Sample records for li-ion steady state

  1. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  2. Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC

  3. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  4. Reinvestigation on the state-of-the-art nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes for 5 V Li-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Pan, Anqiang; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Xiaohong S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charging voltage limits of mixed carbonate solvents for Li-ion batteries have been systematically investigated from 4.9 to 5.3 V in half cells using Cr-doped spinel cathode material LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. We found that the stability of conventional carbonate electrolytes is strongly related to the stability and properties of the cathode materials at both lithiated and de-lithiated states. It is the first time to report that the conventional electrolytes based on mixtures of ethylene carbonate (EC) and linear carbonate (dimethyl carbonate - DMC, ethyl methyl carbonate - EMC, and diethyl carbonate - DEC) have shown very similar long-term cycling performance when cycled up to 5.2 V on LiNi0.45Cr0.05Mn1.5O4. The discharge capacity increases with the charge cutoff voltage and reaches the highest discharge capacity at 5.2 V. The capacity retention is about 87% after 500 cycles at 1C rate for all three carbonate mixtures when cycled between 3.0 V and 5.2V. The first-cycle efficiency has a maximum value at 5.1 V, with an average from 83% to 85% at C/10 rate. When cycled to 5.3 V, EC-DMC still shows good cycling performance but EC-EMC and EC-DEC show faster capacity fading. EC-DMC and EC-EMC have much better rate capability than EC-DEC. In addition, the first-cycle irreversible capacity loss increases with the cutoff voltage and the 'inactive' conductive carbon has also been found to be partly associated with the low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency at high voltages due to electrolyte decomposition and probably the PF6- anion irreversible intercalation.

  5. Typical Pure Nonequilibrium Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takaaki Monnai; Kazuya Yuasa

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that typicality holds for a class of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs): almost all the pure states properly sampled from a certain Hilbert space well represent a NESS and characterize its intrinsic thermal nature. We clarify the relevant Hilbert space from which the pure states are to be sampled, and construct practically all the typical pure NESSs. The scattering approach leads us to the natural extension of the typicality for equilibrium systems. Each pure NESS correctly yields the expectation values of observables given by the standard ensemble approach. It means that we can calculate the expectation values in a NESS with only a single pure NESS. We provide an explicit construction of the typical pure NESS for a model with two reservoirs, and see that it correctly reproduces the Landauer-type formula for the current flowing steadily between the reservoirs.

  6. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  7. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success...

  8. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, W.C.

    1983-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the confinement of field reversed plasma rings and, more particularly, to the steady state maintainance of field reversed plasma rings produced by coaxial plasma guns.

  9. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  10. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  11. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported.

  12. 4, 797821, 2007 Steady state 13C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of plant litter into more persistent organic compounds (Jones and Donelly, 2004). Carbon sequestration can-term steady state 13 C labelling to investigate carbon turnover in plant soil systems K. Klumpp, J. F mesocosms, allows tracing the fate of photosynthetic carbon in plant-soil systems in natural light

  13. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, Alan C. (E. Windsor, NJ); Jardin, Stephen C. (Princeton, NJ); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  14. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  15. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  16. Thermal Stability of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    1999-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial SONY cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity in the open circuit cell condition. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC). Microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of heat generating side reactions also as a function of SOC. Components of cells were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal reactivity of the individual electrodes to determine the temperature regimes and conditions of the major thermal reactions. Thermal decomposition of the SEI layer at the anodes was identified as the initiating source for thermal runaway. The cells with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes showed greater sensitivity to SOC and higher accelerating heating rates than seen for the cells with Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2}cathodes. Lower temperature reactions starting as low as 40 C were also observed that were SOC dependent but not accelerating. These reactions were also measured in the microcalorimeter and observed to decay over time with a power-law dependence and are believed to result in irreversible capacity loss in the cells.

  17. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  18. Experimental simulation of internal short circuit in Li-ion and Li-ion-Polymer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Maleki, Hossein [Motorola Mobility; Howard, Jason [Motorola Mobility; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-parameter controlled pinch test was developed to study the occurrence of internal short circuits in Li-ion and Li-ion-polymer cells. By tuning the control parameters (i.e., cell voltage as well as pinching area, load, and speed), the pinch test can reproducibly create ~1 to 2 mm wide internal short between a cell jelly-roll s inner layer electrodes. This recreates conditions similar to those that may occur during service. Furthermore, the pinch test is used to determine thermal stability of two Li-ion-polymer cells of different designs built by the same manufacturer. The pinch test method can be used to help distinguish cells with design features or characteristics that lower risk of potential thermal events created by internal short circuits.

  19. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Li-ion batteries Using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2011 Vehicle...

  20. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio...

  1. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy A. L. Lipson, R. S. Ginder, and M. C. Hersam, Northwestern University...

  2. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program DOE 2010 Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  3. Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have

  4. On fast integration to steady state and earlier times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Page 1 ... The integration to steady state of many initial value ODEs and PDEs ... very different from what we face solving the steady state equations ... now boils down to selecting the step size for the gradient descent method. ...... Using this noise estimate for more realistic situations where we don't know the.

  5. Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization Using Steady State Genetic Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasheed, Khaled

    evaluations in an optimization. For such problems steady state GAs may perform better than generational GAs constrained multi-objective optimization problems using steady state GAs. These methods are intended method called Objective Exchange Genetic Algorithm for Design Optimization (OEGADO) runs several GAs

  6. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Christoph J., E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com; Geiger, Sigrid, E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com [Freudenberg Vliesstoffe SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany); Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael [Freudenberg Forschungsdienste SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  7. A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.

  8. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

  9. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio Project ID ARRAVT008 Joe DiCarlo BASF Corporation May 11, 2011 "This presentation does not contain...

  10. Nonequilibrium steady states in fluids of platelike colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Bier; Rene van Roij

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonequilibrium steady states in an open system connecting two reservoirs of platelike colloidal particles are investigated by means of a recently proposed phenomenological dynamic density functional theory [M. Bier and R. van Roij, Phys. Rev. E 76, 021405 (2007)]. The platelike colloidal particles are approximated within the Zwanzig model of restricted orientations, which exhibits an isotropic-nematic bulk phase transition. Inhomogeneities of the local chemical potential generate a diffusion current which relaxes to a nonvanishing value if the two reservoirs coupled to the system sustain different chemical potentials. The relaxation process of initial states towards the steady state turns out to comprise two regimes: a smoothening of initial steplike structures followed by an ultimate relaxation of the slowest diffusive mode. The position of a nonequilibrium interface and the particle current of steady states depend nontrivially on the structure of the reservoirs due to the coupling between translational and orientational degrees of freedom of the fluid.

  11. Thermal characterization of Li-ion cells using calorimetric techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of Li-ion cells with intercalating carbon anodes and metal oxide cathodes was measured as a function of state of charge and temperature for two advanced cell chemistries. Cells of the 18650 design with Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} cathodes (commercial Sony cells) and Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathodes were measured for thermal reactivity. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was used to measure cell thermal runaway as a function of state of charge (SOC), microcalorimetry was used to measure the time dependence of thermal output, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal reactivity of the individual components. Thermal decomposition of the anode solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occurred at low temperatures and contributes to the initiation of thermal runaway. Low temperature reactions from 40 C--70 C were observed during the ARC runs that were SOC dependent. These reactions measured in the microcalorimeter decayed over time with power-law dependence and were highly sensitive to SOC and temperature. ARC runs of aged and cycled cells showed complete absence of these low-temperature reactions but showed abrupt exothermic spikes between 105--135 C. These results suggest that during aging the anode SEI layer is decomposing from a metastable state to a stable composition that is breaking down at elevated temperatures.

  12. The Energy Budget of Steady State Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David M. Kramer

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in addressing these questions: Why do hcef mutants have increased CEF1? Is increased CEF1 caused by elevated expression or altered regulation of CEF1 components? Which metabolic pools can be regulators of CEF1? Do metabolites influence CEF1 directly or indirectly? Which CEF1 pathways are activated in high CEF1 mutants? Is PQR a proton pump? Is elevated CEF1 activated by state transitions?

  13. Estimation of steady-state basic parameters of stars

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2000-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    From a minimum of total energy of celestial bodies, their basic parameters are obtained. The steady-state values of the mass, radius, and temperature of stars and white dwarfs, as well as masses of pulsars are calculated. The luminosity and giromagnetic ratio of celestial bodies are estimated. All the obtained values are in a satisfactory agreement with observation data.

  14. EXTENDING THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY TO NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ## of #. Our definition is based on energy exchanged, uses the microscopic dynamics of the system, and agreesEXTENDING THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY TO NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES. by David Ruelle* Abstract. We forces # and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover­Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume

  15. Steady states for Streater's energy-transport models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esteban, Maria J.

    Steady states for Streater's energy-transport models of self/4, 50-384 Wroc_law, Poland Piotr.Biler@math.uni.wroc.pl, 2Ceremade Matematyki, Politechnika Zielonog'orska, ul. Podg'orna 50, 65-246 Zielona G'ora, Poland

  16. Statistical mechanical theory for steady state systems. VII. Nonlinear theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Statistical mechanical theory for steady state systems. VII. Nonlinear theory Phil Attard School May 2007; published online 2 July 2007 The second entropy theory for nonequilibrium thermodynamics explicitly as a type of the Green-Kubo equilibrium time correlation function. The theory is illustrated

  17. A New Vision for High-Capacity Hybrid Li-ion/Li-O2 Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduces A New Vision for High-Capacity Hybrid Li-ionLi-O2 Batteries Diagram illustrating the CEES all-in-one vision for a high-capacity Li-ionLi-O2 cell. Illustration of CEES'...

  18. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes. Abstract: Silicon is...

  19. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  1. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental...

  2. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

  3. Towards Control of Steady State Plasma on Tore Supra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Philippe-Jacques; Brémond, Sylvain; Bucalossi, Jérome; Joffrin, Emmanuel; Chatelier, E; Mazon, Didier; Witrant, Emmanuel; Schuster, Eugenio; Ariola, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tore Supra tokamak is the largest superconducting magnetic fusion facility, has been devoted to long-duration high-performance discharge research. With a steady-state magnetic field and water cooled plasma facing components, discharges up to 6 minutes 24 seconds duration with injected / extracted energy up to 1 GJ have been performed. The Tore Supra real time measurements and control (RTMC) system has been upgraded to address schemes dedicated to long pulse operation with simultaneous control of an increasing number of plasma parameters. This includes plasma equilibrium control with possible self calibration during the discharge, plasma density control with possible pellet injection, current profile control to avoid magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities and infrared monitoring of plasma facing components preventing overheating. Most of these improvements are relevant to the tokamaks operation in a fully steady state regime.

  4. High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    High Capacity Li Ion Battery Anodes Using Ge Nanowires Candace K. Chan, Xiao Feng Zhang, and Yi Cui efficiency > 99%. Structural characterization revealed that the Ge nanowires remain intact and connected nanowire anodes are promising candidates for the development of high-energy-density lithium batteries

  5. Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries Basker Veeraraghavan, Bala Haran, Ralph for the graphite particles by in-situ polymerization #12;Experimental Preparation of PPy/Graphite composites Dropwise addition of pyrrole into aqueous slurry of graphite at 0 °C with nitric acid acting as an oxidizer

  6. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline earth atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meiser; M. J. Holland

    2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-alkaline-like atoms with ultra-narrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements

  7. Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state transport; 1866 Hydrology: Soil moisture; 1875 Hydrology: Unsaturated zone; 9900 Corrections; KEYWORDS), Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably

  8. Sensitivity of the Human Binaural Cortical Steady State Response to Interaural Level Differences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    response. Design: Auditory steady state responses at 4 and 8 Hz were recorded to 4 Hz cycles of interaural

  9. A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns Ali distillation column with 7 steady-states show the robustness of the method. No published software known to the steady-state model of distillation columns as it returns the original system as a single large block

  10. From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state economy. Halting an accelerating downward spiral is necessary but is not the same thing as resuming

  11. Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled Inductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipo, Thomas

    2005-38 Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled-dong, Masan, Gyeongnam, 631-701, Republic of Korea #12;Generalised steady-state analysis of multiphase.A. Lipo Abstract: The generalised steady-state analysis of the multi-phase interleaved boost converter

  12. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  13. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Nation

    2015-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterations using the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method outperform generalized minimal residual methods. In contrast, minimal residual methods work best for solvers based on direct LU decomposition. This work serves as a guide for solving the steady-state density matrix of an arbitrary quantum optical system, and points to several avenues of future research that will extend the applicability of these classical algorithms in absence of a quantum computer.

  14. Steady states of the parametric rotator and pendulum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio O. Bouzas

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the damped, non-linear equation of motion of the parametric rotator and pendulum perturbatively for small parametric excitation and damping, although our perturbative approach can be extended to other regimes as well. Our treatment involves only ordinary second-order differential equations with constant coefficients, and provides numerically accurate perturbative solutions in terms of elementary functions. Some of the steady-state rotation and oscillation modes studied here have not been discussed in the previous literature. Other well-known ones, such as parametric resonance and the inverted pendulum, are extended to elliptic parametric excitation tilted with respect to gravity. The results presented here should be accessible to advanced undergraduates, and of interest to graduate students and specialists in the field of non-linear mechanics.

  15. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nation, P D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterat...

  16. Steady-State Electrical Conduction in the Periodic Lorentz Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. I. Chernov; G. L. Eyink; J. L. Lebowitz; Ya. G. Sinai

    1993-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonequilibrium steady states in the Lorentz gas of periodic scatterers when an external field is applied and the particle kinetic energy is held fixed by a ``thermostat'' constructed according to Gauss' principle of least constraint (a model problem previously studied numerically by Moran and Hoover). The resulting dynamics is reversible and deterministic, but does not preserve Liouville measure. For a sufficiently small field, we prove the following results: (1) existence of a unique stationary, ergodic measure obtained by forward evolution of initial absolutely continuous distributions, for which the Pesin entropy formula and Young's expression for the fractal dimension are valid; (2) exact identity of the steady-state thermodyamic entropy production, the asymptotic decay of the Gibbs entropy for the time-evolved distribution, and minus the sum of the Lyapunov exponents; (3) an explicit expression for the full nonlinear current response (Kawasaki formula); and (4) validity of linear response theory and Ohm's transport law, including the Einstein relation between conductivity and diffusion matrices. Results (2) and (4) yield also a direct relation between Lyapunov exponents and zero-field transport (=diffusion) coefficients. Although we restrict ourselves here to dimension $d=2,$ the results carry over to higher dimensions and to some other physical situations: e.g. with additional external magnetic fields. The proofs use a well-developed theory of small perturbations of hyperbolic dynamical systems and the method of Markov sieves, an approximation of Markov partitions. In our context we discuss also the van Kampen objection to linear response theory, which, we point out, overlooks the ``structural stability'' of strongly hyperbolic flows.

  17. Thermal Abuse Modeling of Li-Ion Cells and Propagation in Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) continue to explore thermal abuse behaviors of Li-ion cells and modules that are affected by local conditions of heat and materials; (2) use the 3D Li-ion battery thermal abuse 'reaction' model developed for cells to explore the impact of the location of internal short, its heating rate, and thermal properties of the cell; (3) continue to understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-ion cells and modules; and (4) explore the use of the developed methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-ion battery systems.

  18. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  19. A new perspective on steady-state cosmology: from Einstein to Hoyle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recently reported the discovery of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted a 'steady-state' model of the universe, i.e., a cosmic model in which the expanding universe remains essentially unchanged due to a continuous formation of matter from empty space. The manuscript was apparently written in early 1931, many years before the steady-state models of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. We compare Einstein's steady-state cosmology with that of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold and consider the reasons Einstein abandoned his model. The relevance of steady-state models for today's cosmology is briefly reviewed.

  20. additional steady-state acquisition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approach greatly reduces eddy-current-induced steady-state distortions. Fig. 3 shows ECG-gated measurements; VENC 150 cms). Results using a standard (GRE) PC acquisition...

  1. Ethylmethylcarbonate, a promising solvent for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ein-Eli, Y.; Thomas, S.R.; Koch, V. [Covalent Associates Inc., Woburn, MA (United States); Aurbach, D.; Markovsky, B.; Schechter, A. [Bar-Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylmethylcarbonate (EMC) has been found to be a promising solvent for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Graphite electrodes, which are usually sensitive to the composition of the electrolyte solution, can be successfully cycled at high reversible capacities in several Li salt solutions in this solvent (LiAsF{sub 6}, LiPF{sub 6}, etc.). These results are interesting because lithium ions cannot intercalate into graphite in diethyl carbonate solutions and cycle poorly in dimethyl carbonate solutions. To understand the high compatibility of EMC for Li-ion battery systems as compared with the other two open-chain alkyl carbonates mentioned above, the surface chemistry developed in both Li and carbon electrodes in EMC solution was studied and compared with that developed on these electrodes in other alkyl carbonate solutions. Basically, the major surface species formed on both electrodes in EMC include ROLi, ROCO{sub 2}Li, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} species. The uniqueness of EMC as a battery solvent is discussed in light of these studies.

  2. Development of First Principles Capacity Fade Model for Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    into a lithium-ion battery model. The model explains the self-discharge process occurring in Li-ion cells processes in lithium-ion batteries may cause a number of undesirable effects leading to capacity loss.3 with the existing Li- ion intercalation model. Model Development The side reaction of general interest in lithium-ion

  3. Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Ralf August 30, 2010 Abstract Battery technology plays an important role in energy storage. In particular, lithium­ ion (Li-ion) batteries are of great interest, because of their high capacity, long cycle life

  4. Capacity Fade Studies of LiCoO2 Based Li-ion Cells Cycled at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    in capacity of commercially available Sony 18650 Cells cycled at different temperatures. Perform rate of a Sony 18650 Li-ion cell Cathode (positive electrode) - LiCoO2. Anode (negative electrode) - MCMB. Cell capacity ­ 1.8 Ah #12;Characteristics of a Sony 18650 Li-ion cell Characteristics Positive LiCoO2 Negative

  5. Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1 , Wen Chao Lee1 This study demonstrates the feasibility of using water and the contents of waste Li-ion batteries for the electrodes in a Li-liquid battery system. Li metal was collected electrochemically from a waste Li

  6. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates* Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, automotive and aerospace industries. Li-ion batteries are an essential part of the hybrid electric vehicles

  7. Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric that a modified structure can generate a steady-state photovoltage. We then propose a new class of photovoltaic novelty is such a photovoltaic transistor (PVT) aspect. Our idea of the PVT arises from the well known

  8. A dusty plasma device for producing extended, steady state, magnetized, dusty plasma columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlino, Robert L.

    A dusty plasma device for producing extended, steady state, magnetized, dusty plasma columns Wenjun with an existing Q machine, to produce extended, steady state, magnetized plasma columns. The dusty plasma device (DPD) is to be used for the investigation of waves in dusty plasmas and of other plasma/dust aspects

  9. C Gormezano 14/07/2003 Control Issues Control Issues for Integrated Steady-State Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    specific modelling (development of model-based control algorithm: Moreau) q Tools: ECCD, NBCD, LHCD Ø1 C Gormezano 14/07/2003 Control Issues Control Issues for Integrated Steady-State Operation Ø First principle: · Steady state operation is not conceivable without active control Ø Plan of the talk q

  10. A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

  11. BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott PLP 891 January 1983 Plasma Studies of the authors and major professor. #12;BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott We examime here the possibility of modifying the Levitated Octupole to operate as a tokamak with a rotational transform produced

  12. High-Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FT High- Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1 , N. R. Sauthoff1 , C Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA An attractive tokamak-based fusion power plant will require the development of high- steady- state advanced tokamak regimes to produce a high gain burning

  13. Dynamic Versus Steady-State Modeling of FACTS Controllers in Transmission Congestion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    benchmark system is used to illustrate and compare the effect on locational marginal prices and transmission marginal prices obtained from stability-constrained auction models when dynamic and steady state FACTS discusses the effect on transmission congestion management and pricing of dynamic and steady- state models

  14. Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Fueling requirements for steady-state, high bootstrap current fraction discharges Roger Raman meet., 8-10/10/03 CT Injection has the potential to meet future high bootstrap current fraction, steady-state discharge fueling needs · Future high bootstrap fraction plasmas require optimized profiles · During high

  15. On Steady-State Cornering Equilibria for Wheeled Vehicles with Drift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velenis, Efstathios

    In this work we derive steady-state cornering conditions for a single-track vehicle model without restricting the operation of the tires to their linear region (i.e. allowing the vehicle to drift). For each steady-state ...

  16. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers Department states, as well as a steady reservoir with a two-dimensional hydraulic jump in the contraction occur-dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order explanation, but quadratic friction is re- quired

  17. MODELING PACKAGED HEAT PUMPS IN A QUASI-STEADY STATE ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the experimental data for water-to-air heat pumps. Last but not least, financial support from the U.S Department ........................................................ 6 2.1. Steady State Air-to-Air Heat Pump Models........................................................ 13 2.2. Steady State Water-to-Air Heat Pump Models

  18. Thermal Effects on Inverted Pendulum Thrust Stands for Steady-state High-power Plasma Thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choueiri, Edgar

    Thermal Effects on Inverted Pendulum Thrust Stands for Steady-state High-power Plasma Thrusters A, 2003 Abstract Thermal effects on direct measurements of the thrust produced by steady-state, high-power. Associate Fellow, AIAA. §Presented at the 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 20-23rd

  19. Steady-State Modeling of a Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Fluorination Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Steady-State Modeling of a Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Fluorination Reactor Kamal Jha *,a Gerald, Minnesota 55144-1000, USA ABSTRACT A steady-state mathematical model of a parallel-plate reactor balances. Profiles of temperature, pressure, vapor volume fraction, and current density in the reactor

  20. A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries: Power of a commercial LiFePO4-graphite Li-ion battery. Compared to the isothermal reference, the mechanism of porosity;2 Due to their high power and energy densities, Li-ion technologies are the leading battery systems

  1. Steady-state bumpless transfer under controller uncertainty using the state/output feedback topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, K.; Lee, A.H.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear quadratic (LQ) bumpless transfer design introduced recently by Turner and Walker gives a very convenient and straightforward computational procedure for the steady-state bumpless transfer operator synthesis. It is, however, found to be incapable of providing convergence of the output of the offline controller to that of the online controller in several industrial applications, producing bumps in the plant output in the wake of controller transfer. An examination of this phenomenon reveals that the applications in question are characterized by a significant mismatch, further referred to as controller uncertainty, between the dynamics of the implemented controllers and their models used in the transfer operator computation. To address this problem, while retaining the convenience of the Turner and Walker design, a novel state/output feedback bumpless transfer topology is introduced that employs the nominal state of the offline controller and, through the use of an additional controller/model mismatch compensator, also the offline controller output. A corresponding steady-state bumpless transfer design procedure along with the supporting theory is developed for a large class of systems. Due to these features, it is demonstrated to solve a long-standing problem of high-quality steady-state bumpless transfer from the industry standard low-order nonlinear multiloop PID-based controllers to the modern multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) robust controllers in the megawatt/throttle pressure control of a typical coal-fired boiler/turbine unit.

  2. Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant Farrokh Najmabadi University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA IEA Workshop 59 "Shape and aspect ratio optimization for high , steady between a physics optimization and an integrated systems optimization Identify key impact of physics

  3. A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternbach, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    September 8-13, 1985 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICSIN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR E. SternbachLBL-19939 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL

  4. Low-Recycling Conditions and Improved Core Confinement in Steady-State Operation Scenarios in JET (Joint European Torus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-Recycling Conditions and Improved Core Confinement in Steady-State Operation Scenarios in JET (Joint European Torus)

  5. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, H.-S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Andreeva, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Cardella, A [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Gantenbein, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Hathiramani, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kasparek, W [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany] [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany; Klinger, T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Koenig, R [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kornejew, P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Laqua, H P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Lechte, C [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany] [Universitat Stuttgart, Institute fur Plasmaforschung, Germany; Michel, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Peacock, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Sunn Pedersen, T [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Thumm, M [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IHM, EURATOM Association, Karlsruhe, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IHM, EURATOM Association, Karlsruhe, Germany; Turkin, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Wegener, Lutz [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Werner, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Zhang, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Beidler, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany] [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Bozhenkov, S. [EURATOM-Association, Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany] [EURATOM-Association, Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics, Greifswald, Germany; Brown, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  6. December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    December 13, 2012 The steady state model of a reactive distillation column for ethylene glycol in an ethylene glycol reactive distillation column. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 33:2738­2748, 1994. 3 #12;

  7. Aspects of Steady-State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Beidler, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Cardella, A [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Chlechowitz, E [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Gantenbein, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Hathiramani, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Hirsch, M [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kasparek, W [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Stuttgart; Kisslinger, J [EURATOM / IPP Garching, Germany; Koenig, R [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Kornejew, P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Laqua, H P [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Lechte, C [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Stuttgart; Lore, Jeremy D [ORNL; Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Maassberg, H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Marushchenko, N B [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Michel, G [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Otte, M [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Peacock, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Sunn Pedersen, T [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Thumm, M [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, IHM, EURATOM Association, Karlsruhe, Germany; Turkin, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Werner, A. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Zhang, D [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.

  8. Steady-state and equilibrium vortex configurations, transitions, and evolution in a mesoscopic superconducting cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Andrews, MJ.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the system passes through nearly metastable intermediate configurations while seeking the final minimum-energy steady state consistent with the square symmetry of the sample. An efficient scheme to determine the equilibrium vortex configuration in a...

  9. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repurposing Li-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications.

  10. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EVs Based on Novel, High...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Storage Systems Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 6182014 1 High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV's Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems Keith D. Kepler...

  11. An ultra-compact and efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do Valle, Bruno Guimaraes

    This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger for wirelessly powered implantable medical devices. The charger presented here takes advantage of the tanh output current profile of an ...

  12. High Capacity MoO3 Nanoparticle Li-Ion Battery Anode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy functional were employed.) 10 AccomplishmentStatus Theoretical changes in Li-ion intercalated -MoO 3 Mo Li O * Four Li inserted in a theoretical nanoparticle. * 9 ps...

  13. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries K. Zaghib Hydro-Qubec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet Varennes, QC, Canada, J3X 1S1 BATT Review Meeting February 25 - 28,...

  14. Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga, * and Ann Marie Sastrya,b,c, *,z, the study reported critical data required for mesoscale numerical simulation, including ionic con- ductivity

  15. Poiseuille flow of soft glasses in narrow channels: From quiescence to steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinaki Chaudhuri; Jürgen Horbach

    2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using numerical simulations, the onset of Poiseuille flow in a confined soft glass is investigated. Starting from the quiescent state, steady flow sets in at a time scale which increases with a decrease in applied forcing. At this onset time scale, a rapid transition occurs via the simultaneous fluidization of regions having different local stresses. In the absence of steady flow at long times, creep is observed even in regions where the local stress is larger than the bulk yielding threshold. Finally, we show that the time scale to attain steady flow depends strongly on the history of the initial state.

  16. Application of variational techniques for parametric studies of steady-state controlled thermonuclear reactor blankets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, James David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis JAMES DAVID PEARCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1975 Ma)or Subject: Nuclear Engineering APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis by JAMES DAVID PEARCE Approved...

  17. Application of variational techniques for parametric studies of steady-state controlled thermonuclear reactor blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, James David

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis JAMES DAVID PEARCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1975 Ma)or Subject: Nuclear Engineering APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis by JAMES DAVID PEARCE Approved...

  18. Mathematical modeling of electroless nickel deposition at steady state using rotating disk electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.S.; Sohn, H.J. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical modeling of electroless nickel deposition was performed to predict the phosphorus content in Ni-P alloy film at steady state using the rotating disk system. The model consists of steady-state convective diffusion equations with nonlinear boundary conditions and overpotential equations satisfying the mixed potential theory. The weight percent of phosphorus predicted in Ni-P alloy agrees well with the experimental values within the experimental conditions carried out.

  19. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  20. NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

  1. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  2. The application of continuation methods in solving steady-state distillation problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Mark Francis

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    80 101 105 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Distillation is the most common separ ation process in the chemical and petroleum industr ies. A ma]or tool in the design of distillation columns is steady-state distillation simulation. Also, steady-stat. e...'s Equation 98 B BIFURCATION AND TURNING POINTS ON CONTINUATION PATHS 100 C FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAI MODELS USED IN EXAMPLE PROBLEMS 104 Problem 1 ? A Conventional Distillation Column Separating an Ideal Solution Problem 2 ? A Conventional...

  3. Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO4-Based Materials for High Power Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chang, On; Crane, S.; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Emile

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    II “Olivines in Lithium Batteries” The Beckman Institute,for High Power Li Ion Batteries C.R. Horne 1 , A. Jaiswal

  4. STEADY-STATE CIRCULATIONS FORCED BY DIABATIC HEATING AND WIND STRESS IN THE INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    THESIS STEADY-STATE CIRCULATIONS FORCED BY DIABATIC HEATING AND WIND STRESS IN THE INTERTROPICAL-STATE CIRCULATIONS FORCED BY DIABATIC HEATING AND WIND STRESS IN THE INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE A number. The model is forced by prescribed diabatic heating and boundary layer wind stress curl. The circulations

  5. Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emissions of an automotive Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, R.A.; Bolton, R.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has stringent emission goals for a Stirling-powered vehicle. The present investigation is concerned with the initial development of a procedure for predicting transient CVS urban cycle gaseous emissions from steady-state engine data. Steady-state data from three Mod I automotive Stirling engines are used to predict urban CVS cycle emissions for a Mod I Lerma vehicle. Predicted data with respect to NOx emissions were found to correspond closely to measured values, while there were differences for the CO and HC data. Reasons for these differences are briefly discussed. Attention is given to the test procedure and the measurements, the engine test results, vehicle emissions predictions, and a comparison of vehicle results and steady-state predictions. 11 references.

  6. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  7. Optimal monitoring and visualization of steady state power system operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bei

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    3. Matrix conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 E. Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1. IEEE 14-bus system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 a. Case 1: State estimation without measure- ment... errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 b. Case 2: Introducing bad data . . . . . . . . . . . 25 c. Case 3: Operating the UPFC at its capacity limit 26 d. Case 4: Controller parameter determination . . . 27 2. IEEE 57-bus system...

  8. FORMULATION OF NON-STEADY-STATE DUST FORMATION PROCESS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozawa, Takaya [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@ipmu.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO{sub 3} grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f{sub con,{sub ?}}, and average radius a{sub ave,{sub ?}} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule ?{sub coll} is much smaller than the timescale ?{sub sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a larger a{sub ave,{sub ?}}. Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies ? ? ?{sub sat}/?{sub coll} ?> 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} are uniquely determined by ?{sub on} at the onset time t{sub on} of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} as a function of ?{sub on} could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars.

  9. Effect of flame-retarding additives on surface chemistry in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, N.D.; Park, I.J. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.G., E-mail: kimjg@skku.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)] [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined the properties of 1 wt.% vinylene carbonate (VC), vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), and diphenyl octyl phosphate (DPOF) additive electrolytes as a promising way of beneficially improving the surface and cell resistance of Li-ion batteries. Surface film formation on the negative and positive electrodes was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, EIS, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM results confirmed that DPOF is an excellent additive to the electrolyte in the Li-ion batteries due to the improved co-intercalation of the solvent molecules.

  10. Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states V 400085, India h i g h l i g h t s PHP tested with varying heat powers under vertical orientation. Tube wall and inside fluid temperatures measured in the evaporator. Infrared temperature visualization

  11. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are of great interest nowadays. The feature of SOFCs makes them suitable for hybrid plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power

  12. ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D for commercial tokamak power plants. The economic prospects of future designs are compared for several tokamak a simplified economic model and selecting uniform engineering performance parameters, this comparison

  13. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  14. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  15. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  16. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  17. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  18. MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT IN PBLI BREEDER BLANKETS UNDER STEADY STATE , M. Abdou1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT IN PBLI BREEDER BLANKETS UNDER STEADY STATE H. Zhang1 , A. Ying1 , M breeder blankets under realistic reactor-like conditions in this paper. Tritium concentration. Tritium behavior in the liquid metal breeder blanket requires a thorough understanding of the sequence

  19. Wavelet-Based Piecewise Approximation of Steady-State Waveforms for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Wavelet-Based Piecewise Approximation of Steady-State Waveforms for Power Electronics Circuits Kam Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong http://chaos.eie.polyu.edu.hk Abstract-- Wavelet transform has to maximize computational efficiency. In this paper, instead of applying one wavelet approximation

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POOL BOILING FOR STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF POOL BOILING FOR STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT HEATING Ying He, Masahiro role in nucleate and transition boiling heat transfer at high heat flux. Many experiments have been in the numerical simulation of boiling heat transfer. In this study, based on the macrolayer evaporation model

  1. Replacement strategies to preserve useful diversity in steady-state genetic algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    as a serious failure mode for GAs [13,17]. Selective pressure and population diversity are inversely related]. Steady-state GAs (SSGAs) [42,49] usually only produce one or two offspring in each generation. Parents on generational GAs (which replace the entire population by the offspring population every generation) is because

  2. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Steady-State Operational Degrees of Freedom with Application to Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    regarding control of LNG plants,7,8 but they consider the dynamic performance and controllability rather, that the subsequent operation of LNG plants has been less studied. This is a bit surprising considering the large than the optimal steady-state operation. Zaim9 looked into dynamic optimization of a plant with several

  3. Particle transport in low-energy ventilation systems. Part 1: theory of steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolster, Diogo

    , such as that pro- vided by a conventional overhead heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system, is mixingParticle transport in low-energy ventilation systems. Part 1: theory of steady states Introduction of this energy is spent on ventilation of buildings with summer time cooling account for almost 10% of the US

  4. Carbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, George

    after degradation of detritus to release dissolved organic carbon. Keywords: detritus, food web, lakeCarbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan NATHALIE NIQUIL,* GRETTA planktonic food web in the surface mixed-layer of the North Basin in Lake Biwa, Japan. This model synthesised

  5. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers with a complex hydraulic jump in the contraction occurring in a small section of the bc/b0 and Froude number parameter plane. One- dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order approximation

  6. Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

  7. Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Jianting Zhu August 2003. [1] In hydroclimate and land-atmospheric interaction models, effective hydraulic properties are needed at large grid scales. In this study, the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the areally

  8. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Steady State Forces in Single Incremental Sheet Forming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Mahesh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    with the prediction of the steady state forces acting on the tool during forming. Prediction of forces generated would help to design the machine against excessive vibrations. It would help the user to protect the tool and the material blank from failure. An efficient...

  9. Steady-state laboratory ow laws alone fail to explain postseismic observations Andrew M. Freed a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freed, Andrew

    dislocation creep geodesy nite element modeling We test whether laboratory derived steady-state ow laws- and stress-dependent ow laws for diffusion and dislocation creep of olivine. We primarily concentrate of a number of creep mechanisms and associated constitutive relationships that quantify how viscosity and ow

  10. Current control in ITER steady state plasmas with neutral beam steering R. V. Budnya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    . The heating and current drive systems for ITER plasmas are being designed. The primary systems being for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid as the ratio of the DT fusion and the external heating powers PDT/Pext 5 for durations of up to 3000 s

  11. Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder. Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder. Abstract: High voltage spinel...

  12. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable nanoparticle clusters have quite reversible lithium-ion insertion and extraction, showing the first discharge lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  13. Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information that can be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information Proposals In Situ Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Advanced Li-ion Batteries Under Dynamic Operation Conditions Project start date: Spring 2008 EMSL Lead Investigator: Chongmin Wang

  14. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  15. Engineering Recently, we created the first Li-ion electrochemical cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characterization of Li-ion battery materials. In this presentation, I'll first review our latest progress of using-ion battery anodes. In the future, we will need further advancements in in-situ characterization nanotubes, and graphene. Several electrochemical mechanisms were observed and characterized in real

  16. A Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of degradation processes in lithium-ion batteries, the modelling of cell dynamics at the mircometer scale lithium-ion batteries is the deposition of metallic lithium at the negative battery electrode (LiA Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries Mario Ohlberger Stephan

  17. Nanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    density.1 The graphite generally used in lithium rechargeable batteries has a capacity of 372 mNanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son School of Materials rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical properties of the nanoparticle iron phosphates were characterized

  18. Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren and Shao Hong Wan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren.S.A. OPTIMAL STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE POLICIES: A STEADY STATE ANALYSIS* SHMUEL S. OREN AND SHAO HONG WAN Petroleum Reserve (SPR) under a variety of supply and demand conditions. The optimal policy variables

  19. Exponential approach to, and properties of, a non-equilibrium steady state in a dilute gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric A. Carlen; Joel L. Lebowitz; Clement Mouhot

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a kinetic model of a system in contact with several thermal reservoirs at different temperatures $T_\\alpha$. Our system is a spatially uniform dilute gas whose internal dynamics is described by the nonlinear Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian collisions. Similarly, the interaction with reservoir $\\alpha$ is represented by a Markovian process that has the Maxwellian $M_{T_\\alpha}$ as its stationary state. We prove existence and uniqueness of a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) and show exponential convergence to this NESS in a metric on probability measures introduced into the study of Maxwellian collisions by Gabetta, Toscani and Wenberg (GTW). This shows that the GTW distance between the current velocity distribution to the steady-state velocity distribution is a Lyapunov functional for the system. We also derive expressions for the entropy production in the system plus the reservoirs which is always positive.

  20. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA); Berger, Andrew J. (Rochester, NY); Cerussi, Albert E. (Lake Forest, CA); Bevilacqua, Frederic (Costa Mesa, CA); Jakubowski, Dorota (Irvine, CA)

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  1. A numerical study of steady-state vortex configurations and vortex pinning in type-II superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sangbum

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In part I, a numerical study of the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied magnetic field H...

  2. A numerical study of steady-state vortex configurations and vortex pinning in type-II superconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sangbum

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In part I, a numerical study of the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied ...

  3. Control of unstable steady states by extended time-delayed feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Dahms; Philipp Hoevel; Eckehard Schoell

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-delayed feedback methods can be used to control unstable periodic orbits as well as unstable steady states. We present an application of extended time delay autosynchronization introduced by Socolar et al. to an unstable focus. This system represents a generic model of an unstable steady state which can be found for instance in a Hopf bifurcation. In addition to the original controller design, we investigate effects of control loop latency and a bandpass filter on the domain of control. Furthermore, we consider coupling of the control force to the system via a rotational coupling matrix parametrized by a variable phase. We present an analysis of the domain of control and support our results by numerical calculations.

  4. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L., E-mail: zhiliang.yuan@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  5. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. L. Yuan; M. Lucamarini; J. F. Dynes; B. Frohlich; A. Plews; A. J. Shields

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a +/-20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  6. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state pellet supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A railgun system for repetitive high-speed pellet acceleration and steady-state pellet supply system has been developed and investigated. Using a 2m-long railgun system, the hydrogen pellet was accelerated to 2.6km/sec by the supplied energy of 1.7kJ. It is expected that the hydrogen pellet can be accelerated to 3km/sec using the present pneumatic pellet accelerator and a 2m-long augment railgun. Screw-driven hydrogen-isotope filament extruding system has been fabricated and will be tested to examine its applicability to the steady-state extrusion of the solid hydrogen-isotope filament.

  7. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes discussed in the Battery Test Manual for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (INL, March 2008, rev0). A realistic duty cycle will involve both CD and CS modes, the proportion of each defined by the severity of the power demands. We assume that the cells will start each cycling day at 90% SOC, and that they will not be allowed to go below 35% SOC, with operation around 70% SOC being a nominal condition. The 35, 70, and 90% SOC conditions are also being used to define critical aspects of the related reference performance test (RPT) for this investigation. There are three primary components to the RPT, all assessed at room temperature: (A) static and residual capacity (SRC) over a matrix of current, (B) kinetics and pulse performance testing (PPT) over current for SOCs of interest, and (C) EIS for SOCs of interest. The RPT is performed on all cells every 30 day test interval, as well as a pulse-per-day to provide a quick diagnostic snapshot. Where feasible, we utilize various elements of Diagnostic Testing (DT) to characterize performance of the cells and to gain mechanistic-level knowledge regarding both performance features and limitations. We will present the rationale behind the experimental design, early data, and discuss the fundamental tools used to elucidate performance degradation mechanisms.

  8. Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

  9. A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.

  10. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Doyon

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  11. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 5: Single annulus tests, steady-state test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results for the steady state portion of the finless single annulus test program. The objective of the experimental study was to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a finless or ribless heater and a ribbed heater. The latter program is currently underway and will be reported separately. For finless heater, testing was conducted in both a steady state and transient mode. The present report presents steady state results for a series of experiments with uniform and asymmetric heating. The demand curves obtained under uniform heating yielded OFI flow-rates which were slightly below those obtained for a circular tube geometry with the same L/D ratio; however, the single annulus had a hydraulic diameter which was approximately fifty percent larger than the circular tube. The asymmetric heating cases were selected to provide the same average power input as the uniform cases. The results for these tests indicated that the flow-rate at OFI increased with the degree of asymmetry.

  12. Simultaneous Extrema in the Entropy Production for Steady-State Fluid Flow in Parallel Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niven, Robert K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid in parallel pipes can simultaneously satisfy two contradictory extremum principles in the entropy production, depending on the flow conditions. For a constant total flow rate, the flow can satisfy (i) a pipe network minimum entropy production (MinEP) principle with respect to the flow rates, and (ii) the maximum entropy production (MaxEP) principle of Paltridge and Ziegler with respect to the choice of flow regime. The first principle - different to but allied to that of Prigogine - arises from the stability of the steady state compared to non-steady-state flows; it is proven for isothermal laminar and turbulent flows in parallel pipes with a constant power law exponent, but is otherwise invalid. The second principle appears to be more fundamental, driving the formation of turbulent flow in single and parallel pipes at higher Reynolds numbers. For constant head conditions, the flow can satisfy (i) a modified maximum entropy production (MaxEPMod) principle of \\v{Z}u...

  13. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A., E-mail: a.a.listopad@inp.nsk.su; Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced high energy Li-ion cell for PHEV...

  15. Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.; Herbin-Davis, Karen M. [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Styblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Thomas, David J., E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov [Pharmacokinetics Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes formation of mono-, di-, and tri-methylated metabolites of inorganic arsenic. Distribution and retention of arsenic were compared in adult female As3mt knockout mice and wild-type C57BL/6 mice using a regimen in which mice received daily oral doses of 0.5 mg of arsenic as arsenate per kilogram of body weight. Regardless of genotype, arsenic body burdens attained steady state after 10 daily doses. At steady state, arsenic body burdens in As3mt knockout mice were 16 to 20 times greater than in wild-type mice. During the post dosing clearance period, arsenic body burdens declined in As3mt knockout mice to {approx} 35% and in wild-type mice to {approx} 10% of steady-state levels. Urinary concentration of arsenic was significantly lower in As3mt knockout mice than in wild-type mice. At steady state, As3mt knockout mice had significantly higher fractions of the body burden of arsenic in liver, kidney, and urinary bladder than did wild-type mice. These organs and lung had significantly higher arsenic concentrations than did corresponding organs from wild-type mice. Inorganic arsenic was the predominant species in tissues of As3mt knockout mice; tissues from wild-type mice contained mixtures of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites. Diminished capacity for arsenic methylation in As3mt knockout mice prolongs retention of inorganic arsenic in tissues and affects whole body clearance of arsenic. Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites.

  16. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  18. Silicon Nanoparticles-Graphene Paper Composites for Li Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeong K.; Smith, Kurt B.; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Harold H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites of Si nanoparticles highly dispersed between graphene sheets, and supported by a 3-D network of graphite formed by reconstituting regions of graphene stacks exhibit high Li ion storage capacities and cycling stability. An electrode was prepared with a storage capacity >2200 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles and >1500 mA h g{sup ?1} after 200 cycles that decreased by <0.5% per cycle.

  19. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  20. Transition dynamics between the multiple steady states in natural ventilation systems : from theories to applications in optimal controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Jinchao

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the multiple steady state behavior, an important observation in numerical and experimental studies in natural ventilation systems. The-oretical models are developed and their applications in ...

  1. A study of the macroscopic performance characteristics of a steady-state electromagnetic pump for an electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beal, Charles Clarence

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF THE MACROSCOPIC PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A STEADY-STATE ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP FOR AN ELECTROLYTE A Thesis By CHARLES CLARENCE BEAL II Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of. MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering A STUDY OF THE MACROSCOPIC PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A STEADY-STATE ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP FOR AN ELECTROLYTE A Thesis By CHARLES CLARENCE BEAL II...

  2. High current, low emittance, steady state electron guns with plasma cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herschovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Major limitations of plasma cathodes have been overcome in an electron gun based on extraction of superthermal electrons with a low thermal spread. A grid is employed to select these electrons for extraction while retaining the bulk electrons in the discharge. Steady state extraction of electron beams corresponding to over 60% of the total arc discharge current has been observed. A perveance of over 280 microperv was reached with the extraction of 9A at 1KeV from a 6 mm aperture. Some of the characteristics of the electron gun described in this paper are very attractive for electron beam melting.

  3. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model of westinghouse Model Boiler Vo. 2 (%1B-2) test facility steam generator. 2. Perforni sensitivdty studies on the nodalization of the RELAP5 niodel of the steam generator 3. Determine the best model for the steam generator based... on the sensitivity studies. Such a model will be a. representation of a Westinghouse E-tube steam generator. It will be represented by hydrorlynamic volunies, junctions. and flow area. s. 4. Obtain steady state results using RELAP5/MOD2 code for MB-2 steam gen...

  4. Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emissions of an automotive Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, R.A.; Bolton, R.J.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy and managed by NASA/Lewis Research Center, is to develop a rationale for predicting transient CVS cycle emissions from steady-state engine data. A technique is developed that integrates engine emissions as a function of fuel flow over a modelled CVS cycle to predict vehicle urban cycle results. Steady-state emissions data from three Mod I engines* burning unleaded gasoline are used to predict vehicle NO /SUB x/, CO, and HC emissions. A total of 155 data points representing variations in engine power, excess air (lambda), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) schedule are utilized. Predictions are then compared to the results of nine urban CVS cycle tests of the Mod I/Lerma vehicle, and a conclusion is reached that very accurate predictions of vehicle NO /SUB x/ emissions are possible. CO and HC emissions are considerably higher than predicted due to extreme sensitivity of CO emissions to Lambda, the effect of heater head temperature, and failure of the engine to accurately reflect emissions during start-up.

  5. Development of steady-state operation using ICH in the LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Shoji, M.; Kamio, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshimura, S.; Tamura, N.; Yamada, I.; Suzuki, C.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); and others

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-pulse discharge with the electron density n{sub e0} of 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}, electron temperature T{sub e0} of 2.5 keV, discharge length t{sub dis} of 19 minutes and heating power P{sub inject} of 1MW, is demonstrated using the HAS antenna and the PA antenna for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and increasing in the power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The HAS antenna is designed to phase dipole and excite ideal fast wave with parallel electric field kept small, and low impurity generation and accumulation are achieved on the steady-state discharge by weak parasitic heating around antennas. On the long-pulse discharge, the radiation measured by bolometer is kept smaller than 20% for injection power, and the heat load to divertor is approximately 60 % with low energetic particle losses. The heat load ratio to divertor is not as a function of injection power around 1MW, and energy confinement has been kept during the steady-state discharge.

  6. Steady-state and unstable behavior of a single-mode inhomogeneously broadened laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, N.B.; Lugiato, L.A.; Mandel, P.; Narducci, L.M.; Bandy, D.K.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the study of the steady-state solutions and their stability for inhomogeneously broadened, unidirectional single-mode ring lasers. For both Lorentzian and Gaussian inhomogeneous-broadening, profiles we find that, for appropriate detuning of the laser cavity, as many as three nontrivial steady-state solutions may appear and provide a formal confirmation of a phenomenon termed mode splitting by Casperson and Yariv in 1970 (Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 259 (1970)). We show through stability arguments that bistability between trivial (zero-intensity) and nontrivial solutions is possible. This bistability appears experimentally accessible. We analyze the stability of the stationary solutions, especially in connection with its dependence on the detuning and pump parameters. The instability boundary in the plane of these two control parameters can present a fairly complicated structure with alternate ranges of stability and instability. In correspondence with certain points of the instability boundary, two complex-conjugate pairs of eigenvalues of the characteristic equation become simultaneously unstable. This situation is likely to produce spontaneous oscillations with two coexisting fundamental frequencies.

  7. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  8. Selection of Steady-State Process Simulation Software to Optimize Treatment of Radioactive and Hazardous Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T. T.; Barnes, C. M.; Lauerhass, L.; Taylor, D. D.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process used for selecting a steady-state process simulator under conditions of high uncertainty and limited time is described. Multiple waste forms, treatment ambiguity, and the uniqueness of both the waste chemistries and alternative treatment technologies result in a large set of potential technical requirements that no commercial simulator can totally satisfy. The aim of the selection process was two-fold. First, determine the steady-state simulation software that best, albeit not completely, satisfies the requirements envelope. And second, determine if the best is good enough to justify the cost. Twelve simulators were investigated with varying degrees of scrutiny. The candidate list was narrowed to three final contenders: ASPEN Plus 10.2, PRO/II 5.11, and CHEMCAD 5.1.0. It was concluded from ''road tests'' that ASPEN Plus appears to satisfy the project's technical requirements the best and is worth acquiring. The final software decisions provide flexibility: they involve annual rather than multi-year licensing, and they include periodic re-assessment.

  9. Plasma Shape Optimization for Steady-State Tokamak Development in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, C T; Ferron, J R; Luce, T C; Petrie, T W; Politzer, P A; Challis, C; DeBoo, J C; Doyle, E J; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Groth, M; Hyatt, A M; Jackson, G L; Kessel, C; La Haye, R J; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Murakami, M; Osborne, T H; Park, J; Prater, R; Porter, G D; Reimerdes, H; Rhodes, T L; Shafer, M W; Snyder, P B; Turnbull, A D; West, W P

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    For a more detailed account of the results summarized here and for references, see C.T. Holcomb et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 056116 (2009). Advanced tokamak research on DIII-D is focused on developing a high fusion gain, steady-state scenario that would eliminate or greatly reduce the demands on an inductive transformer in future machines. Steady-state operation requires the inductively driven current density (j{sub Ind}) be zero everywhere. Most of the total current I{sub p} is typically from self-driven bootstrap current, with the remainder driven by external noninductive sources, such as neutral beam and radiofrequency current drive. This paper describes an extension of the fully noninductive condition (f{sub NI} {approx} 100%) to {approx}0.7 current relaxation times that was achieved by a combination of more available ECCD and new scientific insights. The insights are an optimization of performance through variation of the plasma shape parameter known as squareness ({zeta}) and an optimization of divertor magnetic balance. These optimizations simultaneously improve stability, confinement, and density control. These are each essential for achieving fully noninductive operation.

  10. Investigation of layered intergrowth LixMyMn1-yO2+z (M=Ni,Co,Al) compounds as positive electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolle, M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Richardson, T.J.; Doeff, M.M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as Positive Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Dollé,* J.layered manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries.Keywords: Lithium batteries, layered manganese oxides,

  11. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  12. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  13. Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

  14. Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,Lakefront Tow(Redirected from Lewisburg, PA)LeydenLi-ion

  15. Approximate semi-analytical solutions for the steady-state expansion of a contactor plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camporeale, E; MacDonald, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the steady-state expansion of a collisionless, electrostatic, quasi-neutral plasma plume into vacuum, with a fluid model. We analyze approximate semi-analytical solutions, that can be used in lieu of much more expensive numerical solutions. In particular, we focus on the earlier studies presented in Parks and Katz (1979), Korsun and Tverdokhlebova (1997), and Ashkenazy and Fruchtman (2001). By calculating the error with respect to the numerical solution, we can judge the range of validity for each solution. Moreover, we introduce a generalization of earlier models that has a wider range of applicability, in terms of plasma injection profiles. We conclude by showing a straightforward way to extend the discussed solutions to the case of a plasma plume injected with non-null azimuthal velocity.

  16. Design optimization of conventional heat pumps: application to steady-state heating efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C.K.; Fischer, S.K.; Ellison, R.D.; Jackson, W.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physically-based heat pump model was connected to an optimiztion program to form a computer code for use in the design of high-efficiency heat pumps. The method used allows for the simultaneous optimization of selected design variables, taking proper account of their interactions, while constraining other parameters to chosen limits or fixed values. For optimiztion of the steady-state heating efficiency of conventional heat pumps, ten variables were optimized while heating capacity was fixed; the results may, however, be scaled to other capacities. Calculations were made for a range of component efficiencies and heat exchanger sizes. The results predict substantial improvement in heating performance due to both optimal system configurations and the use of improved components. Sensitivity analyses show that there is considerable latitude for deviating from the optimum design to make use of available component sizes and for accomodating the compromises needed for good cooling performance.

  17. Synchrotron and Compton Spectra from a Steady-State Electron Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rephaeli, Yoel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy densities of relativistic electrons and protons in extended galactic and intracluster regions are commonly determined from spectral radio and (rarely) $\\gamma$-ray measurements. The time-independent particle spectral density distributions are commonly assumed to have a power-law (PL) form over the relevant energy range. A theoretical relation between energy densities of electrons and protons is usually adopted, and energy equipartition is invoked to determine the mean magnetic field strength in the emitting region. We show that for typical conditions, in both star-forming and starburst galaxies, these estimates need to be scaled down substantially due to significant energy losses that (effectively) flatten the electron spectral density distribution, resulting in a much lower energy density than deduced when the distribution is assumed to have a PL form. The steady-state electron distribution in the nuclear regions of starburst galaxies is calculated by accounting for Coulomb, bremsstrahlung, Compton, a...

  18. High current, low emittance, steady state electron guns with plasma cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Major limitations of plasma cathodes have been overcome in an electron gun based on extraction of superthermal electrons from a discharge characterized by a large component of high energy electrons with a low thermal spread. A grid is employed to select these electrons for extraction while retaining the bulk electrons in the discharge. Steady state extraction of electron beams corresponding to over 60% of the total arc discharge current has been observed. A perveance of over 280 microperv was reached with the extraction of 9A at 1 keV from a 6 nun aperture. Some of the characteristics of the electron beam described in this paper are very attractive for electron beam melting.

  19. Steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zippilli, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  20. Magnetic nozzle and plasma detachment model for a steady-state flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breizman, B. N.; Tushentsov, M. R.; Arefiev, A. V. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma propulsion concepts that employ a guiding magnetic field raise the question of how the magnetically controlled plasma can detach from the spacecraft. This paper presents a detachment scenario relevant to high-power thrusters in which the plasma can stretch the magnetic field lines to infinity, similar to the solar wind. In previous work, the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations have been solved analytically for a plasma flow in a slowly diverging nozzle. That solution indicates that efficient detachment is feasible if the nozzle is sufficiently long. In order to extend the previous model beyond the idealizations of analytical theory, a Lagrangian code is developed in this work to simulate steady-state kinetic plasma flows and to evaluate nozzle efficiency. The code is benchmarked against the analytical results and then used to examine situations that are not analytically tractable, including plasma behavior in the recent Detachment Demonstration Experiment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. 392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. VOL. 38. NO. 2. FEBRUARY 1991 Numerical Simulation of a Steady-State Electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Carl

    392 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. VOL. 38. NO. 2. FEBRUARY 1991 Numerical Simulation of a Steady-State Electron Shock Wave in a Submicrometer Semiconductor Device Carl L. Gardner Abstract-state electron shock wave in a semicon- ductor device are presented, using the hydrodynamic model

  2. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  3. On the mechanisms of switching between two steady states of electroconductivity in plasticized transparent PVC films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Vlasov; L. A. Apresian; V. I. Krystob; T. V. Vlasova

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of experimental researches of electroconductivity of PVC films, plasticized by patented modifier, at fields below the breakdown level are described. A possibility of management of the repeated transitions between two states with high and relatively low conductivity with conservation of reversibility is found out. A simple qualitative model of abnormal conductivity based on representation of polymer film as a sequence p-n of transitions is offered. For samples of plasticized PVC films with thickness 30-50 microns specific volume resistance of steady states was of an order of 10E4 Om*m \\times 10E6 Om*m, accordingly. A simple qualitative model describing abnormal character of conductivity of polymeric films is offered. The model considers the presence of known non-uniform plasticized polymer structure with discrete domains in which quasi-free moving of charges can occur. At imposing of an external field semi-condictive domains form sequence of p-n transitions which provides presence of two states of conductivity, in analogy with dinistors.

  4. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  5. Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bocian, D; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...

  6. Integrated modelling of steady-state scenarios and heating and current drive mixes for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Park, Jin Myung [ORNL; Giruzzi, G. [CEA, IRFM, France; Garcia, J. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Bonoli, P. T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto University, Japan; Ferron, J.R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Hayashi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Honda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Hubbard, A. [MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; Hong, R. M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Ide, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka; Imbeaux, F. [CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lex Durance, France; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego; Na, Y S [Seoul National University of Technology, Korea; Oikawa, T. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Parail, V. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Polevoi, A. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Sips, A C C [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Shafer, M. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Snipes, J. A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; St. John, H. E. [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Snyder, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego; Voitsekhovitch, I [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress on ITER steady-state (SS) scenario modelling by the ITPA-IOS group is reviewed. Code-to-code benchmarks as the IOS group's common activities for the two SS scenarios (weak shear scenario and internal transport barrier scenario) are discussed in terms of transport, kinetic profiles, and heating and current drive (CD) sources using various transport codes. Weak magnetic shear scenarios integrate the plasma core and edge by combining a theory-based transport model (GLF23) with scaled experimental boundary profiles. The edge profiles (at normalized radius rho = 0.8-1.0) are adopted from an edge-localized mode-averaged analysis of a DIII-D ITER demonstration discharge. A fully noninductive SS scenario is achieved with fusion gain Q = 4.3, noninductive fraction f(NI) = 100%, bootstrap current fraction f(BS) = 63% and normalized beta beta(N) = 2.7 at plasma current I(p) = 8MA and toroidal field B(T) = 5.3 T using ITER day-1 heating and CD capability. Substantial uncertainties come from outside the radius of setting the boundary conditions (rho = 0.8). The present simulation assumed that beta(N)(rho) at the top of the pedestal (rho = 0.91) is about 25% above the peeling-ballooning threshold. ITER will have a challenge to achieve the boundary, considering different operating conditions (T(e)/T(i) approximate to 1 and density peaking). Overall, the experimentally scaled edge is an optimistic side of the prediction. A number of SS scenarios with different heating and CD mixes in a wide range of conditions were explored by exploiting the weak-shear steady-state solution procedure with the GLF23 transport model and the scaled experimental edge. The results are also presented in the operation space for DT neutron power versus stationary burn pulse duration with assumed poloidal flux availability at the beginning of stationary burn, indicating that the long pulse operation goal (3000s) at I(p) = 9 MA is possible. Source calculations in these simulations have been revised for electron cyclotron current drive including parallel momentum conservation effects and for neutral beam current drive with finite orbit and magnetic pitch effects.

  7. Measurement and Modelling of Tearing Mode Stability for Steady-State Plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turco, F; Luce, T; Ferron, J; Petty, C; Politzer, P; Turnbull, A; Brennan, D; Murakami, M; LoDestro, L; Pearlstein, L; Casper, T; Jayakumar, R; Holcomb, C

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High-beta, quasi-steady state scenarios represent a fundamental step towards the performance required for future fusion reactors. In DIII-D steady-state scenario discharges, the normalized beta {beta}{sub N} {triple_bond} {beta}(%) {center_dot} a(m) {center_dot} B{sub T}(T)/I{sub p}(MA) (where {beta} is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure, {alpha} the plasma minor radius, B{sub T} the toroidal magnetic field and I{sub p} the plasma current) exceeds the no-wall ideal kink beta limit. The performance of this scenario is limited by the onset of an n = 1 tearing mode, which appears on the resistive evolution time-scale (1-2 s) at constant pressure and causes both a loss of confinement and a radial redistribution of the current density from which the available current drive sources cannot recover. It is routinely observed that the injection of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), with a broad deposition localized around {rho} {approx} 0.35, can prevent the mode from appearing. It must be noted that this is not a case of a direct stabilization due to the interaction with the mode's rational surface. These variations of the scenario are illustrated in Fig. 1, where the total injected power [neutral beam injection (NBI) and ECCD], {beta}{sub N} and the n = 1 magnetic perturbation at the outer wall are shown. In case (a), the onset of the n = 1 mode is observed when the EC power is not present or if it is stopped before the end of the high {beta} phase, whereas in case (b) the difference is pointed out between broad and narrow current deposition (with the narrow deposition case becoming unstable). The current density profile evolution and the MHD modes of several sets of significant discharges with and without ECCD (at different locations) have been analyzed, using motional Stark effect (MSE) spectroscopy measurements for the former and edge magnetic probes measurements, toroidal rotation profiles and fast electron cyclotron emission (ECE) data for the latter. One equilibrium based on EFIT reconstruction [1] with kinetic data has been perturbed by adding local current density at a specific radius, mimicking the application of EC waves, and the changes in the stability for a sequence of equilibria with the current perturbed at various radii, have been evaluated by means of the DCON [2], GATO [3] and PEST3 [4] codes.

  8. Comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernsman, B. [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute Thermionics Evaluation Facility 901 University SE Albuquerque, New Mexico87106 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) is made. The single-cell TFE used in this study is the prototype for the 40kW{sub e} space nuclear power system that is similar to the 6kW{sub e} TOPAZ-II. The steady-state I-V measurements influence the emitter temperature due to electron cooling. Therefore, to eliminate the steady-state I-V measurement influence on the TFE and provide a better understanding of the behavior of the thermionic energy converter and TFE characteristics, dynamic I-V measurements are made. The dynamic I-V measurements are made at various input power levels, cesium pressures, collector temperatures, and steady-state current levels. From these measurements, it is shown that the dynamic I-V{close_quote}s do not change the TFE characteristics at a given operating point. Also, the evaluation of the collector work function from the dynamic I-V measurements shows that the collector optimization is not due to a minimum in the collector work function but due to an emission optimization. Since the dynamic I-V measurements do not influence the TFE characteristics, it is believed that these measurements can be done at a system level to understand the influence of TFE placement in the reactor as a function of the core thermal distribution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernsman, Bernard [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute Thermionics Evaluation Facility 901 University SE Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison between steady-state and dynamic I-V measurements from a single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) is made. The single-cell TFE used in this study is the prototype for the 40 kW{sub e} space nuclear power system that is similar to the 6 kW{sub e} TOPAZ-II. The steady-state I-V measurements influence the emitter temperature due to electron cooling. Therefore, to eliminate the steady-state I-V measurement influence on the TFE and provide a better understanding of the behavior of the thermionic energy converter and TFE characteristics, dynamic I-V measurements are made. The dynamic I-V measurements are made at various input power levels, cesium pressures, collector temperatures, and steady-state current levels. From these measurements, it is shown that the dynamic I-V's do not change the TFE characteristics at a given operating point. Also, the evaluation of the collector work function from the dynamic I-V measurements shows that the collector optimization is not due to a minimum in the collector work function but due to an emission optimization. Since the dynamic I-V measurements do not influence the TFE characteristics, it is believed that these measurements can be done at a system level to understand the influence of TFE placement in the reactor as a function of the core thermal distribution.

  10. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation. Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation-7034 Trondheim, Norway The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under

  11. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 54 (2007) 6883 Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    remained zero over a long period of time. We use data on 14 minerals from 1970 to 2004 to estimate is a steady-state consistent with the empirical observation that the growth rates of market prices have prices 1. Introduction The basic Hotelling model of nonrenewable resource extraction predicts

  12. Abstract--This paper introduces new concepts for evaluation of the power system steady state operations, namely the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the highly competitive electricity market and complex, aging and stressed power system infrastructure Electric Power Company) just watched their system voltage decreasing while the load was increasing fast1 Abstract--This paper introduces new concepts for evaluation of the power system steady state

  13. Extraction of a steady state electron beam from HCD plasmas for EBIS applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.; Prelec, K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments to extract high brightness electron beams from hollow cathode discharge plasmas are now in progress. A unique feature of these plasmas, which in principle can facilitate the extraction of large current low emittance electron beams, is the existence of a relatively high energy electron population with a very narrow energy spread. This electron population was identified in a self-extraction experiment, which yielded a 35 eV, 600 mA electron beam with parallel energy spread of less than 0.5 eV. Application of a very modest extraction voltage yielded a steady state extracted electron beam current of 6.5 A of which 5.7 had a preacceleration parallel energy spread of no more than 0.25 eV. The end result of this endeavor would be an electron beam current to 6 A even though, preliminary results strongly suggest that much larger electron beam currents can be produced. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  15. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  16. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  17. Divertor erosion study for TPX and implications for steady-state fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.N.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A sputtering erosion analysis was performed for the tilted plate divertor design of the proposed TPX tokamak. High temperature ({approximately} 100 eV), non-radiative, steady-state compatible, plasma edge conditions were used as input to the REDEP erosion/redeposition code. For the reference carbon surface the results show a stable erosion profile, i.e., non-runaway self-sputtering, in spite of carbon self-sputtering coefficients that are locally in excess of unity. The resulting net erosion rates are high (peak {approx} 1--2.5 m/burn-yr) but may be acceptable for a low duty factor experimental device such as TPX. Other surface materials were also analyzed, in part to obtain insight for fusion reactor designs using a similar plasma regime. Both medium and high-Z materials are predicted not to work, due to runaway self-sputtering. Beryllium is stable but has erosion rates as high or higher than carbon. A liquid metal lithium surface has stable sputtering with a zero-erosion potential and may thus be an attractive future material choice.

  18. Divertor erosion study for TPX and implications for steady-state fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, J.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A sputtering erosion analysis was performed for the tilted plate divertor design of the proposed TPX tokamak. High temperature ({approximately}100 eV), non-radiative, steady-state compatible, plasma edge conditions were used as input to the REDEP erosion/redeposition code. For the reference carbon surface the results show a stable erosion profile, i.e., non-runaway self-sputtering, in spite of carbon self-sputtering coefficients that are locally in excess of unity. The resulting net erosion rates are high (peak {approx}1--2.5 m/burn-yr) but may be acceptable for a low duty factor experimental device such as TPX. Other surface materials were also analyzed, in part to obtain insight for fusion reactor designs using a similar plasma regime. Both medium and high-Z materials are predicted not to work, due to runaway self-sputtering. Beryllium is stable but has erosion rates as high or higher than carbon. A liquid metal lithium surface has stable sputtering with a zero-erosion potential and may thus be an attractive future material choice.

  19. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton; Wood, Richard Arthur; Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: 1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; 2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and 3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  20. Steady-State Simulation of Steam Reforming of INEEL Tank Farm Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.; Wood, R.A.; Barnes, C.M.

    2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state model of the Sodium-Bearing Waste steam reforming process at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been performed using the commercial ASPEN Plus process simulator. The preliminary process configuration and its representation in ASPEN are described. As assessment of the capability of the model to mechanistically predict product stream compositions was made, and fidelity gaps and opportunities for model enhancement were identified, resulting in the following conclusions: (1) Appreciable benefit is derived from using an activity coefficient model for electrolyte solution thermodynamics rather than assuming ideality (unity assumed for all activity coefficients). The concentrations of fifteen percent of the species present in the primary output stream were changed by more than 50%, relative to Electrolyte NRTL, when ideality was assumed; (2) The current baseline model provides a good start for estimating mass balances and performing integrated process optimization because it contains several key species, uses a mechanistic electrolyte thermodynamic model, and is based on a reasonable process configuration; and (3) Appreciable improvement to model fidelity can be realized by expanding the species list and the list of chemical and phase transformations. A path forward is proposed focusing on the use of an improved electrolyte thermodynamic property method, addition of chemical and phase transformations for key species currently absent from the model, and the combination of RGibbs and Flash blocks to simulate simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria in the off-gas treatment train.

  1. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Cammi; Matteo Zanetti; Davide Chiesa; Massimiliano Clemenza; Stefano Pozzi; Ezio Previtali; Monica Sisti; Giovanni Magrotti; Michele Prata; Andrea Salvini

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the available experimental data as benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core is necessary. To evaluate it, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then introduced in the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carried out to validate the model in fresh fuel and full-power configuration. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation results concerning full-power reactor criticality, proves the reliability of the adopted methodology of analysis, both from neutronics and thermal-hydraulics perspective.

  2. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cammi, Antonio; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Pozzi, Stefano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Magrotti, Giovanni; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the available experimental data as benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core is necessary. To evaluate it, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then introduced in the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carr...

  3. Non-equilibrium steady state and subgeometric ergodicity for a chain of three coupled rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann; Christophe Poquet

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a chain of three rotors (rotators) whose ends are coupled to stochastic heat baths. The temperatures of the two baths can be different, and we allow some constant torque to be applied at each end of the chain. Under some non-degeneracy condition on the interaction potentials, we show that the process admits a unique invariant probability measure, and that it is ergodic with a stretched exponential rate. The interesting issue is to estimate the rate at which the energy of the middle rotor decreases. As it is not directly connected to the heat baths, its energy can only be dissipated through the two outer rotors. But when the middle rotor spins very rapidly, it fails to interact effectively with its neighbors due to the rapid oscillations of the forces. By averaging techniques, we obtain an effective dynamics for the middle rotor, which then enables us to find a Lyapunov function. This and an irreducibility argument give the desired result. We finally illustrate numerically some properties of the non-equilibrium steady state.

  4. Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Hyun diameters less than 10 nm and lengths of several micrometers. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that Li, lithium ion battery, LiMn2O4 nanowires, high power density, Jahn-Teller distortion T he high energy

  5. Performance study of commercial LiCoO2 and spinel-based Li-ion cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    -ion cells and Sony 18650 cells using non-stoichiometric spinel and LiCoO2, respectively, as positive at the cathode and loss of active material at both electrodes due to electrolyte oxidation. For the Sony cells Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Li-ion cells; LiCoO2; Cell-Batt1 ; Capacity fade; Sony 18650

  6. Applied Surface Science 266 (2013) 516 Interphase chemistry of Si electrodes used as anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the lithiation of graphite, which also contributes to the increase of the energy density of the battery. Among in Li-ion batteries Catarina Pereira-Nabaisa,b , Jolanta S´wiatowskaa, , Alexandre Chagnesb, , Franc made to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), namely for electric vehicle

  7. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  8. Structural Underpinnings of the Enhanced Cycling Stability upon Al-Substitution in LiNi0.45Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2 Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials for Li-ion batteries Thomas E. Conry, a,b Apurvamaterials in Li-ion batteries. Synchrotron-based high-materials for Li-ion batteries. LiNi z Mn z Co 1-2z O 2 (NMC

  9. Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science.After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

  10. Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botermann, Benjamin; Geppert, Christopher; Gwinner, Gerald; Hänsch, Theodor W; Huber, Gerhard; Karpuk, Sergei; Krieger, Andreas; Kühl, Thomas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Reinhardt, Sascha; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schwalm, Dirk; Stöhlker, Thomas; Wolf, Andreas; Saathoff, Guido

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concluding result from an Ives-Stilwell-type time dilation experiment using 7Li+ ions confined at a velocity of beta = v/c = 0.338 in the storage ring ESR at Darmstadt. A Lambda-type three-level system within the hyperfine structure of the 7Li+ triplet S1-P2 line is driven by two laser beams aligned parallel and antiparallel relative to the ion beam. The lasers' Doppler shifted frequencies required for resonance are measured with an accuracy of < 4 ppb using optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy. This allows us to verify the Special Relativity relation between the time dilation factor gamma and the velocity beta to within 2.3 ppb at this velocity. The result, which is singled out by a high boost velocity beta, is also interpreted within Lorentz Invariance violating test theories.

  11. A Combustion Chemistry Analysis of Carbonate Solvents in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S J; Timmons, A; Pitz, W J

    2008-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Under abusive conditions Li-ion batteries can rupture, ejecting electrolyte and other flammable gases. In this paper we consider some of the thermochemical properties of these gases that will determine whether they ignite and how energetically they burn. We show that flames of carbonate solvents are fundamentally less energetic than those of conventional hydrocarbons. An example of this difference is given using a recently developed mechanism for dimethyl carbonate (DMC) combustion, where we show that a diffusion flame burning DMC has only half the peak energy release rate of an analogous propane flame. We find a significant variation among the carbonate solvents in the factors that are important to determining flammability, such as combustion enthalpy and vaporization enthalpy. This result suggests that thermochemical and kinetic factors might well be considered when choosing solvent mixtures.

  12. D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San Diego, February 2005 PLASMA SHAPE, PROFILES AND FLUX CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High · Conclusion #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks

  13. Summary of Papers 1. P. Sauer and M. Pai, "Power System SteadyState Stability and the Load Flow Jacobian," IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Summary of Papers 1. P. Sauer and M. Pai, "Power System SteadyState Stability and the Load Flow, "The Continuation Power Flow: A Tool for SteadyState Voltage Stability Analysis," IEEE Transactions of the system to maintain adequate and controllable voltage levels at all system load buses. The main concern

  14. A fission-fusion hybrid reactor in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with natural uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Mark; Parker, Ronald R.; Forget, Benoit [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This work develops a conceptual design for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor operating in steady-state L-mode tokamak configuration with a subcritical natural or depleted uranium pebble bed blanket. A liquid lithium-lead alloy breeds enough tritium to replenish that consumed by the D-T fusion reaction. The fission blanket augments the fusion power such that the fusion core itself need not have a high power gain, thus allowing for fully non-inductive (steady-state) low confinement mode (L-mode) operation at relatively small physical dimensions. A neutron transport Monte Carlo code models the natural uranium fission blanket. Maximizing the fission power gain while breeding sufficient tritium allows for the selection of an optimal set of blanket parameters, which yields a maximum prudent fission power gain of approximately 7. A 0-D tokamak model suffices to analyze approximate tokamak operating conditions. This fission blanket would allow the fusion component of a hybrid reactor with the same dimensions as ITER to operate in steady-state L-mode very comfortably with a fusion power gain of 6.7 and a thermal fusion power of 2.1 GW. Taking this further can determine the approximate minimum scale for a steady-state L-mode tokamak hybrid reactor, which is a major radius of 5.2 m and an aspect ratio of 2.8. This minimum scale device operates barely within the steady-state L-mode realm with a thermal fusion power of 1.7 GW. Basic thermal hydraulic analysis demonstrates that pressurized helium could cool the pebble bed fission blanket with a flow rate below 10 m/s. The Brayton cycle thermal efficiency is 41%. This reactor, dubbed the Steady-state L-mode non-Enriched Uranium Tokamak Hybrid (SLEUTH), with its very fast neutron spectrum, could be superior to pure fission reactors in terms of breeding fissile fuel and transmuting deleterious fission products. It would likely function best as a prolific plutonium breeder, and the plutonium it produces could actually be more proliferation-resistant than that bred by conventional fast reactors. Furthermore, it can maintain constant total hybrid power output as burnup proceeds by varying the neutron source strength.

  15. Nonequilibrium Steady State in Open Quantum Systems: Influence Action, Stochastic Equation and Power Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -T. Hsiang; B. L. Hu

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics.

  16. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgartner, S. [Axpo AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Bieli, R. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, CH-5325 Leibstadt (Switzerland); Bergmann, U. C. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE-721 63 Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  17. Electron Positron Capture Rates and the Steady State Equilibrium Condition for Electron-Positron Plasma with Nucleons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye-Fei Yuan

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction rates of the beta processes for all particles at arbitrary degeneracy are derived, and an {\\it analytic} steady state equilibrium condition $\\mu_n=\\mu_p+2\\mu_e$ which results from the equality of electron and positron capture rates in the hot electron-positron plasma with nucleons is also found, if the matter is transparent to neutrinos. This simple analytic formula is valid only if electrons are nondegenerate or mildly degenerate, which is generally satisfied in the hot electron-positron plasma. Therefore, it can be used to efficiently determine the steady state of the hot matter with plenty of positrons. Based on this analytic condition, given the baryon number density and the temperature, if the nucleons are nondegenerate, only one algebraic equation for determining the electron fraction is obtained, which shows the great advantage of the analytic equilibrium condition.

  18. Investigation of steady-state and time-dependent luminescence properties of colloidal InGaP quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Menon, Vinod M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum dots play a promising role in the development of novel optical and biosensing devices. In this study, we investigated steady-state and time-dependent luminescence properties of InGaP/ZnS core/shell colloidal quantum dots in a solution phase at room temperature. The steady state experiments exhibited an emission maximum at 650 nm with full width at half maximum of ~ 85 nm, and strong first-excitonic absorption peak at 600 nm. The time-resolved luminescence measurements depicted a bi-exponential decay profile with lifetimes of {\\tau}1\\sim 47 ns and {\\tau} 2\\sim 142 ns at the emission maximum. Additionally, luminescence quenching and lifetime reduction due to resonance energy transfer between the quantum dot and an absorber are demonstrated. Our results support the plausibility of using these InGaP quantum dots as an effective alternative to highly toxic conventional Cd or Pb based colloidal quantum dots for biological applications.

  19. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  20. On Zero Steady-State Error Voltage Control of Single-Phase PWM Inverters With Different Load Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Dong [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Timothy, Thacker [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper comprehensively investigates and compares different multiloop linear control schemes for single-phase pulsewidth modulation inverters, both in stationary and synchronous (d-q) frames, by focusing on their steady-state error under different loading conditions. Specifically, it is shown how proportional plus resonant (P + R) control and load current feedback (LCF) control can, respectively, improve the steady-state and transient performance of the inverter, leading to the proposal of a PID + R + LCF control scheme. Furthermore, the LCF control and capacitive current feedback control schemes are shown to be subject to stability issues under second and higher order filter loads. Additionally, the equivalence between the stationary frame and d-q frame controllers is discussed depending on the orthogonal term generation method, and a d-q frame voltage control strategy is proposed eliminating the need for the generation of this orthogonal component. This is achieved while retaining all the advantages of operating in the synchronous d-q frame, i.e., zero steady-state error and ease of implementation. All theoretical findings are validated experimentally using a 1.5 kW laboratory prototype.

  1. Optimization of hybrid dynamic/steady-state processes using process integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grooms, Daniel Douglas

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................... 34 4.5 Conclusions.................................................................................. 37 vii CHAPTER Page V OPTIMAL DESIGN AND SCHEDULING OF SEMI-BATCH ADSORPTIVE/REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER PURIFICATION... Regenerant-to-MSA ratio RXS Flowrate of regenerant in excess of stoichiometric amount Regen Binary regeneration variable RelaxationDeviation Integer relaxation penalty term SINKS Set of sinks SOURCES Set of sources SS Subset of steady...

  2. Steady-State Multiplicity and Stability of Thermal Equilibria in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Ignition (HCCI) Engines C. J. Chiang and A. G. Stefanopoulou University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Email the autoignition of HCCI engines is analyzed in this paper. We find conditions under which steady into account the internal feedback structure of the thermal autoignition dynamics. Specifically, HCCI

  3. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)] [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China)] [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  4. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  6. On the effect of the steady-state approximation in time-space composite studies of mesoscale convective systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattison, Kevin Morgan

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE EFFECT OF THE STRA 'Y-STATE APPROXIMATION IN TIME-SPACE COMPOSITE STUDIES OF MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS A Thesis KEVIN MORGAN MATTISON Subnitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillnent... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Decenber 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology ON THE EFFECT OF THE STEADY-STATE APPROXINATIOH IN TIME-SPACE COMPOSITE STUDIES OF NESOSCALE COHVECTIVE SYSTENS A Thesis KEVIN MORGAN NATTISOH Approved as to style...

  7. The effects of silicon doping on the performance of PMAN carbon anodes in Li-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Johnson, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Even, W. Jr. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons derived from polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN) have been studied for use as intercalation anodes in Li-ion cells. The effect of Si doping upon the electrochemical performance of PMAN carbons was studied using tetravinylsilane (TVS) and tetramethysilane (TMS) as sources of Si during the formation of the PMAN precursors. The carbons were characterized by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and complex impedance. The presence of 9 to 11 w/o Si in the PMAN lattice greatly increased the irreversible capacity of these materials.

  8. Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

  9. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  10. Development and testing of 100-kW/ 1-minute Li-ion battery systems for energy storage applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Clark, Nancy H.

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two 100 kW min{sup -1} (1.67 kW h{sup -1}) Li-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) are described. The systems include a high-power Li-ion battery and a 100 kW power conditioning system (PCS). The battery consists of 12 modules of 12 series-connected Saft Li-ion VL30P cells. The stored energy of the battery ranges from 1.67 to 14 kW h{sup -1} and has an operating voltage window of 515-405 V (dc). Two complete systems were designed, built and successfully passed factory acceptance testing after which each was deployed in a field demonstration. The first demonstration used the system to supplement distributed microturbine generation and to provide load following capability. The system was run at its rated power level for 3 min, which exceeded the battery design goal by a factor of 3. The second demonstration used another system as a stand-alone uninterrupted power supply (UPS). The system was available (online) for 1146 h and ran for over 2 min.

  11. User's manual for steady-state computer simulation for air-to-air heat pumps with selected examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state computer simulation model has been developed for conventional, vapor compression cycle, electrically driven air-to-air heat pumps. Comparison between the heat pump simulation model predictions and available data from three heat pump experiments indicate that the predictions generally are within accepted tolerances. A sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effect of possible variations in some of the input parameters on the system's thermal performance. The computer simulation model is briefly described for heating and cooling modes, and simulation model input data and output are given. (LEW)

  12. A Matrix-Product-Operator Approach to the Nonequilibrium Steady State of Driven-Dissipative Quantum Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Mascarenhas; Hugo Flayac; Vincenzo Savona

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a numerical procedure to efficiently model the nonequilibrium steady state of one-dimensional arrays of open quantum systems, based on a matrix-product operator ansatz for the density matrix. The procedure searches for the null eigenvalue of the Liouvillian superoperator by sweeping along the system while carrying out a partial diagonalization of the single-site stationary problem. It bears full analogy to the density-matrix renormalization group approach to the ground state of isolated systems, and its numerical complexity scales as a power law with the bond dimension. The method brings considerable advantage when compared to the integration of the time-dependent problem via Trotter decomposition, as it can address arbitrarily long-ranged couplings. Additionally, it ensures numerical stability in the case of weakly dissipative systems thanks to a slow tuning of the dissipation rates along the sweeps. We have tested the method on a driven-dissipative spin chain, under various assumptions for the Hamiltonian, drive, and dissipation parameters, and compared the results to those obtained both by Trotter dynamics and Monte-Carlo wave function. Accurate convergence to the nonequilibrium steady state was always reached without any sign of numerical instability. Our method improves significantly over a variational approach that was very recently introduced [J. Cui, J. Ignacio Cirac, M. C. Banuls, arXiv:1501.06786 (2015)], both in terms of numerical stability and computational complexity.

  13. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  14. Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations for one- and two-particle correlation functions in steady-state quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H., E-mail: herve.ness@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, School of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Dash, L. K. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium) [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments.

  15. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  16. Contraction and stability analysis of steady-states for open quantum systems described by Lindblad differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Rouchon; Alain Sarlette

    2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    For discrete-time systems, governed by Kraus maps, the work of D. Petz has characterized the set of universal contraction metrics. In the present paper, we use this characterization to derive a set of quadratic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems, governed by Lindblad differential equations, that have a steady-state with full rank. An extremity of this set is given by the Bures metric, for which the quadratic Lyapunov function is obtained by inverting a Sylvester equation. We illustrate the method by providing a strict Lyapunov function for a Lindblad equation designed to stabilize a quantum electrodynamic "cat" state by reservoir engineering. In fact we prove that any Lindblad equation on the Hilbert space of the (truncated) harmonic oscillator, which has a full-rank equilibrium and which has, among its decoherence channels, a channel corresponding to the photon loss operator, globally converges to that equilibrium.

  17. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  18. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  19. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  20. The preliminary analysis on the steady-state and kinetic features of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, B. [Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Y. [Green Hi-Tek, 104 Harland Court, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design concept of molten salt pebble-bed reactor with an ultra-simplified integral primary circuit called 'Nuclear Hot Spring' has been proposed, featured by horizontal coolant flow in a deep pool pebble-bed reactor, providing 'natural safety' features with natural circulation under full power operation and less expensive primary circuit arrangement. In this work, the steady-state physical properties of the equilibrium state of the molten salt pebble-bed reactor are calculated by using the VSOP code, and the steady-state thermo-hydraulic analysis is carried out based on the approximation of absolutely horizontal flow of the coolant through the core. A new concept of 2-dimensional, both axial and radial, multi-pass on-line fuelling scheme is presented. The result reveals that the radial multi-pass scheme provides more flattened power distribution and safer temperature distribution than the one-pass scheme. A parametric analysis is made corresponding to different pebble diameters, the key parameter of the core resistance and the temperature at the pebble center. It is verified that within a wide range of pebble diameters, the maximum pebble center temperatures are far below the safety limit of the fuel, and the core resistance is considerably less than the buoyant force, indicating that the natural circulation under full power operation is achievable and the ultra-simplified integral primary circuit without any pump is possible. For the kinetic properties, it is verified that the negative temperature coefficient is achieved in sufficient under-moderated condition through the preliminary analysis on the temperature coefficients of fuel, coolant and moderator. The requirement of reactivity compensation at the shutdown stages of the operation period is calculated for the further studies on the reactivity control. The molten salt pebble-bed reactor with horizontal coolant flow can provide enhanced safety and economical features. (authors)

  1. Engineering steady states using jump-based feedback for multipartite entanglement generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, R. N.; Hope, J. J.; Carvalho, A. R. R. [Department of Quantum Sciences, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the use of quantum-jump-based feedback to manipulate the stability of multipartite entangled dark states in an open quantum system. Using the model proposed in Phys. Rev. A 76, 010301(R) (2007) for a pair of atoms, we show a general strategy to produce many-body singlet stationary entangled states for larger number of atoms. In the case of four qubits, we propose a simple local feedback control that, although not optimal, is realistic and stabilizes a highly entangled state. We discuss the limitations and analyze alternative strategies within the framework of direct jump feedback schemes.

  2. Bose-Hubbard Model: Relation Between Driven-Dissipative Steady-States and Equilibrium Quantum Phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Le Boité; Giuliano Orso; Cristiano Ciuti

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present analytical solutions for the mean-field master equation of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model for cavity photons, in the limit of both weak pumping and weak dissipation. Instead of pure Mott insulator states, we find statistical mixtures with the same second-order coherence as a Fock state with n photons, but a mean photon number of n/2. These mixed states occur when n pump photons have the same energy as n interacting photons inside the nonlinear cavity and survive up to a critical tunneling coupling strength, above which a crossover to classical coherent state takes place. We also explain the origin of both antibunching and superbunching predicted by P-representation mean-field theory at higher pumping and dissipation. In particular, we show that the strongly correlated region of the associated phase diagram cannot be described within the semiclassical Gross-Pitaevski approach.

  3. Non-Markovian dynamics and steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  4. Ultrafast and steady-state laser heating effects on electron relaxation and phonon coupling mechanisms in thin gold films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Duda, John C. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States) [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Seagate Technology, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States); Kaehr, Bryan [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States) [Advanced Materials Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Wang Zhou, Xiao; Peter Yang, C.-Y.; Jones, Reese E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the scattering mechanisms driving electron-phonon relaxation in thin gold films via pump-probe time-domain thermoreflectance. Electron-electron scattering can enhance the effective rate of electron-phonon relaxation when the electrons are out of equilibrium with the phonons. In order to correctly and consistently infer electron-phonon coupling factors in films on different substrates, we must account for the increase in steady-state lattice temperature due to laser heating. Our data provide evidence that a thermalized electron population will not directly exchange energy with the substrate during electron-phonon relaxation, whereas this pathway can exist between a non-equilibrium distribution of electrons and a non-metallic substrate.

  5. Extraction of a steady state electron beam from HCD (hollow cathode discharge) plasmas for EBIS (electron beam ion source) applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.; Prelec, K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments to extract high brightness electron beams from hollow cathode discharge plasmas are now in progress. A unique feature of these plasmas, which in principle can facilitate the extraction of large current low emittance electron beams, is the existence of a relatively high energy electron population with a very narrow energy spread. This electron population was identified in a self-extraction experiment, which yielded a 35 eV, 600 mA electron beam with parallel energy spread of less than 0.5 eV. Preliminary, crude application of 2.5 kV extraction voltage yielded a steady state electron beam current of 1.2 A. The end result of this endeavor would be an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) with an electron beam current of 6 A. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Thermal Stability of LiPF6 Salt and Li-ion Battery ElectrolytesContaining LiPF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Hui; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal stability of the neat LiPF6 salt and of 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in prototypical Li-ion battery solvents was studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and on-line FTIR. Pure LiPF6 salt is thermally stable up to 380 K in a dry inert atmosphere, and its decomposition path is a simple dissociation producing LiF as solid and PF5 as gaseous products. In the presence of water (300 ppm) in the carrier gas, its decomposition onset temperature is lowered as a result of direct thermal reaction between LiPF6 and water vapor to form POF3 and HF. No new products were observed in 1 molal solutions of LiPF6 in EC, DMC and EMC by on-line TGA-FTIR analysis. The storage of the same solutions in sealed containers at 358 K for 300 420 hrs. did not produce any significant quantity of new products as well. In particular, noalkylflurophosphates were found in the solutions after storage at elevated temperature. In the absence of either an impurity like alcohol or cathode active material that may (or may not) act as a catalyst, there is no evidence of thermally induced reaction between LiPF6 and the prototypical Li-ion battery solvents EC, PC, DMC or EMC.

  7. Description of TASHA: Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Chen, N.C.; Nelson, W.R.; Yoder, G.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the code used to perform Thermal Analysis of Steady-State-Heat-Transfer for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor (TASHA). More specifically, the code is designed for thermal analysis of the fuel elements. The new code reflects changes to the High Flux Isotope Reactor steady-state thermal-hydraulics code. These changes were aimed at both improving the code`s predictive ability and allowing statistical thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis to be performed. A significant portion of the changes were aimed at improving the correlation package in the code. This involved incorporating more recent correlations for both single-phase flow and two-phase flow thermal limits, including the addition of correlations to predict the phenomenon of flow excursion. Since the code was to be used in the design of the ANS, changes were made to allow the code to predict limiting powers for a variety of thermal limits, including critical heat flux, flow excursion, incipient boiling, oxide spallation, maximum centerline temperature, and surface temperature equal to the saturation temperature. Statistical uncertainty analysis also required several changes to the code itself as well as changes to the code input format. This report describes these changes in enough detail to allow the reader to interpret code results and also to understand where the changes were made in the code programming. This report is not intended to be a stand alone report for running the code, however, and should be used in concert with the two previous reports published on the original code. Sample input and output files are also included to help accomplish these goals. In addition, a section is included that describes requirements for a new, more modem code that the project planned to develop.

  8. A Steady-State Picture of Solar Wind Acceleration and Charge State Composition Derived from a Global Wave-Driven MHD Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oran, Rona; van der Holst, Bart; Lepri, Susan T; Frazin, Alberto M Vásquez Federico A Nuevo Richard; Manchester, Ward B; Sokolov, Igor V; Gombosi, Tamas I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The higher charge states found in slow ($<$400km s$^{-1}$) solar wind streams compared to fast streams have supported the hypothesis that the slow wind originates in closed coronal loops, and released intermittently through reconnection. Here we examine whether a highly ionized slow wind can also form along steady and open magnetic field lines. We model the steady-state solar atmosphere using AWSoM, a global magnetohydrodynamic model driven by Alfv{\\'e}n waves, and apply an ionization code to calculate the charge state evolution along modeled open field lines. This constitutes the first charge states calculation covering all latitudes in a realistic magnetic field. The ratios $O^{+7}/O^{+6}$ and $C^{+6}/C^{+5}$ are compared to in-situ Ulysses observations, and are found to be higher in the slow wind, as observed; however, they are under-predicted in both wind types. The modeled ion fractions of S, Si, and Fe are used to calculate line-of-sight intensities, which are compared to EIS observations above a cor...

  9. A Thrust for Integration of High-Performance Steady-State Burning-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    profiles? · Does the plasma evolve to a stable self-organized state? · Will alpha heating drive a self-heating Fusion Gain (Q) Self-heating (%) 4 50 80 91 1.7 Sustainment (100% NI)** (Pcd/P ) >25 1 0

  10. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  11. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G. L.; Morris, D. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Ott, L. J.; Reed, D. A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented.

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  13. Studies on Capacity Fade of Spinel-Based Li-Ion Batteries Ramadass Premanand, Anand Durairajan,* Bala Haran,** Ralph White,*** and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    December 10, 2001. It is well known that the capacity of a lithium-ion battery de- creases during cyclingStudies on Capacity Fade of Spinel-Based Li-Ion Batteries Ramadass Premanand, Anand Durairajan to this, the capacity fade of these batteries was studied at different charge currents. During cycling

  14. Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, present ongoing challenges for mathematical modeling. In spite of the fundamental lithium-ion battery dynamics. The first mathematical model on two-phase intercalation dynamicsCahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2 1

  15. 3859IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, December 1983 STEADY STATE INSTABILITY: SIMPLIFIED STUDIES IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    3859IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-102, No. 12, December 1983 STEADY STATE INSTABILITY: SIMPLIFIED STUDIES IN MULTIMACHINE POWER SYSTEMS H. Rudnick, Escuela de Ingenieria in electrical power systems all over the world. Most of the time critical conditions have been undetected

  16. Steady state protein levels in Geobacter metallireducens grown with Iron (III) citrate or nitrate as terminal electron acceptor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrendt, A. J.; Tollaksen, S. L.; Lindberg, C.; Zhu, W.; Yates, J. R., III; Nevin, K. P.; Lovley, D.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division; The Scripps Research Inst.; Univ. of Massachusetts

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geobacter species predominate in aquatic sediments and submerged soils where organic carbon sources are oxidized with the reduction of Fe(III). The natural occurrence of Geobacter in some waste sites suggests this microorganism could be useful for bioremediation if growth and metabolic activity can be regulated. 2-DE was used to monitor the steady state protein levels of Geobacter metallireducens grown with either Fe(III) citrate or nitrate to elucidate metabolic differences in response to different terminal electron acceptors present in natural environments populated by Geobacter. Forty-six protein spots varied significantly in abundance (p<0.05) between the two growth conditions; proteins were identified by tryptic peptide mass and peptide sequence determined by MS/MS. Enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were more abundant in cells grown with Fe(III) citrate, while proteins associated with nitrate metabolism and sensing cellular redox status along with several proteins of unknown function were more abundant in cells grown with nitrate. These results indicate a higher level of flux through the TCA cycle in the presence of Fe(III) compared to nitrate. The oxidative stress response observed in previous studies of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with Fe(III) citrate was not seen in G. metallireducens.

  17. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  18. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  19. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  20. Theory of gyroresonance and free-free emissions from non-Maxwellian quasi-steady-state electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kuznetsov, Alexey A. [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasi-steady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa- and n-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these non-Maxwellian distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa- and n-distributions, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from each other and from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth ? for kappa-distribution, but decreases with ? for n-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example.

  1. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.

  2. Study on Off-Design Steady State Performances of Helium Gas Turbo-compressor for HTGR-GT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qisen Ren; Xiaoyong Yang; Zhiyong Huang; Jie Wang [Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with direct gas turbine cycle is a promising concept in the future of nuclear power development. Both helium gas turbine and compressor are key components in the cycle. Under normal conditions, the mode of power adjustment is to control total helium mass in the primary loop using gas storage vessels. Meanwhile, thermal power of reactor core is regulated. This article analyzes off-design performances of helium gas turbine and compressors for high temperature gas-cooled reactor with gas turbine cycle (HTGR-GT) at steady state level of electric power adjustment. Moreover, performances of the cycle were simply discussed. Results show that the expansion ratio of turbine decreases as electric power reduces but the compression ratios of compressors increase, efficiencies of both turbine and compressors decrease to some extent. Thermal power does not vary consistently with electric power, the difference between these two powers increases as electric power reduces. As a result of much thermal energy dissipated in the temperature modulator set at core inlet, thermal efficiency of the cycle has a widely reduction under partial load conditions. (authors)

  3. J.E. Menard -IEA Workshop 59 -Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks 1 Ideal MHD stability scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -State Tokamaks 8 · Highest-N shots are H-mode ­ H-mode profiles N 3.5 for optimized n=1 no-wall limit · 10 with at = 0.3 ­ High essential for highest stable T N limit increases from 3.5 to 5.5 with increasing Workshop 59 - Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks 2 Outline

  4. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau; John Peterson; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7 is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code to evolve with time. RELAP-7 is a MOOSE-based application. MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) is a framework for solving computational engineering problems in a well-planned, managed, and coordinated way. By leveraging millions of lines of open source software packages, such as PETSC (a nonlinear solver developed at Argonne National Laboratory) and LibMesh (a Finite Element Analysis package developed at University of Texas), MOOSE significantly reduces the expense and time required to develop new applications. Numerical integration methods and mesh management for parallel computation are provided by MOOSE. Therefore RELAP-7 code developers only need to focus on physics and user experiences. By using the MOOSE development environment, RELAP-7 code is developed by following the same modern software design paradigms used for other MOOSE development efforts. There are currently over 20 different MOOSE based applications ranging from 3-D transient neutron transport, detailed 3-D transient fuel performance analysis, to long-term material aging. Multi-physics and multiple dimensional analyses capabilities can be obtained by coupling RELAP-7 and other MOOSE based applications and by leveraging with capabilities developed by other DOE programs. This allows restricting the focus of RELAP-7 to systems analysis-type simulations and gives priority to retain and significantly extend RELAP5's capabilities.

  5. Experimental Study of Pellet Delivery to the ITER Inner Wall through a Curved Guide Tube at Steady-State Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of solid hydrogen pellets from the magnetic high-field side will be the primary technique for depositing fuel particles into the core of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) burning plasmas. This injection scheme will require the use of a curved guide tube to route the pellets from the acceleration device, under the divertor, and to the inside wall launch location. In an initial series of pellet tests in support of ITER, single 5.3-mm-diam cylindrical D2 pellets were shot through a mock-up of the planned ITER curved guide tube. Those data showed that the pellet speed had to be limited to ?300 m/s for reliable delivery of intact pellets. Also, microwave cavity mass detectors located upstream and downstream of the test tube indicated that ?10% of the pellet mass was lost in the guide tube at 300 m/s. The tube base pressure for that test series was ?10-4 torr. However, for steady-state pellet fueling on ITER, the guide tube will operate at an elevated pressure due to the pellet erosion in the tube. Assuming the present design values for ITER pellet fueling rates/vacuum pumping and a 10% pellet mass loss during flight in the tube, calculations suggest a steadystate operating pressure in the range of 10-20 torr. Thus, experiments to ascertain the pellet integrity and mass loss under these conditions have been carried out. Also, some limited test data were collected at a tube pressure of ?100 torr. No significant detrimental effects have been observed at the higher tube pressures. The new test results are presented and compared to the baseline data previously reported.

  6. Modeling the steady-state ISV (in situ vitrification) process: A 3-D finite element analysis of coupled thermal-electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langerman, M.A.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steady-state modeling considerations for simulating the in situ vitrification (ISV) process are documented based upon the finite element numerical approach. Recommendations regarding boundary condition specifications and mesh discretization are presented. The effects of several parameters on the ISV process response are calculated and the results discussed. The parameters investigated include: (1) electrode depth, (2) ambient temperature, (3) supplied current, (4) electrical conductivity, (5) electrode separation, and (6) soil/waste characterization. 13 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  8. A Computational Investigation of Li(subscript 9)M(subscript 3)(P(subscript 2)O(subscript 7))(subscript 3)(PO(subscript 4))(subscript 2) (M = V, Mo) as Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Anubhav

    Cathodes with high energy density and safety are sought to improve the performance of Li ion batteries for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. In this study, we examine the properties of the potential ...

  9. Comparison of Overcharge Behavior of AlPO4-Coated LiCoO2 and LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 Cathode Materials in Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    , and Research Center for Energy Conversion and Storage, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea The overcharge in Li-Ion Cells Jaephil Cho,a, *,z Hyemin Kim,b and Byungwoo Parkb, * a Department of Applied Chemistry

  10. Air stable Al2O3-coated Li2NiO2 cathode additive as a surplus current consumer in a Li-ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    increases to 2.75V (2.85V vs. graphite), its discharge capacity decreases to 120 mAh/g, which corresponds for the irreversible capacity of the Li-ion cell using LiCoO2 and natural graphite as cathode and anode materials the complete decomposition of the Li2NiO2. 1. Introduction Most Li secondary batteries use LiCoO2 as a cathode

  11. Sensitivity of transport and stability to the current profile in steady-state scenario plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turco, F.; Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); White, A. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Brennan, D. P. [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton 08543, New Jersey (United States); In, Y. [Far-Tech, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have provided the first systematic data on the impact of the current profile on the transport and stability properties of high-performance, steady-state scenario plasmas. In a future tokamak, to achieve 100% noninductive conditions and produce net power, the current profile J must be sustained by a large fraction of bootstrap current J{sub BS}, which is nonlinearly coupled with the kinetic profiles. Systematic scans of q{sub min} and q{sub 95} were performed to determine empirically the best alignment of the noninductive currents with J and the variation of the transport properties with q. Transport analysis indicates that {chi}{sub e} and {chi}{sub i} are sensitive to the details of J in a way that makes the pressure profile peaking and J{sub BS} scale nonlinearly with both q and {beta} in the experiment. Drift wave stability analysis yields linear growth rates that do not reproduce experimental trends in {chi} with q{sub min} and q{sub 95}. At high beta, necessary to maximize f{sub BS}, the plasma duration is often limited by n=1 tearing modes, whose stability also depends on the J profile. Broadly deposited electron cyclotron (EC) current at mid-radius was found to supply part of the required noninductive current and to positively affect the tearing stability. The modes appear when J{sub EC} is turned off for stable cases and always appear when the EC deposition is shifted outwards. The variation in the EC scan results is consistent with PEST3 calculations, showing that the tearing stability becomes extremely sensitive to small perturbations of the equilibrium in wall-stabilized plasmas run close to the ideal MHD limit. These modeling results are being used to design new experiments with higher ideal and tearing limits. A new capability for off-axis neutral beam injection system will be used to explore higher q{sub min} scenarios and different current alignments.

  12. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery N. G. Rudawski, B. L. Darby, B. R. Yates, K. S. Jones, R. G. Elliman et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes N. G. Rudawski, B photoelectrochemical cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 084104 (2012) Synthesis and characterization of Nd4+xFe72Co5Ga2B17-x://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes N. G. Rudawski,1

  13. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Yuzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Dr. Tianlei [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Ren, Prof. Fei [Temple University; Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries (Ren et al., J. Power Source, 2013). It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum principal strain, which is believed to induce the internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum principal strain is also examined.

  14. Modeling and simulation of Li-ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    rechargeable batteries for consumer portable applications. A lithium-ion battery employs a metal oxide/discharge voltage depends on the current and resistance of all battery components. In most solid-state lithium-ion of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 1162­1175 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcp #12;1. Introduction Lithium and lithium-ion

  15. Understanding Phase Transformation in Crystalline Ge Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    studies. 1. INTRODUCTION One of the most important renewable energy storage technologies is lithium and § Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States Stanford Synchrotron the beginning stage of lithiation, followed by the conversion of the remaining crystalline Ge to amorphous Ge

  16. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0state reaction method or an aqueous solution method or a sol-gel method which is followed by a rapid quenching from high temperatures into liquid nitrogen or liquid helium.

  17. Flow rate through the small intestine of the equine determined with soluble and insoluble indicators given in a pulse and steady-state dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyberg, Michelle Ann

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    three indicators and two combinations of indicators dosed with the diet: (1) CnOi, (2) CrEDTA (3) CoEDTA (4) CnOs with CrEDTA and (5) CnOs with CoEDTA. There were two experiments. In the pulse dose experiment the ponies were dosed orally... treatments for the soluble and insoluble indicators, with the exception of the MRT for the Crz03/ CrEDTA treatment was significantly (P&. 05) different from all other treatments. In the steady-state experiment, estimates of ileal output were...

  18. Laser frequency stabilization based on steady-state spectral-hole burning in Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Shon; Leibrandt, David R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and analyze a method of laser frequency stabilization via steady-state patterns of spectral holes in Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$. Three regions of spectral holes are created, spaced in frequency by the ground state hyperfine splittings of $~^{151}$Eu$^{3+}$. The absorption pattern is shown not to degrade after days of laser frequency stabilization. An optical frequency comparison of a laser locked to such a steady-state spectral-hole pattern with an independent cavity-stabilized laser and a Yb optical lattice clock demonstrates a spectral-hole fractional frequency instability of $1.0\\times10^{-15}~ \\tau^{-\\frac{1}{2}}$ that averages to $8.5^{+4.8}_{-1.8}\\times10^{-17}$ at $\\tau = 73$ s. Residual amplitude modulation at the frequency of the RF drive applied to the fiber-coupled electro-optic modulator is reduced to less than $1\\times10^{-6}$ fractional amplitude modulation at $\\tau>$ 1 s by an active servo. The contribution of residual amplitude modulation to the laser frequency instability is further re...

  19. Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling of Gas-Phase Polypropylene Processes Using Stirred-Bed Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 Ashuraj Sirohi

  20. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV (6)Li ions from (40)Ca and (48)Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Krishichayan X.; Lui, Y. -W; Button, J.; Youngblood, David H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 044612 (2010) Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV 6Li ions from 40Ca and 48Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential Krishichayan, X. Chen,* Y.-W. Lui, J. Button, and D. H. Youngblood Cyclotron Institute, Texas... that 0556-2813/2010/81(4)/044612(10) 044612-1 ?2010 The American Physical Society KRISHICHAYAN, CHEN, LUI, BUTTON, AND YOUNGBLOOD PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81, 044612 (2010) the real and imaginary optical potentials have the same radial shape [22]. However...

  1. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  2. Numerical simulation of the fluid flow and heat transfer processes during scavenging in a two-stroke engine under steady-state conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castro Gouveia, M. de; Reis Parise, J.A. dos; Nieckele, A.O. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical simulation of the scavenging process in a two-stroke flat-piston model engine has been developed. Air enters the cylinder circumferentially, inducting a three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow. The problem was modeled as a steady-state axisymmetric flow through a cylinder with uniform wall temperature. The steady-state regime was simulated by assuming the piston head fixed at the bottom dead center. The calculation was performed employing the {kappa}-{epsilon} model of turbulence. A comparison of the results obtained for the flow field with available experimental data showed very good agreement, and a comparison with an available numerical solution revealed superior results. The effects of the Reynolds number, inlet port angles, and engine geometry on the flow and in-cylinder heat transfer characteristics were investigated. The Nusselt number substantially increases with larger Reynolds numbers and a smaller bore-to-stroke ratio. It is shown that the positioning of the exhaust value(s) is the main parameter to control the scavenging process.

  3. Understanding the Optical Band Shape: Coumarin-153 Steady-State Spectroscopy Dmitry V. Matyushov*, and Marshall D. Newton*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    *, and Marshall D. Newton*, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State UniVersity, P.O. Box 871604

  4. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  5. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  6. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  7. Investigation of deep-level defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films by a steady-state photocapacitance method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Xiaobo, E-mail: hxb1314@gmail.com; Sakurai, Takeaki; Akimoto, Katsuhiro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamada, Akimasa; Ishizuka, Shogo; Niki, Sigeru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of defect levels located 0.8?eV above the valence band in Cu(In{sub 1?x},Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films were investigated by a steady-state photocapacitance method. When illuminated by light with a photon energy of 0.8?eV at 60?K, a fast increase, followed by a slow increase, was observed in the photocapacitance transients of all samples. Upon being re-exposed, samples with a low bandgap energy showed a slow decrease in photocapacitance transients. These observations were interpreted using a configuration coordinate model assuming two states for the 0.8?eV defect: a stable state D and its metastable state D* with a large lattice relaxation. The difference in the evolution mechanisms of the photocapacitance transients was attributed to the difference in the optical transition of carriers between the two states of the 0.8?eV defect and the valence and conduction bands.

  8. Forcing-type-dependent stability of steady states in a turbulent swirling flow B. Saint-Michel,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    states and reveal dynamical regimes that bear similarities with low-dimensional systems. We suggest statistical systems, and that it may be applicable to other turbulent systems. PACS numbers: 47.20.Ky, 05 of systems such as 2D Euler equations [3, 4], Blume-Emery-Griffiths model [5], and random graphs [6]. More

  9. The determination of neutron flux in the Texas A & M triga reactor during pulse and steady-state operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, John Joseph

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Core VIIi Diagram mith 90 FLIP clemente The NSC reactor technical specification and license approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits reactor operations so that a temperature of 830 Celsius is not reached anywhere... is significantly more than that allowed for operation with Core VIII. However, a small reactivity insertion in Core VIII will produce approximately the same peak power in a pulse as the much larger reactivity insertion produced during pulse operation of Core...

  10. Kinetic Mechanism of Acetyl-CoA Synthase: Steady-State Synthesis at Variable CO/CO2 Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Kenneth

    )nECO), and this inhibits catalysis; and (d) the residual activity arises from either the (CO)nECO state or a heterogeneous form of the enzyme. Implications of these results, focusing on the roles of CO and CO2 in catalysis site for acetyl-CoA synthesis6,7 while the C-cluster is the site of CO/CO2 redox catalysis.8

  11. Determination of vaporization efficiencies and overall mass transfer coefficients from a packed absorber at steady state operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Ronald

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    material balances for each component ano each element of packing. They are obtained by writing a balance on the vapor phase only, the liquid phase only, and the combined phases, Tne resulting equations are given by I'j+I v I ? v. + N dz = 0 5 '+1 N... be rearranged to give the "mass transfer relationship, " ji ji or L L yji ji ji jixji When equation (3-17) is stated in terms of liquid mole fractions and vaporization efficiencies, the following expression is obtained r j+1 N dz = (K af ) . S[(1 V ji j...

  12. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahey, Mark R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Candy, Jeff [General Atomics] [General Atomics

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO ? a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two decades. The design of an efficient feedback algorithm is a serious numerical challenge. Although the power source and transport balance coding in the master are standard, it is nontrivial to design a feedback loop that can cope with outputs that are both intermittent and extremely expensive. A prototypical feedback scheme has already been successfully demonstrated for a single global GYRO simulation, although the robustness and efficiency are likely far from optimal. Once the transport feedback scheme is perfected, it could, in principle, be embedded into any of the more elaborate transport codes (ONETWO, TRANSP, and CORSICA), or adopted by other FSP-related multi-scale projects.

  13. Argininosuccinate synthetase: steady state kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seiglie, Jorge Luis

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCLUSION Page iv vii ix 10 10 10 10 34 34 35 37 REFERENCES VITA TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page 38 39 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. ATP versus citrulline (aspartate 1. 0 mN) . Figure 2. Aspartate versus citrulline (ATP = 1. 0 mM...) . Figure 3. Aspartate versus ATP (citrulline = 0. 25 mN), Figure 4. Aspartate versus ATP (citrulline = 2. 5 mM) . Page 15 16 17 18 Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. ATP versus argininosuccinate (citrulline...

  14. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  15. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor degradation mechanisms of a Li-ion cell based on LiCoO2", Journal of Power Sources #12;Lithium ions and e and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher

  16. A Novel In-situ Electrochemical Cell for Neutron Diffraction Studies of Phase Transitions in Small Volume Electrodes of Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadlamani, Bhaskar S [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Jagannathan, M. [University of Utah; Ravi Chandran, K. [University of Utah

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and performance of a novel in-situ electrochemical cell that greatly facilitates the neutron diffraction study of complex phase transitions in small volume electrodes of Li-ion cells, is presented in this work. Diffraction patterns that are Rietveld-refinable could be obtained simultaneously for all the electrodes, which demonstrates that the cell is best suited to explore electrode phase transitions driven by the lithiation and delithiation processes. This has been facilitated by the use of single crystal (100) Si sheets as casing material and the planar cell configuration, giving improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to other casing materials. The in-situ cell has also been designed for easy assembly and to facilitate rapid experiments. The effectiveness of cell is demonstrated by tracking the neutron diffraction patterns during the charging of graphite/LiCoO2 and graphite/LiMn2O4 cells. It is shown that good quality neutron diffraction data can be obtained and that most of the finer details of the phase transitions, and the associated changes in crystallographic parameters in these electrodes, can be captured.

  17. Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Additional Steady-State Acquisition of the Infragenicular Arteries in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Yousef W., E-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.d [University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Radiology (Denmark); Eiberg, Jonas P. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Vascular Surgery (Denmark); Logager, Vibeke B. [University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Radiology (Denmark); Just, Sven [University Hospital at Gentofte, Department of Radiology (Denmark); Schroeder, Torben V. [Rigshospitalet, Department of Vascular Surgery (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S. [University Hospital at Herlev, Department of Radiology (Denmark)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if addition of infragenicular steady-state (SS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to first-pass imaging improves diagnostic performance compared with first-pass imaging alone in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) undergoing whole-body (WB) MRA. Twenty consecutive patients with PAD referred to digital-subtraction angiography (DSA) underwent WB-MRA. Using a bolus-chase technique, first-pass WB-MRA was performed from the supra-aortic vessels to the ankles. The blood-pool contrast agent gadofosveset trisodium was used at a dose of 0.03 mmol/kg body weight. Ten minutes after injection of the contrast agent, high-resolution (0.7-mm isotropic voxels) SS-MRA of the infragenicular arteries was performed. Using DSA as the 'gold standard,' sensitivities and specificities for detecting significant arterial stenoses ({>=}50% luminal narrowing) with first-pass WB-MRA, SS-MRA, and combined first-pass and SS-MRA were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to determine intermodality agreement between MRA and DSA. Overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant arterial stenoses with first-pass WB-MRA was 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.78) and 0.97 (0.94 to 0.99), respectively. In first-pass WB-MRA, the lowest sensitivity was in the infragenicular region, with a value of 0.42 (0.23 to 0.63). Combined analysis of first-pass WB-MRA and SS-MRA increased sensitivity to 0.81 (0.60 to 0.93) in the infragenicular region, with specificity of 0.94 (0.88 to 0.97). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting significant arterial stenoses with isolated infragenicular SS-MRA was 0.47 (0.27 to 0.69) and 0.86 (0.78 to 0.91), respectively. Intermodality agreement between MRA and DSA in the infragenicular region was moderate for first-pass WB-MRA ({kappa} = 0.49), fair for SS-MRA ({kappa} = 0.31), and good for combined first-pass/SS-MRA ({kappa} = 0.71). Addition of infragenicular SS-MRA to first-pass WB MRA improves diagnostic performance.

  18. A techno-economic analysis and optimization of Li-ion batteries for light-duty passenger vehicle electrification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    September 2014 Keywords: Electric vehicle Lithium-ion battery Battery design Production cost Electrode in addressing oil dependency, global warming, and air pollution in the United States. We investigate the role for minimum cost. Economies of scale are reached quickly at ~200e300 MWh annual production. Small-pack PHEV

  19. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  20. BATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pro- duction to come from renewable resources. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President ObamaBATTERY STORAGE CONTROL FOR STEADYING RENEWABLE POWER GENERATION By Shengyuan (Mike) Chen, Emilie-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Battery Storage Control for Steadying Renewable Power Generation

  1. Time-dependent analytic solutions of quasi-steady shocks with cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Lesaffre

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I present time-dependent analytical solutions of quasi-steady shocks with cooling, where quasi-steady shocks are objects composed of truncated steady-state models of shocks at any intermediate time. I compare these solutions to simulations with a hydrodynamical code and finally discuss quasi-steady shocks as approximations to time-dependent shocks. Large departure of both the adiabatic and steady-state approximations from the quasi-steady solution emphasise the importance of the cooling history in determining the trajectory of a shock.

  2. CALiPER Report 20.4: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6 (2-91)A (04-86)

  3. Reducing Transient and Steady State Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    , single-stage heat pump air conditioner (AC). To study this setup, we have built the Berkeley Retrofitted that are used by HVAC equipment. Many homes use a single- stage heat pump that cools air at a constant rate , Fellow IEEE, and Claire Tomlin, Fellow IEEE ABSTRACT | Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC

  4. Steady quantum coherence in non-equilibrium environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng-Wen Li; C. Y. Cai; C. P. Sun

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the steady state of a three-level system in contact with a non-equilibrium environment, which is composed of two independent heat baths at different temperatures. We derive a master equation to describe the non-equilibrium process of the system. For the three level systems with two dipole transitions, i.e., the $\\Lambda$-type and V-type, we find that the interferences of two transitions in a non-equilibrium environment can give rise to non-vanishing steady quantum coherence, namely, there exist non-zero off-diagonal terms in the steady state density matrix (in the energy representation). Moreover, the non-vanishing off-diagonal terms increase with the temperature difference of the two heat baths. Such interferences of the transitions were usually omitted by secular approximation, for it was usually believed that they only take effect in short time behavior and do not affect the steady state. Here we show that, in non-equilibrium systems, such omission would lead to the neglect of the steady quantum coherence.

  5. Quasi-Steady Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Performance E.Y. Choueiri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choueiri, Edgar

    programs. Second, the regime in which MPDTs start to become efficient is also that in which cathode erosion] in alkali metal (specifically lithium) MPDTs with multi-channel cathodes. These steady-state thrusters, have substantially lower cathode erosion rates[6, 7] with the added benefit of better performance

  6. Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapountzis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ksapountzis@phys.uoa.gr; Vlahakis, Nektarios, E-mail: vlahakis@phys.uoa.gr [Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity, we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow, we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.

  7. values from the non-steady state equation to the steady state at plateaus. The acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    enrolled. Among obese women with a WHR > 0.81, nine were normotriglyceridemic (group A) and seven were hypertriglyceri- demic (group B), while seven were nor- motriglyceridemic and obese with a WHR group D

  8. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Corp. LG Chem Chemicals Electronics Comm.& Services *LG Chem *LG Hausys *LG Household & Health Care *LG Life Sciences *LG MMA *LG Electronics *LG Display *LG Innotek *Hiplaza...

  9. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  10. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Technical Note One-dimensional, steady vertical flow in a layered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as for evaporation from shallow water tables. For steady state conditions Darcy's law gives f /' dh z - zi = - (1) h based on equation (I). The emphasis will be on analytical expressions, although the numerical evaluation of equation (

  12. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studies have been conducted, in the past, on batteries and battery materials, but details about the fields and potentials within a cell's electrolyte have been, for the most part, overlooked. A detailed theory of steady state pmcesses in lead acid cells... during the slow, steady processes ? charge, discharge, and rehxation ? of any voltaic cell in a one-dimensional geometry. The condition of electro-neutrality in the battery cell's electrolyte implies that the electric field is uniform across the cell...

  13. Florida consumer confidence holds steady in May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    . Consumer confidence held steady at 68 in May after dropping for three months since Feb. 1 when gasoline prices began shooting up, according to a new survey. But Floridians' perceptions of their own finances.8 from a revised 66 in April on worries about jobs and inflation for groceries and gasoline. The survey

  14. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  15. Generalized one-dimensional, steady, compressible flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, F.M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present development and testing of a generalized method for analytically examining 1D steady flow of perfect gases allows area change, heat transfer, friction, and mass injection. Generalized flow functions are developed, and sample tables are calculated and tested for both simple cases and combined changes. Normal shocks are noted to occur from the supersonic portion of these loci to the subsonic portion, in a manner analogous to simple-change behavior. 9 refs.

  16. Steady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consider steady periodic water waves for rotational flows with a specified fixed-depth over a flat bed. We the existence of steady periodic water waves for rotational flows with a specified fixed depth over a flat bedSteady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows David Henry School

  17. Steady-sate and load-follow characteristics of various BWR fuel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takei, K.; Kogai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Umehara, H.; Uchida, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of an irradiation study carried out in the Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR). The objective of this irradiation was to clarify the performance of various BWR fuel designs - helium prepressurization (0.3 MPa), pellet shape modification (annular and short-length annular) and barrier cladding (copper and zirconium) - under steady-state and load-follow operations.

  18. A FAMILY OF STEADY TWO-PHASE GENERALIZED FORCHHEIMER FLOWS AND THEIR LINEAR STABILITY ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the additional nonlinearity in the momentum equation. For example, unlike the Darcy flows, there is no Kruzkov in porous media using generalized Forchheimer equations and the capillary pressure. Firstly, we find stability of those steady states. The linearized system is derived and reduced to a parabolic equation

  19. Optimal monitoring and visualization of steady state power system operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bei

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    estimation becomes more critical. Recently, due to the development of new technology in high power electronics, new control and monitoring devices are becoming more popular in power systems. It is therefore necessary to investigate their models and integrate...

  20. A Semidefinite Optimization Approach to the Steady-State Analysis ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    K. ? k=1E[fk(W)???Sk]P[Sk]. = K. ? k=1 ?? f?0 k x?0 k , for appropriately ...... [10] Kingman, J. F. C. (1970). Inequalities in the theory of queues. J. Roy. Stat.

  1. Steady State Multiplicity in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ee-Sunn J. Chia; Jay B. Benziger; Ioannis G. Kevrekidis

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified differential reactor model that embodies the essential physics controlling PEM fuel cell (PEM-FC) dynamics is presented. A remarkable analogy exists between water management in the differential PEM-FC and energy balance in the classical exothermic stirred tank reactor. Water, the reaction product in the PEM-FC autocatalytically accelerates the reaction rate by enhancing proton transport through the PEM. Established analyses of heat autocatalyticity in a CSTR are modified to present water management autocatalyticity in a stirred tank reactor PEM-FC.

  2. Steady State Control of the Cellular Response to Stress /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loriaux, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Professor Professor Alexander Hoffmann, Chair Pavel Pevzner,M; Elkan, Charles; Hoffmann, Alexander. The dissertationBehar and Alexander Hoffmann. Understanding the temporal

  3. Steady-State Thickness of Liquid-Gas Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Viskanta, Raymond

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University, 1978. [12] P. Hrma, Science, "Model for a steadysolutions. More recently, Hrma [12] developed a model for astart decreasing [1,15]. Hrma [12] suggested that Eq. (1)

  4. Mapping the Parameter Space with Oscillatory and Steady State ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    mapping of the parameter space even in the presence of noise. ... mapping encompasses two major issues. ... attention from various fields of applied science

  5. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of hydride fueled BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferroni, Paolo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Since the results obtained in the main body of the analysis account only for thermal-hydraulic constraints, an estimate of the power reduction due to the application of neutronic constraints is also performed. This ...

  6. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    models using iterative concept analysis are being used on a closed loop controlled, waste heat recovery system running automatically over various drive cycles....

  7. Steady state kinetic analyses of nitroalkane oxidase mutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozinovski, Dragana Milivoj

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) catalyzes the oxidation of neutral nitroalkanes to aldehydes and ketones with oxygen consumption and the production of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite. The enzyme is a flavoprotein from the fungus Fusarium oxysporum...

  8. Current Profile Control for High Performance, Steady State Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sustainment of Internal Transport Barriers, with coupled ions and electrons, e-i .98 · Double transport barrier · BT=4 T · ICRH: 5 MW · LHCD: 3 MW, N//0=3 · ne(0)= 1.8e20 m-3 · Te(0)=6.5 ke on rampup tailoring, transient effects to freeze in j(r).) 2. Most AT expts have Ti > Te, e-i > E and use

  9. Steady state deformation of the Coso Range, east central California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from satellite radar interferometry Abstract Observations of deformation from 1992 to 1997 in the southern Coso Range using satellite radar interferometry show deformation rates...

  10. Steady-state estuarine modeling of the Brownsville ship channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maldonado, Roberto Jaime

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Channel 17. Resultant Tidal Velocities Brownsville Ship Channel 18. Summary of Inflow Data Brownsvi lie Ship Channel Modelinp 14Z 145 149 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1 Drowns vi 1 le Ship Channel and Contiguous Waters Sam pl i ng Stat i on Loca... ti ons San Martin Lake System . 3 Sampling Station Locations, Fishing Harbor Climatological Occurrence Physical Sampling Station Locations Brownsville Ship Channel 6 Salinity, Brownsville Ship Channel, May 1975 . 7 Temperature, Brownsville Ship...

  11. Steady state deformation of the Coso Range, east central California,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis(RedirectedStarr||Ste. Genevieve

  12. On a necessary criterion for stability of steady solutions of complex Ginzburg-Landau equation -- a counterexample to the 'maximum entropy production principle'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Vita, Andrea

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) has been postulated to be a criterion of stability for steady states of open systems [Martyushev et al., Phys. Rep. 426, 1 (2006)]. We find a necessary condition for stability of steady solutions of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. This condition violates MEPP.

  13. Steady periodic gravity waves with surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel Walsh

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider two-dimensional, stratified, steady water waves propagating over an impermeable flat bed and with a free surface. The motion is assumed to be driven by capillarity (that is, surface tension) on the surface and a gravitational force acting on the body of the fluid. We prove the existence of global continua of classical solutions that are periodic and traveling. This is accomplished by first constructing a 1-parameter family of laminar flow solutions, $\\mathcal{T}$, then applying bifurcation theory methods to obtain local curves of small amplitude solutions branching from $\\mathcal{T}$ at an eigenvalue of the linearized problem. Each solution curve is then continued globally by means of a degree theoretic theorem in the spirit of Rabinowitz. Finally, we complement the degree theoretic picture by proving an alternate global bifurcation theorem via the analytic continuation method of Dancer.

  14. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt007esconner2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  15. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, porous, or dense particles can be produced with very narrow size distributions, spanning the nano

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under separate cover) o Appendix B Funding: $75,000 Term: July 2002 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies #12;Page i · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation · Energy-Related Environmental

  17. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is well predicted by the macrohomogeneous model of Newman and co-workers, predicting degradation and failure remains a challenge. It may be that, like most materials, failure...

  18. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Designs: For Cell (Li5FeO4+LiV3O8) vs. Carbon Anode (with 5% Irreversible Loss) Composite Cathode Materials Potential to achieve higher energy density (Whkg and WhL) at...

  20. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 * PI joined BATT and LBNL in FY09 * Project start Sep '09 * Project end Aug '11 * 80% complete * Barriers...

  2. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 3 Objectives Develop cost-effective, high energy cathode based on lithium metal phosphate materials suitable for PHEV and EV applications. Investigate the...

  3. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information" Positive terminal Negative terminal Lead film (insulation tape) Stack and...

  4. Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    battery for PHEV and EV applications. Approach 5 LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC (37 wt%) Graphite, cycled at RT and 55 o C Technical Accomplishments and Progress...

  5. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh 80th 1st 50th 1.0 m LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) with 1% ARL-3 on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh...

  6. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1: Sulfone-based 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 ECEMC (30:70) SLEMC (30:70) SLEMCEMS (28:64:8) SLECEMC (15:15:70) CapacitymAh *...

  7. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    long cycling 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh 80th 1st 50th 1.0 m LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) with 1% ARL-3 on LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 CapacitymAh...

  8. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.992 0.994 0.996 0.998 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Baseline: 1.2 M LiPF 6 in ECEMC (30:70) Baseline + 5 mM PFBP Baseline + 10 mM AFAC Cycle Number ANL LMNOGR Full Cells...

  9. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  10. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and

  12. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen and1

  13. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTALnaturalGENII2 DOE Hydrogen

  14. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002 InvestigationFuel CellDepartment of

  15. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PMDepartment ofs oLetterExpositionSpace

  16. Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation World Features

  17. Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2, 2015 TheB2 March 5, 2014) TheBagdadThe20585Next-generation

  18. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Reid, Robert S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, William C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  19. Penn State Chemical Engineering Self-Assembly, Nanoscience, Colloids,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    , fibrosis and cancer, biosensors #12;Computational Quantum Mechanics Catalysis, fuel cells, batteries and coarse- grained molecular simulation Li ion batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, biomimetic membranes Computational Strain Optimization for Biofuel Production #12;Neutron scattering and spectroscopy, atomistic

  20. Equivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    current conditions. In general, owing to dimensional reasons, the bed roughness height of a flat and fixed orders of magnitude larger than for a fixed bed. This is probably caused by the increased energyEquivalent Roughness Height for Plane Bed under Steady Flow Benoît Camenen, Ph.D.1 ; Atilla Bayram

  1. DYNAMICS & CONTROL OF UNDERWATER GLIDERS I: STEADY MOTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    underwater vehicle which uses gravity for propulsion. Underwater gliders are winged underwater vehicles whichDYNAMICS & CONTROL OF UNDERWATER GLIDERS I: STEADY MOTIONS N. Mahmoudian, J. Geisbert, & C. Woolsey Blacksburg, VA 24060 www.unmanned.vt.edu June 6, 2009 Technical Report No. VaCAS-2007-01 Copyright c 2007 #12

  2. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Gabriele Villari

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

  3. BURNER DEVELOPMENT AND OPERABILITY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH STEADY FLOWING SYNGAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    BURNER DEVELOPMENT AND OPERABILITY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH STEADY FLOWING SYNGAS FIRED COMBUSTORS-Mu¨nchen, Garching, Germany This article addresses the impact of syngas fuel composition on combustor blowout, flash flashback mechanisms are present in swirling flows, and the key thermophysical properties of a syngas

  4. Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coco, Vincent Joseph

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -1. 2. Implicit Method, n = 0. 3. Comparison of Multi-6-Method and Mah's Method 4. Comparison of Single-6-Method and Mah's Method. Page 40 41 42 43 5. Comparison of Ei. genvalues and Series Evaluation of E(At) in the Solution of Example 3-1. 6.... Comparison of Single-6-Method and Sargent's Method. 7. Comparison of Multi-6-Method and Sargent's Method 8. Computati. on Times 9. Statement of Example 4-1. 10. Solution of Example 4-1 11. Solution of Example 4-2 45 48 50 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1...

  5. ON THE EXISTENCE OF STEADY PERIODIC CAPILLARY-GRAVITY STRATIFIED WATER WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    points for steady water waves. The condition which ensures the lack of stagnation points for 1991ON THE EXISTENCE OF STEADY PERIODIC CAPILLARY-GRAVITY STRATIFIED WATER WAVES DAVID HENRY AND BOGDAN­VASILE MATIOC Abstract. We prove the existence of small steady periodic capillary-gravity water waves

  6. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains non-steady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggi, F.M.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications often assume first-order or Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics under the quasi-steady-state assumption to simplify the system kinetics. However, isotopic e ects have the same order of magnitude as the potential error introduced by these simpli cations. Both formulations lead to a constant fractionation factor which may yield incorrect estimations of the isotopic effect and a misleading interpretation of the isotopic signature of a reaction. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitri cation in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate [2006], where high {sup 15}N{sub 2}O enrichment during N{sub 2}O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N{sub 2}O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics. When the quasi-steady-state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observations and aided in interpretation of experimental isotopic signatures. These results may imply a substantial revision in using the Rayleigh equation for interpretation of isotopic signatures and in modeling biological kinetic isotope fractionation with first-order kinetics or quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics.

  7. Interfacial colloidal monolayers under steady shear: structure and flow profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivo Buttinoni; Zachary A. Zell; Todd M. Squires; Lucio Isa

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the coupling between the structural dynamics and rheological response of charged colloidal monolayers at water/oil interfaces, driven into steady shear by a microdisk rotating at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into rotating concentric rings linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles move continuously "Flowing") close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent "Hopping" between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate dependent surface viscosity of a monolayer can be extracted from an interfacial stress balance, giving "macroscopic" flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions correspond to a surface yield stress $\\eta \\sim \\tau_S^Y \\dot{\\gamma}^{-1}$, whereas Flowing Regions exhibit surface viscosities with power-law shear-thinning characteristics.

  8. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chu, A. (2007). Nanophosphate Lithium-Ion Technology forYomoto (2007). Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries for Plug- inhydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their

  9. DYNAMICS OF NON-STEADY SPIRAL ARMS IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Junichi; Saitoh, Takayuki R. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiichi, E-mail: babajn@geo.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-30 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-30 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan)

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms underlying non-steady stellar spiral arms in disk galaxies, we analyzed the growing and damping phases of their spiral arms using three-dimensional N-body simulations. We confirmed that the spiral arms are formed due to a swing amplification mechanism that reinforces density enhancement as a seeded wake. In the damping phase, the Coriolis force exerted on a portion of the arm surpasses the gravitational force that acts to shrink the portion. Consequently, the stars in the portion escape from the arm, and subsequently they form a new arm at a different location. The time-dependent nature of the spiral arms originates in the continual repetition of this nonlinear phenomenon. Since a spiral arm does not rigidly rotate, but follows the galactic differential rotation, the stars in the arm rotate at almost the same rate as the arm. In other words, every single position in the arm can be regarded as the corotation point. Due to interaction with their host arms, the energy and angular momentum of the stars change, thereby causing radial migration of the stars. During this process, the kinetic energy of random motion (random energy) of the stars does not significantly increase, and the disk remains dynamically cold. Owing to this low degree of disk heating, short-lived spiral arms can recurrently develop over many rotational periods. The resultant structure of the spiral arms in the N-body simulations is consistent with the observational nature of spiral galaxies. We conclude that the formation and structure of spiral arms in isolated disk galaxies can be reasonably understood by nonlinear interactions between a spiral arm and its constituent stars.

  10. ECE 331 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Catalog Description: Energy conversion principles for electric motors. Steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -phase synchronous machines: wound rotor and permanent magnet. Direct-current machines. Regenerative braking

  11. Heat Loading in ARIES Power Plants: Steady State, Transient and Off-Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    = 45 MW PSOL = 290 MW Wth = 690 MJ Wmag int = 140 MJ Ip = 15.0 MA R = 6.20 m a = 2.0 m V = 837 m3 Asurf localized modes (ELMs) The timescale for ELMs to deliver power to the divertor or the first wall is a few x-U #12;Transient Heat Loading, ELMs The amount of energy released by an ELM has been scaled to the energy

  12. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data... due to on-off cycling is estimated and used with data fromTest B to calculate the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER). *The test procedure used to rate air conditioners and heat pumps isreproduced in the appendix. 2.1 (2.1) where, While the amount...

  13. Non-Adiabatic Effects on Combustion Front Propagation in Porous Media: Multiplicity of Steady States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akkutlu, I. Yucel; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The sustained propagation of combustion fronts in porous media is a necessary condition for the success of an in situ combustion project for oil recovery. Compared to other recovery methods, in situ combustion involves the added complexity of exothermic reactions and temperature-dependent chemical kinetics. In the presence of heat losses, the possibility of ignition and extinction (quenching) exists. In this report, we address the properties of combustion fronts propagating at a constant velocity in the presence of heat losses.

  14. Modeling Tritium Transport in PbLi Breeder Blankets Under Steady State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Zhang; A. Ying; M. Abdou; B. Merrill

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium behavior in the breeder/coolant plays a crucial role in keeping the tritium loss under an allowable limit and realizing high tritium recovery efficiency. In this paper, progress toward the development of a comprehensive 3D predictive capability is discussed and presented. The sequence of transport processes leading to tritium release includes diffusion and convection through the PbLi, transfer across the liquid/solid interface, diffusion of atomic tritium through the structure, and dissolution-recombination at the solid/gas interface. Numerical simulation of the coupled individual physics phenomena of tritium transport is performed for DCLL/HCLL type breeder blankets under realistic reactor-like conditions in this paper. Tritium concentration and permeation are presented and the MHD effects are evaluated. Preliminary results shows that the MHD velocity profile has the significant effect in preventing tritium permeation due to the higher convection effects near the wall.

  15. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHO = Phosphate, SC = Brown Coal, SIL = Silver, TIN = Tin,The sole exception is brown coal, whose estimate for ? isPHO = Phosphate, SC = Brown Coal, SIL = Silver, TIN = Tin,

  16. An Evaluation of Steady-State Dehumidification Characteristics of Residential Central Air Conditioners, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Chan, N.; Somasundaram, S.; Katipamula, S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment that ARI publishes twice a yearCl], In addition to the ARI certification, many manufacturerspublish detailed performance (capacity, efficiency, and dehumidification) data....2 - Performance and hardware data collectedfor this survey. 3.2 References 1. "Directory of Certified Unitary Air Conditioners, Air Source HeatPumps, and Sound-Rated Outdoor Unitary Equipment", Semi-Annual Issues, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute...

  17. ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -fitting for some of the components. For example, in the reciprocating chiller model proposed by Bourdouxhe et al. (1994), the chiller was modeled as an assembly of several simplified components. Each component (e and superheating temperature differences) from the chiller or heat pump. The alternative approach, equation

  18. EXISTENCE OF STEADY STATES FOR THE MAXWELL-SCHRODINGER-POISSON SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    focus our attention on the plasma physical case. Similar techniques can be used for extending our¨odinger; Schr¨odinger-Poisson-X; Concentration-Compactness; Standing waves; Semiconductors; Plasma physics 1 in gravita- tion ( = -1) 31, one-dimensional reduction of electron density in plasma physics ( = +1), as well

  19. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The semiscale tests were to assess the ability of the code to simulate small break tran- sients. The LOBI calculation was performed as an International Standard Problem. The GERDA test assessed the prediction of RELAP5 in areas of natural circulation... by the user. It is by default, the smaller of the junct&on areas of the two volumes. In the previous computer runs, the junction areas between various volumes were calculated by the RELAP5 code. Now the junction areas were all set to the same value of 0. 27...

  20. Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably saturated flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    suspected and, in some cases shown, to facilitate the movement of contaminants through the subsurface [Mc [Wan and Tokunaga, 1997]. [4] Contaminants of particular concern for colloid-facili- tated movement are the strongly sorbing radionuclides cesium, plutonium, and americium. At the Hanford Reser- vation in south

  1. Emotional faces boost up steady-state visual responses for braincomputer interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialatte, François

    by the user [5], which leads to fatigue and BCI per- formance degradation for standard light emitting diode

  2. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand in the world oil market. Working paper. University ofapproach to the world oil market. The Journal of PoliticalA Cournot model of the oil market. Economica, 51 (203), 235-

  3. A comparison of turbulence models in airship steady-state CFD simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voloshin, Vitaly; Calay, Rajnish K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy and resource consumption of the four different turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity assumption, namely, $k-\\varepsilon$, two $k-\\omega$ and Spallart-Allmaram models, in modeling airships are investigated. The test airship shape is a conventional shape. Three different angles of attack are considered. The results are checked against the wind tunnel experimental data. The resource consumption study is based on the benchmark of 1500 iterations. Based on all data obtained it is evident that Spallart-Allmaras model is the most optimal one in the majority of cases.

  4. Calculation of Steady-State Evaporation for an Arbitrary Matric Potential at Ground Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    solutions for different unsaturated hydraulic conductivity models. Gardner (1958) developed two unsaturated 3 hydraulic conductivity model K(h) = Ks exp(?h), where Ks is the saturated hydraulic conductivity and ? is a fitting parameter related...-size distribution model (Burdine, 1953), leading to the hydraulic conductivity function: 𝐾(𝑆) = 𝐾𝑠𝑆 𝑝+2+2/𝜆, (14) 𝑆 = ( ?𝑣 ? )𝜆, ?𝑣 > ?, (15...

  5. Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED PAR38 Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 38 different lamps (32 LED, 2 CFL, 1 ceramic metal halide [CMH], 3 halogen) were monitored in a specially developed automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA2) for nearly 14,000 hours. Five samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at a target ambient temperature between 44°C and 45°C.

  6. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  7. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating supply and demand in the world oil market.the demand curve for all commodities, including oil andgas, oil, silver, and tin have decreasing demand. The sole

  8. OPTIONS FOR A STEADY-STATE COMPACT FUSION NEUTRON SOURCE M.P. Gryaznevich1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Nuclear Power production: the emerging shortage of fissile fuel, disposal and storage of nuclear waste. This can be achieved in several ways: by recycling high level nuclear waste from conventional nuclear of nuclear waste and fuel and removing Pu from the spent fuel. This combination of "fission + fusion

  9. Steady-State Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Spool Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed jet flowing inside of a partially-open hydraulic valve is accompanied by a reaction force, also referred to as flow force. The nature of this force has remained a mystery despite an extensive research effort spanning many decades. The momentum theory on the flow force by Lee and Blackburn (1952) explains the origin of the flow force and offers a design solution to shape the valve spool as a turbine bucket. It provides a model to calculate the compensated flow force as well. This paper shows that the model applies to a different flow case due to incorrect assumptions made. A corrected equation is presented based on a detailed analysis of the static-pressure distribution in the valve cavity as well as on a literature review of pressure loss in diffusers and nozzles. The new equation is based on the compensation taking place upstream of the valve orifice, not downstream as assumed by the momentum theory. The new model can be applied to chamfers or notches on the valve spool without the need to machi...

  10. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  11. ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY OF CONSTANT STEADY STATES FOR A 2 2 REACTIONDIFFUSION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Francesco, Marco

    in their metabolism and also stimulate the organism to increase its concentration. We also consider a pharmacological of cells is biased by diffusion and chemotactical transport up the gradient of a nutrient. Denoting

  12. Design of a steady state thermal conductivity measurement device for CNT RET polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louie, Brian Ming

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NY: Taylor & Francis. [10] Tritt, T. M. (2004). MeasurementBulk Materials. In T. M. Tritt, Thermal Conductivity Theory,

  13. A Thrust Stand for High-power Steady-state Plasma Thrusters L.D. Cassady,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choueiri, Edgar

    Accelerator with lithium vapor propellant operating at 500 A, 9.5 mg/s lithium flow rate and a 0.07 T applied-pendulum thrust stand described here is used as an integral part of our lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator (LiLFA) research program. The demonstration of 50% efficiency at 0.5 MW with 500 hours of nearly erosion

  14. Steady states for shear flows of a liquid-crystal model: multiplicity, stability, and hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Weishi

    thickness between two solid blocks with the blocks sliding in opposite directions at a prescribed relative is the pressure, is the relaxation parameter, and denotes the region bounded by the two solid blocks. The domain the horizontal pressure gradient to be zero so that the flow is driven by the imposed slip velocity ¯u

  15. Steady-state propagation of a Mode III crack in couple stress elastic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mishuris; A. Piccolroaz; E. Radi

    2012-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the problem of a semi-infinite crack steadily propagating in an elastic solid with microstructures subject to antiplane loading applied on the crack surfaces. The loading is moving with the same constant velocity as that of the crack tip. We assume subsonic regime, that is the crack velocity is smaller than the shear wave velocity. The material behaviour is described by the indeterminate theory of couple stress elasticity developed by Koiter. This constitutive model includes the characteristic lengths in bending and torsion and thus it is able to account for the underlying microstructure of the material as well as for the strong size effects arising at small scales and observed when the representative scale of the deformation field becomes comparable with the length scale of the microstructure, such as the grain size in a polycrystalline or granular aggregate. The present analysis confirms and extends earlier results on the static case by including the effects of crack velocity and rotational inertia. By adopting the criterion of maximum total shear stress, we discuss the effects of microstructural parameters on the stability of crack propagation.

  16. Application of functional transformations in the solution of steady-state distillation problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Blaise Edward

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12. 13. 16. 17. 19. 20. RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 7 - CHANGE IN FUNCTION NORM AND STAGE 1 TEMPERATURE WITH RESPECT TO 3 ACOBIAN EVALUATION (ITERATE 2, 8=2. 2x10, Ly=50 LB-MOLES/MIN) RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 7 - CHANGE IN FUNCTION NORM AND STAGE 1... EVALUATION (ITERATE 1, P=2. 2x10, Lx;=40 LB-MOLES/MIN) RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 7 ? CHANGE IN FUNCTION NORM AiND STAGE 1 TEMPERATURE WITH RESPECT TO J ACOBIAN EVALUATION (ITERATE 1, , 8=0. 124, Li, =40 LB-MOLES /MIN) RESULTS OF EXAMPLE 7 - CHANGE IN FUNCTION...

  17. Steady-State Poisson-Nernst-Planck Systems: Asymptotic expansions and applications to ion channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abaid, Nicole Teresa

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    (x)+ ?H(x) ?xk fj(x) ?xj bracketrightbigg = 0. Toseethat?triangleinvH(x0(t)),z?isafirstintegralof(3.16), weneedtoverifythat ddt?triangleinvH(x0(t)),z?= 0, i.e. that the inner product gives a constant. After calculation, we get d dt?triangleinvH(x0(t)),z...? = n? j=1 zj(t) n? k=1 bracketleftbigg?2H(x 0(t)) ?xj?xk fk(x0(t))+ ?H(x0(t)) ?xk ? fk(x0(t)) ?xj bracketrightbigg . Since the sum over k has been shown to equal zero, the entire sum equals zero. There- fore, ?triangleinvH(x0(t)),z? = 0, which concludes...

  18. Rate equations analysis of phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays under steady state conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate equations analysis of phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays has been carried out. It was found that for given (laser) current densities, the photon density distribution in the array elements is that particular one which maximizes the total photon density. The results of this analysis were then combined with the waveguiding properties of the laser array waveguide, yielding a basic model of phase-locked diode laser arrays. This model explains the effects of the variation of the current combination through the array elements on its mode structure that were observed recently.

  19. Development and application of a steady state code for supercritical carbon dioxide cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legault, David M. (David Michael)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical CO2 power conversion system is of interest for advanced nuclear reactor applications because the same efficiencies are obtained as for the most developed of the closed gas-turbine cycles (helium-Brayton), ...

  20. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Metabolic Pathway Analysis for Biohydrogen Production under Non-Steady State Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongda; Vassiliadis, Vassilios S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to traditional energy sources due to its high combustion heat with zero environmental impact. It has been estimated that the requirement of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation will increase from 5.4 million tonnes in 2025 to 100 millions in 2050 worldwide 2... during the transfer from PSII to PSI, PSI harvests solar energy to excite the exhausted electrons. Electrons are thereby delivered to ferredoxin (Fd). Finally, the reduced Fd is oxidised by hydrogen ions for molecular hydrogen generation...

  1. Steady state and transient model of a linear solar concentrator with cylindrical absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecevit, A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear parabolic collector with integrated absorber pipe assembly is one of the main elements of a solar energy collection system that produces electricity or process heat. This kind of a system must geometrically and thermally be optimized so that a reasonable operating efficiency can be reached. A linear parabolic collector having an absorber, encircled with a cylindrical cavity, has been studied and the geometrical parameters of the system have been optimized before the collector was built and put into operation. The collector having dimensions of 200X95 sq.cm and having a focal length of 60 cm. is built under the view of the optimization procedure. The collector is oriented EW horizontal in the NS tracking mode and the longitudinal deviations of the focal line is examined. The energy distribution along the focal line of the collector is measured using a laser together with a wattmeter. The effects of the thermal and optical parameters on the performance of the system is studied by the use of a theoretical model that is built for the collector absorber system. The value of each parameter is changed from a minimum to a maximum, keeping the other parameters at their average values.

  2. A stochastic analysis of steady state two-phase flow in heterogeneous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    for cleaning jet engines). NAPL spills during transport and leaks from underground storage tanks have soil property field is developed using the Karhunen-Loeve moment equation (KLME) approach) facilities. NAPLs may be leaking from a damaged or decaying storage vessel (e.g., in a gasoline station

  3. Steady-state operational degrees of freedom with application to refrigeration cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    - position of the circulating refrigerant are also discussed. Two LNG processes of current interest, the C3MRTM LNG process from Air Products and the MFCTM process developed by Statoil-Linde LNG Technology. The optimal design of LNG processes has been studied extensively by several com- panies such as Air Products

  4. COMPARISON OF STEADY-STATE SVC MODELS IN LOAD FLOW CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    local reactive power consumption by injecting reactive power to electrical networks. There are also transmission systems (FACTS) utilize high power semiconductor devices to control the reactive power flow), is to connect in series a controllable reactance in a power network so that the electrical distance between

  5. Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side, and other important thermal-hydraulic parameters. The simulations have been performed with the computer code 3D ANA, based on the 'two-fluid' model approach. Steam-water interface transport processes, as well as tube bundle flow resistance, energy transfer, and steam generation within tube bundles are modelled with {sup c}losure laws{sup .} Applied approach implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The model is solved by the control volume procedure, which has been extended in order to take into account the 3D flow of liquid and gas phase. The methodology is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results of real steam generator operational conditions at various power levels of the WWER Novovoronezh, Unit 5. One-dimensional model of the horizontal steam generator has been built with the RELAP 5 standard code on the basis of the multidimensional two-phase flow structure obtained with the 3D ANA code. RELAP 5 and 3D ANA code results are compared, showing acceptable agreement. (authors)

  6. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of extraction value to GDP by mineral. BAU Guyanafor each mineral, which have the highest ratio of extractionof the mineral is given by E(t), the total extraction ?ow in

  7. Design of a steady state thermal conductivity measurement device for CNT RET polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louie, Brian Ming

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conductive particles along with CNTs in polymer composites.polymer composites. 2,12 The combination of highly conductive

  8. Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion , and J. BRINDLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Alex

    3 ) Cpr Initial concentration of propane (mol m 3 ) cp Specific heat capacity (gas) (J kg 1 ) cpc. Advantages of this design include an even flow distribution because of the uniform matrix of passageways

  9. Reliability importance analysis of Markovian systems at steady state using perturbation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -7Jun2012 Author manuscript, published in "Reliability Engineering and System Safety 93 (2008) 1605 contribute the most to system (un)performance (reliability, maintainability, safety, or any other performance upgrade (improved design, better maintenance, ...). To take full advantage of reliability studies

  10. Spatially varying embedded stochastic galerkin methods for steady-state PDEs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cyr, Eric Christopher

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing discretizations for stochastic PDEs, based on a tensor product between the deterministic basis and the stochastic basis, treat the required resolution of uncertainty as uniform across the physical domain. However, solutions to many PDEs of interest exhibit spatially localized features that may result in uncertainty being severely over or under-resolved by existing discretizations. In this report, we explore the mechanics and accuracy of using a spatially varying stochastic expansion. This is achieved through an adaptive refinement algorithm where simple error estimates are used to independently drive refinement of the stochastic basis at each point in the physical domain. Results are presented comparing the accuracy of the adaptive techinque to the accuracy achieved using uniform refinement.

  11. Comparison of Field Performance to Steady-State Performance for Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    data on the seasonal performance of air-to-air residential heat pump systems. The purpose of this paper-installed heat pumps at a residential test site near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since 1976, the Tennessee Energy-to-Air Heat Pumps V. D. Baxter L. A. Abbatiello R. E. Minturn ABSTRACT Two dealer-supplied and installed

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF MHD STABILITY IN NEGATIVE/WEAK SHEAR CONFIGURATIONS FOR A STEADY STATE TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Stuart

    beta limit disruptions observed in high performance negative shear tokamak plasmas may be attributed beta value N as large as 2.5 - 3.5 can be realized for qmin. Hard beta limits due to ideal MHD stability can be improved by reducing the pressure gradient

  13. Modeling integrated photovoltaic-electrochemical devices using steady-state equivalent circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, Mark Thomas

    We describe a framework for efficiently coupling the power output of a series-connected string of single-band-gap solar cells to an electrochemical process that produces storable fuels. We identify the fundamental efficiency ...

  14. Steady-state chemical process models. A structural point of view

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 9.2 NRTL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 9.3 Extended NRTL (a

  15. Output Selection for Tuning of Field Oriented Controllers: Steady State Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

    process variability. This mismatch results in the following [1] 1. the flux level is not properly of reactive over Electromagnetic Torque [9] 5. D-Axis Stator Voltage [10] * Corresponding Author. E-mail: m diagram. 6. Q-Axis Stator Voltage [10] Here we present how relative sensitivity functions and measures can

  16. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    HUbbell, Joel M.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  17. A Neurophysiology-Inspired Steady-State Color Appearance Model Timo Kunkel and Erik Reinhard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinhard, Erik

    ]. The second step involves of non-linear response compres- sion. Performed in a cone response space, this step response. After the response compression step, CIECAM02 continues with the computation of hue angle-linear response compression, while stage 2 offers a physiologically plausible model of perceptually unique hues

  18. Doubly self-consistent field theory of grafted polymers under simple shear in steady state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo, Tongchuan; Whitmore, Mark D., E-mail: mark-whitmore@umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a generalization of the numerical self-consistent mean-field theory of polymers to the case of grafted polymers under simple shear. The general theoretical framework is presented, and then applied to three different chain models: rods, Gaussian chains, and finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) chains. The approach is self-consistent at two levels. First, for any flow field, the polymer density profile and effective potential are calculated self-consistently in a manner similar to the usual self-consistent field theory of polymers, except that the calculation is inherently two-dimensional even for a laterally homogeneous system. Second, through the use of a modified Brinkman equation, the flow field and the polymer profile are made self-consistent with respect to each other. For all chain models, we find that reasonable levels of shear cause the chains to tilt, but it has very little effect on the overall thickness of the polymer layer, causing a small decrease for rods, and an increase of no more than a few percent for the Gaussian and FENE chains. Using the FENE model, we also probe the individual bond lengths, bond correlations, and bond angles along the chains, the effects of the shear on them, and the solvent and bonded stress profiles. We find that the approximations needed within the theory for the Brinkman equation affect the bonded stress, but none of the other quantities.

  19. Conformational stability, flexibility, and steady-state activity of Ribonuclease T1 variants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Brian Judson

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., 1992; Thomson et al., 1989). We observe a relationship between the variants' conformational stability and the determined Kcat/Km values. With the exception of three mutations made to the active site, differences from wild-type activity are believed...

  20. Kinetics of the long ssRNA: Steady state Yevgeni Mamasakhlisov, Shura Hayryan, Vladimir Morozov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the EPL website to read the latest articles published in cutting-edge fields of research from across of the referees to making all final acceptance decisions Impact Factor ­ The 2010 Impact Factor is 2.753; your Journal Citation Reports IMPACT FACTOR 500 000full text downloads in 2010 OVER 30 DAYS 16 961 average

  1. Reconciling steady-state Kalman and alpha-beta filter design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Kerstetter, D.; Jowers, S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deterministic design of the alpha-beta filter and the stochastic design of its Kalman counterpart are placed on a common basis. The first step is to find the continuous-time filter architecture which transforms into the alpha-beta discrete...

  2. Design considerations for a steady state fusion reactor's thermal energy dump (TED) with emphasis on SAFFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werley, K.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work examines the use of a thermal dump to handle the severe particle and energy handling requirements of a diverted plasma. We outline a general approach for evaluating the design parameters and limitations of a thermal dump, considering such things as thermomechanical and erosion effects, compatibility, availability, machinability, coolant recirculation, vacuum pumping, economics, lifetime, etc. To demonstrate how the performance requirements are reflected in design decisions, we apply a solid-walled dump to a small-sized field reversed mirror (FRM). We also examine a liquid-lithium droplet thermal dump and point out some distinct advantages of this new concept over the solid-wall design in reducing stress, erosion, and vacuum pumping problems. The chief disadvantages of this scheme include liquid-metal safe-handling problems, vapor pressure-temperature limitations, and the need for differential pumping if T/sub Li/ > 310/sup 0/C is desired.

  3. A Computer Program Predicting Steady-State Performance of a Nuclear Research Reactor's Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamel Sidi Ali [Nuclear Research Center of Birine (Algeria)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performances of a nuclear reactor are directly affected by its cooling system, especially when it uses wet towers to evacuate the heat generated in the nuclear reactor core. Failure of the cooling system can yield very serious damages to most of the components of the nuclear reactor core. In this work, a computer program simulating the thermal behavior of a nuclear research reactor's cooling system is presented. Starting from the proposed start-up data of the reactor, the program predicts the cooling capacity of the nuclear reactor while taking into account the current climate conditions and also monitors the behavior of the thermal equipment involved in this process and this for different levels of power. The proposed simulation is based on a set of heat transfer equations representing all the equipment making up the cooling system up to the nuclear reactor core. Owing to the proposed inter-connected set of equations used to predict the thermal behaviour of the system, this program allows the user to modify at will a specified parameter and study the induced resulting effects on the rest of the system. The computer program developed has been experimentally validated on an operational system generating 6.8 MW and the obtained results are in good agreement with experiment. The results produced by the program concern the capacity of the cooling system to evacuate all the heat generated in the nuclear reactor core while taking into account the current climate conditions, the determination of the optimal number of thermal equipment that need to be engaged, the monitoring of the reactor core's entry end exit temperatures as well as the temperatures of all the components of the cooling system. Moreover, the program gives all the characteristics of air at the exit of the cooling towers and the loss of water due to the cooling process. (authors)

  4. Reconciling steady-state Kalman and alpha-beta filter design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, John H.; Kerstetter, D.; Jowers, S.

    The deterministic design of the alpha-beta filter and the stochastic design of its Kalman counterpart are placed on a common basis. The first step is to find the continuous-time filter architecture which transforms into the alpha-beta discrete...

  5. Steady State Electro-Thermal Modeling For DC-DC Converters1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    heat up significantly due to the power dissipated within the device (self-heating) and the power University Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Boston, MA 02115, USA Email : ciprian.r@ece.neu.edu Abstract - This paper presents a method to combine CFD simulation with electrical simulation packages

  6. The TST: A small Steady-State Tokamak for Integrated Divertor Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Colchin, R.J.; Swain, D.W.; Nelson, B.E.; Monday, J.F.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: The TST program; the TST physics basis; the TST auxiliary H&CD systems; the test divertors; the TST device; and ancillary systems.

  7. Copyright and Disclaimer A RAD-HARD, STEADY-STATE, DIGITAL IMAGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to prevent melting or radiative cooling damage or nonlinear effects from spoiling the measurement. Finally, is outlined. It uses a cooled pinhole camera design, employing a robust, passive, segmented radiation absorber optics to a shielded, high-resolution IR video camera with 0.01 °C temperature resolution. It can make

  8. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact Lens Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micromixing Efficiency in Static Mixer. Chem Eng Sci Florya 12-element Kenics® static mixer is inserted into the brassstand pipe. The Kenics® static mixer produces turbulent flow

  9. "Fueling method for small, steady-state, aneutronic FRC fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfiresImpurity Transport,12,TopEnergy

  10. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of Order No.of Energy OPCOPSAID| Department of

  11. Comparison between RHD simulation of supercritical accretion flows and steady model with outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Cheng-Liang; Takeuchi, Shun; Ohsuga, Ken

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply our two-dimensional (2D), radially self-similar steady-state accretion flow model to the analysis of hydrodynamic simulation results of supercritical accretion flows. Self-similarity is checked and the input parameters for the model calculation, such as advective factor and heat capacity ratio, are obtained from time-averaged simulation data. Solutions of the model are then calculated and compared with the simulation results. We find that in the converged region of the simulation, excluding the part too close to the black hole, the radial distribution of azimuthal velocity $v_\\phi$, density $\\rho$ and pressure $p$ basically follows the self-similar assumptions, i.e. they are roughly proportional to $r^{-0.5}$, $r^{-n}$, and $r^{-(n+1)}$, respectively, where $n\\sim0.85$ for the mass injection rate of $1000L_\\mathrm{E}/c^2$, and $n\\sim0.74$ for $3000L_\\mathrm{E}/c^2$. The distribution of $v_r$ and $v_\\theta$ agrees less with self-similarity, possibly due to convective motions in the $r\\theta$ plane. Th...

  12. Cost-Effective Design of a Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    of a supercapacitor bank and a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery bank. In particular, the paper formulates the capacity of the battery cycle efficiency and state of health, characteristics of the supercapacitor bank, and dynamics (FEVs) commonly comprise of homogeneous battery banks, mostly lithium-ion (Li- ion) batteries (e

  13. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  14. Soot microstructure in steady and flickering laminar methane/air diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation is presented to identify the mechanisms responsible for the enhanced sooting behavior of strongly flickering methane/air jet diffusion flames when compared to their steady counterparts. The work extends the implementation of thermophoretic sampling in flickering, co-flow, laminar, diffusion flames. Acoustic forcing of the fuel flow rate is used to phase lock the periodic flame flicker close to the natural flicker frequency ({approximately} 10 Hz for a burner diameter of {approximately} 1 cm). Soot primary sizes, determined as functions of flame coordinates, indicate that the largest soot primary units in strongly flickering methane/air flames are larger by {approximately} 60% than those measured in steady flames with the same mean reactant flow rates. The primary particle size measurements, when combined with the soot volume fractions reported by other investigators, indicate that soot surface areas in the flickering flame are three to four times larger than those under steady conditions. These results, along with the fact that residence times in the flickering flame are twice as long as those in the steady flame, suggest that specific soot surface growth rates under unsteady combustion conditions can be similar or even lower than those in the corresponding steady flames. Finally, the number of densities of soot primaries in flickering flames are found to be higher by 30--50% than those in steady flames, thus suggesting stronger and/or extended soot inception mechanisms under flickering conditions. The combination of longer flow residence times and greater population of incipient soot particles in flickering flames appears to be primarily responsible for the higher sooting propensity of methane under laminar unsteady combustion conditions.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR STEADY HEATING: OBSERVATIONS OF AN ACTIVE REGION CORE WITH HINODE AND TRACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Brooks, David H. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M, 4900 Meridian Street, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The timescale for energy release is an important parameter for constraining the coronal heating mechanism. Observations of 'warm' coronal loops ({approx}1 MK) have indicated that the heating is impulsive and that coronal plasma is far from equilibrium. In contrast, observations at higher temperatures ({approx}3 MK) have generally been consistent with steady heating models. Previous observations, however, have not been able to exclude the possibility that the high temperature loops are actually composed of many small-scale threads that are in various stages of heating and cooling and only appear to be in equilibrium. With new observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode we have the ability to investigate the properties of high temperature coronal plasma in extraordinary detail. We examine the emission in the core of an active region and find three independent lines of evidence for steady heating. We find that the emission observed in XRT is generally steady for hours, with a fluctuation level of approximately 15% in an individual pixel. Short-lived impulsive heating events are observed, but they appear to be unrelated to the steady emission that dominates the active region. Furthermore, we find no evidence for warm emission that is spatially correlated with the hot emission, as would be expected if the high temperature loops are the result of impulsive heating. Finally, we also find that intensities in the 'moss', the footpoints of high temperature loops, are consistent with steady heating models provided that we account for the local expansion of the loop from the base of the transition region to the corona. In combination, these results provide strong evidence that the heating in the core of an active region is effectively steady, that is, the time between heating events is short relative to the relevant radiative and conductive cooling times.

  16. Estimating Power System Dynamic States Using Extended Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Zhou, Ning

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a steady state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper investigates the application of Extended Kalman Filtering techniques for estimating dynamic states in the state estimation process. The new formulated “dynamic state estimation” includes true system dynamics reflected in differential equations, not like previously proposed “dynamic state estimation” which only considers the time-variant snapshots based on steady state modeling. This new dynamic state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter has been successfully tested on a multi-machine system. Sensitivity studies with respect to noise levels, sampling rates, model errors, and parameter errors are presented as well to illustrate the robust performance of the developed dynamic state estimation process.

  17. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fossil fuels by other green energy sources, such as solar,fuels, most of these green energy sources suffer from their

  18. Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yi

    Using the recently developed Cahn-Hilliard reaction (CHR) theory, we present a simple mathematical model of the transition from solid-solution radial diffusion to two-phase shrinking-core dynamics during ion intercalation ...

  19. Self-limiting lithiation of electrode nanoparticles in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drozdov, A. D., E-mail: add@teknologisk.dk [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark); Sommer-Larsen, P. [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Claville Christiansen, J. de [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is derived for the viscoplastic behavior of a host medium driven by stress-induced diffusion of guest atoms. The constitutive equations are applied to study development of stresses in a spherical electrode particle subjected to insertion of lithium. Numerical simulation demonstrates the ability of the model to capture basic phenomena observed in anode nanoparticles under lithiation: formation of a sharp interphase between a Li-poor core and a Li-rich shell, slowing down of the interphase motion revealed as self-limiting lithiation, and growth of tensile hoop stresses near the outer surface of a particle leading to its fracture.

  20. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    initial estimates in FY12 Validate overhead savings assumptions based on today's Capex Opex with Johnson Controls finance Consolidate estimates for design options - Q3...

  1. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Approach 5 Dry coated electrode Electrode design optimization Binder and electrolyte development Process and equipment optimization...

  2. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M n , ^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.of LiCoi/3Nii/ Mn 02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem.Mni/ 0 for advanced lithium-ion batteries," J. Power

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  5. The Relationship of the Nail Penetration Test to Safety of Li-Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Study of Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using "Gen3" Electrode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Summary Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results...

  7. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc.02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3] Yabuuchi,

  8. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, 2000. 8(3):Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. , Designing newDept. of Materials Science and Engineering. , First

  9. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  10. Electrochemical and physical analysis of a Li-ion cell cycled at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Song, Xiangyun; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2002-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-size LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/graphite lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled over 100 percent DOD at room temperature and 60 degrees C in order to investigate high-temperature degradation mechanisms of this important technology. Capacity fade for the cell was correlated with that for the individual components, using electrochemical analysis of the electrodes and other diagnostic techniques. The high-temperature cell lost 65 percent of its initial capacity after 140 cycles at 60 degrees C compared to only 4 percent loss for the cell cycled at room temperature. Cell ohmic impedance increased significantly with the elevated temperature cycling, resulting in some of loss of capacity at the C/2 rate. However, as determined with slow rate testing of the individual electrodes, the anode retained most of its original capacity, while the cathode lost 65 percent, even when cycled with a fresh source of lithium. Diagnostic evaluation of cell components including XRD, Raman, CSAFM and suggest capacity loss occurs primarily due to a rise in the impedance of the cathode, especially at the end-of-charge. The impedance rise may be caused in part by a loss of the conductive carbon at the surface of the cathode and/or by an organic film on the surface of the cathode that becomes non-ionically conductive at low lithium content.

  11. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First, an annular cylinder is considered with lithiation either from the inside or from the outside. In both cases, the reduction of axial growth is not found to be significant. Next, explicit physical constraints are studied by addition of a non-growing elasto-plastic material: first, an outer annular constraint on a solid silicon cylinder, and second a rod-like inner constraint for an annular silicon cylinder. In both cases, it is found that axial growth can be reduced if the yield stress of the constraining material is significantly higher than that of silicon and/or the thickness of the constraint is relatively high. Phase diagrams are presented for both the outer and the inner constraint cases to identify desirable operating zones. Finally, to interpret the phase diagrams and isolate the key physical principles two different simplified models are presented and are shown to recover important qualitative trends of the numerical simulation results.

  12. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  14. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. P. Lee, M. Leitner, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. -L. Vay,IEEE Trans Plasma Sci. , P. K. Roy, W. G. Greenway, J. W.19] P. A. Ni, J. W. Kwan, P. K. Roy, and W. L. Waldron, Rev.

  15. The Effects Of Internal Pressure Evolution On The Aging Of Commercial Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    % after 500 cycles as a result of the increase in DC resistance. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy//Graphite LFP-26650P lithium-ion battery (LIB) was studied throughout elevated rate life cycle testing. Introduction Over the last two decades, the demand for energy dense electrochemical storage devices has grown

  16. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of amount of lithium alumino-silicate mass deposition on Themg, and 2.8 mg of alumino- silicate material deposited. [19]extracted from alumino-silicate sources Prabir K. Roy, ?

  17. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  18. Effect of tab design on large-format Li-ion cell performance , Gang Luo b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to much lower energy density than their coin cell benchmarks. In this work, a 3D computational methodology the cell is operated at high power, which is ubiqui- tous in hybrid and pure electric vehicle (HEV

  19. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. es086srinivasan2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Performance and Degradation Modeling of Batteries Improved Methods for Making Intermetallic Anodes Overview of...

  20. Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xilin; Li, Xiaolin; Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Yuliang; Meduri, Praveen; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost effective and scalable method is developed to prepare a core-shell structured Si/B4C composite with graphite coating with high efficiency, exceptional rate performance and long-term stability. In this material, conductive B4C with high Mohs hardness serves not only as micro-/nano- millers in the ball-milling process to break down micron-sized Si but also as the conductive rigid skeleton to support the in-situ formed sub-10 nm Si particles to alleviate the volume expansion during charge/discharge. The Si/B4C composite is coated with a few graphitic layers to further improve the conductivity and stability of the composite. The Si/B4C/graphite (SBG) composite anode shows excellent cyclability with a specific capacity of ~822 mAh?g-1 (based on the weight of the entire electrode, including binder and conductive carbon) and ~94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 0.8C rate. This new structure has the potential to provide adequate storage capacity and stability for practical applications, and good opportunity for large scale manufacturing using commercially available materials and technologies.

  1. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cathode materials for lithium batteries guided by first-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature, 2001. 414(M.S. Whittingham, Lithium batteries and cathode materials.

  2. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311 (5763),for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-M n , ^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  5. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  6. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  7. Analysis of Electrochemical and Thermal Behavior of Li-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on heat generation is collected during charge/discharge1-3 and/or by studying the self-heating heat generation. Simulations were used to estimate the thermal and electrical energy and the active applications, are expected to replace Ni-MH and lead-acid cells in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

  8. Electrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    -embedded monitoring systems, biomedical implants, and ad- hoc wireless transceiver micro-sensors, continue], electric field [9-12], or strain on a piezoelectric material [13]. Electromagnetic and piezoelectric scav micro-systems like biomedical implants and ad-hoc wireless transceiver micro-sensors continue

  9. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shows results of an empirical model capturing effects of both storage and cycling and developed the lithium ion nickel cobalt aluminum advanced battery chemistry.

  10. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of impacts of large-format cell design features on battery useful life to improve battery engineering models, including both realistic geometry and physics.

  11. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment ofEnergy310 DOESource

  12. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy Innovation Portal

  13. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARD ACCOUNTING SYSTEMMeso-Scale during

  14. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  15. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  16. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  18. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  20. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo: Notice ofConstantWorker ScreeningOhio

  1. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances »Contact-Information Sign InApril

  2. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I ETechnology |DepartmentExperimental

  3. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I

  4. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development of High Energy

  5. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000:Light-Weight, andEnergy|

  6. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries1000:Light-Weight, andEnergy||

  7. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  8. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleateElectrochemicalProposedElectrolytes | Department

  9. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleateElectrochemicalProposedElectrolytes |

  10. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  11. Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes | Department

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  12. High Capacity MoO3 Nanoparticle Li-Ion Battery Anode | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  13. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  14. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  15. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  16. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  17. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  18. Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Study of Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using "Gen3" Electrode Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  20. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials | Department

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