Natural Area is a small stand (approximately 8.46 acres; 3.42 ha) found within the poorly drained, alluvial floodplain of Lower Three Runs Creek. The Area is comprised of a once disturbed (cut-over), upland forest component and an undisturbed, mixed bottomland component that contains a remnant old-growth element with large, mature loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), some more than 200 years old. This Set-Aside represents a small remnant of climax forest

  11. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Georgia Old Laboratory Site This 113.1-acre (45.8 ha) Set-Aside Area, adjacent to the former location of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserves and was selected to complement the old-field habitat/plant succession studies at Field 3-412 (Area #1) and Field 3-409 (Area #28). This relatively disturbed Set-Aside provided field study sites where manipulative research could be carried out on old-fields and radioecology experiments could

  12. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thunder Bay This 82.2-acre (33.3 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the semi-permanent, open-water, herbaceous Carolina bay Thunder Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area containing different species and ages of plantation pines. Within the buffer area are small inclusions of mixed pine/hardwood and bottomland hardwood communities. Thunder Bay is an isolated, intact Carolina bay which supports aquatic and herbaceous vegetation due to its extended hydroperiod. It is more semi-permanent than temporary and

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flamingo Bay The 165.8-acre (67 ha) Flamingo Bay Set-Aside Area is a relatively undisturbed, intact Carolina bay with a buffer area that is forested with different-aged pine plantations. Within the context of the SRS landscape, Flamingo Bay is one of the few true Carolina bays that infrequently experiences a complete draw down. As a Set-Aside, this Area represents an isolated, semi-permanent rather than temporary, wetland pond. It is unique both for its lack of historical ditching and for the

  14. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry Bay The 91.4-acre (37 ha) Dry Bay Set-Aside is comprised of the largely open-water Dry Bay and a partial 200-m buffer area of both relatively undisturbed and recently reforested pine plantations. Also within the buffer area are small inclusions of upland and bottomland hardwood communities. The Dry Bay Set-Aside represents a semi-permanent, herbaceous bay wetland with an extended hydroperiod. It is recognized by research ecologists at SREL as an important refuge for many aquatic and

  15. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road 6 Bay This 83.7-acre (33.9 ha) Set-Aside is comprised of the largely forested bay-like depression Road 6 Bay and a partial 200-m buffer of different-aged pine plantations. Road 6 Bay is not a true Carolina bay and therefore is difficult to define in terms of basin size and morphology. Rather than an isolated wetland depression, this possible streamhead depression has been altered with historical ditching but appears to have had a natural connection to Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 This small 14.2-acre (5.8 ha) relatively disturbed, rectangularly-shaped Set-Aside is comprised of a section of an abandoned field (agricultural field numbered 3-409 in 1951) and a strip of mixed pines bordering Road 2.The section of Field 3-409 contained within this Set-Aside has undergone plant community succession from an herbaceous old-field in 1951 to a present day pine forest habitat. The Field 3-409 Set-Aside represents an abandoned, old-field community that has undergone natural

  17. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site This relatively undisturbed 66.2 acre (26.8 ha) Set-Aside is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserves which presently is a forest dominated by turkey oak (Quercus laevis) and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris). This mixed species sandhills habitat is situated on infertile, poor-to-marginally productive soils, a habitat type that once was common to the Aiken Plateau as well as the SRS. However, forest type conversion to longleaf pine plantations has reduced this community type to isolated

  18. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Loblolly Pine Stand The 22-acre (8.9 ha) Loblolly Pine Stand Set-Aside is one of the original ten SREL habitat reserve areas which were selected to complement the old-field habitat/plant succession studies at Field 3-412 (Area #1) and Field 3-409 (Area #28). Known to researchers as Field 9-111, this Area is a small, square-shaped Set-Aside which has undergone secondary successsion for the past 46 years. Presently, the Loblolly Pine Stand Set-Aside is an undisturbed pine forest. Unlike Field

  19. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beech-Hardwood Forest As one of the original habitat reserves, this 119-acre (48.2 ha) Set-Aside was selected to represent bottomland floodplain and ravine forest habitats associated with the lower reaches of the relatively nonimpacted Upper Three Runs Creek. This Area is unique because some of the tree species found here are not common in the Coastal Plain and are more likely to be found in the Piedmont or Mountain physiographic provinces. This Area also has a small number of beech trees (Fagus

  20. NREL Engineers Look for a Cool Way to Make AC Units an Affordable Snap -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Feature | NREL Engineers Look for a Cool Way to Make AC Units an Affordable Snap June 21, 2016 Two men shown on opposite sides of a wall installing the EcoSnap-AC Heat Pump System NREL engineers Chuck Booten and Jon Winkler installing the components of the EcoSnap-AC. Photo by Dennis Schroeder Engineers Chuck Booten and Jon Winkler experienced their first "Ah-ha!" moment together about three years ago as they were testing window air conditioners for an Energy Department

  1. DOE-HDBK-1100-2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Process Hazards Analysis Superseding DOE-HDBK-1100-96 (February 1996) The purpose of this handbook is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ""Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals"" (DOE-HDBK-1101-2004).

  2. Y NATIOXAL RESFARCH CORPCRATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    P Y NATIOXAL RESFARCH CORPCRATION 70 ?deacrial Drive Cambridge 42, Uassachusetts hA, IO Dr. Chsrles D. f!arringtcn Zallinckrodt Chanicol works Second and Malli.nc:nodt Streets St. Louis 7, Missouri Sear Dr. Harri..gtcnr During your visit to Natlcnal Research Ccrpcrnticn on July 16, 1949,~ yoil requastcdthat we Submit a DrCPCSd for DrB~mh? 12 in~0t.S d x-m&alto be used in the study f cllcwing program: Iib propose the I?lrpcse of 'fiork -- TW3lV3 25-pound ingot! are to be ' f;.. prepnrcd bjr

  3. Summary - SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SRS Co DOE S Proces concen actinid in a se remov adjustm sorben sorben solutio passed separa stream extract sufficie separa (with S vitrifica (DWP Sr/acti federa assure and ha Critica The te (CTE) descrip Readin The Ele Site: S roject: S F Report Date: J ited States Why DOE omposite High Lev Savannah Rive ssing Facility (S ntrate targeted des) from High eries of unit ope ved by contactin ment) with a m nt in a batch m nt (containing S on by cross flow d to a solvent e ated to an aque m. The bulk

  4. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The ob curren plannin Dispos yield re to mod plannin to imp (4) det actual * Th th Th co no in pl * In fo op sy as di re de co an * Th en m ha ev sc The pu techni projec Site: H roject: H Report Date: S ited States valuation in Su Why DOE bjective of the r nt Process Simu ng basis for OR sition System P easonable esti del facilities cur ng or operation rove the rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial

  5. Me. John Ki

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Me. John Ki eling , Acting Chief Ha zardous Waste Bureau Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 JAN 131m New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Results of Evaluation of Sampling Line Loss, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Revised Dear Mr. Kieling : As required under Permit Part 4, Condition 4.6 .5.5 , the Permittees are hereby notifying the New Mexico Environment

  6. p

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . ::*.*,p ,._.: .,,, ,, . . *.:..' ..L....,E:; 6IM6OLa PPJJ68r : ' .:. .~".,, Cijitai &&&.";:" r' ;- Traigklt and Peolalmlog 0 CO.Eii/wt ton :8.030,000 Pmwirlng Coatr 0 O67.OO/dry ton @%- o.eeo.c?oo oroor coot ; .6,730,0ccl Plant fZapoltp - 61 dry too8 per day - 6 year llto Use produood 0 676$ roaomy - 180.000 pcauub Dw to the luau mount0 ot uruUwa in tba Dart and Lc)OR rorlduor tb St. laulo AM-7 uterlrl ha8 beomo lnoro8oinglp important in the wart0 rorldw plotwa.

  7. A=10C (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10C) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 10.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1984SA37, 1987BL18). Special states: (1986AB10). Astrophysical questions: (1987RA1D). Complex reactions involving 10C: (1983FR1A, 1983OL1A, 1986HA1B, 1987AR19, 1987BEYI, 1987RI03, 1987SN01, 1987TAZU, 1988BEYJ, 1988CA06, 1988KI05, 1988SA19). Reactions involving pions and other mesons (See also reactions 2 and 4.): (1985LI1E, 1987SI18). Other

  8. Economic consequences of land surface subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, L.C.

    1981-06-01

    Overdraft in the Santa Clara Valley, Calif., groundwater basin caused land surface subsidence over an area of 63,000 ha with a maximum depression of 3.6 m from 1912-67. Since cessation of overdraft and replenishment of groundwater levels in 1969, there has been no significant land surface subsidence. During the period of active subsidence, water well casings buckled, sewers lost capacity as a result of changes in slope, and roads and railroads had to be raised. These damages are estimated at over $130 million. (1 graph, 1 map, 6 photos, 2 references, 1 table)

  9. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that

  10. 10C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Superallowed Beta Decay 1975HA45: 10C; calculated ft for known superallowed β decays. 1988BA55: 10C(β+); measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q(β+). Superallowed beta decay. 1989BA28: 10C(β+); measured Eγ; deduced Qβ. 10B superallowed deduced transition Eγ. 1991KR19: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ, β-delayed γ deduced superallowed β-decay branching ratio. 1991NA01: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ; log ft. 1991RA09: 10C; calculated radiative corrections to

  11. 14O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Superallowed Beta Decay 1965KAZX: 14O. 1975HA45: 14O; calculated ft for superallowed β decays. 1978WI04: 14O; measured T1/2; deduced ft values. 1981WH03: 14O(β+); deduced Q. 14O deduced Qβ, radiative corrected ft. 2003TO03: 14N(p, n); deduced threshold energies. 14O deduced Q(EC) for superallowed decay. 2003TO29: 14O(EC); compiled, analyzed superallowed decays Q-values, T1/2, log ft, related data; deduced Vμd matrix element. 2004BA78: 14O(β+);

  12. CSER 00-001 Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for Cementation Operations at the PFP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-04-18

    Glovebox HA-20MB is located in Room 235B of the 234-5Z Building at the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This enclosure contains mixers, mixer bowls, a crusher unit, an isolated inoperable conveyor unit, plutonium residue feed cans, cemented cans, and a feedwater container. Plutonium residue, not conducive to other forms of stabilization, is prepared for storage and ultimate disposal by cementation. The feed residue material cans can have plutonium contents of only a few grams or up to 200 grams. This evaluation accommodates this wide range of container fissile concentrations.

  13. Superconductivity Program Overview High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SuperconducTiviTy program haS Three FocuS areaS: SuperconducTiviTy applicaTionS Developing HTS-based electric power equipment such as transmission and distribution cables and fault current limiters Second-generaTion Wire developmenT Developing high-performance, low-cost, second- generation HTS wire at long lengths STraTegic reSearch Supporting fundamental research activities to better understand relationships between the microstructure of HTS materials and their ability to carry large electric

  14. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) species for biofuel production on semi-arid lands. Final report, April 1, 1978-March 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, P; Cannell, G H; Clark, P R; Osborn, J F; Nash, P

    1985-01-01

    Arid adapted nitrogen fixing trees and shrubs of the genus Prosopis (mesquite) have been examined for woody biomass production on semi-arid lands of southwestern United States. A germ-plasm collection of 900 accessions from North and South America and Africa was assembled. Field studies screening for biomass production, frost tolerance, response to irrigation, pod production and heat/drought tolerance involved a total of 80 accessions. Selections made from survivors of coal/frost screening trial had more frost tolerance and biomass productivity than prostrate selections from the ranges of Arizona, New Mexico and west Texas. Thirteen Prosopis species were found to nodulate, reduce acetylene to ethylene, and grow on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. The salinity tolerance of six Prosopis species was examined on a nitrogen free media in greenhouse experiments. No reduction in growth occurred for any species tested at a salinity of 6000 mg NaC1/L which is considered too saline for normal agricultural crops. Individual trees have grown 5 to 7 cm in basal diameter, and 2.0 to 3.7 meters in height per year and have achieved 50 kg oven dry weight per tree in 2 years with 600 mm water application per year. Vegetative propagation techniques have been developed and clones of these highly productive trees have been made. Small pilots on 1.5 x 1.5 m spacing in the California Imperial Valley had a first and second season dry matter production of 11.7 and 16.9 T/ha for P. chilensis (0009), 7.1 and 6.9 T/ha for P. glandulosa var. torreyana (0001), 9.8 and 19.2 T/ha for P. alba (0039) and 7.9 and 14.5 T/ha for progency of a California ornamental (0163). The projected harvested costs of $25.00 per oven dry ton or $1.50 per million Btu's compare favorable with coal and other alternative fuel sources in South Texas.

  15. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-INL-12-016.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No.: DOE-ID-INL-12-016 SECTION A. Project Title: Reverse Osmosis System Removal SECTION B. Project Description: The project will remove a reverse osmosis water treatment system (FU-HA-101) from TAN 681 room 182. The system is out-of-service, with no intent of future use. Work will involve removal of the reverse osmosis system, and associated plumbing/piping and electrical lines and conduit. The project will clear the area of obstacles and tripping hazards associated with unused/unnecessary

  16. Reexamination of Lead(II) Coordination Preferences in Sulfur-Rich Sites:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Implications for a Critical Mechanism of Lead Poisoning Reexamination of Lead(II) Coordination Preferences in Sulfur-Rich Sites: Implications for a Critical Mechanism of Lead Poisoning T.-C. Weng, & J.E. Penner-Hahn, University of Michigan J.S. Magyar & H.A. Godwin, Northwestern University Lead poisoning can damage the brain and nervous system and is particularly dangerous for young children who are still developing. It is estimated that ~2.2% of all U.S. children aged 1-5 years

  17. So How Do THey DeciDe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do THey DeciDe wHaT To Do aT THe iNL? nuclear energy Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, vital part of this country's energy mix. S takeholders frequently tell us they're impressed by all the nuclear research we do at the idaho National Laboratory, but they wonder why we don't do more work on renewable energy, like wind, solar and hydro. well, the answer is, we do research in those areas, but our history and our expertise is in nuclear energy research. we don't apologize for that: nuclear

  18. A=18Ne (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    83AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 18.21 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1979DA15, 1979SA31, 1980ZH01). Electromagnetic transitions: (1977HA1Z, 1979SA31, 1982LA26). Special states: (1977HE18, 1978KR1G, 1979DA15, 1979SA31, 1980OK01, 1982ZH1D). Astrophysical questions: (1978WO1E). Complex reactions involving 18Ne: (1979HE1D). Pion-induced capture and reactions (See also reaction 6.): (1977PE12, 1977SP1B, 1978BU09,

  19. A=18Ne (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.22 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G). Special states:(1982ZH01, 1983BI1C, 1983BR29, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G, 1986AN10, 1986AN07). Electromagnetic transitions:(1982BR24, 1982RI04, 1983BR29, 1985AL21, 1986AN10). Astrophysical questions:(1982WI1B, 1987WI11). Complex reactions involving 18Ne:(1986HA1B). Pion capture and reactions (See also reaction

  20. A=19Ne (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See (1972AJ02) and Table 19.24 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1972EN03, 1972NE1B, 1972WE01, 1973DE13, 1977BU05). Electromagnetic transitions: (1972EN03, 1972LE06, 1973HA53, 1973PE09, 1977BU05). Special states: (1972EN03, 1972GA14, 1972HI17, 1972NE1B, 1972WE01, 1977BU05, 1977SC08). Complex reactions involving 19Ne: (1976HI05, 1977BU05). Astrophsyical questions: (1973CL1E). Muon capture: (1972MI11). Pion capture and

  1. A=20Mg (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (Not illustrated) 20Mg has not been observed [see, however, (1964MA44)]. The mass excess of 20Mg is calculated to be 17.509 ± 0.002 MeV (using the senority scheme) and 17.510 ± 0.002 MeV (using the supermultiplet scheme). 20Mg would then be stable with respect to breakup into 19Na + p by 2.75 MeV (1969HA38). See also (1962GO1B, 1964GA1C, 1964GO1G, 1966GO1B, 1966GO1K, 1966KE16

  2. 20F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Neutron Capture Evaluated Data Measurements 1967RA24: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ; deduced Q. 1968SP01: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 20F deduced levels, branchings. 1969HA04: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 20F deduced levels, γ-branching. 1970SP02: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 1972OP01: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q. 1974ISZX: 19F(n, γ), E = thermal; measured Eγ, Iγ. 20F

  3. 0. Y, ooopw

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Y, ooopw $letaIlurgical Haboratorp Irmqueat drosaing nor did It fill up* Althacgh it rpa roawnlmt ocarae, lt somod to give the best rentltr of any w hd trld. It mar l oar- bonmdullwbee1mrmbara6a3. Ontkyl8, aaae rhort plooer ofrod 2 um indhokr wro poundrt~ok prollaimry to oladdlzgdth atao Onyhy 25, ' 01110 S foottubm W I-. l oourotely ground et Olobeto b okd dthelllmimm. For N00.00~1 Ohtdhl& OXpUiWW ha &WI3 tbt tb tuba should not or bo out of round mom than about .002". 6 foot tube

  4. I,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ;. i I, .;-' T, f !tWs doccmct ccnciste of J&--a, ; . No. 18 of y8 copies, Se&a,. , ! :, , ! . : TO I B. L. Kirk, Dlreotor. Production Dioision DATS: Kay Zr) 1953 FROM I F' 1NAL DETERMINATION SUBJECT: SUMiATION OF WASTE FfRSIm, A rampling program for variouo waste reaiduea looated at Mm and Ha1e.t aites (GlS, L-SO, L-50, P-78, R-10 and R-lO(Pe) wan oonduoted " between Deoember 1. 1962 and January 22, 1953. The purpose of the sampling program was to: ,l. Provide the Chemioal

  5. IO6490

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1 ' f. (5 4 . . i/ IO6490 ~-~~ -Landfill, ' cleanup plan' is. expected by August peruneat OfEnergy tiy they hope mlxa~~amfari~cclcanupplan for four radioactive oitcs m the puwn of Tonawanda by early e- naidE.%rk,DOEsitcman- ~a,saidalltkrexarchandtech- fucd data cdkted at ctkc four 6ilc5 ha3 been forwarded ti his suptx.iors In WashingronJC. ' when it still awaits We' re still wal r .f$, co* liar iEP-+-* 6adMr. Wehmdaiinourd0cum8nu in February .bur unfommuely them' s a group in Wnshington we.

  6. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Chemistry Vapor-liquid equilibria for nitric acid-water and plutonium nitrate-nitric acid-water solutions Maimoni, A. (1980) 101 A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst Al-Adwani, H.A. (1992) 97 Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark} Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical

  7. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 184 A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst Al-Adwani, H.A. (1992) 97 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Barker, K.M.

  8. Most Viewed Documents - Geosciences | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information - Geosciences Temperature Profiles and Hydrologic Implications from the Nevada Test Site David Gillespie (2005) 3-D full waveform inversion of seismic data; Part I. Theory Lee, Ki Ha (2003) Drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of cuttings, core, and rock formation in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; McDaniel, J.C. (1985) CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O mixtures in the geologic sequestration of CO{sub

  9. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  10. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Appendix B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [470,000 cubic meters (m{sup 3})]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater.

  11. Streamlined RI/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picel, M.H.; Durham, L.A.; Blunt, D.L.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and 1960s. The Army also used the chemical plant area for the production of explosives in the 1940s. The Weldon Spring Site chemical plant area was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Adjacent to the chemical plant area is another NPL site known as the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. The ordnance works area is a former explosive production facility that manufactured trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) during World War II. The ordnance works area covers 7,000 ha (17,232 acres); cleanup of this site is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE).

  12. A Dynamic Simulation of the Indirect Land Use Implications of Recent Biofuel Production and Use in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Kline, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The global indirect land use change (ILUC) implications of biofuel use in the United States of America (USA) from 2001 to 2010 are evaluated with a dynamic general equilibrium model. The effects of biofuels production on agricultural land area vary by year; from a net expansion of 0.17 ha per 1000 gallons produced (2002) to a net contraction of 0.13 ha per 1000 gallons (2018) in Case 1 of our simulation. In accordance with the general narrative about the implications of biofuel policy, agricultural land area increased in many regions of the world. However, oil-export dependent economies experienced agricultural land contraction because of reductions in their revenues. Reducing crude oil imports is a major goal of biofuel policy, but the land use change implications have received little attention in the literature. Simulations evaluating the effects of doubling supply elasticities for land and fossil resources show that these parameters can significantly influence the land use change estimates. Therefore, research that provides empirically-based and spatially-detailed agricultural land-supply curves and capability to project future fossil energy prices is critical for improving estimates of the effects of biofuel policy on land use.

  13. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  14. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  15. Corrosion of high temperature alloys in solar salt at 400, 500, and 680%C2%B0C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Corrosion tests at 400, 500, and 680%C2%B0C were performed using four high temperature alloys; 347SS, 321SS In625, and HA230. Molten salt chemistry was monitored over time through analysis of nitrite, carbonate, and dissolved metals. Metallography was performed on alloys at 500 and 680%C2%B0C, due to the relatively thin oxide scale observed at 400%C2%B0C. At 500%C2%B0C, corrosion of iron based alloys took the form of chromium depletion and iron oxides, while nickel based alloys also had chromium depletion and formation of NiO. Chromium was detected in relatively low concentrations at this temperature. At 680%C2%B0C, significant surface corrosion occurred with metal losses greater than 450microns/year after 1025hours of exposure. Iron based alloys formed complex iron, sodium, and chromium oxides. Some data suggests grain boundary chromium depletion of 321SS. Nickel alloys formed NiO and metallic nickel corrosion morphologies, with HA230 displaying significant internal oxidation in the form of chromia. Nickel alloys both exhibited worse corrosion than iron based alloys likely due to preferential dissolution of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten.

  16. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In KhammamDistrict Of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Large potential for agroforestry as a mitigation option hasgiven rise to scientific and policy questions. This paper addressesmethodological issues in estimating carbon sequestration potential,baseline determination, additionality and leakage in Khammam district,Andhra Pradesh, southern part of India. Technical potential forafforestation was determined considering the various landuse options. Forestimating the technical potential, culturable wastelands, fallow andmarginal croplands were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations.Field studies for aboveground and below ground biomass, woody litter andsoil organic carbon for baseline and project scenario were conducted toestimate the carbon sequestration potential. The baseline carbon stockwas estimated to be 45.33 tC/ha. The additional carbon sequestrationpotential under the project scenario for 30 years is estimated to be12.82 tC/ha/year inclusive of harvest regimes and carbon emissions due tobiomass burning and fertilizer application. The project scenario thoughhas a higher benefit cost ratio compared to baseline scenario, initialinvestment cost is high. Investment barrier exists for adoptingagroforestry in thedistrict.

  17. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  18. Observations of summer roosting and foraging behavior of a hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) in southern New Hampshire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veillieux, J. P.; Moosman, P. R.; Reynolds, D. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Walston, L. J.; Environmental Science Division; Franklin Pierce Univ.; Fitchburg State Coll.; St. Paul's School

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available that describe the roosting and foraging ecology of the Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and no such data are available for the northeastern United States. We captured a juvenile Hoary Bat in south-central New Hampshire during July of 2007 and monitored its roosting behavior for ten days and its foraging behavior for one night. The bat roosted with two other bats, which we presumed were its mother and sibling. These bats roosted exclusively in Tsuga canadensis (Eastern Hemlock Tree) and tended to roost near tree tops in the forest canopy. The radiotagged bat used at least six roost trees and changed roost location eight times during the ten-day observation period. Although roost-tree fidelity was low, all roost trees were located within a maximum circular area of 0.5 ha. The bat foraged over an estimated 156-ha area of mostly forest habitat (68%), with additional open habitats (15%) and wetlands (17%). These data are the first observations of roosting and foraging behaviors by the Hoary Bat in the northeastern region of its geographic range.

  19. A=12C (59AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59AJ76) (See the Energy Level Diagram for 12C) GENERAL: See also Table 12.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory: See (FE55A, HE55F, CA56E, EL56, GL56A, HA56G, HA56H, KU56, MO56, NA56B, PE56A, RE56B, WI56K, BA57, BI57F, HE57B, KU57A, PA57A, RE57, SA57C, CA58C, FR58B). 1. 7Li(6Li, n)12C Qm = 20.931 See (NO57A). 2. (a) 9Be(3He, n)11C Qm = 7.565 Eb = 26.286 (b) 9Be(3He, p)11B Qm = 10.329 (c) 9Be(3He, α)8Be Qm = 18.911 (d) 9Be(3He, d)10B Qm = 1.093 The yields and angular distributions of

  20. A=14N (70AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 14N) GENERAL: See Table 14.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(HU57D, BA59F, BR59M, OT59, SK59, PA60, TA60L, WA60, BA61D, BA61N, FR61B, TR61, IN62A, TA62F, WE62E, KU63I, NA63A, SE63N, TR63, WA63M, AM64, BR64C, FE64A, LO64C, MA64HH, NE64C, ST64, UL64, CO65I, GL65, BO66J, HA66F, HA66O, HE66G, MA66W, MI66C, WI66E, CO67M, EV67A, KU67J, LI67C, PA67K, SO67A, CO68M, DE68K, EI68, GO68, HO68, KU68, NO68C, RA68C, SO68, ZH68A, UL69B, VA69).

  1. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  2. Linking ecosystem scale vegetation change to shifts in carbon and water cycling: the consequences of widespread piñon mortality in the Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvak, Marcy Ellen

    2012-10-01

    The southwestern United States experienced an extended drought from 1999-2002 which led to widespread coniferous tree mortality. Piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands, which occupy 24 million ha throughout the Southwest, were extremely vulnerable to this drought. An abrupt die-off of 40 to 95% of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% of juniper (Juniperus monosperma) across 1.5 million ha triggered rapid and extensive changes in the structure of PJ woodlands with potentially large, yet unknown, consequences for ecosystem services and feedbacks between the carbon cycle and climate system. Given the spatial extent of PJ woodlands (3rd largest biome in the US) and climatic predictions of increased frequency and intensity of drought in the region, it is crucial to understand the consequences of these disturbances on regional carbon and energy dynamics, biogeochemical processes and atmospheric CO2. The overall objective of our research was to quantify what impact widespread mortality of piñon trees has for carbon and water cycling in PJ woodlands. Our specific objectives for this proposal were: 1) Quantify the carbon, water and energy exchange trajectory after mortality in PJ woodlands; 2) Determine the mechanisms controlling the response and recovery of ecosystem production and respiration processes following large-scale piñon mortality; 3) Use the relationships we measure between ecosystem structure and function PJ woodlands recover from mortality to scale the results of our study up to the regional scale.

  3. Role of Passive Safety Systems in Severe Accidents Prevention for Advanced WWER-1000 Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukin, N.V.; Fil, N.S.; Shumsky, A.M. [EDO 'Gidropress', 21 Ordzhonikidze str., Podolsk, Moscow Region, RU-142103 (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Role of new safety systems applied in advanced WWER-1000 (passive residual heat removal system, SPOT and passive core flooding system, HA-2) in severe accident prevention is considered in the paper. The following typical beyond-design accidents (BDBAs) that essentially determine the design basis of the above passive systems are considered in the paper: - station blackout; - LB LOCA (double-ended cold leg break 850 mm diameter) with station blackout. The domestic DINAMIKA-97 and TETCH-M-97 codes developed by EDO 'Gidropress' were used for the analyses. Besides, some supporting calculations have been performed by new Russian KORSAR code and western RELAP5/MOD3.2 and ATHLET 1.2A codes. The analysis of station blackout accident without operation of new passive systems have shown the exceeding of the maximum design limit of fuel rod damage already in 2-2,5 h after initiating event. Operation of SPOT system prevents any core damage during the BDBA under consideration. The analysis have also demonstrated that operation of new passive safety systems (SPOT and HA-2) ensures the effective core cooling within required period of time. This ensures essentially decreased probability of severe core degradation. (authors)

  4. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  5. DISPLAYING THE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SN 2002cx-LIKE SUBCLASS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH OBSERVATIONS OF THE Pan-STARRS-1 DISCOVERED SN 2009ku

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, G.; Foley, R. J.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Rest, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Smartt, S.; Valenti, S.; Huber, M. E.; Scolnic, D.; Grav, T.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H. A.; Gates, G.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S. E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-04-10

    SN 2009ku, discovered by Pan-STARRS-1, is a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), and a member of the distinct SN 2002cx-like class of SNe Ia. Its light curves are similar to the prototypical SN 2002cx, but are slightly broader and have a later rise to maximum in g. SN 2009ku is brighter ({approx}0.6 mag) than other SN 2002cx-like objects, peaking at M{sub V} = -18.4 mag, which is still significantly fainter than typical SNe Ia. SN 2009ku, which had an ejecta velocity of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} at 18 days after maximum brightness, is spectroscopically most similar to SN 2008ha, which also had extremely low-velocity ejecta. However, SN 2008ha had an exceedingly low luminosity, peaking at M{sub V} = -14.2 mag, {approx}4 mag fainter than SN 2009ku. The contrast of high luminosity and low ejecta velocity for SN 2009ku is contrary to an emerging trend seen for the SN 2002cx class. SN 2009ku is a counterexample of a previously held belief that the class was more homogeneous than typical SNe Ia, indicating that the class has a diverse progenitor population and/or complicated explosion physics. As the first example of a member of this class of objects from the new generation of transient surveys, SN 2009ku is an indication of the potential for these surveys to find rare and interesting objects.

  6. Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite for targeted drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lina; He, Xiaomei; Wu, Zhenyu

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: Mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite was synthesized by a simple, efficient and environmental friendly method. The prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability. DOX-loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite exhibited surprising slow drug release behavior and pH-dependent behavior. - Abstract: In this contribution, we introduced a simple, efficient, and green method of preparing a mesoporous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite (HA) composite. The as-prepared material had a large surface area, high pore volume, and good magnetic separability, which made it suitable for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) was used to investigate the drug release behavior of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/HA composite. The drug release profiles displayed a little burst effect and pH-dependent behavior. The release rate of DOX at pH 5.8 was larger than that at pH 7.4, which could be attributed to DOX protonation in acid medium. In addition, the released DOX concentrations remained at 0.83 and 1.39 ?g/ml at pH 7.4 and 5.8, respectively, which indicated slow, steady, and safe release rates. Therefore, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/hydroxyapatite composite could be an efficient platform for targeted anticancer drug delivery.

  7. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most ofmore » which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.« less

  8. Vertical distribution of structural components in corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M. F. Johnson; Douglas L. Karlen; Garold L. Gresham; Keri B. Cantrell; David W. Archer; Brian J. Wienhold; Gary E. Varvel; David A. Laird; John Baker; Tyson E. Ochsner; Jeff M. Novak; Ardell D. Halvorson; Francisco Arriaga; David T. Lightle; Amber Hoover; Rachel Emerson; Nancy W. Barbour

    2014-11-01

    In the United States, corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been targeted for second generation fuel production and other bio-products. Our objective was to characterize sugar and structural composition as a function of vertical distribution of corn stover (leaves and stalk) that was sampled at physiological maturity and about three weeks later from multiple USA locations. A small subset of samples was assessed for thermochemical composition. Concentrations of lignin, glucan, and xylan were about 10% greater at grain harvest than at physiological maturity, but harvestable biomass was about 25% less due to stalk breakage. Gross heating density above the ear averaged 16.3 0.40 MJ kg?, but with an alkalinity measure of 0.83 g MJ?, slagging is likely to occur during gasification. Assuming a stover harvest height of 10 cm, the estimated ethanol yield would be >2500 L ha?, but it would be only 1000 L ha? if stover harvest was restricted to the material from above the primary ear. Vertical composition of corn stover is relatively uniform; thus, decision on cutting height may be driven by agronomic, economic and environmental considerations.

  9. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  10. Evaluation and recommendations for the Department of Energy-Farmers Home Administration small-town energy-planning grant program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, T.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    DOE funded several small-town energy planning projects, through the Farmer's Home Administration (FmHA) Area Development Assistance Planning Grant Program. DOE intended that this program should: (1) encourage community energy planning and the development of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) and (2) provide a testing ground for the technologies and planning methods developed by its Buildings and Community Systems Division. FmHA intended that the joint program should further the development of rural areas and make DOE expertise available to grant recipients doing energy planning. All grantees under this joint program endeavored to define their local energy problems and to find local solutions. However, the resulting energy cost savings were not always impressive, and generally they were not very well documented. Lack of implementation power, lack of focus, and inability to generate local financial support for projects and further planning were the main reasons for this performance. The lack of sufficient documentation could be the result of DOE's failure to require a standardized and systematic accounting of grantees' accomplishments. The recommended changes in the scope-of-work requirements suggested in this report would cause grantees to focus their energy-planning activities so as to increase local financial support. The appendixes give a standardized format by which grantees would account for the energy savings and production made possible by their planning efforts.

  11. An estimate of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat and redd capacity upstream of a migration barrier in the upper Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Geist, David R.

    2004-02-01

    Chief Joseph Dam on the Columbia River is the upstream terminus for anadromous fish, due to its lack of fish passage facilities. Management agencies are currently evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing anadromous fish upriver of Chief Joseph Dam. We evaluated the physical characteristics of potential fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat in the upper section of Chief Joseph Reservoir. The objective of this study was to estimate the quantity and location of potential spawning habitat, and secondly to determine the redd capacity of the area based on spawning habitat characteristics. We used a geomorphic approach to first identify specific segments with the highest potential for spawning. The suitability of these segments for spawning was then estimated through the use of empirical physical data and modeled hydraulic data. We estimated 5% (48.7 ha) of the study area contains potentially suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat. Potential spawning habitat is primarily limited by water too deep and secondly by water velocities too low, the combination of which results in 20% (9.6 ha) of the potential spawning habitat being characterized as high quality. Estimates of redd capacity within potential spawning habitat range from 207? 1599 redds, based on proportional use of potential habitat and varying amounts of channelbed used by spawning salmon. The results of our study provide fisheries managers significant insight into one component of the complex issue of reintroducing anadromous fish to the Columbia River upstream of Chief Joseph Dam.

  12. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  13. An Optimized Autoregressive Forecast Error Generator for Wind and Load Uncertainty Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Mello, Phillip; Lu, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents a first-order autoregressive algorithm to generate real-time (RT), hour-ahead (HA), and day-ahead (DA) wind and load forecast errors. The methodology aims at producing random wind and load forecast time series reflecting the autocorrelation and cross-correlation of historical forecast data sets. Five statistical characteristics are considered: the means, standard deviations, autocorrelations, and cross-correlations. A stochastic optimization routine is developed to minimize the differences between the statistical characteristics of the generated time series and the targeted ones. An optimal set of parameters are obtained and used to produce the RT, HA, and DA forecasts in due order of succession. This method, although implemented as the first-order regressive random forecast error generator, can be extended to higher-order. Results show that the methodology produces random series with desired statistics derived from real data sets provided by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The wind and load forecast error generator is currently used in wind integration studies to generate wind and load inputs for stochastic planning processes. Our future studies will focus on reflecting the diurnal and seasonal differences of the wind and load statistics and implementing them in the random forecast generator.

  14. Airborne measured analytic signal for UXO detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamey, T.J.; Holladay, J.S. [Aerodat Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Mahler, R. [Industrieanlagen Betriebsgesellschaft, Deutschland (Australia)

    1997-10-01

    The Altmark Tank Training Range north of Haldensleben, Germany has been in operation since WWI. Weapons training and testing has included cavalry, cannon, small arms, rail guns, and tank battalions. Current plans are to convert the area to a fully digital combat training facility. Instead of using blank or dummy ordnance, hits will be registered with lasers and computers. Before this can happen, the 25,000 ha must be cleared of old debris. In support of this cleanup operation, Aerodat Inc., in conjunction with IABG of Germany, demonstrated a new high resolution magnetic survey technique involving the measurement of 3-component magnetic gradient data. The survey was conducted in May 1996, and covered 500 ha in two blocks. The nominal line spacing was 10 m, and the average sensor altitude was 7 m. The geologic column consisted of sands over a sedimentary basin. Topographic relief was generally flat with approximately 3 m rolling dunes and occasional man-made features such as fox holes, bunkers, tank traps and reviewing stands. Trees were sparse and short (2-3 metres) due to frequent burn off and tank activity. As such, this site was nearly ideal for low altitude airborne surveying.

  15. Large-scale production, harvest and logistics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) - current technology and envisioning a mature technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow, Jr., Anthony; Mani, Sudhagar; Kumar, Amit; Bransby, David; Lynd, L.; Laser, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising cellulosic biomass feedstock for biorefineries and biofuel production. This paper reviews current and future potential technologies for production, harvest, storage, and transportation of switchgrass. Our analysis indicates that for a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the current cost of producing switchgrass (after establishment) is about $41.50 Mg 1. The costs may be reduced to about half this if the yield is increased to 30 Mg ha 1 through genetic improvement, intensive crop management, and/or optimized inputs. At a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, we estimate that harvesting costs range from $23.72 Mg 1 for current baling technology to less than $16 Mg 1 when using a loafing collection system. At yields of 20 and 30 Mg ha 1 with an improved loafing system, harvesting costs are even lower at $12.75 Mg 1 and $9.59 Mg 1, respectively. Transport costs vary depending upon yield and fraction of land under switchgrass, bulk density of biomass, and total annual demand of a biorefinery. For a 2000 Mg d 1 plant and an annual yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the transport cost is an estimated $15.42 Mg 1, assuming 25% of the land is under switchgrass production. Total delivered cost of switchgrass using current baling technology is $80.64 Mg 1, requiring an energy input of 8.5% of the feedstock higher heating value (HHV). With mature technology, for example, a large, loaf collection system, the total delivered cost is reduced to about $71.16 Mg 1 with 7.8% of the feedstock HHV required as input. Further cost reduction can be achieved by combining mature technology with increased crop productivity. Delivered cost and energy input do not vary significantly as biorefinery capacity increases from 2000 Mg d 1 to 5000 Mg d 1 because the cost of increased distance to access a larger volume feedstock offsets the gains in increased biorefinery capacity. This paper outlines possible scenarios for the expansion of switchgrass handling to 30 Tg (million Mg) in 2015 and

  16. Strain-dependent Damage in Mouse Lung After Carbon Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritake, Takashi; Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba ; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Nakawatari, Miyako; Imadome, Kaori; Nakamura, Etsuko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether inherent factors produce differences in lung morbidity in response to carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation, and to identify the molecules that have a key role in strain-dependent adverse effects in the lung. Methods and Materials: Three strains of female mice (C3H/He Slc, C57BL/6J Jms Slc, and A/J Jms Slc) were locally irradiated in the thorax with either C-ion beams (290 MeV/n, in 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) or with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays as a reference beam. We performed survival assays and histologic examination of the lung with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining for hyaluronic acid (HA), CD44, and Mac3 and assayed for gene expression. Results: The survival data in mice showed a between-strain variance after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. The median survival time of C3H/He was significantly shortened after C-ion irradiation at the higher dose of 12.5 Gy. Histologic examination revealed early-phase hemorrhagic pneumonitis in C3H/He and late-phase focal fibrotic lesions in C57BL/6J after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Pleural effusion was apparent in C57BL/6J and A/J mice, 168 days after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Microarray analysis of irradiated lung tissue in the three mouse strains identified differential expression changes in growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), which regulates macrophage function, and hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1), which plays a role in HA metabolism. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of CD44-positive cells, a surrogate marker for HA accumulation, and Mac3-positive cells, a marker for macrophage infiltration in irradiated lung, varied significantly among the three mouse strains during the early phase. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strain-dependent differential response in mice to C-ion thoracic irradiation. Our findings identified candidate molecules that could be implicated in the between-strain variance to early

  17. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  18. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the

  19. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  20. Instrumentation of dredge spoil for landfill construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byle, M.J.; McCullough, M.L.; Alexander, R.; Vasuki, N.C.; Langer, J.A.

    1999-07-01

    The Delaware Solid Waste Authority's Northern Solid Waste Management Center is located outside of Wilmington Delaware at Cherry Island, a former dredge disposal site. Dredge spoils, of very low permeability, range in depths up to 30 m (100 feet) which form a natural liner and the foundation for the 140 ha (350-acre) municipal solid waste landfill. The soils beneath the landfill have been extensively instrumented to measure pore pressure, settlement and deflections, using inclinometer casings, standpipe piezometers, vibrating wire piezometers, pneumatic piezometers, settlement plates, liquid settlement gages, total pressure cells and thermistors. The nature of the existing waste and anticipated settlements (up to 6 m (19 feet)) have required some unique installation details. The instrumentation data has been integral in planning the landfilling sequence to maintain perimeter slope stability and has provided key geotechnical parameters needed for operation and construction of the landfill. The performance of the instrumentation and monitoring results are discussed.

  1. M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Por$ng t he M IMD L a0ce C omputa$on (MILC) C ode t o t he I ntel X eon P hi Knights L anding P rocessor Ruizi L i 1 , D hiraj K alamkar 2 , A shish J ha 2 , S teven G oJlieb 1 , C arleton DeTar 3 , D oug T oussaint 4 , B alint J oo 5 , a nd D ouglas D oerfler 6 1 Indiana U niversity, 2 Intel C orp., 3 University O f U tah, 4 University o f A rizona, 5 Thomas J efferson N a$onal A ccelerator F acility, 6 Lawrence B erkeley N a$onal L aboratory Introduc$on * The M ILC c ode w as c hosen b y N

  2. Factors influencing specific fuel use in Nebraska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, D.P.; Von Bargen, K.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel use data relating to agricultural field operations were collected and analyzed during the Nebraska fuel use survey. The farms surveyed had a mean size of 598 ha and a mean total tractor power rating of 221 kW. Mean operating depth, field speed, and tractor power rating were determined for the major field operations. Mean field speeds were generally in agreement with commonly accepted values. Total annual fuel energy use increased with increasing farm size. Over 87 percent of this energy was used from April through October. Even though total fuel energy was increased, specific fuel energy use decreased with increasing farm size. Specific fuel use for field operations was influenced by the size of area worked, operation depth, field speed, and tractor power rating.

  3. T-663: Cisco Content Services Gateway ICMP Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Deny Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cisco Content Services Gateway: Second Generation provides intelligent network capabilities such as flexible policy management and billing based on deep-packet inspection, as well as subscriber and application awareness capabilities that enable mobile operators to quickly and easily offer value-added, differentiated services over their mobile data networks. A DoS vulnerability exists in the Cisco Content Services Gateway: Second Generation could allow an unauthenticated attacker to cause a device reload by sending crafted ICMP messages to the affected device. Note: The Cisco Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN), the Cisco Mobile Wireless Home Agent (HA), the Cisco Wireless Security Gateway (WSG), the Cisco Broadband Wireless Gateway and Cisco IP Transfer Point (ITP), and the Cisco Long Term Evolution (LTE) Gateway are not affected. This vulnerability is documented in Cisco bug ID CSCtl79577 ( registered customers only) and has been assigned CVE ID CVE-2011-2064.

  4. Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

    2003-10-06

    A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

  5. AmeriFlux US-Bn2 Bonanza Creek, 1987 Burn site near Delta Junction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Randerson, James [University of California, Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bn2 Bonanza Creek, 1987 Burn site near Delta Junction. Site Description - The Delta Junction 1987 Burn site is located near Delta Junction, just to the north of the Alaska Range in interior Alaska. All three Delta Junction sites are within a 15-km radius of one another. Composed of a combination of alluvial outwashes, floodplains, and low terraces dissected by glacial streams originating in the nearby Alaska Range. The Granite Creek fire burned ~20,000 ha of black spruce (Picea mariana) during 1987. Approximately half of the dead boles remained upright in 2004, while the other half had fallen over or had become entangled with other boles.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Bn3 Bonanza Creek, 1999 Burn site near Delta Junction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Randerson, James [University of California, Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bn3 Bonanza Creek, 1999 Burn site near Delta Junction. Site Description - The Delta Junction 1999 Burn site is located near Delta Junction, just to the north of the Alaska Range in interior Alaska. All three Delta Junction sites are within a 15-km radius of one another. Composed of a combination of alluvial outwashes, floodplains, and low terraces dissected by glacial streams originating in the nearby Alaska Range. The Donnelly Flats fire burned ~7,600 ha of black spruce (Picea mariana) during June 1999. The boles of the black spruce remained standing 3 years after the fire. 70% of the surface was not covered by vascular plants.

  7. Removal Action Plan for the Accelerated Retrieval Project for a Described Area within Pit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Tyson

    2006-08-01

    This Removal Action Plan documents the plan for implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compenstion, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action to be performed by the Accelerated Retrieval Project. The focus of the action is the limited excavation and retrieval of selected waste streams from a designated portion of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Subsurface Disposal Area that are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, isotopes of uranium, or transuranic radionuclides. The selected retrieval area is approximately 0.2 ha (1/2 acre) and is located in the eastern portion of Pit 4. The proposed project is referred to as the Accelerated Retrieval Project. This Removal Action Plan details the major work elements, operations approach, and schedule, and summarizes the environmental, safety and health, and waste management considerations associated with the project.

  8. Technique development for uiper critical field studies of SmFeAs(O,F) in the 300T single turn system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdonald, Ross D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakirev, F. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Altarawneh, M. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Betts, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moll, Philip Jw [ETH ZURICH; Zhigadlo, N D [ETH ZURICH; Karpinski, J [ETH ZURICH; Batlogg, B. [ETH ZURICH

    2011-01-14

    In high temperature superconductors, such as the most recent class of iron pnictides, extremely high upper critical fields H{sub c2} are common. The determination of H{sub c2}(T) is crucial to understand the detailed nature of the superconductor, in particular H{sub c2}(T = 0K) is of great interest. It is not only related to fundamental properties of the system, it is furthermore of great importance for materials science, as it is the ultimate limit of applicability of this superconductor in high field applications. However, this important quantity can only be estimated by extrapolation, as H{sub c2}(T = 0K) well exceeds hundreds of Tesla in optimally doped SillFeAs(O,F). We are developing methods to measure Ha(T) in direct transport in the extreme magnetic fields generated by the LANL single turn magnet.

  9. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba; Canadian Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  10. A=10B (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 10B) GENERAL: See also (1974AJ01) and Table 10.5 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell and deformed models: (1973BO1C, 1974BO29, 1974BO54, 1974BO1P, 1975DI04, 1977JA14). Cluster and α-particle models: (1976GA34, 1977NA20, 1977OK1C). Special levels: (1974BO29, 1974BO1P, 1974IR04, 1974NI1A, 1975DI04, 1976GA34, 1976IR1B, 1977BI1D, 1977JA14, 1977NA20). Electromagnetic transitions: (1974BO29, 1974BO54, 1974BO1P, 1974HA1C, 1974MU13, 1977BO1V, 1977DO06,

  11. A=11C (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11C) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 11.16 [Table of Energy Levels] (PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1988WO04) Special states: (1985SH24, 1986AN07, 1988KW02) Astrophysical Questions: (1987RA1D) Complex reactions involving 11C:(1981AS04, 1985AR09, 1985HI1C, 1985MO08, 1986AV1B, 1986AV07, 1986BA3G, 1986HA1B, 1986HI1D, 1986UT01, 1987AR19, 1987BA38, 1987DE37, 1987NA01, 1987RI03, 1987SN01, 1987ST01, 1987YA16, 1988CA06, 1988KI05, 1988KI06, 1988SA19,

  12. A=11Li (1985AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 11Li) GENERAL: The mass excess of 11Li is 40.94 ± 0.08 MeV (1975TH08). [(A.H. Wapstra, private communication) suggests 40.91 ± 0.11 MeV.] Using the value reported by (1975TH08) 11Li is bound with respect to 9Li + 2n by 156 ± 80 keV and with respect to 10Li + n by 966 ± 260 keV [see (1984AJ01) for the masses of 9Li and 10Li]. Systematics suggest Jπ = 1/2- for 11Lig.s.. See also (1979AZ03, 1980AZ01, 1980BO31, 1981BO1X, 1982BO1Y, 1982OG02), (1981HA2C),

  13. A=12B (68AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    68AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12B) GENERAL: See Table 12.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See (KU56, FL59A, TA60L, RE63, RU63A, MA64B, NA64D, ST64, UB65B, MA66S, HA67G, KE67D, KE67F, MO67N, HI68B). μ = +1.003 ± 0.001 nm (SU67B). 1. 12B(β-)12C Qm = 13.370 Measured values of the half-life are displayed in Table 12.2 (in PDF or PS). The decay is complex; 12B decays to the ground state of 12C and to several excited states: see 12C. The transition to 12Cg.s. and (4.4) are

  14. A=12Be (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12Be) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 12.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. General theoretical papers: (1984FR13, 1985AN28, 1985BA51, 1985WI1B, 1986WI04, 1987BL18, 1987GI1C, 1987SA15, 1987YA16, 1988RU01, SU88C, 1989BE03). Hypernuclei: (1984IW1B, 1984YA04, 1985BE31, 1985GA1C, 1985IK1A, 1985WA1N, 1985YA01, 1985YA07, 1986BA1W, 1986BI1G, 1986DO1B, 1986GA14, 1986GA33, 1986GA1H, 1986HA26, 1986MA1J, 1986ME1F, 1986MI1N, 1986PO1H, 1986YA1T,

  15. A=12C (1975AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    75AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also (1968AJ02) and Table 12.8 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1967SV1A, 1968BA1L, 1968DR1B, 1968FA1B, 1968FU1B, 1968GO01, 1968GU1C, 1968HA11, 1968RO1G, 1969GU1E, 1969GU03, 1969IK1A, 1969LA26, 1969MO1F, 1969SA1A, 1969SV1A, 1969WA06, 1969WO05, 1970AR21, 1970BE26, 1970BO33, 1970BO1J, 1970CO1H, 1970DE1F, 1970DO1A, 1970EI06, 1970GI11, 1970GU11, 1970KH01, 1970KO04, 1970KR1D, 1970LO1C, 1970RE1G, 1970RU1A, 1970RY1A,

  16. A=13B (1991AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    91AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13B) GENERAL: See also (1986AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 13.1 preview 13.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1988WO04, 1989PO1K, 1989WO1E). Complex reactions involving 13B: (1985BO1A, 1986AV1B, 1986BI1A, 1986UT01, 1987AN1A, 1987BA38, 1987SA25, 1987VI02, 1988CA06, 1988RU01, 1988SA19, 1989KI13, 1989SA10, 1989YO02, 1990HA46). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions: (1985KO39). Pion capture and reactions (See also reactions 5

  17. A=13C (1970AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13C) GENERAL: See Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1959BR1E, 1960PH1A, 1960TA1C, 1960ZE1B, 1961BA1G, 1961BA1E, 1961KU17, 1961KU1C, 1961NE1B, 1962EA01, 1963BO1G, 1963MA1E, 1963PE04, 1963SE19, 1963TR02, 1964AM1D, 1964NA1D, 1964ST1B, 1965CO25, 1965MA1T, 1965ME1C, 1965NE1C, 1965WE1D, 1966EL08, 1966GU08, 1966HA18, 1966MA1P, 1966NO1B, 1966RI12, 1966WI1E, 1967BA12, 1967CO32, 1967FA1A, 1967HU1C, 1967KU1E, 1967PO1J, 1967RI1B,

  18. A=13N (1970AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13N) GENERAL: See Table 13.21 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1955LA1A, 1957HU1C, 1959BA1D, 1960PH1A, 1960TA1C, 1961KU17, 1961KU1C, 1961NE1B, 1962IN02, 1962TA1E, 1963BA43, 1963BO1G, 1963SE19, 1963TR02, 1964AM1D, 1964BO1K, 1964ST1B, 1965BO1N, 1965MA1T, 1965ME1C, 1965WE1D, 1966EL08, 1966HA18, 1966NO1B, 1967BR1Q, 1967FA1A, 1967HU1C, 1967KU1E, 1967NE1D, 1967PO1J, 1967WA1C, 1968FI1F, 1968GO01, 1968HO1H, 1969VA1C, 1969ZU1B). Other:

  19. A=14N (1976AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    76AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 14N) GENERAL: See also (1970AJ04) and Table 14.11 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1970CO1H, 1970FR13, 1970HS02, 1970UL01, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1972LI06, 1973IG02, 1973KU03, 1973SA30, 1974KI1B, 1975DI04, 1975MI12, 1975VE01). Collective and deformed models: (1972LA12). Cluster model: (1969BA1J, 1969KU1B, 1970KO26, 1971NO02, 1972LE1L, 1973KU03, 1975CH1V). Special levels: (1969HA1F, 1971HS05, 1971JA13, 1971MC15, 1971NO02, 1972LA12,

  20. A=16F (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16F) GENERAL: See also (1977AJ02) and Table 16.25 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See (1977LA04, 1977SI1D, 1978WO1E, 1980HA35, 1981OS04). 1. (a) 14N(3He, n)16F Qm = -0.969 (b) 14N(3He, np)15O Qm = -0.421 Observed neutron groups and L-values derived from angular distribution measurements are displayed in Table 16.26 (in PDF or PS) (1973BO50). For the results from reaction (b) see Table 16.26 (in PDF or PS) (1976OT02). See also (1977AJ02). 2.

  1. A=16N (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 16N) GENERAL: See also (1982AJ01) and Table 16.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1984BA24, 1984KA1H, 1984VA06). Complex reactions involving 16N: (1981ME13, 1981OL1C, 1983EN04, 1983FR1A, 1983MA06, 1983OL1A, 1983PL1A, 1983SA06, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HI1A, 1984HO23, 1984KA1H, 1985BE40, 1985PO11, 1986HA1P). Reactions involving muons nad neutrinos (See also reaction 14.): (1981GM02, 1981TO16, 1983EG03, 1983JA10, 1984JA06,

  2. A=16O (1959AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59AJ76) (See the Energy Level Diagram for 16O) GENERAL: See also Table 16.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory: See (DE54C, FL54A, HE55F, JA55A, MA55F, MA55O, SC55A, WI55F, EL56, FE56B, JA56C, KA56A, MO56, PE56A, RE56B, WI56C, EL57B, FE57D, GR57C, HE57B, RE57, TA57A, TO57A, CA58C, DA58A, DA58D, FE58A, FE58B, HA58B, MO58, RA58F, UM58, WI58G). 1. 12C(α, γ)16O Qm = 7.148 Resonant capture radiation to 16Og.s. is observed at Eα ~ 3.24 MeV, corresponding to the known J = 1- state at

  3. A=17Ne (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See (1982AJ01) and Table 17.20 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory and reviews: (1983ANZQ, 1983AU1B, 1985AN28). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.93 (b) 17Ne(β+)17F Qm = 14.53 The half-life of 17Ne is 109.0 ± 1.0 msec (1971HA05). Earlier values (see (1971AJ02)) gave a mean value of 108.0 ± 2.7 msec. The decay is primarily to the proton unstable states of 17F at 4.70, 5.52 and 6.04 MeV with Jπ = 3/2-, 3/2- and 1/2-: see

  4. A=17Ne (1993TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    93TI07) (See the Isobar Diagram for 17Ne) GENERAL: See Table Prev. Table 17.26 preview 17.26 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). 1. (a) 17Ne(β+)17F* → 16O + p Qm = 13.928 (b) 17Ne(β+)17F → 13N + α Qm = 8.711 (c) 17Ne(β+)17F Qm = 14.529 The half-life of 17Ne has been reported as 109.0 ± 1.0 msec (1971HA05) and 109.3 ± 0.6 msec (1988BO39): the weighted mean is 109.2 ± 0.6 and we adopt it. The decay is primarily to the proton unstable states of 17F at 4.65, 5.49, 6.04 and 8.08 MeV

  5. A=17O (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 17O) GENERAL: See also (1982AJ01) and Table 17.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978WI1B, 1982BA53, 1982KU1B, 1982WA1Q, 1982YA1D, 1982ZH01, 1984ZI04). Collective and cluster models: (1983JA09, 1983ME18, 1984ZI04, 1985ME06). Special states: (1978WI1B, 1981WI1K, 1982BA53, 1982HA43, 1982ZA1D, 1983AU1B, 1983LI10, 1983ME18, 1983SH15, 1984ANZV, 1984ST1E, 1984WI17, 1985AR1H, 1985ME06, 1985SH24). Electromagnetic transitions and giant

  6. AmeriFlux US-UMd UMBS Disturbance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Peter; Gough, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-UMd UMBS Disturbance. Site Description - The UMBS Disturbance site is an artificial disturbance site that has recently been created as part of the Forest Accelerate Succession ExperimenT (FASET). In Spring 2008, every aspen and birch tree (>6,700, ~35% canopy LAI), the dominant early successional trees, were girdled over 39 ha of the FASET treatment plot to stimulate a disturbance that will move the forest into a later successional stage, dominated by maples, oaks, and white pine. This treatment caused aspen and birch mortality within 2 - 3 years. As a result of the changed canopy structure, there is a divergence in net ecosystem exchange between the control plot (enhanced carbon uptake) and the treatment plot (reduced carbon uptake).

  7. Abundance and distribution of lichens found in the reclaimed areas of the nickel and copper mining region of Sudbury, Ontario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wainio, S.; Beckett, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    The Sudbury Land Reclamation Program has been operating since 1978 and has treated about 25% of the heavily stressed land near the base mining and smelting complexes. Over 3 million trees have been planted into 4000 ha of land treated with limestone, fertilizer and a grass-legume mixture. In the subsequent years over 25 species of lichen has invaded the ground in the developing open woodland ecosystem. The most numerous lichens are members of the Cladonia (Pixie Cup) group but Reindeer lichens (Cladina spp) also occur. The pattern of invasion has similarities to that observed in other disturbed ecosystems (cutting or burning in forests, or abandoned farmland). Lichens on reclaimed land show above normal amounts of nickel and copper but contain lesser amounts than lichens growing in adjacent unreclaimed areas.

  8. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W.; Link, S.O.

    1997-12-01

    An above-grade surface barrier consisting of a vegetated soil-cover, surrounded by gravel and rock side slopes, is being tested for the US Department of Energy (DOE). It is part of a treatability study at the 200-BP-1 Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The surface barrier, constructed in 1994, covers 2.5 ha (6.9 acre) of land surface and is situated over an inactive liquid-waste disposal crib. A set of under drains, built into the barrier using curbed asphalt, allows precise measurement of drainage from the soil cover and the side slopes. The treatability test includes measurements of water balance, wind and water erosion, subsidence, plant growth, and plant and animal intrusion. The test compares the performance of the barrier under ambient and simulated climate change (elevated precipitation) conditions. This report documents findings from the third year of testing.

  9. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  10. Sacha oil field of Ecuadorian Oriente

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canfield, R.W.; Bonilla, G.; Robbins, R.K.

    1982-08-01

    The Sacha oil field in the Ecuadorian Oriente was discovered in early 1969. Production began in July 1972, and at the end of 1980 had exceeded 190 million bbl. Drilling through 1980 had resulted in 91 oil wells and 2 dry holes. Estimated original primary recoverable reserves surpass 632 million bbl. The field is on a very low-relief anticline about 17.5 mi (28 km) long and averaging 4 mi (6.5 km) wide. Vertical closure amounts to 200 ft (60 m) and there are 41,000 acres (16,600 ha.) of areal closure on top of the principal reservoir. The Cretaceous sandstones, at drilled depths between 9,300 and 10,100 ft (2,835 and 3,080 m) provide excellent reservoirs. The Hollin Formation, the basal Cretaceous sandstone, is the principal reservoir, having produced 80% of the oil through 1980 and containing about 68% of the original reserves.

  11. Ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odum, W.E.; McIvor, C.C.; Smith, T.J. III

    1982-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the community structure and ecosystem processes of the mangrove forests of south Florida. This description is based upon a compilation of data and hypotheses from published and unpublished sources. Information covered ranges from details of mangrove distribution, primary production, and diseases to asepcts of reproduction, biomass partitioning, and adaptations to stress. Mangrove ecosystems are considered in terms of zonation, succession, litter fall and decomposition, carbon export, and energy flow. Most of the components of mangrove communities are cataloged and discussed; these include mircoorganisms, plants other than mangroves, invertebrates, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. Finally, two sections summarize the value of mangrove ecosystems to man and present ways to manage this type of habitat. It is concluded that mangrove forests, which cover between 430,000 and 500,000 acres (174,000 to 202,000 ha) in Florida, are a resource of great value and should be protected and preserved wherever possible.

  12. Forest stand development patterns in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenheaver, C.A.; Matthews, J.M.; Showalter, J.M.; Auch, W.E.

    2006-07-01

    Composition of southern Appalachian forests are influenced by disturbance and topography. This study examined six stands in southwestern Virginia. Within each stand, a 0.3-ha plot was established, and all trees and saplings were measured and aged. Burned stands had lower densities of saplings and small trees, but appeared to have greater Quercus regeneration. Ice damage from the 1994 ice storm was most evident in Pinus strobus saplings. A stand on old coal-mine slag appeared to be experiencing a slower rate of succession than other sites. A variety of stand development patterns were observed, but one common pattern was that oak-hickory overstories had different species in their understory, which may indicate future changes in species composition.

  13. Pathway analysis for a contaminated landfill in Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Merry-Libby, P.; Yang, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy began excavating contaminated materials from the Middlesex Municipal landfill in 1984. A total of 16,000 mT of landfill materials covering a 0.2-ha area was excavated, of which 11,000 mT was contaminated and has been transported to the nearby sampling plant site for interim storage. Based on the pathway analysis for the onsite and near-site resident scenarios, the radiation dose rates and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater would be below the regulatory requirements for both the short-term and long-term scenarios. Hence, the potential health risks to maximally exposed individuals due to radioactive releases from the Middlesex landfill would be insignificant.

  14. 14C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    β--Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1946RE10: 14C; measured T1/2. 1948NO02: 14C; measured T1/2. 1948YA02: 14C; measured T1/2. 1949HA52: 14C; measured T1/2. 1949JO07: 14C; measured T1/2. 1950EN59: 14C; measured T1/2. 1950MI10: 14C; measured T1/2. 1951LI26: 14C. 1951MA30: 14C; measured T1/2. 1954CA41: 14C. 1957LI51: 14C. 1961WA16: 14C; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1962OL04: 14C; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1964HU09: 14C; measured not abstracted;

  15. 16N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    β--Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1959EL41: 16N; measured T1/2. 1962MA38: 16N; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1964BI02: 16N; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1965GR21: 16N; measured T1/2. 1966SC05: 16N; measured T1/2. 1969HA42: 16N; measured Eα, Iα; deduced Iβ, log ft. 16O levels deduced α-width. 1970AL21: 16N; measured T1/2. 1970JO25: 16N; measured β-delayed α-spectrum. 16O level deduced no parity-forbidden α-decay. 1974NE10: 16N; measured

  16. Design of dry barriers for containment of contaminants in unsaturated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, C.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    A dry barrier is a region of very dry conditions in unsaturated soil that prevents vertical migration of water created by circulating dry air through the formation. Dry soil creates a barrier to vertical water movement by decreasing the soil`s hydraulic conductivity, a concept also used in capillary barriers. A dry barrier may be a viable method for providing containment of a contaminant plume in a setting with a thick unsaturated zone and dry climate. The principal factors which determine the feasibility of a dry barrier include: (1) an and environment, (2) thick vadose zone, and (3) the ability to circulate air through the vadose zone. This study investigated the technical and economic considerations associated with creating a dry barrier to provide containment of a hypothetical 1 ha aqueous contaminant plume. The concept appears to be competitive with other interim containment methods such as ground freezing.

  17. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  18. Engineering scale mixing system tests for MWTF title II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.C.

    1994-10-10

    Mixing tests for the Multifunction Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) were conducted in 1/25 and 1/10 scale test tanks with different slurry levels, solids concentrations, different jet mixers and with simulated in-tank structures. The same test procedure was used as in the Title I program, documented in WHC-SD-W236A-ER-005. The test results support the scaling correlation derived previously in the Title I program. The tests also concluded that a partially filled tank requires less mixing power, and horizontal and angled jets in combination (H/A mixer) are significantly more effective than the two horizontal jet mixers (H/H mixer) when used for mixing slurry with a high solids concentrations.

  19. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  20. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, suchmore » as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed« less

  1. Temporal variability of the trade wind inversion: Measured with a boundary layer vertical profiler. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grindinger, C.M.

    1992-05-01

    This study uses Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) data, from the summer of 1991, to show a boundary layer wind profiler can be used to measure the trade wind inversion. An algorithm has been developed for the profiler that objectively measures the depth of the moist oceanic boundary layer. The Hilo inversion, measured by radiosonde, is highly correlated with the moist oceanic boundary layer measured by the profiler at Paradise Park. The inversion height on windward Hawaii is typically 2253 + or - 514 m. The inversion height varies not only on a daily basis, but on less than an hourly basis. It has a diurnal, as well as a three to four day cycle. There appears to be no consistent relationship between inversion height and precipitation. Currently, this profiler is capable of making high frequency (12 minute) measurements of the inversion base variation, as well as other features.

  2. AmeriFlux US-Snd Sherman Island

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Snd Sherman Island. Site Description - The Sherman Island site is a 38-ha peatland pasture, west of the Delta, that is owned by the state and managed by the California Department of Water Resources. The site is degraded and heavily grazed with ~100 cattle in the area that circumscribes the main field and fetch. The island has been drained and farmed since the late 1800s. The soils of the Delta overlay deep peat that was sequestered over the Holocene period as sea-level rose and flooding of archaic wetlands prevented decomposition of roots and stems. Hence, the upper 10 m of peatland has been lost to decomposition, compaction, and subsidence. Today a mineral soil overlays a peat layer, which coincides with the general depth of the water table.

  3. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Me6 Metolius Young Pine Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me6 Metolius Young Pine Burn. Site Description - The study site is located east of the Cascade mountains, near Sisters, Central Oregon and is part of the Metolius cluster sites with different age and disturbance classes within the AmeriFlux network. After a severe fire in 1979, the site was salvage logged, was acquired by the US Forest Service land and re-forested in 1990. The dominant overstory vegetation are 20-year old ponderosa pine trees with an average height of 5.2 +/- 1.1 m. The season maximum overstory half-sided LAI was 0.6 m2 m-2 in 2010. Tree density is low, with ca. 162 trees ha-1.

  5. SLAC Next-Generation High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellomo, P.; MacNair, D.; ,

    2010-06-11

    SLAC recently commissioned forty high availability (HA) magnet power supplies for Japan's ATF2 project. SLAC is now developing a next-generation N+1 modular power supply with even better availability and versatility. The goal is to have unipolar and bipolar output capability. It has novel topology and components to achieve very low output voltage to drive superconducting magnets. A redundant, embedded, digital controller in each module provides increased bandwidth for use in beam-based alignment, and orbit correction systems. The controllers have independent inputs for connection to two external control nodes. Under fault conditions, they sense failures and isolate the modules. Power supply speed mitigates the effects of fault transients and obviates subsequent magnet standardization. Hot swap capability promises higher availability and other exciting benefits for future, more complex, accelerators, and eventually the International Linear Collider project.

  6. A=18F (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 18.10 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1970FL1A, 1970SA1M, 1972EN03, 1972LE13, 1972PR08, 1973BA1Q, 1973CO03, 1973LA1D, 1973MA1K, 1973MC06, 1973SM1C, 1973VA05, 1974LO04, 1974WA17, 1975BA81, 1975GO1B, 1975SA1F, 1976DE13, 1976SA35, 1976SZ1A, 1977HA33, 1977HO1F, 1977SH11, 1977VA1E). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (1972LI1E, 1972NE1B, 1975GO08, 1975SA1F, 1976SA35, 1977HO1F).

  7. A=18F (1983AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    83AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18F) GENERAL: See also (1978AJ03) and Table 18.11 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977AN1P, 1977GR16, 1977SO1C, 1978CO08, 1978DA1N, 1978MA2H, 1979BU12, 1979DA15, 1980GO01, 1980KU05, 1980MA18, 1981EL1D, 1981ER03, 1981GR06, 1982KI02). Cluster, collective and deformed models: (1977BU22, 1978BU03, 1978PI1E, 1978SA15, 1978TA1A, 1979BU12, 1979SA31, 1980RO19, 1981CH24). Electromagnetic transitions: (1976MC1G, 1977BU22, 1977HA1Z, 1977HE1L,

  8. A=18N (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See the Isobar Diagram for 18N) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See (1981NA1H, 1983ANZQ, 1983FR1A, 1983SH44, 1983WI1A, 1984AS1D, 1984HI1A, 1986AN07, 1986BI1A, 1986HA1B, 1986MA48, 1986ME1F, 1987RI03). Mass of 18N:The atomic mass excess derived from the Q-value of the 18O(7Li, 7Be)18N reaction is 13.117 ± 0.020 MeV (1983PU01). 18N is then stable with respect to breakup into 17N + n by 2.825 MeV. See (1983AJ01) for the earlier work. 1.

  9. A=18O (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18O) GENERAL: See also (1959AJ76) and Table 18.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1957WI1E, 1960TA1C, 1962HO1C, 1962TA1B, 1962TA1D, 1963HA05, 1963PA03, 1963SA07, 1964CO24, 1964IN03, 1964MC1A, 1964PA1D, 1964WA1F, 1965BA1J, 1965BE1T, 1965DE1H, 1965EL06, 1965EN02, 1965FE1B, 1965FE02, 1965NA1A, 1965ZA1B, 1966AR10, 1966BA2E, 1966BA2C, 1966BO25, 1966BR1R, 1966HU09, 1966IN01, 1966KU05, 1966LA1E, 1966LE11, 1966RI1F, 1966RO01, 1967BA04,

  10. A=19F (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19F) GENERAL: See (1972AJ02) and Table 19.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1970FL1A, 1972EN03, 1972GU05, 1972LE13, 1972NE1B, 1973DE13, 1973JU1A, 1973LA1D, 1973MA1K, 1973MC06, 1973MC1E, 1973ME1D, 1973SM1C, 1974CO39, 1975BA81, 1975GA1L, 1975MA1U, 1975SUZR, 1977HA33, 1977SH11). Cluster, collective and rotational models: (1972NE1B, 1973DE06, 1973MC1E, 1973NE1C, 1973RO19, 1976LE19, 1977BU05, 1977HO1F). Electromagnetic transitions:

  11. A=19Ne (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 19.21 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models:(1983BR29, 1983PO02). Special states: (1983BI1C, 1983BR29, 1983PO02, 1986AN07). Electromagnetic transitions: (1982BR24, 1983BR29, 1985AL21). Astrophysical questions: (1981WA1Q, 1982WI1B, 1986LA07). Applications:(1982BO1N). Complex reactions involving 19Ne:(1981DE1P, 1983JA05, 1984GR08, 1985BE40, 1986GR1A, 1986HA1B, 1987RI03). Pion capture and reactions (See

  12. A=20F (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1972LE13, 1972WI13, 1973LA1D, 1973MA1K, 1973MC06, 1974CO39, 1975BA81). Electromagnetic transitions: (1970HE1B, 1974MC1F). Special states: (1972LE13, 1973MC06, 1975BA81, 1975MI03). Complex reactions involving 20F: (1972MI11, 1973BA81, 1973WI15, 1974HA61, 1975BA1Q, 1976HI05, 1977AR06). Muon and pion capture and reactions: (1974LI1D). Other topics: (1972CA37,

  13. A=20Na (1972AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See Table 20.35 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Mass of 20Na: From the threshold energy of the 20Ne(p, n)20Na reaction, Ethresh. = 15.419 ± 0.006 MeV, the atomic mass excess of 20Na is 6.850 ± 0.006 MeV (1971GO18, 1971WI07). See also (1964GA1C, 1966GA25, 1966KE16, 1969HA38). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.892 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of excited states which decay by α-emission to the ground state of

  14. A=20Na (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    87AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Na) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.27 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). (1981WA1Q, 1983ANZQ, 1983BR29, 1985AN28, 1985HA1N, 1985RO1N, 1986AN07, 1986GA1I). 1. 20Na(β+)20Ne Qm = 13.887 20Na decays by positron emission to 20Ne*(1.63) and to a number of other excited states of 20Ne: see Table 20.26 (in PDF or PS) and reaction 53 in 20Ne. The half-life of 20Na is 447.9 ± 2.3 msec [weighted mean of values quoted in (1978AJ03) and in (1983CL01)];

  15. A=20Ne (1978AJ03)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ03) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20Ne) GENERAL: See also (1972AJ02) and Table 20.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1970CR1A, 1971DE56, 1971RA1B, 1971ZO1A, 1972AB12, 1972AR1F, 1972AS13, 1972BO38, 1972BR1G, 1972JA24, 1972KA39, 1972KA67, 1972KH08, 1972KR1D, 1972KU1F, 1972LE13, 1972LE38, 1972MA07, 1972NI14, 1972RE03, 1972SA1B, 1972VO09, 1972WH04, 1973CO03, 1973DH1A, 1973EL04, 1973EN1C, 1973GI09, 1973HA05, 1973HE1F, 1973IC01, 1973IR01, 1973MA1K, 1973MC06, 1973MC1E,

  16. A=3H (1987TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) (Not illustrated) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+, μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm, M - A = 14.94991 ± 0.00003 MeV. The wave function for the triton bound state is calculated to be mostly S-state (~ 90%) with S'-state (~ 1%) and D-state (~ 9%) admixtures depending on the potentials used (1979SA15, 1986IS06). See also (1980HA10, 1980LO091983FR19, 1984CI05, 1984CI09, 1984MU23). The measured magnetic moment for 3H is μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 nm (1978LEZA). Calculations which include both

  17. A=5He (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5He) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 5.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1978RE1A, 1979JA31, 1979KA06, 1979LU1A, 1979MA1J, 1980HA1M, 1981BE10, 1981KR1J, 1982FI13). Special states (The first T = 5/2 state of 5He is predicted to lie at Ex ~ 40 MeV (1981BE25; theor.).): (1979JA31, 1981BE10, 1981KU1H, 1982EM1A, 1982FI13, 1982FR1D). Complex reactions involving 5He:(1979BR02, 1979RU1B). Reactions involving pions:(1978FI1D,

  18. A=5Li (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    84AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 5.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1978RE1A, 1979MA1J, 1980HA1M, 1981BE10, 1982FI13). Special states:(1981BE10, 1981KU1H, 1982EM1A, 1982FI13, 1982FR1D). Complex reactions involving 5Li:(1979BR02, 1979RU1B). Reactions involving pions:(1978BR1V, 1979SA1W, 1983AS02). Reactions involving antiprotons:(1981YA1B). Hypernuclei:(1980IW1A, 1981KO1V, 1981KU1H, 1983GI1C). Other

  19. A=6Li (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    79AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: See also (1974AJ01) and Table 6.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1974KA11, 1975DI04, 1975GO1B, 1975VE01, 1976CE03, 1976GH1A). Collective, rotational and deformed models: (1974BO25). Cluster and α-particle models: (1972KR1A, 1973DO09, 1973LI23, 1974BA30, 1974GR24, 1974JA1K, 1974KA11, 1974NO03, 1974PA1B, 1974SH08, 1974WO1B, 1975BL1C, 1975GO08, 1975GR26, 1975HA48, 1975KR1A, 1975LE1A, 1975LI1C, 1975MI09, 1975NO03,

  20. A=6Li (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 6.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978CH1D, 1978ST19, 1979CA06, 1980MA41, 1981BO1Y, 1982BA52, 1982FI13, 1982LO09). Cluster and α-particle models: (1978OS07, 1978PL1A, 1978RE1A, 1978SI14, 1979BE39, 1979CA06, 1979LU1A, 1979WI1B, 1980BA04, 1980KU1G, 1981BE1K, 1981HA1Y, 1981KR1J, 1981KU13, 1981VE04, 1981ZH1D, 1982AH09, 1982CH10, 1982GO1G, 1982JI1A, 1982KA24, 1982KR1B, 1982KR09, 1982KU05,

  1. A=7Be (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Be) GENERAL: See also (1974AJ01) and Table 7.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1974KA11). Astrophysical question: (1973BA1H, 1973IB1A, 1973SM1A, 1973TR1C, 1973WE1D, 1974KO1C, 1974PA10, 1974RA09, 1974SH1D, 1975HO1C, 1975KI14, 1975SC1H, 1976BE1C, 1976BO1E, 1976CL1A, 1976CO1B, 1976FU1B, 1976GI1C, 1976HE15, 1976PE1A, 1976RA1C, 1976SI1C, 1976VI1A, 1977AU1B, 1977BA1V, 1977BI1E, 1977GA1C, 1977HA1L, 1977KO1J, 1977MO1E, 1977SC1D, 1977SI1D,

  2. A=7Li (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 7Li) GENERAL: See also (1979AJ01) and Table 7.2 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1978FU13, 1978MI13, 1979MA11, 1981BO1Y, 1982BA52, 1982FI13). Cluster and α-particle models: (1978MI13, 1979MA11, 1979VE08, 1980KA16, 1980SU04, 1981BE27, 1981EL06, 1981FI1A, 1981HA1Y, 1981KR1J, 1981RA1M, 1981SR01, 1982DE12, 1982FI13, 1982MU10, 1983DU1B, 1983KA1K). Special states: (1978MI13, 1979BU14, 1978DU1C, 1979KI10, 1980GO1Q, 1980SH1N, 1981BE27,

  3. A=7Li (59AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    59AJ76) (See the Energy Level Diagram for 7Li) GENERAL: See also Table 7.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Theory: See (AU55, DA55, LA55A, AB56, FE56, KU56, ME56, FE57C, FR57, LE57F, MA57E, MA57J, SO57, HA58D, SK58). 1. 3H(α, γ)7Li Qm = 2.465 For Eα = 0.5 to 1.9 MeV, capture radiation is observed to 7Li(0) and 7Li*(0.48), with intensity ratio 5 : 2. The smooth rise of the cross section suggests a direct capture process. The angular distribution is not isotropic, indicating l > 0

  4. A=8Be (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 8Be) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 8.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1984PA04, 1984VA06, 1984ZW1A, 1985FI1E, 1987BL18, 1987KI1C, 1988WO04). Collective, rotational and deformed models: (1984PA04, 1985RO1G). Cluster and α-particle models: (1981PL1A, 1983CA12, 1983DR09, 1983FU1D, 1983HA41, 1983JA09, 1983SH38, 1984DE24, 1984DU17, 1984LU1A, 1984LU1B, 1985FI1E, 1986GU1F, 1986KR12, 1986SU06, 1988KR01). Special states:

  5. A=9B (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9B) GENERAL: See also (1974AJ01) and Table 9.9 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1977HO1F, 1977OK01, 1978HO1E). Special levels: (1974IR04, 1975WI1E, 1976IR1B, 1978HO1E). Astrophysical questions: (1977SI1D). Pion reactions: (1974KA07). Other topics: (1974HA1C, 1974IR04, 1976IR1B). Ground state properties: (1975BE31, 1977OK01). 1. (a) 6Li(3He, n)8B Qm = -1.975 Eb = 16.603 (b) 6Li(3He, p)8Be Qm = 16.7878 (c) 6Li(3He, d)7Be Qm = 0.113

  6. A=9C (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 9C) GENERAL: See also (1966LA04) and Table 9.12 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1966BA26). Other topics: (1966BA26, 1966MC1C, 1972AN05, 1972CA37, 1973LA19). Ground state properties, including theoretical mass predictions: (1965GO1D, 1966BA26, 1966GO1B, 1966KE16, 1969GA1P, 1969JA1M, 1972CE1A, 1973HA77). Mass of 9C: From the threshold energy of 7Be(3He, n)9C (1971MO01) the atomic mass excess of 9C is 28.908 ± 0.004 MeV. This value

  7. A=9C (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See the Isobar Diagram for 9C) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 9.11 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1983AU1B). Complex reactions involving 9C: (1983FR1A, 1983OL1A, 1986HA1B, 1987SN01). Reactions involving pions: (1983AS1B, 1984BR22, 1985PN01). Other topics: (1982KA1D, 1985AN28, 1986AN07). Ground state of 9C: (1983ANZQ, 1983AU1B, 1985AN28, 1987SA15). 1. 9C(β+)9B Qm = 16.498 The half-life of 9C is 126.5 ± 0.9 msec: see (1974AJ01). The decay is

  8. A=9Li (1974AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Li) GENERAL: See also Table 9.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1966BA26). Special reactions: (1965DO13, 1966GA15, 1966KL1C, 1967AU1B, 1967CA1J, 1967HA10, 1968DO1C, 1972VO06, 1973KO1D, 1973MU12, 1973WI15). Other topics: (1972CA37, 1972PN1A, 1973JU2A). Ground state properties: (1966BA26, , 1969JA1M). Mass of 9Li: From the Q-value of 18O(7Li, 16O)9Li, the atomic mass excess of 9Li is 24.9654 ± 0.005 MeV (1969NE1E; prelim.

  9. A=9Li (1988AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 9Li) GENERAL: See also (1984AJ01) and Table 9.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations: (1983KU17, 1984CH24, 1984VA06). Special states: (1983KU17, 1984VA06). Electromagnetic interactions: (1983KU17). Astrophysical questions: (1987MA2C). Complex reactions involving 9Li: (1983OL1A, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1985JA1B, 1985MA02, 1985MO17, 1986CS1A, 1986HA1B, 1986SA30, 1986WE1C, 1987BA38, 1987CH26, 1987JA06, 1987KO1Z, 1987SH1K, 1987TAZU, 1987WA09,

  10. DT. A, E. ?3ewwe

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RtihAJi!~~ c 2, j DT. A, E. ?3ewwe Projrat ilinetor battell. Parvarial lni;tltutr c01umhu0 1, ohi0 tuqeotl $j&gp&s 3y c&jTD,Ni.bk!L4 SPAI& WR i&i. 2' . lkwr in-0 imulsrr Xt ia requested that lO-potmi simpltlv of raw and roah;tci~: c%uxthrmo~s rhrls So fomwded to thro 53.1.X. L&omto~~ at 'r;tateCtxml. zt woulb be dersirable to supply amnlicru ,mlcatfvsly high in umnizxa au& QG !G:r.mlo K 201-112. 8 ?ha rmpler should be rrddmsdiad m I'sllowar BBS. J&n I^.aher,

  11. I'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    C .,JNY f~' ~=' ~--l _ ,.,, L I' ,, . P. 0. BOX tsa NT. NEILTHY STATION \. CINCINNATI 31. OHIO Mr. c. L. w tvf- u. 5. Atonaic Enugy C0mmi~~lon P. 0. Box 128. Mt. Healthy Strtlon CiEub?lkti 31, Ohio S UB JECT: RESUME ACTlvlTlEs JULT 1955 Deu Mr. Karl: hqnmt 3, 1955 SPECIAL REREVIEW FINAL DETERMINATION UNCL@SIFlJ3 The following is .ubmlttsd for TECliNlCAL DNBION: 7ha 33-l/2% TBP flow sheet am introdnc.d in tllo hkre rhown t&t the now flow l h cr.... (25%) u antic at l flow rate of 32~GP or

  12. L

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    , . d Sepmber 20, 1976 . e E. K. Limp, Chfdf, Process Facilities Safety liranch, ~%&iCj kP3RT uF FlhimiiS : &TECH SPECSALlY S-EL Cuwr)wTIa:i On huyusf 19, 1976, Fred F, Ha_ytaod, DRdL, and I visttdd be A?j-TzcILi - planf in ' dardrvlltit, ;ic# YorX, to i3ake a orelir;linary assczimx~f of tile radIo?ocjical status of facilities ut47fzad durfnb3 lW-51 for X': contract mrk f WI 1 vi n.; urd a. GcLwter, Ham r4tina+r, ;iismssicms warz &id ' cliL1 :Ir. tionalj fir. Ted Ckx, mo Has fmf 1

  13. [sup 3]He neutron detector performance in mixed neutron gamma environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, N. H.; Beddingfield, D. H.

    2002-01-01

    A test program of the performance of 3He neutron proportional detectors with varying gas pressures, and their response to lligh level gamma-ray exposure in a mixed neutrodgamma environment, ha$ been performed Our intent was to identie the optimal gas pressure to reduce the gamma-ray sensitivity of these detectors. These detectors were manufxtured using materials to minimize their gamma response. Earlier work focused on 3He fill pressures of four atmospheres and above, whereas the present work focuses on a wider range of pressures. Tests have shown that reducing the .filling pressure will M e r increase the gamma-ray dose range in which the detectors can be operated.

  14. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M.F. Johnson; Garold L. Gresham

    2014-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The study’s objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

  16. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siyam, Arwa; Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 ; Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele; Stevens, Roy; D'Souza, Rena N.; Lu, Yongbo

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  17. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate during the combined treatment process of air stripping, Fenton, SBR and coagulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, ZhiPing; Wu, WenHui; Shi, Ping; Guo, JinSong; Cheng, Jin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • DOM fractions spectra analysis during the whole treatment process. • Efficient method was achieved to remove organic matters in landfill leachate. • Molecular weight distribution and fractions were discussed. - Abstract: A combined treatment process of air stripping + Fenton + sequencing batch reactor (SBR)+ coagulation was performed to remove the pollutants in landfill leachate. Molecular weight (MW) distribution and fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were discussed to study the characteristics. The experiment showed that the removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), five day biological oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}−N) by the combined process were 92.8%, 87.8% and 98.0%, respectively. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) were the main fractions in raw leachate with 81.8% of the total COD concentration, while hydrophilic organic matter (HyI) was the dominant fraction in the final effluent of the combined process with 63.5% of the total COD concentration. After the combined treatment process, the removal rate of DOM and fractions HA, FA, HyI were 91.9%, 97.1%, 95.8% and 71.7%, respectively. Organic matters of MW < 2 k and MW > 100 k were removed with 90.5% and 97.9% COD concentration after the treatment. The ultraviolet–visible spectra (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (EEMs) indicated that benzene materials and phenol compounds were preferentially removed in air stripping. High MW matters, aromatic rings, conjugated moieties and some functional groups were mainly removed by Fenton. While small MW fractions, carboxylic acids, alcohols and protein-like materials were preferentially biodegraded via SBR. Fulvic-like and humic-like materials were mainly destroyed via Fenton oxidation and coagulation.

  18. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. Themore » Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.« less

  19. Detecting wetland changes in Shanghai, China using FORMOSAT and Landsat TM imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yun-xuan; Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Yuan, Qing

    2015-07-14

    Understanding the state of wetland ecosystems and their changes at the national and local levels is critical for wetland conservation, management, decision-making, and policy development practices. This study analyzed the wetlands in Shanghai, a province-level city, using remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques based on the Chinese national wetland inventory procedure and standards. FORMOSAT imagery acquired in 2012 and Navy nautical charts of the Yangtze estuarine area were used in conjunction with object-oriented segmentation, expert interpretation, and field validation to determine wetland status. Landsat imagery from 1985, 1995, 2000, 2003 and 2013 as well as social-economic data collected from 1985 to 2013 were used to further assess wetland changes. In 2013, Shanghai contained 376,970.6 ha of wetlands, and 78.8% of all wetlands were in marine or estuarine systems. Estuarine waters comprised the single largest wetland category. Between the first national wetland inventory in 2003 and the second national wetland inventory in 2013, Shanghai lost 50,519.13 ha of wetlands, amounting to a mean annual loss rate of 1.2% or an 11.8% loss over the decade. Declines were proportionately higher in marine and estuarine wetlands, with an annual loss of 1.8%, while there was a sharp increase of 1882.6% in constructed water storage areas for human uses. Diking, filling, impoundment and reclamation, which are all attributable to the economic development and urbanization associated with population increases, were the major factors that explained the gain and loss of wetlands. Additional factors affecting wetland losses and gains include sediment trapping by the hydropower system, which reduces supply to the estuary and erodes wetlands, and sediment trapping by the jetties, spur dikes, and diversion bulwark associated with a navigation channel deepening project, which has the converse effect, increasing saltmarsh wetland area at

  20. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  1. Development of Onsite Transportation Safety Documents for Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Hand, Willard Thomas, Frank Sciacca, Manny Negrete, Susan Kelley

    2008-05-08

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders require each DOE site to develop onsite transportation safety documents (OTSDs). The Nevada Test Site approach divided all onsite transfers into two groups with each group covered by a standalone OTSD identified as Non-Nuclear and Nuclear. The Non-Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive hazardous material in less than Hazard Category (HC)-3 quantities and all chemically hazardous materials. The Nuclear transfers involve all radioactive material equal to or greater than HC-3 quantities and radioactive material mated with high explosives regardless of quantity. Both OTSDs comply with DOE O 460.1B requirements. The Nuclear OTSD also complies with DOE O 461.1A requirements and includes a DOE-STD-3009 approach to hazard analysis (HA) and accident analysis as needed. All Nuclear OTSD proposed transfers were determined to be non-equivalent and a methodology was developed to determine if equivalent safety to a fully compliant Department of Transportation (DOT) transfer was achieved. For each HA scenario, three hypothetical transfers were evaluated: a DOT-compliant, uncontrolled, and controlled transfer. Equivalent safety is demonstrated when the risk level for each controlled transfer is equal to or less than the corresponding DOT-compliant transfer risk level. In this comparison the typical DOE-STD-3009 risk matrix was modified to reflect transportation requirements. Design basis conditions (DBCs) were developed for each non-equivalent transfer. Initial DBCs were based solely upon the amount of material present. Route-, transfer-, and site-specific conditions were evaluated and the initial DBCs revised as needed. Final DBCs were evaluated for each transfers packaging and its contents.

  2. An experimental method for investigating phase transformations in the heat affected zone of welds using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Froba, M.; Waide, P.A.; Larson, E.M.

    1995-05-26

    Although welding is an established technology used in many industrial settings, it is least understand terms of the phases that actually exist, the variation of their spatial disposition with time, and the rate of transformation from one phase to another at various thermal coordinates in the vicinity of the weld. With the availability of high flux and, more recently, high brightness synchrotron x-radiation sources, a number of diffraction and spectroscopic methods have been developed for structural characterization with improved spatial and temporal resolutions to enable in-situ measurements of phases under extreme temperature, pressure and other processing conditions not readily accessible with conventional sources. This paper describes the application of spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) for in-situ investigations of phase transformations in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of fusion welds. Results are presented for gas tungsten (GTA) welds in commercially pure titanium that show the existence of the high temperature bcc {beta}-phase in a 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.3 mm wide HA band adjacent to the liquid weld pool. Phase concentration profiles derived from the SRXRD data further show the co-existence of both the low temperature hcp ({alpha}-phase and the {beta}-phase in the partially, transformed region of the HA. These results represent the first direct observations of solid state phase transformations and mapping of phase boundaries in fusion welds. SRXRD experiments of this type are needed as experimental input for modeling of kinetics of phase transformations and microstructural evolution under the highly non-isothermal conditions produced during welding.

  3. PAHs content of sewage sludge in Europe and its use as soil fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suciu, Nicoleta A. Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Sewage sludge contamination by PAHs may restrict its use as soil fertilizer. • Long term data concerning sewage sludge contamination by PAHs is lacking. • Literature review for EU countries and monitoring data for Italy is presented. • Focus PEARL model was used to simulate B(a)Pyr, the most toxic PAH, fate in soil. • The simulated B(a)Pyr soil concentration was much lower than its LOEC for soil organisms. - Abstract: The European Commission has been planning limits for organic pollutants in sewage sludge for 14 years; however no legislation has been implemented. This is mainly due to lack of data on sewage sludge contamination by organic pollutants, and possible negative effects to the environment. However, waste management has become an acute problem in many countries. Management options require extensive waste characterization, since many of them may contain compounds which could be harmful to the ecosystem, such as heavy metals, organic pollutants. The present study aims to show the true European position, regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of sewage sludge, by comparing the Italian PAHs content with European Union countries, and at assessing the suitability of sewage sludge as soil fertilizer. The FOCUS Pearl model was used to estimate the concentration of benzo [a] pyrene (B(a)Pyr), the most toxic PAH in soil, and its exposure to organisms was then evaluated. The simulated B(a)Pyr and PAHs, expressed as B(a)Pyr, concentrations in soil were much lower than the B(a)Pyr’s most conservative lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) for soil organisms. Furthermore, the results obtained indicate that it is more appropriate to apply 5 t ha{sup −1} sewage sludge annually than 15 t ha{sup −1} triennially. Results suggest, the EU maximum recommended limit of 6 mg kg{sup −1} PAHs in sewage sludge, should be conservative enough to avoid groundwater contamination and negative effects on soil organisms.

  4. The Role Of Modeling Assumptions And Policy Instruments in Evaluating The Global Implications Of U.S. Biofuel Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Kline, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of current U.S. biofuel law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is to reduce dependence on imported oil, but the law also requires biofuels to meet carbon emission reduction thresholds relative to petroleum fuels. EISA created a renewable fuel standard with annual targets for U.S. biofuel use that climb gradually from 9 billion gallons per year in 2008 to 36 billion gallons (or about 136 billion liters) of biofuels per year by 2022. The most controversial aspects of the biofuel policy have centered on the global social and environmental implications of its potential land use effects. In particular, there is an ongoing debate about whether indirect land use change (ILUC) make biofuels a net source, rather sink, of carbon emissions. However, estimates of ILUC induced by biofuel production and use can only be inferred through modeling. This paper evaluates how model structure, underlying assumptions, and the representation of policy instruments influence the results of U.S. biofuel policy simulations. The analysis shows that differences in these factors can lead to divergent model estimates of land use and economic effects. Estimates of the net conversion of forests and grasslands induced by U.S. biofuel policy range from 0.09 ha/1000 gallons described in this paper to 0.73 ha/1000 gallons from early studies in the ILUC change debate. We note that several important factors governing LUC change remain to be examined. Challenges that must be addressed to improve global land use change modeling are highlighted.

  5. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  6. Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

    1997-12-31

    The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

  7. A dual chelating solgel synthesis of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with effective photocatalytic activity for removing humic acid from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peigong; Fan, Caimei; Wang, Yawen; Ding, Guangyue; Yuan, Peihong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C by a dual chelating solgel method, and the photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts calcined at different temperatures were investigated by the removal of humic acid (HA) from water under UV light irradiation. Highlights: ? The humic acid in water was firstly degradated by BaTiO{sub 3} photocatalyst. ? The cubic BaTiO{sub 3} was obtained and changed into tetragonal phase at lower temperature. ? The chelating agents had an important influence on the phase formation of BaTiO{sub 3}. ? The tetragonal phase BaTiO{sub 3} calcined at 900 C exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, a dual chelating solgel method was used to synthesize BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles by using acetylacetone and citric acid as chelating agents. The samples calcined at different temperatures were analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis). The results indicated that cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles about 19.6 nm can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C about 97.1 nm. All the BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed effective photocatalytic activities on the removal of humic acid (HA) under UV light irradiation. A comparison of single (acetylacetone or citric acid) and dual chelating (acetylacetone and citric acid) synthetic processes was also studied and the results demonstrated that the dual chelating agents indeed reduced phase transformation temperature from cubic to tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Importance of Carolina Bays to the Avifauna of Pinelands in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czapka, Stephen, J.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2011-07-01

    Abstract - Past anthropogenic activity has led to the destruction or alteration of Carolina bay wetlands throughout the southeastern United States. Presently, urban development, combined with a 2001 ruling by the US Supreme Court relaxing protection of isolated wetlands, poses an increasing threat to these and other isolated wetland systems; however, little information exists on the importance of these wetland systems to birds. We compared breeding and wintering bird communities of upland pine (Pinus spp.) forests with and without Carolina bays. Estimated species richness was greater in pine forests with Carolina bays than without during the winter (31.7 ± 1.3 [mean ± SE] vs. 26.9 ± 1.2; P = 0.027), but not in the breeding season (27.9 ± 2.2 vs. 26.3 ± 2.2; P = 0.644). Total relative abundance did not differ between pine forests with Carolina bays and those without in either the breeding (148.0 ± 16.0 vs. 129.4 ± 10.4 birds/40 ha; P = 0.675) or winter (253.0 ± 36.4 vs. 148.8 ± 15.1 birds/40 ha; P = 0.100) seasons. However, 23 species, 43% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in pine forests with bays during the breeding season, and 20 species, 30% of which were wetland-dependent, were observed only in such sites during winter. In contrast, only 6 and 1 species were observed only in pine forests without bays during the breeding and winter seasons, respectively, indicating that few species were negatively affected by the presence of bays. Thus, Carolina bays appear to enrich the avifauna of pine forests in the southeastern United States.

  9. AmeriFlux US-KS1 Kennedy Space Center (slash pine)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Bert; Hinkle, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KS1 Kennedy Space Center (slash pine). Site Description - The Kennedy Space Center Slash Pine Flatwoods site is located in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on the east coast of central Florida. Occupying 310 ha of local forest, the slash pine flatwoods ecosystem is managed as an uneven-aged stand with a sparsely populated overstory and a dense oak-dominated understory. Disturbances tend to occur on a 7 to 10 year cycle, mostly related to fire or hurricane activity. Prescribed fires have been conducted since 1969 to control understory fuel. The most recent burn was conducted in February of 1995. Following the burn, the stand was allowed to naturally regenerate into a open canopy of slash pines, less than 15% of canopy coverage ( on the order of 15-30 trees per ha), with a understory mostly composed of saw palmetto and scrub oak. There was a seasonally wet swale to the southeast that was on the margin of the flux tower footprint. A severe drought gripped most of Florida beginning in 1998 until the later half of 2001 resulting in four years of relatively low annual precipitation totals. Exceptionally high annual rainfall amounts in 2004 were the result of a pair of hurricanes that hit the area in August and September of 2004. Wind directions for the site are as follows: W and NW in the winter, afternoon E sea breeze in the summer.

  10. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, L. A.; Prospero, J.; Omar, Ali; Winker, D.; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhao, Chun

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  12. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  13. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  14. A dynamic model for evaluating radionuclide distribution in forests from nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, W.R.; Linkov, I.; Myttenaere, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 caused radionuclide contamination in most countries in Eastern and Western Europe. A prime example is Belarus where 23% of the total land area received chronic levels; about 1.5 X 10{sup 6} ha of forested lands were contaminated with 40-190 kBq m{sup -2} and 2.5 X 10{sup 4} ha received greater than 1,480 kBq m{sup -2} of {sup 137}Cs and other long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu. Since the radiological dose to the forest ecosystem will tend to accumulate over long time periods (decades to centuries), we need to determine what countermeasures can be taken to limit this dose so that the affected regions can, once again, safely provide habitat and natural forest products. To address some of these problems, our initial objective is to formulate a generic model, FORESTPATH, which describes the major kinetic processes and pathways of radionuclide movement in forests and natural ecosystems and which can be used to predict future radionuclide concentrations. The model calculates the time-dependent radionuclide concentrations in different compartments of the forest ecosystem based on the information available on residence half-times in two forest types: coniferous and deciduous. The results show that the model reproduces well the radionuclide cycling pattern found in the literature for deciduous and coniferous forests. Variability analysis was used to access the relative importance of specific parameter values in the generic model performance. The FORESTPASTH model can be easily adjusted for site-specific applications. 92 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  16. LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE SUPPLIES OF BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCK AND ENHANCED SOIL QUALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2012-09-01

    yields are less than 11 Mg ha-1 (175 bu ac-1) unless more intensive landscape management practices are implemented. Furthermore, although non-irrigated corn grain yields east and west of the primary Corn Belt may not consistently achieve the 11 Mg ha-1 yield levels, corn can still be part of an overall landscape approach for sustainable feedstock production. Another option for producers with consistently high yields (> 12.6 Mg ha-1 or 200 bu ac-1) that may enable them to sustainably harvest even more stover is to decrease their tillage intensity which will reduce fuel use, preserve rhizosphere carbon, and/or help maintain soil structure and soil quality benefits often attributed to no-till production systems. In conclusion, I challenge all ISTRO scientists to critically ask if your research is contributing to improved soil and crop management strategies that effectively address the complexity associated with sustainable food, feed, fiber and fuel production throughout the world.

  17. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  18. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  19. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  20. Effects of overstory composition and prescribed fire on fuel loading across a heterogeneous managed landscape in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    In the southeastern USA, land use history, forest management and natural geomorphic features have created heterogeneous fuel loads. This apparent temporal and spatial variation in fuel loads make it difficult to reliably assess potential fire behavior from remotely sensed canopy variables to determine risk and to prescribe treatments. We examined this variation by exploring the relationships between overstory forest vegetation attributes, recent fire history, and selected surface fuel components across an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape. Measurements of dead and live vegetation components of surface fuels were obtained from 624 permanent plots, or about 1 plot per 100 ha of forest cover. Within forest vegetation groups, we modeled the relationship between individual surface fuel components and overstory stand age, basal area, site quality and recent fire history, then stochastically predicted fuel loads across the landscape using the same linkage variables. The fraction of the plot variation, i.e., R2, explained by predictive models for individual fuel components ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 for dead fuels and 0.03 to 0.97 for live fuels in pine dominated vegetation groups. Stand age and basal area were generally more important than recent fire history for predicting fuel loads. Mapped fuel loads using these regressor variables showed a very heterogeneous landscape even at the scale of a few square kilometers. The mapped patterns corresponded to stand based forest management disturbances that are reflected in age, basal area, and fire history. Recent fire history was significant in explaining variation in litter and duff biomass. Stand basal area was positively and consistently related to dead fuel biomass in most groups and was present in many predictive equations. Patterns in live fuel biomass were related to recent fire history, but the patterns were not consistent among forest vegetation groups. Age and basal area were related to live fuels in a complex manner that

  1. Temporal patterns of methane emissions from wetland rice fields treated by different modes of N application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wassmann, R.; Neue, H.U.; Lantin, R.S.; Aduna, J.B.; Alberto, M.C.R.; Andales, M.J.; Tan, M.J.; Hoffmann, H.; Papen, H.; Gon, H.A.C. D. van der

    1994-08-20

    Methane emission rates from wetland rice fields were determined in Los Banos (Philipppines) using an automatic system that allows continuous measurements over time. Methane emission was monitored in an irrigated Aquandic Epiaqualf planted to rice cultivar IR72. Urea fertilizer was applied using four modes: (1) broadcast 10 days after transplanting, (2) broadcast at transplanting, (3) broadcast and incorporated at final harrowing, and (4) deep placement as sulfur-coated granules. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Measurements were done in the 1991 wet season, 1992 dry season (four treatments), and the 1992 wet season (only treatment 3). Methane emission rates from the experimental plots showed pronounced season and diel variations. The diel pattern of methane emission rates followed a consistent pattern, with highest rates observed in the early afternoon and lowest rates in the early morning. Methane emission rate was generally highest at the ripening stage. The average methane emission rate during the 1992 dry season (190 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}) exceeded the average flux rates of the 1992 wet season (79 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}) by a factor of 2.4. The total methane emitted from these flooded rice fields amounted to 19 g CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} in the dry season with rice yields of 5.2-6.3 ha{sup {minus}1} and 7 g CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} in the wet season with rice yields of 2.4-3.3 t ha{sup {minus}1} regardless of the mode of N application. Significant amounts corresponding to 20% of the methane released under waterlogged conditions were released when the soil was drained after harvest. Emission rates increased sharply when the floodwater receded and macropores started to drain. Emission of methane stopped only when the soil became fully aerated. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Time-series product and substance flow analyses of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habuer, Nakatani, Jun; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: We estimate the possession and obsolescence of household appliances (HAs) in China. Over 4.85.1 billion units of major HAs will be discarded in the next 20 years. We calculate the amounts of substances contained in end-of-life (EoL) TV sets. Less common metals will tend to decrease in content in generation of EoL TV sets. Precious metals will tend to increase in content in EoL TV sets in 20152030. - Abstract: Given the amounts of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EoL-EEE) being generated and their contents of both harmful and valuable materials, the EoL-EEE issue should be regarded not only as an emerging environmental problem but also as a resource management strategy in China. At present, in order to provide the basis for managing EoL-EEE at both product and substance levels in China, it is necessary to carry out a quantitative analysis on EoL-EEE and to determine how much of it will be generated and how much materials and substances it contains. In this study, the possession and obsolescence amounts of five types of household appliance (HA) including television (TV) sets and the amounts of substances contained in EoL TV sets were estimated using time-series product flow analysis (PFA) and substance flow analysis (SFA). The results of PFA indicated that the total possession amounts of those five types of HAs will exceed 3.1 billion units in 2030, which will be two times higher than those in 2010. In addition, it was estimated that cumulatively over 4.85.1 billion units of these five types of EoL HA would be obsoleted between 20102030. The results of SFA on TV sets indicated that the generated amounts of most of the less common metals and a part of common metals such as copper (Cu) would tend to decrease, whereas those of other common metals such as iron (Fe) as well as precious metals would tend to increase in EoL TV sets in 20152030. The results of this study provide a quantitative basis for helping decision makers

  3. Towards sustainable settlement growth: A new multi-criteria assessment for implementing environmental targets into strategic urban planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schetke, Sophie; Haase, Dagmar; Koetter, Theo

    2012-01-15

    For nearly one decade, the German political and research-agenda has been to a large extent determined by the ongoing question of how to limit the expansion of settlement areas around cities in order to preserve natural resources, make settlement growth more sustainable and to strengthen the re-use of existing inner-urban areas (see a.o. Koetter et al. 2009a, 2010; Schetke et al. 2009, 2010b). What is already under discussion within the international literature are the recommendations of the German Council for Sustainability to quantitatively reduce the daily greenfield consumption from the current rate of over 100 ha per day to a rate of 30 ha per day in 2020 and to bring urban infill development up to a ratio of 3:1 with greenfield development (German Council for Sustainability, 2004).). This paper addresses the added value beyond those abstract political targets and presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites to evaluate their sustainability and resource efficiency. MCA development and its incorporation into a Decision Support System (DSS) were accomplished by utilising a stakeholder-driven approach. The resulting tool can be applied in preparing and revising land-use plans. The paper presents the concept and the development process of the MCA-DSS. Test runs with planners prove that the evaluation of potential housing sites using individually weighted environmental indicators helps to identify those strategies of housing development that accord most closely with sustainability goals. The tests further show that the development of greenfield sites generally exhibits less sustainability than that of infill sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper presents an innovative, multi-criteria assessment (MCA) of greenfield and infill sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MCA evaluates sustainability and resource efficiency of potential housing sites in a stakeholder-driven approach. Black

  4. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J.; Baker, Timothy R.; Troutman, John A.; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in human

  5. Environmental impact assessment for a radioactive waste facility: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    A 77-ha site, known as the Niagara Falls Storage Site and located in northwestern New York State, holds about 190, 000 m{sup 3} of soils, wastes, and residues contaminated with radium and uranium. The facility is owned by the US Department of Energy. The storage of residues resulting from the processing of uranium ores started in 1944, and by 1950 residues from a number of plants were received at the site. The residues, with a volume of about 18,000 m{sup 3}, account for the bulk of the radioactivity, which is primarily due to Ra-226; because of the extraction of uranium from the ore, the amount of uranium remaining in the residues is quite small. An analysis of the environmental impact assessment and environmental compliance actions taken to date at this site and their effectiveness are discussed. This case study provides an illustrative example of the complexity of technical and nontechnical issues for a large radiative waste facility. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  7. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  8. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants in 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.

  9. Wetland survey of selected areas in the K-24 Site Area of responsibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Awl, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    In accordance with DOE Regulations for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, wetland surveys were conducted in selected areas within the K-25 Area of Responsibility during the summer of 1994. These areas are Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, the K-770 OU, Duct Island Peninsula, the Powerhouse area, and the K-25 South Corner. Previously surveyed areas included in this report are the main plant area of the K-25 Site, the K-901 OU, the AVLIS site, and the K-25 South Site. Wetland determinations were based on the USACE methodology. Forty-four separate wetland areas, ranging in size from 0.13 to 4.23 ha, were identified. Wetlands were identified in all of the areas surveyed with the exception of the interior of the Duct Island Peninsula and the main plant area of the K-25 Site. Wetlands perform functions such as floodflow alteration, sediment stabilization, sediment and toxicant retention, nutrient transformation, production export, and support of aquatic species and wildlife diversity and abundance. The forested, scrub-shrub, and emergent wetlands identified in the K-25 area perform some or all of these functions to varying degrees.

  10. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1998-12-22

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with theJ.J.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975, the University of Washington (UW) assumed responsibility for the network and subsequently expanded it. In 1979, the Basalt Waste o Isolation Program (13WIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the Hdord Site as part of site " characterization activities. Rockwell Htiord Operations, followed by Westinghouse Ha&ord Company . (WHC), operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network @wRN) operated and maintained by the UW. Funding for BWIP ended in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and responsibility for the University of Washington contract were then trans- ferred to WHC'S Environmental Division. Maintenance responsibilities for the EWRN were also Assigned to WHC, who made major upgrades to EWRN sites. Effective October 1,1996, Seismic Monitoring was transfemed to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PI@lL*). Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group, Energy Technology Division. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer network was constructed during 1997 and came online in May 1997. It operated continuously until September 30, 1997, when it was mothballed due to can- . cellation of fimding. Funding was restored on October 1, 1998, by joint agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and PNNL. Operation of the free-field sites resumed on November 20, 1998.

  11. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  12. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  13. Comparison of oilseed yields: a preliminary review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    It was assumed that for most oilseed crops, 90% of the oil yield might be considered as profit. To compare oil seeds, pertinent portions of the yield and energy paragraphs from a summary published by Dr. Duke for DOE Grant No. 59-2246-1-6-054-0 with Dr. Bagby as ADODR were reproduced. The seed yields ranged from 200 to 14,000 kg/ha, the low one too low to consider and the high one suspiciously high. The yield of 14,000 kg oil per hectare is equivalent to more than 30 barrels of oil per hectare. The energy species included ambrette, tung-oil tree, cashew, wood-oil tree, mu-oil tree, peanut, mustard greens; rape, colza; black mustard, turnip, safflower, colocynth, coconut, crambe, African oil palm, soybean, cotton, sunflower, Eastern black walnut, Engligh walnut, meadow foam, flax, macadamia nuts, opium poppy, perilla, almond, castorbean, Chinese tallow tree, sesame, jojoba, yellow mustard, stokes' aster, and Zanzibar oilvine. 1 table. (DP)

  14. Comparison of MAGIC and Diatom paleolimnological model hindcasts of lakewater acidification in the Adirondack region of New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Bernert, J.A.; Eliers, J.M. ); Jenne, E.A. ); Cosby, B.J. . School of Forestry and Environmental Studies); Charles, D.F.; Selle, A.R. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three lakes that had been statistically selected as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Eastern Lake Survey and Direct Delayed Response Project (DDRP) were used to compare the MAGIC (watershed) and Diatom (paleolimnological) models. The study lakes represented a well-defined group of Adirondack lakes, each larger than 4 ha in area and having acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) <400 {mu}eq L{sup {minus}1}. The study first compared current and pre-industrial (before 1850) pH and ANC estimates from Diatom and MAGIC as they were calibrated in the preceding Paleocological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification (PIRLA) and DDRP studies, respectively. Initially, the comparison of hindcasts of pre-industrial chemistry was confounded by seasonal and methodological differences in lake chemistry data used in calibration of the model. Although certain differences proved to be of little significance for comparison, MAGIC did predict significantly higher pre-industrial ANC and pH values than did Diatom, using calibrations in the preceding studies. Both models suggest acidification of low ANC Adirondack region lakes since preindustrial times, but differ primarily in that MAGIC inferred greater acidification and that acidification has occurred in all lakes in the comparison, whereas Diatom inferred that acidification has been restricted to low ANC lakes (

  15. On-line gas chromatographic studies of rutherfordium (Element 104), hahnium (Element 105), and homologs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadkhodayan, B.

    1993-05-01

    Gas-phase isothermal chromatogaphy is a method by which volatile compounds of different chemical elements can be separated according to their volatilities. The technique, coupled with theoretical modeling of the processes occurring in the chromatogaphy column, provides accurate determination of thermodynamic properties (e.g., adsorption enthalpies) for compounds of elements, such as the transactinides, which can only be produced on an atom-at-a-time basis. In addition, the chemical selectivity of the isothermal chromatogaphy technique provides the decontamination from interfering activities necessary for the determination of the nuclear decay properties of isotopes of the transactinide elements. Volatility measurements were performed on chloride species of Rf and its group 4 homologs, Zr and Hf, as well as Ha and its group 5 homologs, Nb and Ta. Adsorption enthalpies were calculated for all species using a Monte Carlo code simulation based on a microscopic model for gas thermochromatography in open columns with laminar flow of the carrier gas. Preliminary results are presented for Zr- and Nb-bromides.

  16. Utility participation in a multispecies plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, D.W.

    1996-11-01

    Single-species listings under provisions of the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) have caused, or have been accused of causing, significant regional economic impact. In an attempt to avoid such adverse effects on regional economic development. The pilot NCCP program for the conservation of several threatened, endangered, and category 1 species, plus an additional 35 coastal sage scrub-related species in southern California, was completed and submitted to the public for review and comment in December 1995. This program proposes the voluntary establishment of a 86,600-ha multispecies reserve system. Once completed, participating landowners will receive ESA Section 10(a) {open_quotes}incidental take{close_quotes} permits for present and identified future projects. Utility rights-of-way are incorporated into the program as important connective linkages between reserve units and other adjacent important habitat areas. All data and information regarding the proposed results of the NCCP are subject to change pending agency response to public comments on the draft Habitat Conservation Plan and joint EIR/EIS. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. A Green Prison: Santa Rita Jail Creeps Towards Zero Net Energy (ZNE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Dierckxsens, Carlos; Mendes, Goncalo; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo Ferreira

    2011-03-18

    A large project is underway at Alameda County's twenty-year old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources including a seven-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a four-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion will add approximately 2 MW of NaS batteries, and undetermined wind capacity and a concentrating solar thermal system. This ongoing effort by a progressive local government with considerable Federal and State support provides some excellent lessons for the struggle to lower building carbon footprint. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) finds true optimal combinations of equipment and operating schedules for microgrids that minimize energy bills and/or carbon emissions without 2 of 12 significant searching or rules-of-thumb prioritization, such as"efficiency first then on-site generation." The results often recommend complex systems, and sensitivities show how policy changes will affect choices. This paper reports an analysis of the historic performance of the PV system and fuel cell, describes the complex optimization applied to the battery scheduling, and shows how results will affect the jail's operational costs, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. DER-CAM is used to assess the existing and proposed DER equipment in its ability to reduce tariff charges.

  18. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guo, Hongwei [Beijing, CN; Ecker, Joseph R [Carlsbad, CA

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between F-box proteins and proteins invovled in the ethylene response in plants is described. In particular, F-box proteins may bind to proteins involved in the ethylene response and target them for degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The transcription factor EIN3 is a key transcription factor mediating ethylne-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. EIN3 is degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. The link between F-box proteins and the ethylene response is a key step in modulating or regulating the response of a plant to ethylene. Described herein are transgenic plants having an altered sensitivity to ethylene, and methods for making transgenic plant haing an althered sensitivity to ethylene by modulating the level of activity of F-box proteins. Methods of altering the ethylene response in a plant by modulating the activity or expression of an F-box protein are described. Also described are methods of identifying compounds that modulate the ethylene response in plants by modulating the level of F-box protein expression or activity.

  19. Pyrolysis of tire rubber: Porosity and adsorption characteristics of the pyrolytic chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel, G.S.; Fowler, G.D.; Sollars, C.J.

    1998-06-01

    Tire rubber has been pyrolyzed at various temperatures under a nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting chars have been analyzed for their porosity using nitrogen gas adsorption and for their aqueous adsorption characteristics using phenol, methylene blue, and the reactive dyes Procion Turquoise H-A and Procion Red H-E3B. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were modeled to the BET and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) equations to determine effective surface areas, mesopore volumes, and micropore volumes. Results showed that pyrolysis of tire rubber was essentially complete at 500 C and resulted in a char yield of approximately 42 wt%. Pyrolytic chars exhibited BET surface areas up to 85 m{sup 2}/g and micropore volumes up to 0.04 mL/g. Owing to their poorly developed micropore structure, the pyrolytic chars exhibited limited aqueous adsorption capacity for compounds of small molecular weight, such as phenol. However, the chars possessed significantly greater adsorption capacity for species of large molecular weight which was attributed to the presence of large mesopore volumes (up to 0.19 mL/g).

  20. Quantitative studies of human cardiac metabolism by /sup 31/P rotating-frame NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackledge, M.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Oberhaensli, R.D.; Bolas, N.M.; Styles, P.; Radda, G.K.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have developed /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopic methods to determine quantitatively relative levels of phosphorus-containing metabolites in the human myocardium. They have used localization techniques based on the rotating-frame imaging experiment and carried out the double-surface coil probe. Information is obtained from selected slices by rotating-frame depth selection and from a complete one-dimensional spectroscopic image using phase-modulated rotating-frame imaging. The methods collect biochemical information from metabolites in human heart, and they use the fact that the phosphocreatine/ATP molar ratio in skeletal muscle at rest is higher than that in working heart to demonstrate that localization ha been achieved for each investigation. The phosphocreatine/ATP molar ratio in normal human heart has been measured as 1.55 +/- 0.20 in six subjects using dept selection and as 1.53 +/- 0.25 in four subjects using spectroscopic imaging. Measurement of this ratio is expected to give a useful and reproducible index of myocardial energetics in normal and pathological states.

  1. Livestock impacts for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: The decision-making process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estrada, O.J.; Grogan, S.; Gadzia, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    Livestock grazing is the post-mining use for reclaimed land at Navajo Mine, a large surface coal mine on the Navajo Nation in northwest New Mexico. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GMP) uses holistic management on approximately 2,083 ha of reclaimed land to plan for final liability release and return of the land to the Navajo Nation, and to minimize the potential for post-release liability. The GMP began in 1991 to establish that livestock grazing on the reclaimed land is sustainable. Assuming that sustainability requires alternatives to conventional land management practices, the GMP created a Management Team consisting of company staff, local, Navajo Nation, and Federal government officials, and technical advisors. Community members contributed to the formation of a holistic goal for the GMP that articulates their values and their desire for sustainable grazing. Major decisions (e.g., artificial insemination, water supply, supplemental feed) are tested against the goal. Biological changes in the land and the grazing animals are monitored daily to provide early feedback to managers, and annually to document the results of grazing. To date, the land has shown resilience to grazing and the animals have generally prospered. Community participation in the GMP and public statements of support by local officials indicate that the GMP`s strategy is likely to succeed.

  2. Terrestrial mapping of the Oak Ridge Reservation: Phase 1. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington-Allen, R.A.; Ashwood, T.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Offerman, H.; Scarbrough-Luther, P.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase in development of a habitat map of the terrestrial ecosystem on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). During this phase, a satellite image of the ORR was classified into land use/land cover types, the classified image was incorporated into a geographic information system map of the ORR, and the accuracy of the map was assessed. A habitat map is a critical foundation for evaluation of the potential impact of historical (or ongoing) contamination on terrestrial biota of the ORR. The abundance and distribution of wildlife species and plant communities of concern are intrinsically linked to the abundance and distribution of habitat on which those species and communities rely. Thus, the impact of spatially discrete patches of contamination on those biota is directly proportional to the degree of overlap between habitat and contamination. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to create the land use/land cover map. A Thematic Mapper image consists of seven images of the same point on the earth produced by seven separate sensors, each of which detects a unique part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Separately and in various combinations, these spectral images can be correlated with vegetation type or other land cover type. The image selected for this map was from April 13, 1994, and covers 189,000 ha.

  3. Daily movements of female white-tailed deer relative to parturition and breeding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gino J. D'Angelo; Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Cory D. Drennan; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-10-01

    Abstract: To assess how white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herd demographics influence reproductive behaviors, we examined 24-h diel movements of female whitetailed deer relative to parturition and breeding in a low-density population with a near even sex ratio at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. We conducted a series of intensive, 24-h radio-tracking periods of 13 females during spring and fall 2002. We compared daily range (ha), rate of travel (m/h), and distance between extreme daily locations (m), among the periods of pre-parturition and post-parturition and pre-, peak-, and post-rut. From pre-parturition to post-parturition, we observed decreases in diel range size (?¢????38.2%), distance between extreme diel locations (?¢????17.0%), and diel rate of travel (?¢????18.2%). Diel range size, distance between extreme diel locations, and diel rate of travel during the pre-rut and rut exceeded those observed during post-rut. We further identified substantial increases in mobility during 12 24-h diel periods for eight females during our fall monitoring. Our data suggest that female white-tailed deer reduce mobility post-fawning following exaggerated movements during pre-parturition. Furthermore, despite a near equal sex ratio, estrous does may be required to actively seek potential mates due to low population density.

  4. Integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management in the Philippines - What does it need?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Johannes G.

    2012-11-15

    The integration of the informal sector into municipal solid waste management is a challenge many developing countries face. In Iloilo City, Philippines around 220 tons of municipal solid waste are collected every day and disposed at a 10 ha large dumpsite. In order to improve the local waste management system the Local Government decided to develop a new Waste Management Center with integrated landfill. However, the proposed area is adjacent to the presently used dumpsite where more than 300 waste pickers dwell and depend on waste picking as their source of livelihood. The Local Government recognized the hidden threat imposed by the waste picker's presence for this development project and proposed various measures to integrate the informal sector into the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) program. As a key intervention a Waste Workers Association, called USWAG Calahunan Livelihood Association Inc. (UCLA) was initiated and registered as a formal business enterprise in May 2009. Up to date, UCLA counts 240 members who commit to follow certain rules and to work within a team that jointly recovers wasted materials. As a cooperative they are empowered to explore new livelihood options such as the recovery of Alternative Fuels for commercial (cement industry) and household use, production of compost and making of handicrafts out of used packages. These activities do not only provide alternative livelihood for them but also lessen the generation of leachate and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions from waste disposal, whereby the life time of the proposed new sanitary landfill can be extended likewise.

  5. Efficient Calculation of Dewatered and Entrapped Areas Using Hydrodynamic Modeling and GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2009-12-01

    River waters downstream of a hydroelectric project are often subject to rapidly changing discharge. Abrupt decreases in discharge can quickly dewater and expose some areas and isolate other areas from the main river channel, potentially stranding or entrapping fish, which often results in mortality. A methodology is described to estimate the areas dewatered or entrapped by a specific reduction in upstream discharge. A one-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to simulate steady flows. Using flow simulation results from the model and a geographic information system (GIS), estimates of dewatered and entrapped areas were made for a wide discharge range. The methodology was applied to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in central Washington State. Results showed that a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction affected the most area at discharges less than 3400 m$^3$/s. At flows above 3400 m$^3$/s, the affected area by a 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction (about 25 ha) was relatively constant. A 280 m$^3$/s discharge reduction at lower flows affected about twice as much area. The methodology and resulting area estimates were, at the time of writing, being used to identify discharge regimes, and associated water surface elevations, that might be expected to minimize adverse impacts on juvenile fall chinook salmon (\\emph{Oncorhynchus tshawytscha}) that rear in the shallow near-shore areas in the Hanford Reach.

  6. Phytoremediation of landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D.L. . E-mail: d.jones@bangor.ac.uk; Williamson, K.L.; Owen, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    Leachate emissions from landfill sites are of concern, primarily due to their toxic impact when released unchecked into the environment, and the potential for landfill sites to generate leachate for many hundreds of years following closure. Consequently, economically and environmentally sustainable disposal options are a priority in waste management. One potential option is the use of soil-plant based remediation schemes. In many cases, using either trees (including short rotation coppice) or grassland, phytoremediation of leachate has been successful. However, there are a significant number of examples where phytoremediation has failed. Typically, this failure can be ascribed to excessive leachate application and poor management due to a fundamental lack of understanding of the plant-soil system. On balance, with careful management, phytoremediation can be viewed as a sustainable, cost effective and environmentally sound option which is capable of treating 250 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. However, these schemes have a requirement for large land areas and must be capable of responding to changes in leachate quality and quantity, problems of scheme establishment and maintenance, continual environmental monitoring and seasonal patterns of plant growth. Although the fundamental underpinning science is well understood, further work is required to create long-term predictive remediation models, full environmental impact assessments, a complete life-cycle analysis and economic analyses for a wide range of landfill scenarios.

  7. Pilot project of biogas production from pig manure and urine mixture at ambient temperature in Ventanilla (Lima, Peru)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrer, I. Gamiz, M.

    2009-01-15

    Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840 ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic digestion of pig manure diluted in urine, by means of on-site pilot scale reactors. The final goal was to establish design parameters for anaerobic digesters to be implemented; since it was part of a project to improve life conditions for the farmers through the incorporation of better management techniques. Experiments were carried out in a low-cost pilot plant, which consists of three anaerobic digesters (225 L total volume), without heating or agitation, placed in a greenhouse. The start-up of the digestion process was performed with a mixture of temperature adapted pig manure-sludge and fresh rumen, and showed a good performance regardless of the dilution of pig manure with water or urine, which is a key parameter due to the scarcity of water in the area under study.

  8. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, Ian J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Muth, Jr., David J.; Tomer, Mark; James, David; Porter, Sarah; Karlen, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study on Hardin County, Iowa to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. The strategy presented integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) into subfield landscape positions where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeled to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48 to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection) while also improving field level profitability. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 US$ kg-1) and dependent on the acceptable net profit for corn production (ranging from 0 to -1,000 US$ ha-1). This work presents the case that switchgrass can be economically implemented into row crop production landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale and compete against areas of the field operating at a negative net profit.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Ton Tonzi Ranch

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ton Tonzi Ranch. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Blo Blodgett Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldstein, Allen [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blo Blodgett Forest. Site Description - The flux tower site at Blodgett Forest is on a 1200 ha parcel of land owned by Sierra Pacific Industries in the Sierra Nevada range near Georgetown, California. The field site was established in May 1997 with continuous operation since May 1999. The site is situated in a ponderosa pine plantation, mixed-evergreen coniferous forest, located adjacent to Blodgett Forest Research Station. The Mediterranean-type climate of California is characterized by a protracted summer drought, with precipitation occurring mainly from October through May. The infrastructure for the ecosystem scale flux measurements includes a walkup measurement tower, two temperature controlled instrument buildings, and an electrical generation system powered by a diesel generator. Typical wind patterns at the site include upslope flow during the day (from the west) and downslope flow at night (from the east). The plantation is relatively flat, and contains a homogenous mixture of evenly aged ponderosa pine with other trees and shrubs scattered throughout the ecosystem making up less than 30% of the biomass. The daytime fetch for the tower measurements extends approximately 200 m to the southwest of the tower (this region contributes ~90% of the daytime flux), thus remote sensing images to be used for modeling should probably be centered approximately 100 m from the tower at an angle of 225 deg.

  11. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blomquist, Kevin W.; Lindemann, Tim A.; Lyon, Glen E.; Steen, Dan C.; Wills, Cathy A.; Flick, Sarah A.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  12. A = 11B (68AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    68AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11B) GENERAL: See Table 11.3 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model:(KU56, KU57A, BI60, TA60L, BA61D, BA61N, KO61L, KU61E, TR61, UM61, AM64, NE64C, CO65I, FA65A, FA65C, HA66F, MA66S, CO67M, FA67A, KU68A). Collective model:(BR59M, CL61D, CL62G, MA64HH, NE65E, EL66B, MI66J, RI67J, GO68). Ground state properties:(BE62L, BE63T, LI64H, LI64I, ST64, HU65C, RI66F, WI66E, BA67E, RH67A, SH67C, BA68B). Other:(SE63G, OL64A, TH64A, WI66F, BA67HH, PO67G).

  13. A=12C (68AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    68AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also Table 12.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (KU56, PE56A, KU57A, ME60D, TA60L, WE60B, BA61N, TR61, NA63A, VI63A, AM64, CL64, GI64C, GI64D, NE64C, BA65E, CO65I, FA65C, NE65, GI66A, HA66F, VA66A, YO66A, CO67M, EV67A, KU67B, HI68A). Collective model: (BA59F, BR59M, CL61D, CL62G, GO62I, WA62, GO63G, BR64Z, VO64C, ST65C, UB65, UB65A, VO65A, BO66H, DA66G, DR66B, KR66A, BA67D, BO67D, BO67J, BR67, KR67, LA67F, LA67M,

  14. A=14C (70AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 14C) GENERAL: See Table 14.1 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See (JA54A, EL56B, VI57, BA58E, OT59, SK59, TA60L, WA60, BA61D, FR61B, TA62F, BL63C, NA63A, SO63, VL63A, LI64I, LO64C, BA65T, KO65F, WA65D, ZA65B, BA66PP, BO66J, GU66D, MI66C, ZA66B, GR67M, HA67G, IN67A, KO67C, KO67S, EI68, FA68C, FR68C, NE68A, RO68C, AR69E, AT69, FR69B, SH69, SO69A, SO69D). 1. 14C(β-)14N Qm = 0.156 Recent values are 5745 ± 50 y (MA61B, HU64B), 5780 ± 65 y (WA61E),

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  16. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  17. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Carreiro, Margaret; Davis, Melissa L.; Hartley, Anne; Jensen, Bjame; Oliphant, Andrew; Randolph, Melissa J. C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2001-01-01

    The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m -2 day -1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH 4 +) at themore » site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE) of –6 kg-N ha -1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.« less

  18. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  19. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  20. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  1. 12C Cross Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    α, X) (Current as of 05/14/2012) NSR Reaction Eα (MeV) Cross Section File X4 Dataset Date Added 2009MA70 12C(α, γ0): σ 0 - 2.27 X4 05/01/2012 2012OU01 12C(α, γ): deduced S-factor Ecm = 0.3 - 3.5 X4 02/12/2015 1997KU18 12C(α, γ): analyzed S-factor Ecm = 0.9 - 3 X4 05/10/2012 1987RE02 12C(α, γ): σ, deduced S-factor 0.94 - 2.84 X4 05/09/2012 2001HA31 12C(α, γ): deduced S-factors Ecm = 0.95 - 2.78 E1, E2 06/18/2012 2001KU09 12C(α, γ): deduced S-factor Ecm = 0.95 - 2.8 X4 05/09/2012

  2. 14C Cross Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C(p, X) (Incomplete) NSR Reaction Ep (MeV) Cross Section File X4 Dataset Date Added 1969SI04 14C(p, γ): γ-rays yield for 230 - 690 keV Eγ ≥ 2.8 MeV 08/15/2013 1990GO25 14C(p, γ): σ, deduced S-factor 250 - 740 keV X4 10/28/2014 1968HE12 14C(p, γ): γ-ray yield 0.6 - 2.7 γ0 01/06/2015 1991WA02 14C(p, n): σ 1.0 - 1.55 X4 10/28/2014 1968HA27 14C(p, p): σ at θcm = 1.0 - 2.7 39.2°, 54.7°, 90°, 125.3°, 161.4° 08/15/2013 1971KU01 14C(p, γ0): excitation function at θ = 90° 1.3 - 2.6 1

  3. 16O Cross Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6O(α, X) (Current as of 02/08/2016) NSR Reaction Eα (MeV) Cross Section File X4 Dataset Date Added 1971TO06 16O(α, γ): σ 0.85 - 1.8 X4 09/15/2011 1953CA44 16O(α, α): σ 0.94 - 4.0 X4 09/15/2011 1997KU18 16O(α, γ): analyzed S-factor 1 - 3.25 X4 05/10/2012 1980MA27 16O(α, α): σ 1.305 - 1.330; 2.950 - 3.075 X4 02/14/2012 16O(α, γ): σ 1.37, 2.6, 2.9, 3.036 1987HA24 16O(α, γ): σ Ecm = 1.7 - 2.35 X4 02/14/2012 1990LE06 16O(α, α): σ 1.8 - 5 X4 03/12/2011 1985JA17 16O(α, α): σ 2

  4. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.

    2007-06-06

    can be done in such a way that also maximizes or improves upon conservation and other environmental goals (in some cases even when compared to idled land); Switchgrass and big bluestem work well together in simple mixture plots where big bluestem fills in around the switchgrass which alone grows in bunches and leaves patches of bare soil open and susceptible to erosion; Longer-term studies in the northern plains may also find that every other year harvest schemes produce as much biomass averaged over the years as annual harvests; Grasses can be grown for between $23 and $54/ton in the northern plains at production rates between 3 and 5 tons/acre; Land costs, yields, and harvest frequency are the largest determining factors in the farm scale economics. Without any land rent offset or incentive for production, and with annual harvesting, grass production is likely to be around $35/ton in the northern plains (farm gate); Average transportation costs range from $3 to $10/ton delivered to the plant gate. Average distance from the plant is the biggest factor - $3/ton at 10 miles, $10/ton at 50 miles; There is a substantial penalty paid on a per unit of energy produced basis when one converts grasses to bio-oil, but the bio-oil can then compete in higher priced fuel markets whereas grasses alone compete directly with relatively cheap coal; Bio oil or modified bio-oil (without the HA or other chemical fraction) is a suitable fuel for boiler and combustion turbines that would otherwise use residual fuel oil or number 2 diesel; Ensyn has already commercialized the use of HA in smokey flavorants for the food industry but that market is rather small. HA, however, is also found to be a suitable replacement for the much larger US market for ethanolamines and ethalyne oxides that are used as dispersants; Unless crude oil prices rise, the highest and best use of grass based bio-oil is primarily as a direct fuel. As prices rise, HA, phenol and other chemical fractions may become more

  5. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Makundi, W.; Andrasko, K.; Boer, R.; Ravindranath, N.; Sudha, P.; Rao, S.; Lasco, R.; Pulhin, F.; Masera, O.; Ceron, A.; Ordonez, J.; Deying, X.; Zhang, X.; Zuomin, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200 x 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.

  6. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  7. Seguridad Laboral y Salud Cartel Español

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Departamento de Energía (DOE) de Seguridad en el Trabajo y el cartel de la Salud. Programa DOE Order 440.1B de Protección del Trabajador para DOE (Incluyendo la Administración Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear) Los empleados federales y el Título 10, Código de Regulaciones Federales (CFR), parte 851, Programa de Salud de los Trabajadores y la Seguridad, ambas requieren que un cartel de seguridad y salud de los trabajadores sea publicado en un lugar visible para informar a los empleados de sus derechos y responsabilidades. En el pasado, el DOE ha tenido dos de seguridad y salud del trabajador posters separadas: una para los empleados federales compatible con el orden 440.1B y una segunda para los empleados del contratista consistente con 10 CFR 851. Este cartel sirve como un único cartel DOE tanto Federal y el contratista empleados. El cartel incluye secciones sobre empleados y representantes de los trabajadores los derechos, las responsabilidades, y del Departamento de Energía y del Departamento de Energía de los contratistas empleados responsabilidades. También se incluye un espacio para que los funcionarios para identificar la seguridad y la salud representante local y dónde encontrar información acerca de

  8. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  9. AmeriFlux US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Bert; Hinkle, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak). Site Description - The Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak site is located within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on the east coast of central Florida. Situated in a 10 ha scrub oak ecosystem, the surrounding stand was completely burned by a prescribed fire in 1996. The purpose of the burn was to control understory fuel load, which has been a common practice since 1969. Within a few weeks of the 1996 burn, the stand began to naturally regenerate from roots and rhizomes. Most scrub oak stands in the region undergo a 7 to 10 year disturbance cycle, mostly related to fire or hurricane activity. A severe drought gripped most of Florida beginning in 1998 until the later half of 2001 resulting in four years of relatively low amount of annual rainfall. Exceptionally high annual rainfall amount in 2004 was the result of a pair of hurricanes that hit the area in August and September of 2004. Prevaling wind directions for the site are as follows: W to NW in the winter, afternoon E sea breeze in the summer.

  10. Use of quantitative hazard analysis to evaluate risk associated with US Department of Energy Nuclear Explosive Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R.; O`Brien, D.A.; Martinez, J.; LeDoux, M.

    1996-03-01

    Quantitative hazard assessments (QHAs) are being used to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Process (SS-21), Nuclear Explosive Safety Studies (NESS), and Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) initiatives. The QHAs are used to identify hazards associated with DOE nuclear explosive operations. In 1994, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Pantex Plant participated in a joint effort to demonstrate the utility of performing hazard assessments (HAs) concurrently with process design and development efforts. Early identification of high risk operations allow for process modifications before final process design is completed. This demonstration effort, which used an integrated design process (SS-21), resulted in the redesign of the dismantlement process for the B61 center case. The SS-21 program integrates environment, safety, and health (ES&H) and nuclear explosive safety requirements. QHAs are used to identify accidents that have the potential for worker injury or public health or environmental impact. The HA is to evaluate the likelihood of accident sequences that have the potential for worker or public injury or environmental damage; identify safety critical tooling and procedural steps; identify operational safety controls; identify safety-class/significant systems, structures and components; identify dominant accident sequences; demonstrate that the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design-basis accident envelops process-specific accidents; and support future change control activities.

  11. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  12. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  13. AmeriFlux US-ORv Olentangy River Wetland Research Park

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bohrer, Gil [The Ohio State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ORv Olentangy River Wetland Research Park. Site Description - The ORWRP site is a 21-ha large-scale, long-term wetland campus facility that is owned by Ohio State University. It is designed to provide teaching, research, and service related to wetland and river science and ecological engineering. The site has been developed in several phases: Phase 1 (1992 - 1994) - Construction of two 2.5-acre deepwater marshes and a river water delivery system began, with pumps installed on the floodplain to bring water from the Olentangy River. In May 1994, one wetland was planted with marsh vegetation, while the other remained as an unplanted control; Phase 2 (1994 - 1999) - Development of a research and teaching infrastructure took place with the construction of boardwalks, a pavilion, and a compound. The creation of the 7-acre naturally flooded oxbow was also included; Phase 3 (2000 - 2003) - As a research building was created, three additional wetlands were created in the vicinity of the building, including a stormwater wetland that receives runoff from the roof of the building; Phase 4 - The current phase involves research access to the Olentangy River.

  14. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the ????rst time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  15. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) community responses to herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

    2003-11-01

    Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

  16. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a matrix species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous non-matrix species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 12 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  17. Vascular flora of the Rocky Flats area, Jefferson County, Colorado, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2010-08-01

    The Rocky Flats Site (Site) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility near Golden, Colorado that produced nuclear weapons components during the Cold War. Like many federal properties that have been off-limits to public access for decades, it has become a refugia for biodiversity as surrounding landscapes have been lost to agriculture and urbanization. A floristic study of the area was conducted on approximately 2,505 ha (6,189 ac) and includes the parcels currently managed and operated by DOE and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge). A flora of 630 species of vascular plants inmore » 84 families and 340 genera was documented, including 12 species endemic to the southern Rocky Mountains and seven species considered rare or imperiled by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. The flora of the Site is characterized by a predominantly Western North American floristic element, however, an Adventive floristic element contributes the greatest number of species. The vegetation is dominated by xeric tallgrass prairie and mixed grass prairie, with areas of wetland, shrubland, and riparian woodland.« less

  18. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 x 107Bq ha-1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. The potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2ms-1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. This approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  19. Human papillomavirus 16 E5 induces bi-nucleated cell formation by cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Lulin; Plafker, Kendra; Vorozhko, Valeriya; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Hanigan, Marie H.; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Plafker, Scott M.; Angeletti, Peter C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2009-02-05

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 is a DNA virus encoding three oncogenes - E5, E6, and E7. The E6 and E7 proteins have well-established roles as inhibitors of tumor suppression, but the contribution of E5 to malignant transformation is controversial. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we demonstrate that expression of HPV16 E5 is necessary and sufficient for the formation of bi-nucleated cells, a common characteristic of precancerous cervical lesions. Expression of E5 from non-carcinogenic HPV6b does not produce bi-nucleate cells. Video microscopy and biochemical analyses reveal that bi-nucleates arise through cell-cell fusion. Although most E5-induced bi-nucleates fail to propagate, co-expression of HPV16 E6/E7 enhances the proliferation of these cells. Expression of HPV16 E6/E7 also increases bi-nucleated cell colony formation. These findings identify a new role for HPV16 E5 and support a model in which complementary roles of the HPV16 oncogenes lead to the induction of carcinogenesis.

  20. Suitability criteria analyzed at the spatial scale of redd clusters improved estimates of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat use in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R. ); Jones, Julia; Murray, Christopher J. ); Dauble, Dennis D. )

    1999-12-01

    We improved our predictions of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) habitat use by analyzing spawning habitat at the spatial scale of redd clusters. Spatial point pattern analyses indicated that redd clusters in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, were consistent in their location from 1994 to 1995. Redd densities were 16.1 and 8.9 redds?ha-1 in 1994 and 1995, respectively, and individual redds within clusters were usually less than 30 m apart. Pattern analysis also showed strong evidence that redds were uniformly distributed within the clusters where inter-redd distances ranged from 2 to 5 m. Redd clusters were found to occur predominantly where water velocity was between 1.4 to 2 m?s-1, water depth was 2 to 4 m, and lateral slope of the riverbed was less than 4%. This habitat use represented a narrower range of use than previously reported for adult fall chinook salmon. Logistic regression analysis determined that water velocity and lateral slope were the most significant predictors of redd cluster location over a range of river discharges. Over-estimates of available spawning habitat lead to non-achievable goals for protecting and restoring critical salmonid habitat. Better predictions of spawning habitat may be possible if cluster-specific characteristics are used.

  1. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bonner, Ian J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Muth, Jr., David J.; Tomer, Mark; James, David; Porter, Sarah; Karlen, Douglas

    2014-10-01

    Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while increasing biomass yields, benefiting soil and water quality, and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study on Hardin County, Iowa to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. The strategy presented integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) into subfield landscape positions where corn (Zea mays L.) grain is modeledmore » to operate at a net economic loss. The results of this analysis show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48 to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection) while also improving field level profitability. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 US$ kg-1) and dependent on the acceptable net profit for corn production (ranging from 0 to -1,000 US$ ha-1). This work presents the case that switchgrass can be economically implemented into row crop production landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale and compete against areas of the field operating at a negative net profit.« less

  2. Erosion Potential of a Burn Site in the Mojave-Great Basin Transition Zone: Interim Summary of One Year of Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etyemezian, V.; Shafer, D.; Miller, J.; Kavouras, I.; Campbell, S.; DuBois, D.; King, J.; Nikolich, G.; Zitzer, S.

    2010-05-18

    A historic return interval of 100 years for large fires in deserts in the Southwest U.S. is being replaced by one where fires may reoccur as frequently as every 20 to 30 years. This increase in fires has implications for management of Soil Sub-Project Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for which the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site office (NNSA/NSO) has responsibility. A series of studies has been initiated at uncontaminated analog sites to better understand the possible impacts of erosion and transport by wind and water should contaminated soil sites burn over to understand technical and perceived risk they might pose to site workers and public receptors in communities around the NTS, TTR, and NTTR; and to develop recommendations for stabilization and restoration after a fire. The first of these studies was undertaken at the Jacob fire, a lightning-caused fire approximately 12 kilometers north of Hiko, Nevada, that burned approximately 200 ha between August 6-8, 2008, and is representative of a transition zone on the NTS between the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts, where the largest number of Soil Sub-Project CAUs/CASs are located.

  3. Modelling and mitigating dose to firefighters from inhalation of radionuclides in wildland fire smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, Brian J.; Jannik, Tim; Stone, Daniel; Hepworth, Allan; Naeher, Luke; Adetona, Olorunfemi; Blake, John; Eddy, Teresa

    2015-06-12

    Firefighters responding to wildland fires where surface litter and vegetation contain radiological contamination will receive a radiological dose by inhaling resuspended radioactive material in the smoke. This may increase their lifetime risk of contracting certain types of cancer. Using published data, we modelled hypothetical radionuclide emissions, dispersion and dose for 70th and 97th percentile environmental conditions and for average and high fuel loads at the Savannah River Site. We predicted downwind concentration and potential dose to firefighters for radionuclides of interest (137Cs, 238Pu, 90Sr and 210Po). Predicted concentrations exceeded dose guidelines in the base case scenario emissions of 1.0 × 107 Bq ha–1 for 238Pu at 70th percentile environmental conditions and average fuel load levels for both 4- and 14-h shifts. Under 97th percentile environmental conditions and high fuel loads, dose guidelines were exceeded for several reported cases for 90Sr, 238Pu and 210Po. Potential for exceeding dose guidelines was mitigated by including plume rise (>2 m s–1) or moving a small distance from the fire owing to large concentration gradients near the edge of the fire. As a result, our approach can quickly estimate potential dose from airborne radionuclides in wildland fire and assist decision-making to reduce firefighter exposure.

  4. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 9200 Latty Avenue, Hazelwood, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Hazelwood Interim storage Site (HISS) and surrounding area, provides the results for 1992, and discusses applicable environmental standards and requirements with which the results were compared. HISS is located in eastern Missouri in the City of Hazelwood (St. Louis County) and occupies approximately 2.2 ha (5.5 acres). Environmental monitoring of HISS began in 1984 when the site was assigned to the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. DOE placed responsibility for HISS under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), which was established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or unplanned contaminant releases as defined in DOE requirements and in the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III of CERCLA.

  5. A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2012-01-22

    A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or μgrid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Me2 Metolius-intermediate aged ponderosa pine

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Law, Bev [Oregon State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Me2 Metolius-intermediate aged ponderosa pine. Site Description - The mean stand age is 64 years old and the stand age of the oldest trees is about 100 years old. This site is one of the Metolius cluster sites with different age and disturbance classes and part of the AmeriFlux network (http://ameriflux.ornl.gov/fullsiteinfo.php?sid=88). The overstory is almost exclusively composed of ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex P. Laws) with a few scattered incense cedars (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin) and has a peak leaf area index (LAI) of 2.8 m2 m-2. Tree height is relatively homogeneous at about 16 m, and the mean tree density is approximately 325 trees ha-1 (Irvine et al., 2008). The understory is sparse with an LAI of 0.2 m2 m-2 and primarily composed of bitterbrush (Purshia tridentate (Push) DC.) and Manzanita (Arctostaphylos patula Greene). Soils at the site are sandy (69%/24%/7% sand/silt/clay at 0–0.2 m depth and 66%/27%/7% at 0.2–0.5 m depth, and 54%/ 35%/11% at 0.5–1.0 m depth), freely draining with a soil depth of approximately 1.5 m (Irvine et al., 2008; Law et al., 2001b; Schwarz et al., 2004).

  7. A=6Li (66LA04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    66LA04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 6Li) GENERAL: See Table 6.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). See also (AU55, LA55, ME56, FR57, HU57D, LE57F, PI58, BA59K, BR59M, FE59E, SK59, UB59, AN60, JA60G, KO60E, PH60A, TA60L, WA60F, BA61N, KO61A, SH61B, TA61G, VA61, CO62B, CR62A, DI62B, FO62E, GA62C, IN62, IN62A, IN62B, JA62, ME62A, NA62C, SA62C, ST62B, WA62H, BO63B, BU63D, DA63D, EL63D, HA63K, JA63C, JO63B, KL63, KU63B, KU63I, MO63C, OL63B, SA63K, SC63E, SC63I, VL63A, WA63, GR64C, JI64,

  8. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  9. Environmental Assessment for Lease of Land for the Development of a Research Park at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico - Final Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1997-10-07

    the action that have little potential for effect. The Proposed Action would result in an increase of as many as 1,500 new direct jobs and, as many as 2,565 indirect jobs could be created from the development of a research park. Lease of the tract would not reduce the size of LANL or change its site boundary. However, approximately 30 ac (12 ha) of a 60-ac (24-ha) tract would be changed from an undeveloped to a developed status. Under the No Action Alternative, no transfer or lease of Federal lands would occur. LANL would not have the benefit of its research personnel working on a variety of complementary research efforts beyond their federally funded responsibilities. No new jobs would be created from proposed development activities. Undeveloped lands would remain in their current condition. Two hypothetical accidents were analyzed that evaluated a potential chemical release and radiological doses to the public from hypothetical accidents at the proposed Research Park. Neither accident scenario resulted in potentially serious health effects for workers or the public at the proposed Research Park. The cumulative effects of the Proposed Action as well as reasonably foreseeable related actions could result in potential adverse health effects. Environmental effects would be limited to the loss of a small amount of wildlife habitat. Additional economic development would be expected to occur.

  10. Algae as a Feedstock for Biofuels: An Assessment of the State of Technology and Opportunities. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, K.; McGill, R.; Van Walwijk, M.

    2011-05-15

    cycle before it is released into the atmosphere 6) Ability to be cultivated on land that that is unsuitable for agriculture, so it does not directly compete with farmland Given microalgae's high lipid content and rapid growth rates, maximum oil yields of 20,000--115,000 L/ha/yr (2,140-13,360 gal/ac/yr) have been estimated. xiv 7) Ability to thrive in seawater, wastewater, or other non-potable sources, so it does not directly compete with fresh water resources. In fact, wastewater can provide algae with some essential nutrients, such as nitrogen, so algae may contribute to cleaning up wastewater streams. 8) Non-toxic and biodegradable 9) Co-products that may present high value in other markets, including nutriceuticals and cosmetics Given microalgae's high lipid content and rapid growth rate, maximum oil yields of 20,000 -- 115,000 liters per hectare per year (L/ha/yr) (2,140 -- 13,360 gallons per acre per year) (Baldos, 2009; Wijffels, 2008) have been estimated, which is considerably higher than any other competing feedstock. Although algae species collectively present many strong advantages (although one specific species is unlikely to possess all of the advantages listed), a sustainable algal biofuel industry is at least one or two decades away from maturity, and no commercial scale operations currently exist. Several barriers must first be overcome before algal biofuels can compete with traditional petroleum-based fuels. Production chains with net energy output need to be identified, and continued R&D is needed to reduce the cost in all segments of the production spectrum (e.g., harvesting, dewatering, extracting of oil). Further research to identify strains with high production rates and/or oil yields may also improve competitiveness within the market. Initiatives to seamlessly integrate algal biofuels into the existing transportation infrastructure may increase their convenience level.

  11. Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered

  12. Comparison of Marine Microalgae Culture Systems for Fuels Production and Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, Joseph C; Polle, Juergen

    2006-05-30

    The dual problems of global fossil fuels supplies and global warming focus attention on the need to develop technologies that can provide large amounts of renewable fuels without contributing to global warming. The capture of power plant flue gas CO2 using microalgae cultures is one potential technology that could meet this objective. The central R&D issues are the design and operation of low-cost algal mass culture systems and the development of algal strains and cultivation techniques that can achieve very high biomass productivities. The major objective of this project was to develop mass culture techniques that could result in greatly increased biomass productivities, well above the about 50 metric tons per hectare per year (mt/ha/y) currently achievable. In this project, two marine microalgae species, the diatom Cyclotella sp.. and the green alga Tetraselmis sp., were cultivated on seawater in both open ponds and closed photo bioreactors, under a variety of different cultivation conditions. Simultaneous operation of the closed photo bioreactors and open ponds demonstrated similar productivities, under the same operating conditions. Thus the very expensive closed systems do not provide any major or inherent advantages in microalgae production over open ponds. Mutants of Cyclotella sp. were developed that exhibited reduced pigment content, which theoretically would result in greatly increased productivities when grown under full sunlight. However, in open ponds, these mutant strains exhibited similar productivities as the parental strains. The mutant strains all grew relatively slowly, suggesting that additional mutations masked whatever inherent potential for increased productivities may have resulted from the reduced pigment content. Research is still required to develop improved low pigment strains. When open pond cultures were exposed to intermittent sunlight, by partially covering the ponds with slats, solar conversion efficiencies increased dramatically

  13. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows were

  14. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2006 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson; Paul D. Greger; Derek B. Hall; Dennis J. Hansen; William K. Ostler

    2007-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) during the Calendar Year 2006. Program activities included: (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). Sensitive and protected/regulated species of the NTS include 44 plants, 1 mollusk, 2 reptiles, over 250 birds, and 26 mammals protected, managed, or considered sensitive as per state or federal regulations and natural resource agencies and organizations. The threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) is the only species on the NTS protected under the Endangered Species Act. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources on which they depend were conducted for 34 projects. A total of 342.1 hectares (ha) (845.37 acres [ac]) was surveyed for these projects. Sensitive and protected/regulated species and important biological resources found included: 2 inactive tortoise burrows, 2 western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea), several horses (Equus caballus), 2 active predator burrows, mature Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia), yuccas and cacti; and also 1 bird nest (2 eggs), 1 barn owl (Tyto alba) and 2 great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus). NSTec provided a written summary report of all survey findings and mitigation recommendations, where applicable. All flagged burrows were

  15. DECOMMISSIONING AND ENVRIONMENTAL CLEANUP OF SMALL ARMS TRAINING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetz, T.

    2012-12-04

    USDOE performed a (CERCLA) non-time critical removal (NTCR) action at the Small Arms Training Area (SATA) Site Evaluation Area (SEA) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina. From 1951 to May 2010, the SATA was used as a small weapons practice and qualifying firing range. The SATA consisted of 870.1 ha (2,150 ac) of woodlands and open field, of which approximately 2.9 ha (7.3 ac) were used as a firing range. The SATA facility was comprised of three small arms ranges (one static and two interactive), storage buildings for supplies, a weapons cleaning building, and a control building. Additionally, a 113- m (370-ft) long earthen berm was used as a target backstop during live-fire exercises. The berm soils accumulated a large amount of spent lead bullets in the berm face during the facilities 59- years of operation. The accumulation of lead was such that soil concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) residential and industrial worker regional screening levels (RSLs). The RSL threshold values are based on standardized exposure scenarios that estimate contaminant concentrations in soil that the USEPA considers protective of humans over a lifetime. For the SATA facility, lead was present in soil at concentrations that exceed both the current residential (400 mg/kg) and industrial (800 mg/kg) RSLs. In addition, the concentration of lead in the soil exceeded the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 261.24) regulatory limit. The TCLP analysis simulates landfill conditions and is designed to determine the mobility of contaminants in waste. In addition, a principal threat source material (PTSM) evaluation, human health risk assessment (HHRA), and contaminant migration (CM) analysis were conducted to evaluate soil contamination at the SATA SEA. This evaluation determined that there were no contaminants present that constitute PTSM and the CM analysis revealed that no

  16. Magnetic hardening of Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi with ThMn12 structure by melt spinning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Chen; Sun, Kewei; Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    A recent study on the intrinsic magnetic properties of CeFe11–yCoyTi has revealed that substituting one Co for Fe retains the favorable magnetocrystalline anisotropy Ha found in the ternary Fe end member, while enhancing the Curie temperature Tc and saturation magnetization 4πMs. These findings warrant further optimization around Co substitution y = 1 to try to exploit the hard magnetic properties of these Ce-based magnets. Both Ce and Co concentrations in Ce1+xFe11–yCoyTi have been optimized in the range of x = 0 – 0.2 and y = 0 –1.5. It was found that Co substitution effectively enhances all hard magnetic properties,more »although the values are still lower than those predicted from the intrinsic magnetic properties. Specifically, Tc increases from 210 °C to 285 – 350 °C; 4πM19 (magnetization at 19 kOe) from 8.9 kG to 10.5 – 11.5 kG, remanence Br from 3.1 kG to 4.1 – 4.5 kG, and most importantly, Hci from 1.1 kOe to 1.5 kOe. As a result, the room temperature energy product (BH)max has been increased by over 100% from 0.7 MGOe in Ce1.1Fe11Ti to 1.5 MGOe in Ce1.05Fe9.75Co1.25Ti. Microscopy analysis indicates that the addition of Co refines the grain size and promotes chemical homogeneity at the microscopic scale. As a result, the beneficial effect of Co on the microstructure contributes to the improved hard magnetic properties.« less

  17. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  18. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  19. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  20. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), St. Charles, MO, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    The Weldon Spring Quarry is one of two noncontiguous areas that constitute the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weldon Spring site. The main area of the site is the chemical plant. Both areas are located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed the quarry on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1987, and the chemical plant area was added to the list in 1989. The quarry is about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area; it is accessible from State Route 94 and is currently fenced and closed to the public. The quarry is approximately 300 m (1,000 ft) long by 140 m (450 ft) wide and covers an area of approximately 3.6 ha (9 acres). The quarry was used by the Army for disposal of chemically contaminated (explosive) materials in the 1940s and was later used for the disposal of radioactively contaminated material by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in the 1960s. Approximately 110,000 m{sup 3} (144,000 yd{sup 3}) of soil and waste material was removed from the quarry and transported to the chemical plant area as part of completing the remedial action stipulated in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Quarry Bulk Waste Operable Unit (DOE 1990). Bulk waste removal was completed in October 1995. These wastes have been placed in the disposal cell at the chemical plant. Prior to bulk waste removal, contaminated water contained in the quarry pond was also removed; approximately 170 million liters (44 million gal) have been treated as of March 1998.