Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

Harris, William D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Definition: Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Combustion The process of burning; chemical oxidation accompanied by the generation of light and heat.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition "Burning" redirects here. For combustion without external ignition, see spontaneous combustion. For the vehicle engine, see internal combustion engine. For other uses, see Burning (disambiguation) and Combustion (disambiguation). Error creating thumbnail: Unable to create destination directory This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, please consider modifying the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points in such a way that it can stand on its own as a

3

Transonic Combustion Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transonic Combustion Inc Transonic Combustion Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Transonic Combustion, Inc. Place Camarillo, California Zip CA 93012 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Transonic Combustion, Inc. is a US based research & development company focused on developing ultra-high efficiency automotive engines that run on gasoline and bio-renewable flex fuels. References Transonic Combustion, Inc.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Transonic Combustion, Inc. is a company located in Camarillo, California . References ↑ "Transonic Combustion, Inc." Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Transonic_Combustion_Inc&oldid=352376

4

An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional flame combustion, and realizes the combustion of ultra-natural gas/air mixture under the flammable limits. Its combustion efficiency is higher, which improves the ratio of energy utilization. Applying the catalytic combustion to gas boilers could solve the gas boilers' lower combustion efficiency, and achieve energy savings. On the basis of the catalytic combustion burner, the catalytic combustion burner was designed according to the catalytic combustion and water heaters. In this paper, we analyzed the heat loss and thermal efficiency of the catalytic combustion burner, and compared it to that of flame combustion boilers. The results showed that catalytic combustion burner ?'s heat loss is not so high as originally considered, and its pollutant emissions are lower.

Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant

6

Plum Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plum Combustion Plum Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Name Plum Combustion Place Atlanta, Georgia Product Combustion technology, which reduces NOx-emissions. Coordinates 33.748315°, -84.391109° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":33.748315,"lon":-84.391109,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

7

Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Technology FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP Technology Brief: Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: FEMP

8

COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document presents an overview of combustion as a waste management strategy in relation to the development of material-specific emission factors for EPAs Waste Reduction Model (WARM). Included are estimates of the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from combustion of most of the materials considered in WARM and several categories of mixed waste. 1. A SUMMARY OF THE GHG IMPLICATIONS OF COMBUSTION Combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) results in emissions of CO 2 and N2O. Note that CO2 from combustion of biomass (such as paper products and yard trimmings) is not counted because it is biogenic (as explained in the Introduction & Overview chapter). WARM estimates emissions from combustion of MSW in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. WARM does not consider any recovery of materials from the MSW stream that may occur before MSW is delivered to the combustor. WTE facilities can be divided into three categories: (1) mass burn, (2) modular and (3) refusederived fuel (RDF). A mass burn facility generates electricity and/or steam from the combustion of

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

10

Coal Combustion Products | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal Combustion Products Coal Combustion Products Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the...

11

Table 2.3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" 3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " " "," "," "," ",," "," ",," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Coke and"," ","Row" "Characteristic(a)","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

12

Table 2.2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" 2 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural","LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

13

Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377­416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures A.S. Mukasyana,?, A.S. Rogachevb a Department of Chemical Abstract This review considers a specific domain in combustion science, so-called discrete combustion waves

Mukasyan, Alexander

14

CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Screenshot References: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion[1] Overview "This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2008 selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information" Excel Spreadsheet References ↑ "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion"

15

Biomass Combustion Systems Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Combustion Systems Inc Combustion Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Biomass Combustion Systems Inc Address 67 Millbrook St Place Worcester, Massachusetts Zip 01606 Sector Biomass Product Combustion systems for wood fuel Website http://www.biomasscombustion.c Coordinates 42.290195°, -71.799627° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.290195,"lon":-71.799627,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

16

Energy Department Awards $2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers Energy Department Awards 2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers September 26, 2005 -...

17

Combustion Research Facility | A Department of Energy Office...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heavy-Duty Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion HCCISCCI Engine Fundamentals Spray Combustion Automotive Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion DISI Combustion...

18

Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels?? combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

Soloiu, Valentin

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Maximizing Combustion Efficiency Through Selection of Optimum CO Control Levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the increased emphasis on improved combustion control and the availability of accurate and reliable multi-parameter combustion instrumentation, an analytical technique is needed to supplant the previous incomplete assumptions and misleading guidelines for maintaining maximum boiler efficiency. This paper will present an analytical technique for establishing an optimum value of CO to minimize thermal losses in the combustion process. The optimum value is established by finding that value of excess air which minimizes the combined thermal losses due to the sensible and latent heat losses associated with excess air, and the unburned fuel thermal losses which result from the formation of CO. This technique allows determination of an optimum value for CO for any given burner and resultant CO vs excess air relationship. Values obtained with this technique are generally much higher than the typical values of 100-300 PPM recommended in the current literature. As a result of this technique, boilers can now be evaluated analytically and operated near or at the point of maximum combustion efficiency. Implementation of such a control strategy dictates incorporation of an accurate and reliable in-situ CO monitor to maintain known safe and efficient conditions.

McGowan, G. F.; Ketchum, R. L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Comparative evaluation of acoustical noise levels of Soleq Evcort EV and ICE (internal combustion engine) counterpart  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) evaluates Ev propulsion systems and components for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Program. This paper describes an INEL study which compares the exterior and interior acoustic noise levels of an electric vehicle to its internal combustion engine (ICE) counterpart base vehicle, under various operating conditions. The electric vehicle was a converted 1988 Ford Escort station wagon, retrofitted with a DC electric powertrain developed by Soleq Corporation. A comparably-equipped gasoline-fueled ICE-powered Ford Escort station wagon provided the baseline acoustic noise levels with which to compare the electric vehicle. Measurements of the interior and exterior noise levels were obtained using a Bruel and Kjaer (B K) Type 2231 Modular Precision Sound Level Meter. The tests were conducted in accordance with applicable Society of Automotive Engineer's (SAE) standard practices at Chrysler's Arizona Proving Grounds in Wittmann, Arizona. The results indicate that radiated interior and exterior acoustic noise levels of the electric vehicle were noticeably quieter under acceleration and idly conditions. However, under constant speed operation the electric and the ICE exhibited essentially equivalent interior and exterior noise levels. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

MacDowall, R.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Table 2.1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; 1 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Coke Residual Distillate Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coal and Breeze NAICS Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) (billion NGL(d) (million (million Other(e) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (trillion Btu) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 Food 10 * * 4 Q 0 0 2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6 0 * 1 Q 0 0 2 311221 Wet Corn Milling 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 31131 Sugar Manufacturing * 0 * 0 * 0 0 * 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1 * * 1 * 0 0 * 3115 Dairy Products Q 0 * * * 0 0 * 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

23

COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.Metals from Pulverized Coal Combustion P. Sherman and F.Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Fossil fuel fired electric generating plants are the cornerstone of America's central power system....

25

Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air - Energy ...  

Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and ...

26

Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste  

SciTech Connect

In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

Hedman, Bjoern [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: bjorn.hedman@chem.umu.se; Burvall, Jan [Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 4097, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden); Nilsson, Calle [NBC Defence, NBC Analysis, The Swedish Defence Research Agency, SE-901 82 Umeaa (Sweden); Marklund, Stellan [Chemistry Department, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 18502000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We-related combustion, 1850­2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840. 1. Importance

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

28

Combustion and direct energy conversion in a micro-combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The push toward the miniaturization of electromechanical devices and the resulting need for micro-power generation (milliwatts to watts) with low-weight, long-life devices has led to the recent development of the field of micro-scale combustion. Since batteries have low specific energy (~200 kJ/kg) and liquid hydrocarbon fuels have a very high specific energy (~50000 kJ/kg), a miniaturized power-generating device, even with a relatively inefficient conversion of hydrocarbon fuels to power, would result in increased lifetime and/or reduced weight of an electronic or mechanical system that currently requires batteries for power. Energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy without any moving parts can be achieved by a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system. The TPV system requires a radiation source which is provided by a micro-combustor. Because of the high surface area to volume ratio for micro-combustor, there is high heat loss (proportional to area) compared to heat generation (proportional to volume). Thus the quenching and flammability problems are more critical in a micro-scale combustor. Hence innovative schemes are required to improve the performance of micro-combustion. In the current study, a micro-scale counter flow combustor with heat recirculation is adapted to improve the flame stability in combustion modeled for possible application to a TPV system. The micro-combustor consists of two annular tubes with an inner tube of diameter 3 mm and 30 mm long and an outer tube of 4.2 mm diameter and 30 mm long. The inner tube is supplied with a cold premixed combustible mixture, ignited and burnt. The hot produced gases are then allowed to flow through outer tube which supplies heat to inner tube via convection and conduction. The hot outer tube radiates heat to the TPV system. Methane is selected as the fuel. The model parameters include the following: diameter d , inlet velocity u , equivalence ratio Ï? and heat recirculation efficiency ?· between the hot outer flow and cold inner flow. The predicted performance results are as followings: the lean flammability limit increased from 7.69% to 7.86% and the quenching diameter decreased from 1.3 mm to 0.9 mm when heat recirculation was employed. The overall energy conversion efficiency of current configuration is about 2.56.

Lei, Yafeng

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy Department Awards $2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2.6 Million to Boost Combustion 2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers Energy Department Awards $2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers September 26, 2005 - 10:53am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC-- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of three new combustion technology research and development (R&D) projects that will receive nearly $2.6 million in total cost-shared funding over the next two years. The selected R&D teams plan to develop advanced industrial boilers that deliver superior energy and environmental performance. By 2020, these boiler technologies are expected to reduce energy use in industrial boilers by seven percent, saving industry $2 billion per year in energy costs. "Combustion systems use nearly three-quarters of all energy consumed in

30

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially oxidized in steam and oxygen/air under high temperature and pressure to form synthesis gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, and smaller amounts of other gaseous components, such as methane. The syngas can then undergo the water-gas shift reaction to convert CO and water (H2O) to H2 and CO2, producing a H2 and CO2-rich gas mixture. The concentration of CO2 in this mixture can range from 15-50%. The CO2 can then be captured and separated, transported, and ultimately sequestered, and the H2-rich fuel combusted.

31

Table 2.3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; 3 Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Economic Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and Characteristic(a) Total Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Breeze Other(e) Total United States Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 41 * 1 26 * * 0 13 20-49 38 6 1 4 6 1 Q 14 50-99 110 W 1 38 W 9 4 26 100-249 342 39 1 154 19 52 4 73 250-499 344 * * 76 75 138 46 10 500 and Over 2,482 W 1 215 W 260 16 87 Not Ascertained (f) 2,746 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,746 Total 6,104 92 6 514 1,989 460 74 2,970 Employment Size Under 50 228 7 2 104 71 * 0 43 50-99 201 W 1 63 33 29 W 35 100-249

32

Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Dynamics and Noise Level Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyse the experimental time series of internal pressure in a four cylinder spark ignition engine. In our experiment, performed for different spark advance angles, apart from usual cyclic changes of engine pressure we observed oscillations. These oscillations are with longer time scales ranging from one to several hundred engine cycles depending on engine working conditions. Basing on the pressure time dependence we have calculated the heat released per cycle. Using the time series of heat release to calculate the correlation coarse-grained entropy we estimated the noise level for internal combustion process. Our results show that for a smaller spark advance angle the system is more deterministic.

T. Kaminski; M. Wendeker; K. Urbanowicz; G. Litak

2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Data Page Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland) This is the approved revision of this page, as well...

34

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before they are burned (or combusted) in a power plant. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially...

35

"Table A11. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel" 1. Total Primary Consumption of Combustible Energy for Nonfuel" " Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment," 1991 " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," ","Natural"," "," ","Coke"," "," " " ","Total","Residual","Distillate","Gas(c)"," ","Coal","and Breeze","Other(d)","RSE" " ","(trillion","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000","(1000","(trillion","Row"

36

Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Fossil fuel fired electric generating plants are the cornerstone of America's central power system. Currently, the existing fossil fuel fleet accounts for about two-thirds of all electricity generated domestically, over 40% from coal alone. Electricity demand is expected to increase dramatically over the next 30 years, and adding new generating capacity typically requires long lead time. In the meantime, the United States will continue to rely on existing plants to provide a substantial amount of affordable electric power for years to come. Retrofitting the Existing Fleet of Power Plants There is vast potential for retrofitting carbon capture technologies to the existing fossil fuel fleet. In 2011, coal-fired power plants produced

37

Vibrational and Electronic Energy Level Searches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... options based on vibrational and electronic energies are available: ... the tabulated vibrational and electronic energy level data ... All rights reserved. ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Wavelengths, Transition Probabilities, and Energy Levels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Energy level values, with designations and uncertainties, have ... In addition, ground states, ionization energies, and hyperfine ... All rights reserved. ...

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass [75] to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in AEO2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

Information Center

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

40

Wavelengths, Transition Probabilities, and Energy Levels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... energy levels, wavelengths, and ionization energies reported here ... the integer part of the energy is listed ... 61FOX/SER Fox, WN, and Series, GW, Proc ...

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Combustion Optimization at Allegheny Energy's Armstrong Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual air and coal flow measurement instruments have been installed on Allegheny Energy's Armstrong Station with a goal to balance the individual burner air to fuel ratios to minimize NOx, reduce the LOI level in the ash and improve heat rate. These signals are also being incorporated into the NOx optimization package, ULTRAMAX (R). Armstrong Station is a 180 MW front wall boiler burning a low sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Twelve Foster Wheeler IFS low NOx burners are fed by two ball mills, three ...

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Table A39. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and" 9. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation and Net Demand for Electricity by Fuel Type, Census" " Region, and End Use, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,"Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding","RSE" ,"for","Residual","and",,,"Coal Coke","Row" "End-Use Categories","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","and Breeze)","Factors" "Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.4,1.7,1.5,0.7,1,1.6

43

Table A13. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and" 3. Selected Combustible Inputs of Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation and Net Demand for Electricity by Fuel Type," " Census Region, Census Division, and End Use, 1994: Part 1" " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" ,,,,,,"Coal" ,,,"Distillate",,,"(excluding" ,"Net Demand",,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal Coke" ,"for","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)",,"and Breeze)","RSE" ,"Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion","LPG","(1000 short","Row"

44

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

NIST - Atomic Energy Levels and Spectra Bibliographic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in this database are from Bibliography on Atomic Energy Levels and ... references to atomic transition probabilities, line intensities, or broadening. ...

46

Energy Levels of Neutral Uranium ( U I )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Data, Uranium (U) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. ... Version Energy Levels of Neutral Uranium ( U I ). ...

47

Wavelengths, Transition Probabilities, and Energy Levels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Wavelengths, Transition Probabilities, and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Sodium Na INa XI JE Sansonettia ...

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

An indicator energy of two close levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce a concept of an indicator energy of two close levels in the perturbation.

Alexander V. Shamanin

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

49

Energy Levels of Neutral Thorium ( Th I )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Data, Thorium (Th) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. ... Version Energy Levels of Neutral Thorium ( Th I ). ...

50

Future restrictions on diesel fuel combustion in California: Energy and emissions implications of four scenarios  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The paper discusses alternatives to diesel displacement, describing several scenarios. It studies three basic cases: (1) cars and trucks; (2) urban buses; and (3) off-road vehicles. The discussion also includes changes in energy use and emissions expected from the production and combustion of alternative fuels.

Saricks, C.L.; Rote, D.M.; Stodolsky, F.; Eberhardt, J.J.

1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

Systems-level design of ion transport membrane oxy-combustion power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion, particularly using an integrated oxygen ion transport membrane (ITM), is a thermodynamically attractive concept that seeks to mitigate the penalties associated with CO 2 capture from power plants. ...

Mancini, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Today in Energy - Natural gas-fired combustion turbines are ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration - EIA - Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government ... solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium.

53

Plant Level Energy Performance Benchmarking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the early 1990's, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has worked with U.S. corporations to reduce their energy requirements in buildings and office space through voluntary programs such as ENERGY STAR. Corporate partners within ENERGY STAR have enjoyed success by applying the principles fundamental to this program. However, a common view was held that ENERGY STAR did not fully address energy use and performance of manufacturing plants. While there are many partners primarily working in manufacturing industries within ENERGY STAR, the program to date has focused primarily on the energy use and performance of commercial buildings rather than manufacturing plants. In the upcoming year, the EPA is poised to deliver new program components to facilitate broader corporate participation in ENERGY STAR. The business-oriented approach for building owners central to ENERGY STAR will be expanded to accommodate the energy use of manufacturing businesses. With introduction of the enhanced industrial manufacturing offering, ENERGY STAR will have a complete group of tools that will appeal to all corporate partners. Through understanding of their performance relative to their peers, EPA hopes to make available to the public tools to assess the performance of their plants relative to their peers. The objective of these tools is to provide plant managers and corporate executives with actionable information that can make their plants more competitive, more profitable, and more environmentally benign.

Hicks, T. W.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Application and Practice of Regenerative Combustion Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regenerative Combustion burning alternative to traditional flow control system is ... that regenerative combustion have many advantage in energy conservation...

55

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

different stages of combustion, Biomass and Bioenergy 23:biomass pyrolysis, to appear in Progress in Energy and Combustion

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

NIST: Hydrocarcons - Molec. Param. and Energy Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The rotational energy levels are characterized by the three quantum numbers J ... axis one must also examine the nuclear spin statistics that influence ...

57

NIST Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

59

State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Economic Development Phase: Create a Vision Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual Website: info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub5501.pdf References: http://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub5501.pdf Logo: State-level Benefits of Renewable Energy This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency.

60

Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Concept Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wolfmeyer et al. APFBC Repowering Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station Wolfmeyer et al. APFBC Repowering Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station paper 970561 Page 1 of 36 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Concept Assessment at Duke Energy's Dan River Station John C. Wolfmeyer, P.E., and Cal Jowers, P.E. Duke Energy / Charlotte, North Carolina Richard E. Weinstein, P.E., Harvey N. Goldstein, P.E., and Jay S. White Parsons Power Group Inc. / Reading, Pennsylvania Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy / Germantown, Maryland electronic mail addresses/phone no. electronic mail addresses/phone no. Wolfmeyer { JCWolfme@Duke-Energy.COM 704 / 382-4017 Goldstein { Harvey_N_Goldstein@Parsons.COM 610 / 855-3281 Jowers { -- 704 / 382-9577 White { Jay_S_White@Parsons.COM

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

Not Available

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Green Level, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Green Level, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI...

65

Building-Level Energy Management Systems (BLEMS) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Building-Level Energy Management Systems Emerging Technologies » Building-Level Energy Management Systems (BLEMS) Building-Level Energy Management Systems (BLEMS) The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into building-level energy management systems (BLEMS). Project Description BLEMS provide an integrated plug-and-play capability for legacy energy management systems (EMSs), such as those based on X-10, Zigbee, 802.15, and newly developed EMS for buildings of any size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken by DOE, the University of Southern California, General Electric (GE) Global Research, and GE Consumer & Industrial Division. Project Goals The goal of this project is to develop practical solutions that bring together ad-hoc legacy energy management systems under a single, unified

66

Combustibles Alternativos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustibles Alternativos Dispensador de Combustible Alternativo Los combustibles alternativos estn derivados de otras fuentes adems del petrleo. Unos son producidos en el...

67

NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Transparent Cost Database Button The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculator provides a simple calculator for both utility-scale and distributed generation (DG) renewable energy technologies that compares the combination of capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M), performance, and fuel costs. Note that this does not include financing issues, discount issues, future replacement, or degradation costs. Each of these would need to be included for a thorough analysis. To estimate simple cost of energy, use the slider controls or enter values directly to adjust the values. The calculator will return the LCOE expressed in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program

68

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Combustion Advanced Combustion Engines to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Advanced Combustion Engines

69

Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Engine Combustion Engine Research to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion Engine Research on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Combustion Engine Research

70

Advanced Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems Advanced Combustion Background Conventional coal-fired power plants utilize steam turbines to generate electricity, which operate at efficiencies of 35-37 percent. Operation at higher temperatures and pressures can lead to higher efficiencies, resulting in reduced fuel consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Higher efficiency also reduces CO2 production for the same amount of energy produced, thereby facilitating a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When combined, oxy-combustion comes with an efficiency hit, so it will actually increase the amount of CO2 to be captured. But without so much N2 in the flue gas, it will be easier and perhaps more efficient to capture, utilize and sequester. NETL's Advanced Combustion Project and members of the NETL-Regional University

71

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Cost of Energy Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Topics: Finance, Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html Web Application Link: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools

72

State Level Analysis of Industrial Energy Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most analyses of industrial energy use have been conducted at the national level, in part because of the difficulties in dealing with state level data. Unfortunately, this provides a distorted view of the industrial sector for state and regional policymakers. ACEEE has completed analyses on eight states drawing upon data from a diverse set of sources to characterize the industries at a relatively high level of disaggregation. These analyses demonstrate how different state and regional mixes are from the national mix and the importance of a regionally specific approach to industrial energy policy. In addition, the data suggest that significant shifts are occurring in industry mix in some of these states that will have important ramifications on future industrial policies for these states. This paper will provide an overview of our analytical approach, the data sources that are available, and provide examples of the analysis results to demonstrate the regional diversity of industrial electricity use.

Elliott, R. N.; Shipley, A. M.; Brown, E.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ultra-Clean Low Swirl Combustion : Technologies : From the Lab to the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra-Clean Low Swirl Combustion Ultra-Clean Low Swirl Combustion From the Lab to the Marketplace Ten Years Later, Energy Efficient Technologies from Research at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley Lab logo (left) with six rows of gray dots transitioning to a line art drawing of a cityscape and residential houses. Ultra-Clean Low Swirl Combustion Combustion provides 83% of the energy consumed in the U.S. For the past three decades the reduction of harmful pollutants from combustion systems has been the major driver of combustion technology development. In 1991, Robert Cheng, a Berkeley Lab scientist, conceived a combustion method that emits a very low level of pollutants. His low swirl combustion method operates on a new basic principle that can be broadly applied to heat and

74

Engine Combustion & Efficiency - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engine Combustion & Efficiency Engine Combustion & Efficiency ORNL currently and historically supports the U.S. DOE on multi-cylinder and vehicle applications of diesel combustion, lean burn gasoline combustion, and low temperature combustion processes, and performs principal research on efficiency enabling technologies including emission controls, thermal energy recovery, and bio-renewable fuels. Research areas span from fundamental concepts to engine/vehicle integration and demonstration with a particular emphasis on the following areas: Thermodynamics for identifying and characterizing efficiency opportunities for engine-systems as well as the development of non-conventional combustion concepts for reducing fundamental combustion losses. Nonlinear sciences for improving the physical understanding and

75

SEAGA Intermediate Level Handbook | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SEAGA Intermediate Level Handbook SEAGA Intermediate Level Handbook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: SEAGA Intermediate Level Handbook Agency/Company /Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Sector: Climate Complexity/Ease of Use: Simple Website: www.fao.org/docrep/012/ak213e/ak213e00.pdf‎ Cost: Free Related Tools CDM Sustainable Development Tool Integrated Model to Access the Global Environment Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems (ObjECTS) Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) ... further results Find Another Tool FIND DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS ASSESSMENT TOOLS The Socio-economic and Gender Analysis (SEAGA) handbook of concepts, tools and guidelines for mainstreaming gender into development planning and policy implementation. Approach SEAGA, for Socio-economic and Gender Analysis, is an approach to

76

Industrial Application of High Combustion Intensity Systems and Energy Conservation Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past decade industrial combustion technology has been advanced through adaptations of the equipment operating with dramatically reduced excess air requirements and use of air preheat techniques. The importance of operating industrial combustion equipment at stoichiometric conditions is emphasized. The calculated fuel savings resulting from elimination of excess air and use of heat recovery air preheat are reviewed. Design parameters for the aerodynamic design and control of the combustion process are quantified for vortex stabilized systems. Design analyses of the fuel injectors used with gaseous, liquid and pulverized coal fuels are also presented. The resulting high intensity combustion systems evolved are illustrated with photographs of flames in actual installations and during equipment development testing. Attention to detail in equipment manufacture and proper field adjustment of combustion equipment is essential in achieving the dramatic fuel savings that are possible.

Williams, F. D. M.; Anderson, L. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Coal combustion products (CCPs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

combustion products (CCPs) combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an important contribution in this regard. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Coal Combustion Products Fossil Energy Research Benefits

78

Oil shale retorting and combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Building-Level Energy Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Building-Level Energy Management Systems Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

80

Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management Activities...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

be conducted in 2010 Table 8.4 Number of Establishments by Participation in Specific Energy-Management Activities, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Specific Energy-Management...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Is combustion of plastics desirable?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Managing waste will always entail some tradeoffs. All of the three options--recycling, landfilling and combustion--have some disadvantages. Even landfilling, which produces no emissions, fails to take advantage of the energy value inherent in plastic. Waste combustion, on the other hand, recovers the energy in plastic materials and reduces the volume of disposed solid waste by up to 90% of its initial preburn volumes. However, this management option generates emissions and produces an ash residue that must be managed. As demonstrated by recent test burns, improvements in combustion and air-pollution-control technology have dramatically reduced the health risks from emissions and ash. Recent studies have shown that plastics--in quantities even higher than those normally found in municipal solid waste--do not adversely affect levels of emissions or the quality of ash from waste-to-energy facilities. In addition, waste-to-energy facilities may be a relatively economical source of fuel, and may be a more economic solution to waste management than the other available options. A waste-to-energy plant generally produces electricity that is sold to the electric utilities for approximately six cents per kilowatt-hour, a rate that is competitive with those offered by nuclear power plants and power plants that generate energy by burning fossil fuels.

Piasecki, B.; Rainey, D. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Lally School of Management and Technology; Fletcher, K.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combustion engines, heat transfer processes are critical to:the basis, to model heat transfer processes, so that theirprocesses, flame structure and propagation, bulk and wall quenching, and time- resolved heat transfer

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vortex with a Premixed Flame I. Namer, R. Bill, Jr. , F.W. Pitz and R. Savryer Flame C. Tien and S. Lee Tests andCOMBUSTION FLUID MECHANICS Flame in Turbulence R. Bill,

Authors, Various

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis...

85

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser This analysis was funded by the Wind & Water Power Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy factor trends fails to convey recent improvements in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wind

87

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Application of Genetic Algorithms and Thermogravimetry to Determine the Kinetics of Polyurethane Foam in Smoldering Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dimensional smoldering combustion. Figure 10. Results forModeling of Smoldering Combustion Propagation, Progressin Energy and Combustion Science 11, pp. 277-310. 2. T.J.

Rein, Guillermo; Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Torero, Jose; Urban, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Company Level Imports - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. Highlights This Week in Petroleum ...

90

levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

levelized cost of energy levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 9 April, 2013 - 13:30 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK ocean energy The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) projects is a hierarchical structure designed to facilitate the collection and organization of lifecycle costs of any type of MHK project, including wave energy converters and current energy convertners. At a high level, the categories in the CBS will be applicable to all projects; at a detailed level, however, the CBS includes many cost categories that will pertain to one project but not others. It is expected that many of the detailed levels of the CBS will be populated with "NA" or left blank.Upload

91

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Turbines for APFBC Gas Turbines for APFBC FBC Repower Simple Description Detailed Description APFBC Specs GTs for APFBC Suited for Repowering Existing Power Plants with Advanced Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combined Cycles APFBC combined cycles have high energy efficiency levels because they use modern, high-temperature, high-efficiency gas turbines as the core of a combined power cycle. This web page discusses a current U.S. Department of Energy project that is evaluating combustion turbines suited for repowering existing steam plants. The natural-gas-fueled version of the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation W501F. Modified versions of this gas turbine core are suited for operating in APFBC power plants. Contents: Introduction APFBC Repowering Considerations

92

Energy Levels of "Hydrogen Atom" in Discrete Time Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze dynamical consequences of a conjecture that there exists a fundamental (indivisible) quant of time. In particular we study the problem of discrete energy levels of hydrogen atom. We are able to reconstruct potential which in discrete time formalism leads to energy levels of unperturbed hydrogen atom. We also consider linear energy levels of quantum harmonic oscillator and show how they are produced in the discrete time formalism. More generally, we show that in discrete time formalism finite motion in central potential leads to discrete energy spectrum, the property which is common for quantum mechanical theory. Thus deterministic (but discrete time!) dynamics is compatible with discrete energy levels.

Andrei Khrennikov; Yaroslav Volovich

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

93

Application Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

whether application-level software optimization can improve energy efficiency and thermal behavior. We use-life multicore system to explore two issues: (i) software tun- ing to improve scalability and energyApplication Level Optimizations for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Stability Md. Ashfaquzzaman Khan

Coskun, Ayse

94

Property:DIA/Level | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Property:DIA/Level Jump to: navigation, search Property Name DIA/Level Property Type String Description Development Impacts Assessment Toolkit property to help filter pages Used in Form/Template Tool Allows Values Global;National;Sectoral;Regional;Local;Project;Policy Pages using the property "DIA/Level" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Pilot Program Emissions Benefit Tool + Project + Applied Dynamic Analysis of the Global Economy (ADAGE) Model + National +, Regional +, Local +, ... Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) + Regional + Assessing Green Jobs Potential in Developing Countries: A Practitioner's Guide + National +

95

SEM supports CMM-SW Level 2 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

supports CMM-SW Level 2 More Documents & Publications SEM Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM) Planning for a Software Process Assessment Energy.gov...

96

NIST Vibrational and electronic energy levels of polyatomic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The types of measurement surveyed include spectrometer and laser-based ... ground-state vibrational fundamentals, the electronic energy levels, and ...

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

97

Category:Top level | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

View form View form View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Category Facebook icon Twitter icon » Category:Top level Jump to: navigation, search This page has been deleted. The deletion and move log for the page are provided below for reference. 16:11, 16 August 2012 Rmckeel (Talk | contribs) deleted page Category:Top level (Mass removal of pages added by Fceeh) There is currently no text in this page. You can search for this page title in other pages, or search the related logs, but you do not have permission to create this page. Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. H [×] Help‎ 68 pages Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/wiki/Category:Top_level"

98

Turbulent partially premixed combustion: DNS analysis and RANS simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

progress in alternative energy technologies, such as solar cell, wind power, fuel cell and nuclear energy, significant limitation remains, such as high capital costs, low energy conversion efficiency, and low public acceptance level due to 1 safety... and security concerns (US Energy Information Administration, 2010). It is likely that combustion technology will remain as the primary means of energy production in the foreseeable future. This is particularly the case in high power density applications...

Ruan, S.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sandia Combustion Research Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.) [eds.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Computational Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Information Geometry, Inference Methods and Chaotic Energy Levels Statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this Letter, we propose a novel information-geometric characterization of chaotic (integrable) energy level statistics of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising spin chain in a tilted (transverse) external magnetic field. Finally, we conjecture our results might find some potential physical applications in quantum energy level statistics.

Carlo Cafaro

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

102

Advanced Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

103

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

104

METC Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. High pressure combustion research is also important to other DOE programs. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems and second-generation, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) systems use gas turbines/electric generators as primary power generators. The turbine combustors play an important role in achieving high efficiency and low emissions in these novel systems. These systems use a coal-derived fuel gas as fuel for the turbine combustor. The METC facility is designed to support coal fuel gas-fired combustors as well as the natural gas fired combustor used in the advanced turbine program.

Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Comments of the Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Counsel's Notice of Inquiry concerning the preparation of a report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act. Comments of the Western Interstate Energy Board's High-Level Radioactive...

106

Application Level Energy and Performance Measurements in a Wireless LAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an experimental evaluation of energy usage and performance in a wireless LAN cell based on a test bed using the 5GHz ISM band for 802.11a and 802.11n. We have taken an application-level approach, by varying the packet size and transmission ... Keywords: WLAN, Performance, Energy-Efficiency

Markus Tauber; Saleem N. Bhatti; Yi Yu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Level Plains, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Plains, Alabama: Energy Resources Plains, Alabama: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 31.2996162°, -85.7779914° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.2996162,"lon":-85.7779914,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

108

Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events, April 2013 Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events, April 2013 PURPOSE: The purpose of this Operating Experience (OE) document is to (1) provide results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, initiatives related to beyond design basis events (BDBEs), and (2) provide direction for enhancing capabilities for mitigating BDBEs at DOE sites. BACKGROUND: After the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident in Japan, DOE embarked upon several initiatives to investigate the safety posture of its nuclear facilities relative to BDBEs. These initiatives

109

Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events Operating Experience Level 1: Improving Department of Energy Capabilities for Mitigating Beyond Design Basis Events PURPOSE: The purpose of this Operating Experience (OE) document is to (1) provide results from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, initiatives related to beyond design basis events (BDBEs), and (2) provide direction for enhancing capabilities for mitigating BDBEs at DOE sites. BACKGROUND: After the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident in Japan, DOE embarked upon several initiatives to investigate the safety posture of its nuclear facilities relative to BDBEs. These initiatives

110

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures Timothy E. Lipmanfor State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures Timothy E. Lipmana new role for sustainable energy strategies. The

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Property:Geothermal/DOEFundingLevel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DOEFundingLevel DOEFundingLevel Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Geothermal/DOEFundingLevel Property Type Number Description DOE Funding Level (total award amount) Pages using the property "Geothermal/DOEFundingLevel" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill Co., NV Geothermal Project + 5,000,000 + A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Geothermal Project + 1,072,744 + A Geothermal District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research Park on the NM Tech Campus Geothermal Project + 1,999,990 +

112

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary for the Combustion Program The Combustion Technologies Product promotes the advancement of coal combustion power generation for use in industrial, commercial, and utility...

113

COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical Measurement of Combustion Products by Zeeman Atomicand T. Hadeishi . . . . . Combustion Sources offrom Pulverized Coal Combustion J. Pennucci, R. Greif, F.

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Method of launching a missile using secondary combustion  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of selectively increasing the energy output of a gas generator utilized to launch a missile from a launch tube without igniting the missile until after it is launched from the tube comprising the steps of: providing combustible products in the products of combustion produced by primary combustion within the gas generator; providing varying quantities of oxidant in the launch tube to burn the combustible products in the products of combustion produced by the gas generator; and controlling the temperature of the products of combustion produced by the gas generator to permit secondary combustion of the combustible products.

Erikson, E.E.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

115

Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Presented to the EIA Energy Conference Presented to the EIA Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when considering "unconventional" resources like wind and solar * EIA is developing a new framework to address the major weaknesses of LCOE analysis

116

On the ordering of energy levels in homogeneous magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the energy levels of a single particle in a homogeneous magnetic field and in an axially symmetric external potential. For potentials that are superharmonic off the central axis, we find a general ``pseudoconcave'' ordering of the ground state energies of the Hamiltonian restricted to the sectors with fixed angular momentum. The physical applications include atoms and ions in strong magnetic fields. There the energies are monotone increasing and concave in angular momentum. In the case of a periodic chain of atoms the pseudoconcavity extends to the entire lowest band of Bloch functions.

Bernhard Baumgartner; Robert Seiringer

2000-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" 2.4 Number of Establishments by Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Establishment Counts." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ","Any Combustible" "NAICS"," ","Energy","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," " "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Source(b)","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(f)"

118

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Other Internal Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Other Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) to conduct...

119

FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report to Rocky Flats Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems.

Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Kahle, R.W.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018  

SciTech Connect

We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High Efficiency, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

Donald Stanton

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Combustion 2000  

SciTech Connect

This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Residential Energy Monitoring on a Statewide Level and its Educational  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Energy Monitoring on a Statewide Level and its Educational Residential Energy Monitoring on a Statewide Level and its Educational Opportunities Speaker(s): Alan Lishness Date: March 9, 2011 - 12:00pm Location: 90-2063 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Camilla Whitehead Gulf of Maine Research Institute's PowerHouse seeks to take advantage of the persuasive abilities of young people by providing them with access to fine-scale electricity use data that they can share with fellow students and with their families. Such an approach places students at the center of their learning, teaching them how to make evidence-based decisions, to participate in public discourse about energy-conservation strategies, and to learn how they can help to influence important family decisions. PowerHouse takes advantage of Maine's 1:1 computing infrastructure, where

124

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PA. Wen. , L. 2007. Any Coal Combustion Needs to Have SO 2of Multiple Pollutants in Coal Fired Power Plants in China.the energy performance of coal fired power plants with post-

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

DISTRICT ENERGY SYSTEMS POWERED THROUGH THE COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.assure.org Biography: Mr. Tomberlin has 21 years of experience in the design of power generation facilities having & Brad Moorman Barlow Projects, Inc. 2000 Vermont Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (970) 226-8557 info municipal solid waste (MSW) by 90%-95% creating energy in the form of steam and/or electricity

Columbia University

126

Vehicle Technologies Office: Combustion and Emission Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and fuel formulation to arrive at the most cost-effective approach to optimizing advanced combustion engine efficiency and performance while reducing emissions to near-zero levels....

127

Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal efficiency for electricity generation from combustible sources ( , or as a fraction of energy converted in the case of solar

DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

129

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level Transphorm Takes Energy Efficiency to a New Level February 24, 2012 - 1:20pm Addthis Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Transphorm's gallium nitride semiconductors could be used to make operating photovoltaic panels, like these on the roof of the Research Support Facility, motor drives and transistors more energy efficient. | Photo courtesy of National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts?

130

Framework for State-Level Renewable Energy Market Potential Studies  

SciTech Connect

State-level policymakers are relying on estimates of the market potential for renewable energy resources as they set goals and develop policies to accelerate the development of these resources. Therefore, accuracy of such estimates should be understood and possibly improved to appropriately support these decisions. This document provides a framework and next steps for state officials who require estimates of renewable energy market potential. The report gives insight into how to conduct a market potential study, including what supporting data are needed and what types of assumptions need to be made. The report distinguishes between goal-oriented studies and other types of studies, and explains the benefits of each.

Kreycik, C.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Doris, E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Advanced Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

132

Fine-tuning molecular energy levels by nonresonant laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We evaluate the shifts imparted to vibrational and rotational levels of a linear molecule by a nonresonant laser field at intensities of up to 10^12 W/cm^2. Both types of shift are found to be either positive or negative, depending on the initial rotational state acted upon by the field. An adiabatic field-molecule interaction imparts a rotational energy shift which is negative and exceeds the concomitant positive vibrational shift by a few orders of magnitude. The rovibrational states are thus pushed downward in such a field. A nonresonant pulsed laser field that interacts nonadiabatically with the molecule is found to impart rotational and vibrational shifts of the same order of magnitude. The nonadiabatic energy transfer occurs most readily at a pulse duration which amounts to about a tenth of the molecule's rotational period, and vanishes when the sudden regime is attained for shorter pulses. We applied our treatment to the much studied 87Rb_2 molecule in the last bound vibrational levels of its lowest singlet and triplet electronic states. Our calculations indicate that 15 ns and 1.5 ns laser pulses of an intensity in excess of 5x10^9 W/cm^2 are capable of dissociating the molecule due to the vibrational shift. Lesser shifts can be used to fine tune the rovibrational levels and thereby to affect collisional resonances by the nonresonant light. The energy shifts may be discernible spectroscopically, at a 10 MHz resolution.

Mikhail Lemeshko; Bretislav Friedrich

2010-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre-ignition radicals, start of combustion, and eventual heat release. These mechanisms are described based on the current understanding and knowledge of the diesel engine combustion acquired through advanced laser-based diagnostics. Six zones are developed to take into account the surrounding bulk gas, liquid- and vapor-phase fuel, pre-ignition mixing, fuel-rich combustion products as well as the diffusion flame combustion products. A three-step phenomenological soot model and a nitric oxide emission model are applied based on where and when each of these reactions mainly occurs within the diesel fuel jet evolution process. The simulation is completed for a 4.5 liter, inline four-cylinder diesel engine for a range of operating conditions. Specifically, the engine possesses a compression ratio of 16.6, and has a bore and stroke of 106 and 127 mm. The results suggest that the simulation is able to accurately reproduce the fuel jet evolution and heat release process for conventional diesel engine combustion conditions. The soot and nitric oxide models are able to qualitatively predict the effects of various engine parameters on the engine-out emissions. In particular, the detailed thermodynamics and characteristics with respect to the combustion and emission formation processes are investigated for different engine speed/loads, injection pressures and timings, and EGR levels. The local thermodynamic properties and energy, mass distributions obtained from the simulation offer some fundamental insights into heterogeneous type combustion systems. The current work provides opportunities to better study and understand the diesel engine combustion and emission formation mechanisms for conventional diesel engine combustion modes. The flexible, low computational cost features of this simulation result in a convenient tool for conducting parametric studies, and benefits for engine control and diagnostics.

Xue, Xingyu 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Thallium in Coal Combustion Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element that is present in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs). Thallium is of interest because it has a relatively low maximum contaminant level (MCL) in drinking water. This Technical Brief provides EPRI data on thallium in CCPs, along with general information on its occurrence, health effects, and treatment. Most of the information presented is summarized from the 2008 EPRI Technical Report 1016801, Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: ..

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

135

Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbulent methane combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. , 29:in premixed turbulent combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. ,for zero Mach number combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. ,

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Karlson, S.H. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ross, M.H. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development  

SciTech Connect

Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

ANL-78-XX-95 Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

j j ANL-78-XX-95 Energy Level Structure and Transition Probabilities in the Spectra of the Trivalent Lanthanides in LaF- W. T. Carnal! Chemistry Division Argonne National Laboratory Hannah Crosswhite and H. M. Crosswhite Department of Physics The Johns Hopkins University - N O T I C E - Thi* report w u prepared u an account of work sponsored by the United Slates Covemment. Neither the United State* nor ih* United States Department of Energy, nor any of their employees, nor *ny of their contractors, nbcontradon, or their employees, mikes any w i n i n t y , expreis ot implied, or aitumei any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completenea or tisefulrten of any information, apparatus, product or procen disclosed, or represent! that its tat would not infringe privately owned rights.

140

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 13,269 13,265 144 2,416 10,373 4,039 64 7 1,538 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 602 602 9 204 489 268 30 0 140 311221 Wet Corn Milling 59 59 W 28 50 36 15 0 29 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 73 73 3 36 67 12 W 7 14 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 987 987 17 207 839 503 W 0 210 3115 Dairy Products 998 998 12 217 908

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology Nebraska Public Power District's Sheldon Station with APFBC Technology FBC Repower APFBC AES Greenidge APFBC Dan River FBC, APFBC Four Corners CHIPPS H.F. Lee Products Summary Sheldon Summary APFBC Sheldon GFBCC Sheldon APFBC L.V. Sutton Contents: APFBC Repowering Project Summary Key Features Site Layout Performance Environmental Characteristics Cost Other Combustion Systems Repowering Study Links: A related study is underway that would repower Sheldon Unit 1 and Unit 2 with gasification fluidized-bed combined cycle technology (GFBCC). CLICK HERE to find out more about repowering the Sheldon station with GFBCC instead. APFBC Repowering Project Summary Click on picture to enlarge Advanced circulating pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle systems (APFBC) are systems with jetting-bed pressurized fluidized-bed (PFB) carbonizer/gasifier and circulating PFBC combustor. The PFB carbonizer and PFBC both operate at elevated pressures (10 to 30 times atmospheric pressure) to provide syngas for operating a gas turbine topping combustor giving high cycle energy efficiency. The remaining char from the PFB carbonizer is burned in the pressurized PFBC. The combustion gas from the PFB also feeds thermal energy to the gas turbine topping combustor. This provides combined cycle plant efficiency on coal by providing the opportunity to generate electricity using both high efficiency gas turbines and steam.

142

Combustion Technologies Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Technologies Group Combustion research generates the fundamental physical and chemical knowledge on the interaction between flame and turbulence. Experimental and...

143

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with Combustion A number of companies are participating in DOE's evaluation of Combustion Systems products. The list below gives you access to each participant company's home page....

144

CSE - International Workshop on Photon Tools for Combustion and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and other large light sources to energy conversion research -- particularly to combustion and the productionstorage of energy from novel sources. The inaugural meeting was...

145

Microsoft PowerPoint - Mechanically Activated Combustion_Shafirovich  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanically activated SHS (MASHS) Adds a short-duration high-energy ball milling step before combustion The high-energy milling rapidly produces nanostructured...

146

Method and apparatus for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus and method is disclosed for minimizing the fuel usage in an internal combustion engine. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with an engine installation subject to varying loads and which includes a governor for varying fuel flow as a function of load. In operation, the combustibles in the exhaust gas of the engine is continuously monitored. The measured level of combustibles is then compared with a predetermined level corresponding to optimum efficiency. A controller is provided for varying the air/fuel ratio supplied to the engine for maximizing efficiency in correspondence with the preset level. By this arrangement, energy output is increased permitting the governor to further reduce fuel flow, thereby minimizing energy costs.

Smojven, R.R.

1984-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

147

Identifying Energy-Efficient Concurrency Levels using Machine Learning  

SciTech Connect

Multicore microprocessors have been largely motivated by the diminishing returns in performance and the increased power consumption of single-threaded ILP microprocessors. With the industry already shifting from multicore to many-core microprocessors, software developers must extract more thread-level parallelism from applications. Unfortunately, low power-efficiency and diminishing returns in performance remain major obstacles with many cores. Poor interaction between software and hardware, and bottlenecks in shared hardware structures often prevent scaling to many cores, even in applications where a high degree of parallelism is potentially available. In some cases, throwing additional cores at a problem may actually harm performance and increase power consumption. Better use of otherwise limitedly beneficial cores by software components such as hypervisors and operating systems can improve system-wide performance and reliability, even in cases where power consumption is not a main concern. In response to these observations, we evaluate an approach to throttle concurrency in parallel programs dynamically. We throttle concurrency to levels with higher predicted efficiency from both performance and energy standpoints, and we do so via machine learning, specifically artificial neural networks (ANNs). One advantage of using ANNs over similar techniques previously explored is that the training phase is greatly simplified, thereby reducing the burden on the end user. Using machine learning in the context of concurrency throttling is novel. We show that ANNs are effective for identifying energy-efficient concurrency levels in multithreaded scientific applications, and we do so using physical experimentation on a state-of-the-art quad-core Xeon platform.

Curtis-Maury, M; Singh, K; Blagojevic, F; Nikolopoulos, D S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; McKee, S A

2007-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

148

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Structural and compositional transformations of biomass chars during combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an investigation of the physical and chemical transformations of biomass chars during combustion, we have subjected two chars, produced from the pyrolysis of pine and switchgrass, to combustion at 1600 K in a laminar flow reactor. In order to obtain time-resolved data on the structural and compositional transformations of the biomass chars, samples are extracted from the reactor at different residence times and subjected to a variety of analytical techniques: elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results point to several changes in both the organic and inorganic constitutents of the chars. The early stages of conversion are characterized by devolatilization, which leads to the removal of amorphous material and the release of oxygen- and hydrogen-rich gases. After devolatilization, combustion is accompanied by: vaporization of some metals (particularly Na and K), surface migration and coalescence of inorganic material, and the incorporation of metals (particularly Ca) into silicate structures. The latest stages of combustion reveal the transformation of inorganic constituents from amorphous phases to crystalline forms. Some short-range order appears in the carbon-rich portions of the chars as combustion proceeds, but the high levels of oxygen originally present in these chars foster cross-linking, which limits the extent of order ultimately attained. The transformations of the biomass chars are compared with those of coal chars, and the implications of these observations -- with respect to reactivity and ash behavior -- are discussed.

Wornat, M.J.; Hurt, R.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Headley, T.J.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

John Frey

2009-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

152

Laboratory Evaluation of "Formula X-12" Combustion Additive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Formula X-12," a combustion additive produced by Advanced Petroleum Technologies LLC (APT), has been described as an advanced molecular nanotechnology that reduces pollutants and toxic emissions to negligible levels and contains no metals, with an all-natural nontoxic formulation. When combined with Southridge Enterprises, Inc. branded 85 pure ethanol product, claims were made in a press release that "Formula X-12 would increase energy yield by a minimum of 10." As similar claims regarding potential coa...

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

153

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eric Lantz, National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

154

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010; 4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 13,269 13,265 144 2,413 10,373 4,039 64 W 1,496 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 602 602 9 201 489 268 30 0 137 311221 Wet Corn Milling 59 59 W 26 50 36 15 0 28 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 73 73 3 36 67 12 11 W 11 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 987 987 17 207 839 503 W 0 207 3115 Dairy Products 998 998 12 217 908 161 W 0 79 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

155

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2006; 3.4 Number of Establishments by Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,113 326 1,462 11,395 2,920 67 13 1,240 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 580 15 174 445 269 35 0 148 311221 Wet Corn Milling 47 47 W 17 44 19 18 0 18 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 78 78 11 43 61 35 26 13 45 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 1,125 1,125 13 112 961 325 W 0 127 3115 Dairy Product 1,044 1,044 25 88 941 147 W 0 104 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing

156

2009 Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTION COMBUSTION ENGINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT annual progress report 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Approved by Gurpreet Singh Team Leader, Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Office of Vehicle Technologies FY 2009 Progress rePort For AdvAnced combustion engine reseArcH And deveLoPment Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Vehicle Technologies December 2009 U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 ii Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies FY 2009 Annual Progress Report

157

Does EIA have county-level energy production data? - FAQ - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Does EIA have county-level energy production data? EIA publishes county-level data for the following energy sources: Coal - Annual data are in Table 2: Production and ...

158

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Title Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects...

159

China's energy intensity and its determinants at the provincial level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy consumed per dollar of GDP (Gross Domestic Product). The People's Republic of China's (China's) energy intensity has been declining significantly since the late 1970s. ...

Zhang, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Figure 1.6 State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 1.6 State-Level Energy Consumption Estimates and Estimated Consumption per Capita, 2010 Consumption Consumption per Capita

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

NIST Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ionization energies in the table are based on a recent survey of ... cited compilation gives the reference(s) for the original ionization-energy data. ...

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

162

Application of Regenerative Combustion Technology on Reheating Furnace in PISCO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key features of the regenerative combustion technology were introduced and its application in the reheating furnace of Rail & Beam plant of PISCOPanzhihua Iron & Steel Co.was discussedComparedwith the traditional combustion technologythe ... Keywords: Regenerative Style, Combustion Technology, Reheating Furnace, Energy Conservation

Chen Yong; Pan Hong; Xue Nianfu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels that the combustion of liquid fuels will remain the main source of energy for transportation for the next 50 years.1

164

Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 11 -13 July 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Tufts European Center Talloires, France Institute | | Clean Air Task Force | | Asia Clean Energy Innovation Initiative | #12;Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Talloires, France PROCEEDINGS: Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop

165

An Unstable Elliptic Free Boundary Problem arising in Solid Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Unstable Elliptic Free Boundary Problem arising in Solid Combustion R. Monneau Ecole Nationale in solid combustion. The maximal solution and every local minimizer of the energy are regular, that is, {u combustion, singularity, unstable problem, Aleksandrov reflection, unique blow-up limit, second variation

Monneau, Régis

166

Oscillating combustion from a premix fuel nozzle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Stringent emissions requirements for stationary gas turbines have produced new challenges in combustor design. In the past, very low NOx pollutant emissions have been achieved through various combustion modifications, such as steam or water injection, or post-combustion cleanup methods such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). An emerging approach to NOx abatement is lean premix combustion. Lean premix combustion avoids the cost and operational problems associated with other NOx control methods. By premixing fuel and air at very low equivalence ratios, the high temperatures which produce NOx are avoided. The challenges of premix combustion include avoiding flashback, and ensuring adequate fuel/air premixing. In addition, the combustion must be stable. The combustor should not operate so close to extinction that a momentary upset will extinguish the flame (static stability), and the flame should not oscillate (dynamic stability). Oscillations are undesirable because the associated pressure fluctuations can shorten component lifetime. Unfortunately, experience has shown that premix fuel nozzles burning natural gas are susceptible to oscillations. Eliminating these oscillations can be a costly and time consuming part of new engine development. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating the issue of combustion oscillations produced by lean premix fuel nozzles. METC is evaluating various techniques to stabilize oscillating combustion in gas turbines. Tests results from a premix fuel nozzle using swirl stabilization and a pilot flame are reported here.

Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Event:ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png ECOWAS High-Level Forum: Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: on 2012/10/29 "ECREEE in cooperation with the Global Forum for Sustainable Energy (GSFE), and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), are organizing a three-day High Level Forum on the theme: "Paving the Way for Sustainable Energy for All in West Africa through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency". Hosted by the Government of Ghana, the forum will contribute to the UN Sustainable Energy For All Initiative and will follow-up on the key decisions of the Rio+20 Summit". Participants will

168

Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a critical role in combustion processes just as chemicalparameters are essential for combustion modeling; molecularwith Application to Combustion. Transport Theor Stat 2003;

Brown, N.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Vehculos de Clula de Combustible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

de Clula de Combustible Vehculo de Clula de Combustible Honda Clarity FCX Los vehculos de clula de combustible (FCVs)tambin llamados de pila de combustibletienen el...

170

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 3.8, Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the PFBC activity is to generate fundamental process information that will further the development of an economical and environmentally acceptable second-generation PFBC. The immediate objectives focus on generic issues, including the performance of sulfur sorbents, fate of alkali, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) heavy metals in PFBC. A great deal of PFBC performance relates to the chemistry of the bed and the contact between gas and solids that occurs during combustion. These factors can be studied in a suitably designed bench-scale reactor. The present studies are focusing on the emission control strategies applied in the bed, rather than in hot-gas cleaning. Emission components include alkali and heavy metals in addition to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O, and CO. The report presents: a description of the pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR); a description of the alkali sampling probe; shakedown testing of the bench-scale PFBR; results from alkali sampling; results from sulfur sorbent performance tests; and results from refuse-derived fuel and lignite combustion tests.

Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

Mukasyan, Alexander

173

Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A. (eds.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

175

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

Not Available

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

HYDROGEN ASSISTED DIESEL COMBUSTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this study, the effect of hydrogen assisted diesel combustion on conventional and advanced combustion modes was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, (more)

Lilik, Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Combustion oscillation control  

SciTech Connect

Premixing of fuel and air can avoid high temperatures which produce thermal NOx, but oscillating combustion must be eliminated. Combustion oscillations can also occur in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle turbines. As an alternative to design or operating modifications, METC is investigating active combustion control (ACC) to eliminate oscillations; ACC uses repeated adjustment of some combustion parameter to control the variation in heat release that drives oscillations.

Richards, G.A.; Janus, M.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Examining the Relationship of Near Limit Combustion Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Examining the Relationship of Near Limit Combustion Research, Technology Commercialization, and Energy Savings Analysis Speaker(s): Peter Therkelsen Date: January 15, 2013 -...

179

CSE - International Workshop on Photon Tools for Combustion and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Workshop on Photon Tools for Combustion and Energy Conversion - Lodging GUEST HOUSE Argonne Guest House Please remember to make your lodging reservation directly...

180

Princeton-CEFRC Summer Program on Combustion: 2013 Session |...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Princeton-CEFRC Summer Program on Combustion: 2013 Session Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

CSE - International Workshop on Photon Tools for Combustion and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Workshop on Photon Tools for Combustion and Energy Conversion Organizing Committee Robert S. Tranter, Co-chair (Argonne National Lab) Randall E. Winans, Co-chair...

182

Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

looping combustion prototype based on successful development and testing of a 65 kW (thermal) pilot-scale system under a previous Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative...

183

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

184

NERSC to Provide Resources to INCITE Projects Studying Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NERSC to Provide Resources to INCITE Projects Studying Combustion, Fusion Energy, Materials and Accelerator Design NERSC to Provide Resources to INCITE Projects Studying...

185

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California and Spatial Disaggregated Estimate of Energy-related Carbon Dioxide for California...

186

Superadiabatic combustion in counter-flow heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Syngas, a combustible gaseous mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and other species, is a promising fuel for efficient energy conversion technologies. Syngas is produced by (more)

Schoegl, Ingmar Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

U.S. Biomass Energy: An Assessment of Costs & Infrastructure for Alternative Uses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................................................26 05179 Unmixed Combustion for High-Efficiency Energy Conversion ................35 #12;iv 00031 Energy Flow and Conversion on the Molecular Level: A View at Molecular ....................................................110 00012 Modeling Cellular Mechanisms for Efficient Bioethanol Production Through Petascale

188

NIST: Triatomic - Molecular Param. and Energy Level Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... I ? 1. In this case, the nuclear electric quadrupole and spinrotation interactions from first order perturbation theory add to the rotational energy via: ...

189

Proceedings: Coal Combustion Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the 2007 Coal Combustion workshop was to present a holistic view of the various combustion processes required for minimal emissions, peak performance, and maximum reliability in a coal-fired power plant. The workshop also defined needs for future RD in coal combustion technology.

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan) Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan) Low Level Radioactive Waste Authority (Michigan) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Program Info State Michigan Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Department of Environmental Quality Federal laws passed in 1980 and 1985 made each state responsible for the low-level radioactive waste produced within its borders. Act 204 of 1987 created the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority (LLRWA) to fulfill state responsibilities under federal law for managing and assuring disposal capacity for the low-level radioactive waste produced in Michigan. The LLRWA began a facility siting process in 1989 under the statutory limits of Act 204. The LLRWA eventually determined that it was impossible to find a

191

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

Wang, Yu

192

Motor Vehicle Plant Lighting Level Best Practices | ENERGY STAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor Vehicle Plant Lighting Level Best Practices Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial...

193

Coulomb law and energy levels in a superstrong magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical expression for the Coulomb potential in the presence of superstrong magnetic field is derived. Structure of hydrogen levels originating from LLL is analyzed.

Vysotsky, M I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

costs, the levelized cost ... 4 These results do not include targeted tax credits such as the production or investment tax credit available for some technologies.

195

Critically Evaluated Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... not included in the level optimization procedure because they were found to possess significant systematic and statistical errors and do not improve ...

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fresh Way to Cut Combustion, Crop and Air Heating Costs Avoids Million BTU Purchases: Inventions and Innovation Combustion Success Story  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Success story written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new space heating method that uses solar energy to heat incoming combustion, crop, and ventilation air.

Wogsland, J.

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

197

Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

Busche, S.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Role of Energy-Level Mismatches in a Multi-Pathway Complex of Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considering a multi-pathway structure in a light-harvesting complex of photosynthesis, we investigate the role of energy-level mismatches between antenna molecules in transferring the absorbed energy to a reaction center. We find a condition in which the antenna molecules faithfully play their roles: Their effective absorption ratios are larger than those of the receiver molecule directly coupled to the reaction center. In the absence of energy-level mismatches and dephasing noise, there arises quantum destructive interference between multiple paths that restricts the energy transfer. On the other hand, the destructive interference diminishes as asymmetrically biasing the energy-level mismatches and/or introducing quantum noise of dephasing for the antenna molecules, so that the transfer efficiency is greatly enhanced to near unity. Remarkably, the near-unity efficiency can be achieved at a wide range of asymmetric energy-level mismatches. Temporal characteristics are also optimized at the energy-level mismat...

Lim, James; Lee, Changhyoup; Yoo, Seokwon; Jeong, Hyunseok; Lee, Jinhyoung

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Project Objective is to design innovative energy storage architecture and associated controls for high wind penetration to increase reliability and market acceptance of wind power. The project goals are to facilitate wind energy integration at different levels by design and control of suitable energy storage systems. The three levels of wind power system are: Balancing Control Center level, Wind Power Plant level, and Wind Power Generator level. Our scopes are to smooth the wind power fluctuation and also ensure adequate battery life. In the new hybrid energy storage system (HESS) design for wind power generation application, the boundary levels of the state of charge of the battery and that of the supercapacitor are used in the control strategy. In the controller, some logic gates are also used to control the operating time durations of the battery. The sizing method is based on the average fluctuation of wind profiles of a specific wind station. The calculated battery size is dependent on the size of the supercapacitor, state of charge of the supercapacitor and battery wear. To accommodate the wind power fluctuation, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of battery energy system (BESS) and super-capacitor is adopted in this project. A probability-based power capacity specification approach for the BESS and super-capacitors is proposed. Through this method the capacities of BESS and super-capacitor are properly designed to combine the characteristics of high energy density of BESS and the characteristics of high power density of super-capacitor. It turns out that the super-capacitor within HESS deals with the high power fluctuations, which contributes to the extension of BESS lifetime, and the super-capacitor can handle the peaks in wind power fluctuations without the severe penalty of round trip losses associated with a BESS. The proposed approach has been verified based on the real wind data from an existing wind power plant in Iowa. An intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the power capacity specification for BESS and super-capacitors. Recommendations include experimental imp

David Wenzhong Gao

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

DEVELOPMENT OF SiC DEVICES FOR DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROL OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN ENERGY PLANT ENVIRONMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. The response of these metal/insulator/SiC (MISiC) devices to reducing gases has been assumed to be due to the reduction in the metal work function at the metal/oxide interface that shifts the capacitance to lower voltages. From in-situ capacitance-voltage measurements taken under sensor operating conditions we have discovered that two independent mechanisms are responsible for the sensor response to hydrogen and oxygen. We present a model of the device response based on the chemically induced shift of the metal/semiconductor barrier height as well as the passivation and creation of charged states at the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface. The latter mechanism is much slower than the barrier height shift. Preliminary photoemission experiments have been performed to independently monitor the contribution of the two phenomena. We discuss in detail the effect of these results on sensor design and the choice of operating point for high temperature operation.

Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Property:Technology Readiness Level | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Readiness Level Readiness Level Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Technology Readiness Level Property Type Text Pages using the property "Technology Readiness Level" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) M MHK Technologies/14 MW OTECPOWER + TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration MHK Technologies/Aegir Dynamo + TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration MHK Technologies/AirWEC + TRL 5/6: System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration MHK Technologies/Anaconda bulge tube drives turbine + TRL 4 Proof of Concept MHK Technologies/AquaBuoy + TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development & Design & Engineering MHK Technologies/Aquantis + TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering

202

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Renewable Energy, Worldwide Web, http://www.eere.energy.gov/state_state and regional levels, and our assessment of the technological status of hydrogen and renewable energyStates are funding demonstration projects for hydrogen pro- duction from renewable energy

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level S. Busche Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-49720 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level S. Busche Prepared under Task No. IGST.0103 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-49720 December 2010 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

204

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

408 January 2010 Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions Scott Hempling National Regulatory Research Institute Silver...

205

FY 2008 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTION COMBUSTION ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES annual progress report 2008 V e h i c l e T e c h n o l o g i e s P r o g r a m U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 FY 2008 Progress rePort For AdvAnced combustion engine technologies Energy Efficiency

206

Training Manual for Senior and Middle Level Managers in Energy Financing |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Training Manual for Senior and Middle Level Managers in Energy Financing Training Manual for Senior and Middle Level Managers in Energy Financing Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Training Manual for Senior and Middle Level Managers in Energy Financing Agency/Company /Organization: Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: - Energy Access, Finance Resource Type: Guide/manual, Training materials User Interface: Website Website: www.gvepinternational.org/sites/default/files/manual_for_senior_manage Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa Language: English The manual was developed as part of a larger programme to enhance the linkages between energy entrepreneurs, consumers and financial institutions in East Africa.

207

Abyssal Eddy Kinetic Energy Levels in the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An earlier observation of about 50 cm2 s?2 for the maximum abyssal (4000 m depth) eddy kinetic energy (KE) in the western North Pacific along 152E, occurring in the vicinity of the Kuroshio Extension, is now supported by nearly two years of ...

Willeam J. Schmitz Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting Secretary Bodman and Pakistan Officials Hold High-Level Energy Meeting March 13, 2006 - 11:48am Addthis Discuss Pakistan's energy opportunities; Follows United States-Pakistan Strategic Partnership launched by President Bush earlier this month WASHINGTON, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today visited Pakistan, the first stop in his four-nation swing where he will discuss ways that the U.S. and Pakistan can increase cooperation on energy-related issues. The Secretary's visit follows President Bush's pledge earlier this month to hold a high-level meeting between U.S. and Pakistani officials to collaborate on solutions to Pakistan's energy sources. "The U.S. and Pakistan are strong allies and America supports the people of

209

Boiler using combustible fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

1974-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

210

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

211

Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety  

SciTech Connect

This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

Brand, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Readiness Level | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Readiness Level Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Readiness Level Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage This field indicates the stage of development/deployment that technologies, which are undergoing partial or full-scale device testing, are currently in. Contents 1 TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development, Design, and Engineering 2 TRL 4: Proof of Concept 3 TRL 5/6: System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration 4 TRL 7/8: Open Water System Testing, Demonstration, and Operation 5 TRL 9: Commercial-Scale Production / Application TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development, Design, and Engineering The purpose of this stage is to evaluate, to the largest extent possible, the scientific or technical merit and feasibility of ideas that appear to

213

Combustion Turbine Diagnostic Health Monitoring: Combustion Turbine Performance and Fault Diagnostic Module (CTPFDM)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The industry-wide transition to condition-based maintenance strategies has prompted development of sophisticated, automated condition assessment tools. The Combustion Turbine Performance and Fault Diagnostic Module (CTPFDM) presented in this report is the second of a suite of intelligent software tools being developed by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory as part of the Combustion Turbine Health Management (CTHM) System. The CTHM System will offer a signifi...

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

214

Energy Levels and Wave Functions of Vector Bosons in Homogeneous Magnetic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We aimed to obtain the energy levels of spin-1 particles moving in a constant magnetic field. The method used here is completely algebraic. In the process to obtain the energy levels the wave function is choosen in terms of Laguerre Polynomials.

K. Sogut; A. Havare; I. Acikgoz

2001-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

215

Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy Analyses: Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level S. Busche Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-49720 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level S. Busche Prepared under Task No. IGST.0103 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-49720 December 2010 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

216

Vehicle Technologies Office: Advanced Combustion Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is one of the most promising and cost-effective near- to mid-term approaches to increasing highway vehicles' fuel economy. The Vehicle Technologies Office's research and development activities address critical barriers to commercializing higher efficiency, very low emissions advanced internal combustion engines for passenger and commercial vehicles. This technology has great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum consumption, resulting in greater economic, environmental, and energy security. Already offering outstanding drivability and reliability to over 230 million passenger vehicles, internal combustion engines have the potential to become substantially more efficient. Initial results from laboratory engine tests indicate that passenger vehicle fuel economy can be improved by more than up to 50 percent, and some vehicle simulation models estimate potential improvements of up to 75 percent. Advanced combustion engines can utilize renewable fuels, and when combined with hybrid electric powertrains could have even further reductions in fuel consumption. As the EIA reference case forecasts that by 2035, more than 99 percent of light- and heavy-duty vehicles sold will still have internal combustion engines, the potential fuel savings is tremendous.

217

Precision Combustion, Inc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developing Reliable, Cost Effective Fuel Processors. Abstract: Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) is developing ultra-compact Fuel Processing systems for a range of Fuel Cells and...

218

Low NOx combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Low NOx combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

220

Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Hydration Free Energy by Level-Set Variational Implicit-Solvent Model with Coulomb free energy but also the polar and nonpolar contributions individually. The correlation between VISM-CFA and experiments is R2 = 0.763 for total hydration free energy, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1

Li, Bo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Hardesty, D.R. [ed.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Contrle de combustion en transitoires des moteurs combustion interne.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cette thse traite le problme du contrle de combustion des moteurs automobiles combustion interne. On propose une mthode compltant les stratgies de contrle existantes (more)

Hillion, Mathieu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Real-time Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Control and Diagnostics Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing its patented "Real-Time Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor-Pressure Oscillation Monitor" technology. Disclosed is NETL's sensor system and process for monitoring and controlling the amplitude and/or frequencies of dynamic pressure oscillations in combustion systems during active combustion processes. The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) is designed for gas turbine combustors that are operated near the fuel-lean flame extinction limit to minimize production of the atmospheric pollutant NOx. CCADS eliminates the problems of flashback,

224

An Accurate Instruction-Level Energy Consumption Model for Embedded RISC Processors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption of software is becoming an increasingly important issue in designing mobile embedded systems where batteries are used as the main power source. As a consequence, recently, a number of promising techniques have been proposed to optimize software for reduced energy consumption. Such low-power software techniques require an energy consumption model that can be used to estimate or predict the energy consumed by software. We propose a technique to derive an accurate energy consumption model at the instruction level, combining an empirical method and a statistical analysis technique. The result of the proposed approach is given by a model equation that characterizes energy behavior of software based on the properties of the instructions. Experimental results show that the model equation can accurately estimate the energy consumption of random instruction sequences, with an average error of 2.5 %. Keywords Low-power systems, instruction-level energy model, regression analysis 1.

Sheayun Lee; Andreas Ermedahl; Sang Lyul Min

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chemical Looping for Combustion and Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChemiCal looping for Combustion and ChemiCal looping for Combustion and hydrogen produCtion Objective The objective of this project is to determine the benefits of chemical looping technology used with coal to reduce CO 2 emissions. Background Chemical looping is a new method to convert coal or gasified coal to energy. In chemical looping, there is no direct contact between air and fuel. The chemical looping process utilizes oxygen from metal oxide oxygen carrier for fuel combustion, or for making hydrogen by "reducing" water. In combustion applications, the products of chemical looping are CO 2 and H 2 O. Thus, once the steam is condensed, a relatively pure stream of CO 2 is produced ready for sequestration. The production of a sequestration ready CO 2 stream does not require any additional separation units

226

Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

227

THE HIGH-ENERGY IMPULSIVE GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied short-lived (21 minute average duration), highly anisotropic pulses of cosmic rays that constitute the first phase of 10 large ground-level enhancements (GLEs), and which extend to rigidities in the range 5-20 GV. We provide a set of constraints that must be met by any putative acceleration mechanism for this type of solar-energetic-particle (SEP) event. The pulses usually have very short rise-times (three to five minutes) at all rigidities, and exhibit the remarkable feature that the intensity drops precipitously by 50% to 70% from the maximum within another three to five minutes. Both the rising and falling phases exhibit velocity dispersion, which indicates that there are particles with rigidities in the range 1 90 MeV gamma-ray bursts, indicating that freshly accelerated SEPs had impinged on higher-density matter in the chromosphere prior to the departure of the SEP pulse for Earth. This study was based on an updated archive of the 71 GLEs in the historic record, which is now available for public use.

McCracken, K. G. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Moraal, H. [Centre for Space Research, School for Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Shea, M. A. [CSPAR, University of Alabama at Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

228

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" 1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","(million","Other(e)","Row"

229

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" 2. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Major Group and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

230

Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energys Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over todays state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

Stanton, Donald W

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

231

Dynamic stability, blowoff, and flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion is a promising technology to implement carbon capture and sequestration for energy conversion to electricity in power plants that burn fossil fuels. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to ...

Shroll, Andrew Philip

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Fifteenth combustion research conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

NONE

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - A Low-Energy, Low-Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low-Energy, Low-Cost Process for Stripping Carbon Dioxide from Absorbents A Low-Energy, Low-Cost Process for Stripping Carbon Dioxide from Absorbents Project No.: FG02-06ER84592 SBIR Glycol Heater, Stripper, MEA Delivery Tank, CO2 and H2O Collection Apparatus Glycol Heater, Stripper, MEA Delivery Tank, CO2 and H2O Collection Apparatus AIL Research, Inc. (AIL) is in the second phase of a small business initiative research (SBIR) project that is assessing the economic and technical feasibility of a carbon dioxide (CO2) stripper that uses an internally heated contactor. The project will determine whether the construction of the internally heated contactor is compatible with the operating conditions of a monoethanolamine stripper and an advanced scrubber (e.g., one that uses a mixture of potassium carbonate and piperazine) and it will also determine the maintenance procedures required

234

Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling Title Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Brown, Nancy J.,...

235

Take your energy program to the next level | ENERGY STAR Buildings...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STAR tools and resources to refine their energy management programs. Start by using the Energy Program Assessment Matrix to identify management elements missing from your...

236

Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government  

SciTech Connect

This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol Meso-level analysis, the missing link in energy strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy is essential for human societies. Energy systems, though, are also associated with several adverse environmental effects. So far societies have been unable to successfully change their energy systems in a way that addresses environmental and health concerns. Lack of policy consensus often resulted in so-called stop-go policies, which were identified as some of the most important barriers regarding successful energy transitions. The lack of policy consensus and coherent long-term strategies may result from a lack of knowledge of energy systems meso-level dynamics. The meso-level involves the dynamic behaviour of the individual system elements and the coupling of individual technologies, resulting in interdependencies and regimes. Energy systems are at the meso-level characterised by two typical aspects, i.e. dynamics driven by interactions between actors, and heterogeneous characteristics of actors. These aspects give rise to the ineffectiveness of traditional energy policies, which is illustrated with examples from the transport sector and household electricity consumption. We found that analysis of energy systems at the meso-level helps to better understand energy systems. To resolve persistent policy issues, the traditional one size fits all energy policies are not sufficient. In order to tackle the difficult issues, redesign of system organisation, target group approach, or target group induced system re-orientation are needed.

Niels J. Schenk; Henri C. Moll; Anton J. M; Schoot Uiterkamp

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Motor Vehicle Plant Lighting Level Best Practices | ENERGY STAR Buildings &  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Motor Vehicle Plant Lighting Level Best Practices Motor Vehicle Plant Lighting Level Best Practices Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories

239

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 October 2009 Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables Karlynn Cory and Paul Schwabe National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46671 October 2009 Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables Karlynn Cory and Paul Schwabe Prepared under Task No. WER9.3550 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

240

Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied. Because there is a lack of empirical evidence documenting the performance of these systems, this paper uses electric consumption data collected from buildings before and after retrofits were performed, and analyzes the cost and consumption savings achieved through installation of Bi-Level Lighting systems. The results of this report demonstrate that common areas that are currently not making use of Bi-Level lighting systems would achieve significant financial and environmental benefits from Bi-Level focused retrofits. This project concludes that building codes should be updated to reflect improvements in Bi-Level Lighting technologies, and that government-sponsored energy efficiency programs should explicitly encourage or mandate Bi-Level Lighting installation components of subsidized retrofit projects.

Ackley, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

Donald Stanton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

Donald Stanton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Forecasting the Wind to Reach Significant Penetration Levels of Wind Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in atmospheric science are critical to increased deployment of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources. For VRE sources, such as wind and solar, to reach high penetration levels in the nation's electric grid, electric system operators and VRE ...

Melinda Marquis; Jim Wilczak; Mark Ahlstrom; Justin Sharp; Andrew Stern; J. Charles Smith; Stan Calvert

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

The influence of energy and protein level on the carcase and lean quality in young bulls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tallow, and meat which is light in colour. To furfil these requirements it is necessary to know how, is more or less the same, irrespective of the slaughter weight or energy level. The percentage of tallow

Recanati, Catherine

245

Does EIA have county-level energy production data? - FAQ - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA publishes county-level data for the following energy sources: Coal ... The state and county location for the power plants are in the PlantYyy file of the ...

246

Max-Min characterization of the mountain pass energy level for a class of variational problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a max-min characterization of the mountain pass energy level for a family of variational problems. As a consequence we deduce the mountain pass structure of solutions to suitable PDEs, whose existence follows from classical minimization argument.

Jacopo Bellazzini; Nicola Visciglia

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Max-Min characterization of the mountain pass energy level for a class of variational problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a max-min characterization of the mountain pass energy level for a family of variational problems. As a consequence we deduce the mountain pass structure of solutions to suitable PDEs, whose existence follows from classical minimization argument.

Bellazzini, Jacopo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks: Stimuli-Responsive Metal Organic Frameworks for Energy-Efficient Post Combustion Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: A team led by three professors at Texas A&M is developing a subset of metal organic frameworks that respond to stimuli such as small changes in temperature to trap CO2 and then release it for storage. These frameworks are a promising class of materials for carbon capture applications because their structure and chemistry can be controlled with great precision. Because the changes in temperature required to trap and release CO2 in Texas A&Ms frameworks are much smaller than in other carbon capture approaches, the amount of energy or stimulus that has to be diverted from coal-fired power plants to accomplish this is greatly reduced. The team is working to alter the materials so they bind only with CO2, and are stable enough to withstand the high temperatures found in the chimneys of coal-fired power plants.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber C. Sensiau to compute azimuthal combustion instabilities is presented. It requires a thermoacoustic model using a n - formulation for the coupling between acoutics and combustion. The parameters n and are computed from a LES

Nicoud, Franck

250

Relativistic and Nonrelativistic Descriptions of Electron Energy Levels in a Static Magnetic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physical consequences of the relativistic and nonrelativistic approaches to describe the energy levels of electrons which propagate in a static homogeneous magnetic field are considered. It is shown that for a given strength of the magnetic field, the quantized energy levels of the electrons calculated by nonrelativistic and relativistic equations differ substantially, up to few orders of magnitude for a magnetic field of about 1 Tesla. Experimental verification to resolve the discrepancy would be very welcome.

H. J. Schreiber; N. B. Skachkov

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

251

Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

Del lamo, Gonzalo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

Richard S. Tuthill

2004-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

253

Oil shale combustion/retorting  

SciTech Connect

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Role of Energy-Level Mismatches in a Multi-Pathway Complex of Photosynthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considering a multi-pathway structure in a light-harvesting complex of photosynthesis, we investigate the role of energy-level mismatches between antenna molecules in transferring the absorbed energy to a reaction center. We find a condition in which the antenna molecules faithfully play their roles: Their effective absorption ratios are larger than those of the receiver molecule directly coupled to the reaction center. In the absence of energy-level mismatches and dephasing noise, there arises quantum destructive interference between multiple paths that restricts the energy transfer. On the other hand, the destructive interference diminishes as asymmetrically biasing the energy-level mismatches and/or introducing quantum noise of dephasing for the antenna molecules, so that the transfer efficiency is greatly enhanced to near unity. Remarkably, the near-unity efficiency can be achieved at a wide range of asymmetric energy-level mismatches. Temporal characteristics are also optimized at the energy-level mismatches where the transfer efficiency is near unity. We discuss these effects, in particular, for the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex.

James Lim; Junghee Ryu; Changhyoup Lee; Seokwon Yoo; Hyunseok Jeong; Jinhyoung Lee

2013-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.

Jay Keller; Gurpreet Singh

2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

An improvement to an internal combustion engine is disclosed that has a fuel system for feeding a fuel-air mixture to the combustion chambers and an electrical generation system, such as an alternator. An electrolytic cell is attached adjacent to the engine to generate hydrogen and oxygen upon the application of a voltage between the cathode and anode of the electrolytic cell. The gas feed connects the electrolytic cell to the engine fuel system for feeding the hydrogen and oxygen to the engine combustion chambers. Improvements include placing the electrolytic cell under a predetermined pressure to prevent the electrolyte from boiling off, a cooling system for the electrolytic cell and safety features.

Valdespino, J.M.

1981-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

257

Gas turbine combustion instability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Combustion oscillations are a common problem in development of LPM (lean premix) combustors. Unlike earlier, diffusion style combustors, LPM combustors are especially susceptible to oscillations because acoustic losses are smaller and operation near lean blowoff produces a greater combustion response to disturbances in reactant supply, mixing, etc. In ongoing tests at METC, five instability mechanisms have been identified in subscale and commercial scale nozzle tests. Changes to fuel nozzle geometry showed that it is possible to stabilize combustion by altering the timing of the feedback between acoustic waves and the variation in heat release.

Richards, G.A.; Lee, G.T.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Landau energy levels for twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the Landau energy levels for twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time, i.e. we find the time-dependent energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenstates for an electron moving in uniform magnetic as well as in uniform electric external fields.

Daszkiewicz, Marcin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Photo of Spray Combustion Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Spray Combustion Chamber. NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Material Measurement Laboratory, ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

Peters, Norbert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review  

SciTech Connect

This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

NREL: Vehicles and Fuels Research - Fuel Combustion Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Combustion Lab Fuel Combustion Lab NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on characterizing fuels at the molecular level. This information can then be used to understand and predict the fuel's effect on engine performance and emissions. By understanding the effects of fuel chemistry on ignition we can develop fuels that enable more efficient engine designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the distributed Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory, and the Biofuels activity. Photo of assembled IQT. Ignition Quality Tester The central piece of equipment in the Fuel Combustion Laboratory is the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT(tm)). The IQT(tm) is a constant volume combustion vessel that is used to study ignition properties of liquid

263

APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS PRE-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES POST-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS POST-COMBUSTION SORBENTS POST-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES OXY-COMBUSTION OXYGEN PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LOOPING ADVANCED COMPRESSION R&D COLLABORATIONS B-1 APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS B-6 SRI International - CO 2 Capture Using AC-ABC Processt B-7 PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS B-14 TDA Research - CO 2 Capture for Low-Rank Coal IGCC Systems B-15 URS Group - Sorbent Development for WGS B-18 Air Products and Chemicals - Advanced Acid Gas Separation B-24 Ohio State University-Department of Chemical Engineering - Calcium Looping for Hydrogen Production B-33

264

Spontaneous Human Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spontaneous Human Combustion Spontaneous Human Combustion Name: S. Phillips. Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: One of our 8th grade students has tried to find information in our library about spontaneous human combustion, but to no avail. Could you tell us where we might locate a simple reference, or provide some in information about this subject for him. Replies: Sorry, but this is definitely "fringe science"...try asking in bookstores. I seem to recall one of those "believe it or not" type of TV shows did an episode on spontaneous human combustion a few years ago in which they reported on some British scientists who investigated this purported phenomenon. Remember that people (back in the Dark Ages, and before) used to believe in "spontaneous generation" of certain plants and animals because they were not aware of the reproduction methods used by those plants and animals.

265

IN SITU COMBUSTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a combustion zone that moves through the formation toward production wells, providing a steam drive and an intense gas drive for the recovery of oil. This process is sometimes...

266

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion Technology (June 15-16, 1999) Animal Waste Remediation Roundtable PDF-78KB Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems '98 Conference (July 21-23, 1998)...

267

Just the Basics: Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diesel fuel, transportation- based combustion accounts for the majority of our fossil fuel use in the United States, which has led the U.S. to demand a lot of imported oil....

268

Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion  

SciTech Connect

The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

Ojeda, William de

2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

Coal combustion system  

SciTech Connect

In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Shanghai and Chicago Take Their Clean Energy Relationship to the Next Level  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shanghai and Chicago Take Their Clean Energy Relationship to the Shanghai and Chicago Take Their Clean Energy Relationship to the Next Level Shanghai and Chicago Take Their Clean Energy Relationship to the Next Level November 8, 2010 - 4:29pm Addthis Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley with his Shanghai counterpart Han Zheng at signing of the Eco-City Partnership agreement in Shanghai on September 20, 2010, attended by Mark Ginsberg of DOE-EERE | Photo Courtesy of www.chicagosistercities.com Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley with his Shanghai counterpart Han Zheng at signing of the Eco-City Partnership agreement in Shanghai on September 20, 2010, attended by Mark Ginsberg of DOE-EERE | Photo Courtesy of www.chicagosistercities.com Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy

272

Suppression of energy-relaxation-induced decoherence in -type three-level SQUID flux qubits: A dark-state approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Suppression of energy-relaxation-induced decoherence in -type three-level SQUID flux qubits: A dark) We report a theoretical investigation of decoherence induced by energy relaxation of the auxiliary level in the -type three-level SQUID flux qubits. We show that the energy-relaxation-induced decoherence

Chu, Shih-I

273

Combustion in Meso-scale Vortex Chambers Ming-hsun Wu*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Combustion in Meso-scale Vortex Chambers Ming-hsun Wu* , Yanxing Wang, Vigor Yang and Richard A) #12;2 COMBUSTION IN MESO-SCALE VORTEX CHAMBERS Ming-hsun Wu, Yanxing Wang, Vigor Yang and Richard A with the chemical energy varying from 25 to 174W. For the largest combustion volume, hydrogen and hydrocarbons

Yang, Vigor

274

Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum form 27 July 2010 Accepted 3 September 2010 Keywords: High-energy-density fuels Droplet combustion n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion

Qiao, Li

275

Assessment of thermal swing absorption alternatives for producing oxygen enriched combustion air  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) can substantially improve the thermal efficiency and productivity of a furnace. An OEC performance study by the Union Carbide Corporation found that in furnaces with flue gas temperatures above 2,000{degree}F, a high level of oxygen (O{sub 2}) enrichment (50% to 100% O{sub 2}) will result in a 40% to 60% fuel savings. The US DOE's (Department of Energy) Office of Industrial Programs (OIP) has sponsored several research development projects and engineering assessments relevant to the production of oxygen enriched air (OEA) and its use in combustion systems. In an OIP-sponsored assessment of research and development opportunities for combustion technologies, Taratec Corporation indicated that thermal swing absorption (TSA) offers a potentially viable option for producing low-cost oxygen enriched combustion air (OECA). In fact, an integrated, TSA-based oxygen enriched air production system driven by waste heat from furnace exhaust may be more energy- and cost-efficient than the alternative technologies. The study presented in this document further investigates and assesses TSA alternatives for producing low-cost OECA. 7 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center June 6, 2011 - 2:32pm Addthis Jenny Hakun What does this mean for me? Commercial deployment of the processes tested here could cut carbon pollution. Innovation is important to finding ways to make energy cleaner. And testing the ideas and processes that researchers come up with is critical to moving ideas from the lab to the marketplace. That's why the Department of Energy recently commissioned an Alabama testing facility that will help move research forward and speed up deployment of innovative post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies for coal-based power plants. The Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center (or PC4) facility tests new

277

COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

Hollowell, C.D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Meeting: Combustion Safety Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety This is a meeting overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World, held...

279

Ignition of Combustion Modified Polyurethane Foam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling of smoldering combustion propagation," Prog. Energysmoldering to flaming combustion of horizontally orientedThermal decomposition, combustion and fire-retardancy of

Putzeys, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Urban, Dave L.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

decomposition fronts in wood, Combustion and Flame 139: 16dynamics modeling of wood combustion, Fire Safety Journalduring the pyrolysis of wood, Combustion and Flame 17: 79

Lautenberger, Chris

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Enlaces de Vehculos de Combustible Fexible  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustible flexible provista por el Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) del DOE Vehculos de Combustible Flexible: Una alternativa de combustible renovable...

282

Biomass pyrolysis oil properties and combustion meeting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

These proceedings contain extended abstracts from the Biomass Pyrolysis Oil Properties and Combustion Meeting held September 26-28, 1994. This meeting is cosponsored by the DOE, NREL, NRCan, and VTT Energy (Finland) for the discussion of developments in the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Pulse combustion: Commercial, industrial, and residential applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the evolution of pulse combustion, the types of pulse combustion burners and their applications, and selected fuels utilized. Topics include fuel combustion efficiency, energy conversion and utilization technologies, modeling of chemical kinetics, and dynamics and thermal characteristics of pulse combustors. Pulse combustion systems for water heaters, gas furnaces, industrial and residential boilers, commercial cooking equipment, and space heating devices are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

" Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" 1. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Physical Units or Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,"Coke" " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coal","and Breeze"," ","RSE" "NAICS"," ","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(billion","NGL(d)","(million","(million","Other(e)","Row"

285

" Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" 2. Nonfuel (Feedstock) Use of Combustible Energy, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,,,,,,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Coke"," ","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","and Breeze","Other(e)","Factors"

286

Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department August 15, 2012 - 1:40pm Addthis Karl Fraiser, a member of the Savannah River Special Emphasis Planning Committee, meets with Dot Harris at the site’s Women’s Equality Day Celebration. | Photo by Rob Davis, Savannah River Site. Karl Fraiser, a member of the Savannah River Special Emphasis Planning Committee, meets with Dot Harris at the site's Women's Equality Day Celebration. | Photo by Rob Davis, Savannah River Site. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity We Need to Get More Women Involved Women hold only 27 percent of jobs in science and engineering-sectors that are essential to our nation's growth in a 21st

287

Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department Leveling the Playing Field for Women: Work at the Energy Department August 15, 2012 - 1:40pm Addthis Karl Fraiser, a member of the Savannah River Special Emphasis Planning Committee, meets with Dot Harris at the site’s Women’s Equality Day Celebration. | Photo by Rob Davis, Savannah River Site. Karl Fraiser, a member of the Savannah River Special Emphasis Planning Committee, meets with Dot Harris at the site's Women's Equality Day Celebration. | Photo by Rob Davis, Savannah River Site. Dot Harris Dot Harris The Honorable Dot Harris, Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity We Need to Get More Women Involved Women hold only 27 percent of jobs in science and engineering-sectors that are essential to our nation's growth in a 21st

288

Free energy calculations using dual-level Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe an efficient and accurate method to compute free energy changes in complex chemical systems that cannot be described through classical molecular dynamics simulations, examples of which are chemical and photochemical reactions in solution, enzymes, interfaces, etc. It is based on the use of dual-level Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. A low-level quantum mechanical method is employed to calculate the potential of mean force through the umbrella sampling technique. Then, a high-level quantum mechanical method is used to estimate a free energy correction on selected points of the reaction coordinate using perturbation theory. The precision of the results is comparable to that of ab initio molecular dynamics methods such as the Car-Parrinello approach but the computational cost is much lower, roughly by two to three orders of magnitude. The method is illustrated by discussing the association free energy of simple organometallic compounds, although the field of application is very broad.

Retegan, Marius; Martins-Costa, Marilia; Ruiz-Lopez, Manuel F. [Theoretical Chemistry and Biochemistry Group, SRSMC, CNRS, Nancy-University, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

2010-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Title National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5253E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Zhou, Nan, Lynn K. Price, Nina Zheng, Jing Ke, and Ali Hasanbeigi Date Published 10/2011 Publisher Lawrence Berkerley National Laboratory ISBN Number LBNL-5253E Keywords china, china energy, co-control, energy intensity, industrial energy efficiency, iron and steel industry, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, policy studies, sulfur dioxide Abstract Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO2 emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives.Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO2 and SO2 emissions in the cement, iron & steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO2 mitigation scenarios and SO2 control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects.

290

Two-stage Ignition as an Indicator of Low Temperature Combustion in a Late Injection Pre-mixed Compression Ignition Control Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internal combustion engines have dealt with increasingly restricted emissions requirements. After-treatment devices are successful in bringing emissions into compliance, but in-cylinder combustion control can reduce their burden by reducing engine out emissions. For example, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are diesel combustion exhaust species that are notoriously difficult to remove by after-treatment. In-cylinder conditions can be controlled for low levels of NOx, but this produces high levels of soot potentially leading to increased particulate matter (PM). The simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM can be realized through a combustion process known as low temperature combustion (LTC). In this study, the typical definition of LTC as the defeat of the inverse relationship between soot and NOx is not applicable as a return to the soot-NOx tradeoff is observed with increasing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It is postulated that this effect is the result of an increase in the hot ignition equivalence ratio, moving the combustion event into a slightly higher soot formation region. This is important because a simple emissions based definition of LTC is no longer helpful. In this study, the manifestation of LTC in the calculated heat release profile is investigated. The conditions classified as LTC undergo a two-stage ignition process. Two-stage ignition is characterized by an initial cool-flame reaction followed by typical hot ignition. In traditional combustion conditions, the ignition is fast enough that a cool-flame is not observed. By controlling initial conditions (pressure, temperature, and composition), the creation and duration of the cool-flame event is predictable. Further, the effect that injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation level have on the controlling factors of the cool-flame reaction is well correlated to the duration of the cool-flame event. These two results allow the postulation that the presence of a sufficiently long cool-flame reaction indicates a combustion event that can be classified as low temperature combustion. A potential method for identifying low temperature combustion events using only the rate of heat release profile is theorized. This study employed high levels of EGR and late injection timing to realize the LTC mode of ordinary petroleum diesel fuel. Under these conditions, and based on a 90 percent reduction in nitric oxide and no increase in smoke output relative to the chosen baseline condition, a two part criteria is developed that identifies the LTC classified conditions. The criteria are as follow: the combustion event of conventional petroleum diesel fuel must show a two-stage ignition process; the first stage (cool-flame reaction) must consume at least 2 percent of the normalized fuel energy before the hot ignition commences.

Bittle, Joshua

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed.

Schermer, R.I.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

Ferguson, D.H.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Premixed Combustion of Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas * Lean premixed combustion * Effective for emission reduction with natural gas * High hydrogen flame speed requires care in premixer design for SGH fuels * UC Irvine study quantifies effectiveness of hydrogen augmentation strategy * Lean stability limit improves linearly with hydrogen augmentation * Emissions reduction can be achieved * Two OEM's and the California Energy Commission have used the results to help guide them on adapting to hydrogen fuel UC Irvine Scott Samuelsen / Vince McDonell Project 98-01-SR062 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Hydrogen Volume in Main Fuel (%) Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K) P0(3/4) High Stability High Stability Low emission Low emission operational zone operational zone

294

Visualizing Low-Swirl Combustion Simulations at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen flame Low-Swirl Combustion: Experiments and Simulations Working Together energy16gunther.jpg Simulations that ran on the Franklin Cray XT at NERSC captured the detailed...

295

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Advanced...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Advanced Low Energy Enzyme Catalyzed Solvent for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004228 Akermin, Inc. is to conduct bench-scale testing...

296

Energy Use and Power Levels in New Monitors and Personal Computers  

SciTech Connect

Our research was conducted in support of the EPA ENERGY STAR Office Equipment program, whose goal is to reduce the amount of electricity consumed by office equipment in the U.S. The most energy-efficient models in each office equipment category are eligible for the ENERGY STAR label, which consumers can use to identify and select efficient products. As the efficiency of each category improves over time, the ENERGY STAR criteria need to be revised accordingly. The purpose of this study was to provide reliable data on the energy consumption of the newest personal computers and monitors that the EPA can use to evaluate revisions to current ENERGY STAR criteria as well as to improve the accuracy of ENERGY STAR program savings estimates. We report the results of measuring the power consumption and power management capabilities of a sample of new monitors and computers. These results will be used to improve estimates of program energy savings and carbon emission reductions, and to inform rev isions of the ENERGY STAR criteria for these products. Our sample consists of 35 monitors and 26 computers manufactured between July 2000 and October 2001; it includes cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors, Macintosh and Intel-architecture computers, desktop and laptop computers, and integrated computer systems, in which power consumption of the computer and monitor cannot be measured separately. For each machine we measured power consumption when off, on, and in each low-power level. We identify trends in and opportunities to reduce power consumption in new personal computers and monitors. Our results include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, well below the current ENERGY STAR criteria for sleep power consumption. These very low sleep power results mean that energy consumed when monitors are off or in active use has become more important in terms of contribution to the overall unit energy consumption (UEC). Cur rent ENERGY STAR monitor and computer criteria do not specify off or on power, but our results suggest opportunities for saving energy in these modes. Also, significant differences between CRT and LCD technology, and between field-measured and manufacturer-reported power levels reveal the need for standard methods and metrics for measuring and comparing monitor power consumption.

Roberson, Judy A.; Homan, Gregory K.; Mahajan, Akshay; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Brown, Richard E.; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

297

Combustion Safety Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

March 1-2, 2012 March 1-2, 2012 Building America Stakeholders Meeting Austin, Texas Combustion Safety in the Codes Larry Brand Gas Technology Institute Acknowledgement to Paul Cabot - American Gas Association 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Widely adopted fuel gas codes: * National Fuel Gas Code - ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54, published by AGA and NFPA (NFGC) * International Fuel Gas Code - published by the International Code Council (IFGC) * Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO (UPC) Safety codes become requirements when adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction (governments or fire safety authorities) 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Combustion Safety in the Codes Formal Relationships Between these codes: - The IFGC extracts many safety

298

Internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

Baker, Quentin A. (P.O. Box 6477, San Antonio, TX 78209); Mecredy, Henry E. (1630-C W. 6th, Austin, TX 78703); O' Neal, Glenn B. (6503 Wagner Way, San Antonio, TX 78256)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The levelized cost of energy for distributed PV : a parametric study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maturation of distributed solar PV as an energy source requires that the technology no longer compete on module efficiency and manufacturing cost ($/Wp) alone. Solar PV must yield sufficient energy (kWh) at a competitive cost (c/kWh) to justify its system investment and ongoing maintenance costs. These metrics vary as a function of system design and interactions between parameters, such as efficiency and area-related installation costs. The calculation of levelized cost of energy includes energy production and costs throughout the life of the system. The life of the system and its components, the rate at which performance degrades, and operation and maintenance requirements all affect the cost of energy. Cost of energy is also affected by project financing and incentives. In this paper, the impact of changes in parameters such as efficiency and in assumptions about operating and maintenance costs, degradation rate and system life, system design, and financing will be examined in the context of levelized cost of energy.

Goodrich, Alan C. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Cameron, Christopher P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project  

SciTech Connect

C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Levels, Phase, and Amplitude Modulation of the Baroclinic Tide off Hawaii  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inverted echo sounder data from Station Aloha north of Oahu, Hawaii, are used to determine the absolute energy levels and time-varying nature of the first-mode baroclinic tide north of Hawaii. The semidiurnal tide amplitude and phase are ...

Stephen M. Chiswell

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Combustion characteristics of red alder sawdust. Technical Progress Report No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant quantities of wood resdiue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. Data are presented on the combustion characteristics of red alder sawdust.

Junge, D.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Energy Efficency and Greenhouse Gas Connection  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Efficiency and Carbon Emissions Energy use for various services has a number of impacts on the environment. Energy combustion by-products include SOx, NOx, and precursors of ground-level ozone. Another combustion by-product is CO2 (carbon dioxide). CO2, a greenhouse gas, has been identified as a potential major contributor to global climate change. Climate_Change.jpg (6885 bytes) The carbon emissions from energy use depend on a number of factors: The level of demand for energy services; The service energy intensity (energy requirement per unit of service); The mix of energy sources for the service; The carbon content of the energy sources. Electricity and district energy both derive from other forms of energy. For these two sources, the mix of fuels used in their production is an additional factor in carbon emissions.

306

An Engineering and Economic Assessment of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Applied to Great River Energy's Coal-Fired Coal Creek Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI is currently examining the feasibility of retrofitting post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) to existing pulverized coal (PC) and/or circulating fluidized-bed power plants for five "host" participants. Knowledge gained from previous CoalFleet ultra-supercritical (USC) PCC design studies is being applied to specific site conditions, plant design, and operating data provided by each host utility participant. This project highlights the technical and economic issues associated with retrofitting existing PC...

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

307

Sensors and Controls Research Combustion of fossil fuels currently  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, aggressive environments and high temperatures. Sponsor: Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program. FeaturesSensors and Controls Research Combustion of fossil fuels currently generates most of the nation's energy, and 2008 forecasts by the Energy Information Agency predict this will continue to be the case

308

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A REAXFF REACTIVE FORCE FIELDFOR HYDROGEN COMBUSTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To investigate the reaction kinetics of hydrogen combustion at high pressure and high temperature conditions, we constructed a ReaxFF training set to include reaction energies (more)

Agrawalla, Satyam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO 2 Capture Background An important component of the Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is...

310

Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems Title Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5798E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Rapp, Vi H., Brett C. Singer, J. Chris Stratton, and Craig P. Wray Date Published 06/2012 Abstract In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable

311

National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center National Carbon Capture Center Launches Post-Combustion Test Center June 7, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The recent successful commissioning of an Alabama-based test facility is another step forward in research that will speed deployment of innovative post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies for coal-based power plants, according to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technologies tested at the Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Center (or PC4) are an important component of Carbon Capture and Storage, whose commercial deployment is considered by many experts as essential for helping to reduce human-generated CO2 emissions that contribute to potential climate change.

312

Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

Hallett, William L.H.

314

Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion cold flow model tests of Phase 2 carbonizer  

SciTech Connect

Under US Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) is developing a second-generation pressurized fulidized bed (PFB) combustion system. The second-generation system is an improvement over first-generation pressurized systems because higher gas turbine inlet temperatures, and thus greater system efficiencies can be achieved. In first-generation systems, the gas turbine operates at temperatures lower than those in the PFB combusting bed, with the latter being limited to approximately 1600{degree}F to control alkali release/gas turbine hot corrosion. The second-generation system overcomes this temperature restriction by including a carbonizer and a topping combustor in the system. The carbonizer is a PFB combustion unit that converts coal to a low-Btu fuel gas and char. The char is transferred to a PFB combustor (PFBC), where it is burned. The flue gas from the PFBC and the fuel gas from the carbonizer go to the topping combustor, where the fuel gas is burned and gas turbine inlet temperatures in excess of 2100{degree}F are generated. The PFBC can be operated with or without coal fed along with the char. Steam is generated in the PFBC, and additional coal fed to the PFBC with the char will result in more steam generation. However, excess air must be kept at a level sufficient to support combustion of the fuel gas in the topping combustor.

Shenker, J.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

2011 Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Annual Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

annual progress report 2011 annual progress report 2011 Advanced Combustion Engine Research and Development DOE-ACE-2011AR Approved by Gurpreet Singh Team Leader, Advanced Combustion Engine R&D Vehicle Technologies Program FY 2011 Progress rePort For AdvAnced combustion engine reseArcH And deveLoPment Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Vehicle Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 December 2011 DOE-ACE-2011AR ii Advanced Combustion Engine R&D FY 2011 Annual Progress Report We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Alliance Technical Services, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for their technical and artistic contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all the participants for their contributions to the programs and all the

317

Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

Reed, T.B.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Low emission internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

Karaba, Albert M. (Muskegon, MI)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Evaluation of Affordable Prototype Houses at Two Levels of Energy Efficiency  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two high performance prototype houses were built in Carbondale, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) Program. Each prototype was a 1256 ft2 (117 m2), 1-story, 3-bedroom house, and met the local requirements for affordable housing. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) performed short-term field testing and DOE-2.2 simulations in support of this project at the end of December 2004. We also installed long-term monitoring equipment in one of the houses, and are currently tracking the performance of key building systems under occupied conditions. One of the houses (designated H1) included a package of cost-effective energy efficiency features that placed it well above the Energy Star level, targeting a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score of 88-89. The other (designated H2) was a BA research house, targeting a HERS score of 94-95, and 45% whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. Preliminary results from the field evaluation indicate that the energy savings for both houses will exceed the design targets established for the project, although the performance of certain building systems, including the ventilation and foundation systems, leave some room for improvement.

Hendron, R.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Vecarius | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

that seeks to leverage advanced materials, power electronics, energy harvesting, and energy storage technologies to capture lost heat energy in internal combustion engine and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace Coke Oven (excluding or LPG and Natural Gas

322

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Waste Gases Waste Oils Industrial Wood Byproducts and Coal Subbituminous Coal Petroleum Electricity from Local Other than Distillate Diesel Distillate Residual Blast Furnace

323

COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II)  

SciTech Connect

We report new observations of the spectrum of singly ionized chromium (Cr II) in the region 1142-3954 A. The spectra were recorded with the National Institute of Standards and Technology 10.7 m normal-incidence vacuum spectrograph and FT700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. More than 3600 lines are classified as transitions among 283 even and 368 odd levels. The new spectral data are used to re-optimize the energy levels, reducing their uncertainties by a typical factor of 20.

Sansonetti, Craig J.; Nave, Gillian; Reader, Joseph [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Kerber, Florian [European Southern Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Advanced Combustion Engine R&D 2003 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 FY 2003 Progress Report for Advanced Combustion Engine Research & Development Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Approved by Gurpreet Singh December 2003 Advanced Combustion Engine R&D FY 2003 Progress Report ii Advanced Combustion Engine R&D FY 2003 Progress Report iii CONTENTS CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii INDEX OF PRIMARY AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

325

Electric and Magnetic Field Exposure Levels (0 to 3000 Hz) near Residential Photovoltaic Energy Generation Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric and magnetic field levels associated with two residential photovoltaic energy generation facilities were characterized in this study. This measurement evaluation included static (direct current [DC]) magnetic fields and power-frequency alternating current (AC) electric and magnetic fields (up to 3,000 Hz).The major source of DC and AC magnetic fields associated with a residential solar facility is the power inverter that converts DC to AC electricity. In close proximity to one ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Energy program annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents on overview of research from Lawrence Livermore laboratories on the following topics: fossil energy; petroleum geochemistry: origin of oil and gas; methane-conversion enzymes; oil shale project; flow of granular solids; mild coal gasification; and injection-front imaging in enhanced oil recovery. Conservation and renewable energy: geothermal program and combustion technology. Nuclear waste: high-level nuclear waste disposal. hazardous waste research development.

Borg, I.Y. (ed.)

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed facades. Many studies suggest that the energy needed to keep the interior conditions at required comfort levels in buildings depends on several factors such as physical and optical properties of building elements, indoor and outdoor climate and behaviour of the occupants, etc. Moreover depending on the different orientation of building facade, the impact of these parameters might vary. The buildings are usually designed without paying much attention to this fact. The needs of each building zone might differ greatly and in order to achieve better indoor environment, different actions might be needed to taken considering the individual characteristics of each zone. In the proposed research the possibilities of evaluating building energy and comfort performance simultaneously taking into account the impact of facade orientation with use of whole building energy simulation tools are investigated through a case study.

Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETLs Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J. (Woodward)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Task Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work High-Fidelity Multi-Phase Radiation Module for Modern Coal Combustion Systems Jian Cai 1 Ricardo Marquez 1 Michael F. Modest 2 1 Postdoctoral Research Associate 2 Shaffer and George Professor of Engineering University of California Merced Merced, CA 95343, USA DE-FG26-10FE0003801 May 2012 - Pittsburgh 2/17 Introduction Task Description Sample calculations LBL-PMC Future Work Radiation Challenges in Multi-Phase Reacting Flows Radiative heat transfer in high temperature combustion systems Thermal radiation becomes very important at elevated temperatures Coal and hydrocarbon fuels C n H m → H 2 O, CO 2 , CO, NO x , soot, char, ash CO 2 , H 2 O, soot, char and ash strongly emit and absorb radiative energy (lower temperature levels) Radiative effects are conveniently ignored or treated with very crude models Neglecting

330

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington; Record of Decision (ROO). This Record of Decision has been prepared pursuant to the Council on Environme~tal Quality ~egulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Pol icy Act (NEPAl (40 CFR Parts 1500-1508) and the Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). It is based on DOE's "Environmental Impact Statement for the Oi sposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic, and Tank Wastes'' (OOE/EIS-0113) and consideration of ~11 public and agency comments received on the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). fJECISION The decision is to implement the ''Preferred Alternative'' as discussed in

331

Heating energy measurements of single-family houses with attics containing radiant barriers in combustion with R-11 and R-30 ceiling insulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the heating energy performance of two levels of fiberglass-batt attic insulation (R-11 and R-30) in combination with truss and horizontally installed radiant barriers. The tests, a continuation of work started in the summer of 1985, were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, during the winter of 1986-87. The measured results of the heating tests showed that a horizontal radiant barrier used with R-11 attic insulation reduced the house heating load by 9.3% compared with R-11 with no radiant barrier, while a truss barrier showed essentially no change in the heating load. Horizontal and truss barriers each reduced the heating load by 3.5% when added to R-30 attic insulation. Moisture condensed on the bottom of the horizontal barrier during cold early morning weather but usually dissipated in the warmer afternoon hours at Karns and left no accumulation in the insulation. Depending on the level of attic insulation, an annual heating and cooling HVAC savings ranging from $5 to $65 is estimated to be attainable when a radiant barrier is installed in the attic at Karns. 8 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abbreviations & Acronyms Abbreviations & Acronyms Reference Shelf Solicitations & Awards Abbreviations & Acronyms The Combustion Technologies Product uses a number of abbreviations and acronyms. This web page gives you a definition of frequently used terms, as follows: 1½-Generation PFBC -- A PFBC plant where the hot (about 1400ºF) PFBC exhaust gases are used as a vitiated air supply for a natural gas combustor supplying high-temperature gas (above 2000ºF) to a combustion turbine expander (synonym for "PFB-NGT"). 1st-Generation PFBC -- Commercial PFBC technology where an unfired low-temperature (below 1650ºF) ruggedized turbine expander expands PFBC exhaust gases (synonym for "PFB-EGT"). 2nd-Generation PFBC (see synonyms: "APFBC," "PFB-CGT") -- Advanced PFBC where a carbonizer (mild gasifier) provides hot (about 1400ºF) coal-derived synthetic fuel gas to a special topping combustor. The carbonizer char is burned in the PFBC, and the PFBC exhaust is used as a hot (about 1400ºF) vitiated air supply for the topping combustor. The syngas and vitiated air are burned in a topping combustor to provide high-temperature gas (above 1700ºF) to a combustion turbine expander.

334

Oxy-coal Combustion Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: ? The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. ? The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. ? The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). ? The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. ? The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. ? The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Tunable Thermal Link - Energy Innovation Portal  

Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Tunable ... Solar energy collection; Heat pumps and internal combustion engines; Hybrid biological/inorganic systems;

336

DOE Selects Projects to Develop Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Develop Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Develop Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Technologies for Coal-Based Gasification Plants DOE Selects Projects to Develop Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Technologies for Coal-Based Gasification Plants June 11, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of nine projects that will develop pre-combustion carbon capture technologies that can reduce CO2 emissions in future coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The projects, totaling nearly $14.4 million, will be managed by the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Pre-combustion processes convert fossil fuels into a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and CO2 prior to combustion. The CO2 is then separated and the

337

Impaired mitochondrial respiration and protein nitration in the rat hippocampus after acute inhalation of combustion smoke  

SciTech Connect

Survivors of massive inhalation of combustion smoke endure critical injuries, including lasting neurological complications. We have previously reported that acute inhalation of combustion smoke disrupts the nitric oxide homeostasis in the rat brain. In this study, we extend our findings and report that a 30-minute exposure of awake rats to ambient wood combustion smoke induces protein nitration in the rat hippocampus and that mitochondrial proteins are a sensitive nitration target in this setting. Mitochondria are central to energy metabolism and cellular signaling and are critical to proper cell function. Here, analyses of the mitochondrial proteome showed elevated protein nitration in the course of a 24-hour recovery following exposure to smoke. Mass spectrometry identification of several significantly nitrated mitochondrial proteins revealed diverse functions and involvement in central aspects of mitochondrial physiology. The nitrated proteins include the ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase, F1-ATP synthase {alpha} subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3), succinate dehydrogenase Fp subunit, and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) protein. Furthermore, acute exposure to combustion smoke significantly compromised the respiratory capacity of hippocampal mitochondria. Importantly, elevated protein nitration and reduced mitochondrial respiration in the hippocampus persisted beyond the time required for restoration of normal oxygen and carboxyhemoglobin blood levels after the cessation of exposure to smoke. Thus, the time frame for intensification of the various smoke-induced effects differs between blood and brain tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that nitration of essential mitochondrial proteins may contribute to the reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and underlie, in part, the brain pathophysiology after acute inhalation of combustion smoke.

Lee, Heung M.; Reed, Jason; Greeley, George H. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Englander, Ella W. [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch (United States); Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, TX (United States)], E-mail: elenglan@utmb.edu

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; 1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Shipments NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,113 326 1,475 11,399 2,947 67 15 1,210 W 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 580 15 183 449 269 35 0 148 W 311221 Wet Corn Milling 47 47 W 17 44 19 18 0 18 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 78 78 11 45 61 35 26 15 45 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 1,125

339

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; 1.4 Number of Establishments by First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Establishment Counts. Any Shipments NAICS Energy Net Residual Distillate LPG and Coke and of Energy Sources Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal Breeze Other(g) Produced Onsite(h) Total United States 311 Food 13,269 13,265 151 2,494 10,376 4,061 64 7 1,668 W 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 602 602 9 201 490 286 30 0 165 W 311221 Wet Corn Milling 59 59 W 26 50 36 15 0 29 0 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 73 73 3 36 67 13 11 7 15 0 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 987 987

340

CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Powers Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: scale up of gas to solid heat transfer high temperature finned surface design the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas-to-solids heat transfer. A stress test rig was built and tested to provide validation data for a stress model needed to support high temperature finned surface design. Additional cold flow model tests and MTF tests were conducted to address mechanical and process design issues. This information was then used to design and cost a commercial CMB design concept. Finally, the MBHE was reconfigured into a slice arrangement and tested for an extended duration at a commercial CFB plant.

Jukkola, Glen

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Conversion Technology Biomass, solid fuels Combustion (direct-fired, cofiring with coal); GasificationPyrolysis Biomass, gas and liquid fuels Fuel Cells Geothermal Dry...

342

Measurement of spray combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

A free jet configuration was chosen for measuring noncombusting spray fields and hydrocarbon-air spray flames in an effort to develop computational models of the dynamic interaction between droplets and the gas phase and to verify and refine numerical models of the entire spray combustion process. The development of a spray combustion facility is described including techniques for laser measurements in spray combustion environments and methods for data acquisition, processing, displaying, and interpretation.

Peters, C.E.; Arman, E.F.; Hornkohl, J.O.; Farmer, W.M.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

345

Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes requirements for emissions from, and design and operation of, municipal waste combustion units. "Municipal waste"means all materials and substances discarded from residential...

346

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Natural Gas, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U.S.Solar Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-Solar Hydrogen, In Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Node-level Energy Management for Sensor Networks in the Presence of Multiple Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that solves the energy management problem at the node levelpredominately in energy saving problems. The energy sourcefor two sub-problems of our energy managing mechanism in

Athanassios Boulis; Mani Srivastava

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process Background An important component of the Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is the development of carbon capture technologies for power systems. Pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture refers to the removal of the carbon content of a fuel before it is burned, thereby converting a fossil resource to a carbon- free energy carrier. Pre-combustion CO2 capture is considered to be less expensive

349

S-matrix Calculations of Energy Levels of the Lithium Isoelectronic Sequence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A QED approach to the calculation of the spectra of the lithium isoelectronic sequence is implemented. A modified Furry representation based on the Kohn-Sham potential is used to evaluate all one- and two-photon diagrams with the exception of the two-loop Lamb shift. Three-photon diagrams are estimated with Hamiltonian methods. After incorporating recent calculations of the two-loop Lamb shift and recoil corrections a comprehensive tabulation of the 2s, 2p{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 3/2} energy levels as well as the 2s - 2p{sub 1/2} and 2s - 2p{sub 3/2} transition energies for Z = 10 - 100 is presented.

sapirstein, J; Cheng, K T

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

350

Environment energy-related emissions. For example, the clearing of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environment Note. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Biomass Energy Combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to

351

COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x A Emission Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion. PaperInternational) on Combustion, Tokyo (August, 1974). Chang,fll , J I ___F J "J LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR

Hollowell, C.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The five parent coals ear-marked for this study have been characterized. These coals include (1) a Texas (Wilcox) lignite; (2) a Montana (Rosebud) subbituminous; (4) an Alabama (Black Creek) high volatile bituminous; and (5) a Pennsylvania (Buck Mountain) anthracite. Samples for analyses were prepared in accordance with the ASTM standard (ASTM D 2013-72). The following ASTM analyses were performed on each coal: proximate, ultimate, higher heating value, Hardgrove grindability index, ash fusibility, and ash composition. Additionally, the flammability index (FI) of each coal was determined in an in-house apparatus. The FI is indicative of the ignition temperature of a given fuel on a relative basis. The combustion kinetic parameters (apparent activation energies and frequency factors) of Montana subbituminous and Pennsylvania anthracite chars have also been derived from data obtained in the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information depicts the combustion characteristics of these two coal chars. 1 ref., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Guide to Energy-Efficient Ventilation Methods for Acceptable Levels of Indoor Air Quality Levels in Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indoor air quality is important in commercial buildings to maintain employee health, well-being, and productivity and avoid employer liability. The most common method to improve indoor air quality in commercial buildings is to use outside ventilation air for dilution of the inside air. Unfortunately, the conditioning of outdoor ventilation air may result in increased energy use for cooling, dehumidification, and heating; and humid outdoor ventilation air also can degrade indoor air quality. Some commerci...

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Developing an approach utilizing local deterministic analysis to predict the cycle friction of the piston ring-pack in internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nowadays, a rapid growth of internal combustion (IC) engines is considered to be a major contributor to energy crisis. About 20% of the mechanical loss in internal combustion engines directly goes to the friction loss ...

Liu, Yang, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Advanced clean combustion technology in Shanxi province  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass energy resources in China are first described, along with biomass gasification R & D now underway. In Shanxi province biomass and other regenerative energy is relatively little used but coal resources are large. Hence Shanxi is mainly developing clean coal technology to meet its economic and environmental protection requirements. Clean combustion research at Taiyuan University of Technology includes cofiring of coal and RDF in FBC, gas purification and adsorption, fundamentals of plasma-aided coal pyrolysis and gasification and coal derived liquid fuels from synthesis gas. 5 refs.

Xie, K.-C. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for Products Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC., U.S.A. SYNOPSIS Over one hundred million tonnes of coal

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

358

Method for in situ combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved in situ combustion method for the recovery of hydrocarbons from subterranean earth formations containing carbonaceous material. The method is practiced by penetrating the subterranean earth formation with a borehole projecting into the coal bed along a horizontal plane and extending along a plane disposed perpendicular to the plane of maximum permeability. The subterranean earth formation is also penetrated with a plurality of spaced-apart vertical boreholes disposed along a plane spaced from and generally parallel to that of the horizontal borehole. Fractures are then induced at each of the vertical boreholes which project from the vertical boreholes along the plane of maximum permeability and intersect the horizontal borehole. The combustion is initiated at the horizontal borehole and the products of combustion and fluids displaced from the earth formation by the combustion are removed from the subterranean earth formation via the vertical boreholes. Each of the vertical boreholes are, in turn, provided with suitable flow controls for regulating the flow of fluid from the combustion zone and the earth formation so as to control the configuration and rate of propagation of the combustion zone. The fractures provide a positive communication with the combustion zone so as to facilitate the removal of the products resulting from the combustion of the carbonaceous material.

Pasini, III, Joseph (Morgantown, WV); Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV); Overbey, Jr., William K. (Morgantown, WV)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Quality Issues in Combustion LES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion LES requires modelling of physics beyond the flow-field only. These additional models lead to further quality issues and an even stronger need to quantify simulation and modelling errors. We illustrate stability problems, the need for consistent ... Keywords: Combustion, Error landscape, LES, Large-Eddy simulation, Quality, Turbulence

A. M. Kempf; B. J. Geurts; T. Ma; M. W. Pettit; O. T. Stein

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Measurement Technology for Benchmark Spray Combustion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Benchmark Spray Combustion Database. ... A1, uncertainty budget for the fuel flow rate. A2, uncertainty budget for the combustion air flow rate. ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Turbulent Combustion Properties of Premixed Syngases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Turbulent Combustion Properties of Premixed Syngases Title Turbulent Combustion Properties of Premixed Syngases Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors...

362

Hydrogen engine and combustion control process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen engine with controlled combustion comprises suction means connected to the crankcase reducing or precluding flow of lubricating oil or associated gases into the combustion chamber.

Swain, Michael R. (Coral Gables, FL); Swain, Matthew N. (Miami, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Improved Engine Design Through More Efficient Combustion ...  

Improved Engine Design Through More Efficient Combustion Simulations The Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MCM) is a software tool that enables ...

364

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Other Internal Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Other Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Other Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Advanced...

365

Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion Bell.png Key Challenges: Development and application of...

366

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozawa Meida. 2001. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Globalpost-combustion capture of carbon dioxide. InternationalIPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage:

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2006; 2 Number of Establishments by Usage of General Energy-Saving Technologies, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Usage within General Energy-Saving Technologies; Unit: Establishment Counts. NAICS Code(a) Subsector and Industry Establishments(b) In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know In Use(e) Not in Use Don't Know Total United States 311 Food 14,128 1,632 9,940 2,556 3,509 8,048 2,571 1,590 9,609 2,929 6,260 5,014 2,854 422 9,945 3,762 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 59 475 46 300 236 Q 154 398 28 446 95 Q 45 442 92 311221 Wet Corn Milling 47 9 34 4 36 W W 27 15 6 38 3 6 8 24 16 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 77

368

Energy manager design for microgrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration, space heating, water heating, and loads that can only be met by combustible Energy Manager Design

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, Michael F.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Program on Technology Innovation: Evaluation of Mid-Infrared Lasers for Combustion Gas Sensing Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are important trace species in combustion exhaust, with absorption spectrum features that overlap with the absorption by water vaporan interference that increases with gas temperature. This situation is exacerbated by the need to monitor ppm levels of CO and NO in combustion product gases, which typically have in excess of 10% water. Therefore, the development of sensitive sensors for absorption detection of CO and NO in combustion gases requires evaluation of t...

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Novel Reactor Design for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Apparatus and Method for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview The removal of CO2 from power plants is challenging because existing methods to separate CO2 from the gas mixture requires a significant fraction of the power plant output. Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology that utilizes a metal oxide oxygen carrier to transport oxygen to the fuel thereby avoiding direct contact between fuel and air. The use of CLC has the advantages of reducing the energy penalty while

373

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strategy for Hydrogen Energy Technologies, Florida HydrogenPromoting Alternative Energy Technology, Presentation at theand other clean energy technologies would support their

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

viability of using hydrogen storage and energy conversion inviability of using hydrogen storage and energy conversion inis clear that hydrogen remains one of the few energy storage

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production, National Renewable Energy Laboratory,Production Using Concentrated Solar Energy, National Renewablethe production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. In

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Online, In Situ Monitoring of Combustion Turbines Using Wireless, Passive, Ceramic Sensors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online, In Situ Monitoring of Combustion Online, In Situ Monitoring of Combustion Turbines Using Wireless, Passive, Ceramic Sensors Description The United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is committed to strengthening America's energy security. Central to this mission is to increase the percentage of domestic fuels used to provide for the Nation's energy needs. To this end, DOE-NETL is supporting projects to develop technologies that will improve the efficiency, cost, and environmental performance

377

FY2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies Approved by Steven Chalk November 2000 Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines FY 2000 Progress Report CONTENTS Page iii I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 II. EMISSION CONTROL SUBSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 A. Emission Control Subsystem Evaluation for Light-Duty CIDI Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

378

Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard and waste wood in a packed bed  

SciTech Connect

The combustible fraction of the municipal waste is mostly bio-derived. Energy recovery of the wastes that cannot be economically recycled is a key part of sustainable energy policy and waste management. Textile residues have high energy content. When burned alone in a packed bed system, however, their combustion efficiency is low due to the irregular propagation of the ignition front and the low burning rates. In order to achieve more efficient combustion of textile residues, a series of co-combustion tests were carried out for various mixture compositions and air flow rates in a packed bed combustor. The combustion performance of these materials was evaluated by using quantitative measures such as ignition rate, burning rate and equivalence ratio. Co-combustion of textile residues with cardboard for a textile fraction of up to 30% achieved satisfactorily high burning rate and low unburned carbon content in the bottom ash. The mixture was more resistant to convective cooling by air, which significantly expanded the range of air flow rate for combustion at high burning rates. In co-combustion with a material that has a very low ignition front speed such as waste wood, the propagation of the ignition front was governed by textile residues. Therefore, the co-combustion of textile residues can be better performed with a material having similar ignition front speeds, in which the two materials simultaneously burn at the ignition front. (author)

Ryu, Changkook; Phan, Anh N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim [Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO2 flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NOx, SOx, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO2 flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NOx, SOx, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO2 capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Low Energy Data Management for Different On-Chip Memory Levels in Multi-Context Reconfigurable Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new technique to improve the efficiency of data scheduling for multi-context reconfigurable architectures targeting multimedia and DSP applications. The main goal is to improve application energy consumption. Two levels of on-chip ...

M. Sanchez-Elez; M. Fernandez; M. Anido; H. Du; N. Bagherzadeh; R. Hermida

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions. The model uses generation dispatch algorithms, efficiency levels, and capacity factorsemissions factors for fuel and electricity. Table A-3.3.2 Energy Savings, Costs, and Carbon Dioxide

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Combustion in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 2.8-liter tube-shaped combustion vessel was constructed to study flame propagation and quenching in porous media. For this experiment, hydrogen-air flames propagating horizontally into abed of 6 mm diameter glass beads were studied. Measurements of pressure and temperature along the length of the tube were used to observe flame propagation of quenching. The critical hydrogen concentration for Hz-air mixtures was found to be 11.5%, corresponding to a critical Peclet number of Pe* = 37. This value is substantially less than the value of Pe* = 65 quoted in the literature, for example Babkin et al. (1991). It is hypothesized that buoyancy and a dependence of Pe on the Lewis number account for the discrepancy between these two results.

Dillon, J. [California Inst. of Technology, CA (US)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a three-year project on Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.'' The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are being run at the cleaning facility in Homer City, Pennsylvania, to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE's laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CVVT) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. Subcontractors to CE to perform parts of the test work are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Physical Science, Inc. Technology Company (PSIT) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). Twenty fuels will be characterized during the three-year base program: three feed coals, fifteen BCFS, and two conventionally cleaned coals for full-scale tests. Approximately, nine BCFs will be in dry microfine coal (DMPC) form, and six BCFs will be in coal-water fuel (CWF) form. Additional BCFs would be characterized during optional project supplements.

Chow, O.K.; Nsakala, N.Y.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

385

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process

386

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487 32 345 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 206 * 1 32 * * -- Machine Drive

387

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- -- 62 6 838 1 417 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487

388

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

389

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 1 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Other(f) Code(a) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process

390

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 871.7 4.3 1.8 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,239.5 10.5 3.6 311221 Wet Corn Milling 28,965.0 27.1 12.6 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 7,755.9 32.6 13.4 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 861.3 4.8 2.2 3115 Dairy Products 854.8 3.5 1.1 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 442.9 3.5 1.2 312

391

Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815­2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

Moses, Elisha

392

Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 1 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (APFBC) Repowering Considerations Richard E. Weinstein, P.E. Parsons Power Group Inc. Reading, Pennsylvania eMail: Richard_E_Weinstein@Parsons.COM / phone: 610 / 855-2699 Robert W. Travers, P.E. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Germantown, Maryland eMail: Robert.Travers@HQ.DOE.GOV / phone: 301 / 903-6166 Weinstein & Travers: APFBC Repowering Considerations paper 970563 Page 2 of 35 Advanced Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Repowering Considerations ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................................................................................

393

Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Teshome, Sophonias

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

NO reduction in decoupling combustion of biomass and biomass-coal blend  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a form of energy that is CO{sub 2}-neutral. However, NOx emissions in biomass combustion are often more than that of coal on equal heating-value basis. In this study, a technology called decoupling combustion was investigated to demonstrate how it reduces NO emissions in biomass and biomass-coal blend combustion. The decoupling combustion refers to a two-step combustion method, in which fuel pyrolysis and the burning of char and pyrolysis gas are separated and the gas burns out during its passage through the burning-char bed. Tests in a quartz dual-bed reactor demonstrated that, in decoupling combustion, NO emissions from biomass and biomass-coal blends were both less than those in traditional combustion and that NO emission from combustion of blends of biomass and coal decreased with increasing biomass percentage in the blend. Co-firing rice husk and coal in a 10 kW stove manufactured according to the decoupling combustion technology further confirmed that the decoupling combustion technology allows for truly low NO emission as well as high efficiency for burning biomass and biomass-coal blends, even in small-scale stoves and boilers. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Li Dong; Shiqiu Gao; Wenli Song; Jinghai Li; Guangwen Xu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Multi-Phase Complex Systems

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage - Jesse Wainright, Case Western Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage J.S. Wainright, R. F. Savinell, P.I.s Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Purpose Impact on Iron Based Batteries on the DOE OE Energy Storage Mission Recent Results Recent Results Develop efficient, cost-effective grid level storage capability based on iron. Goals of this Effort: * Minimize Cost/Watt by increasing current density - Hardware Cost >> Electrolyte Cost * Minimize Cost/Whr by increasing plating capacity * Maximize Efficiency by minimizing current lost to hydrogen evolution Electrochemistry of the all-Iron system:

396

Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006; 4.4 Number of Establishments by Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes (3-Digit Only); Column: Energy Sources Unit: Establishment Counts. Any NAICS Energy Residual Distillate LPG and Coke Code(a) Subsector and Industry Source(b) Electricity(c) Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(d) Natural Gas(e) NGL(f) Coal and Breeze Other(g) Total United States 311 Food 14,128 14,109 326 1,462 11,395 2,920 67 13 1,149 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 580 580 15 174 445 269 35 0 144 311221 Wet Corn Milling 47 47 W 17 44 19 18 0 17 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 78 78 11 43 61 35 26 13 35 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Food 1,125 1,125 13 112 961 325 W 0 127 3115 Dairy Product 1,044 1,044 25 88 941 147 W 0 95

398

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air static pressure must be maintained at a certain level leaving the air-handing unit (AHU) to force a suitable amount of air through the terminal boxes. However, an excessive static pressure level is often used due to ( 1 ) lack of a control device in a constant volume system (CV); (2) malfunctioning control device in a variable volume (VAV) system; and (3) fear of failure to maintain room temperature. High static pressure often develops excessive damper leakage in older mixing boxes. This results in an inappropriate mixing of hot and cold air and an excessive amount of air entering the space. Consequently, the actual fan power, heating and cooling energy consumption all become significantly higher than the design values. Even worse, the system may not be able to maintain room conditions due to unwanted simultaneous heating and cooling, and may be noisy due to the excessive static pressure. This paper proposes to control the hot duct pressure and the Variable Frequency Drives ( VFD's) to control the fan static i.e. the cold duct pressure. Both a theoretical analysis and a case study results are presented in this paper.

Liu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; White, E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Particulate waste product combustion system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for incinerating combustion material within a fluidized bed, including the steps of: feeding the material into a fluidizing zone within which the bed is formed; introducing combustion supporting gas to the fluidizing zone in a plurality of inflow streams of different velocities insufficient to fluidize the material; continuously agitating the material to mechanically fluidize the same within the fluidizing zone during combustion and cause displacement of residual ash from the zone; and withdrawing the residual ash from a discharge location in the apparatus outside of the fluidizing zone.

Chastain, C.E.; King, D.R.

1986-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

Mukasyan, Alexander

402

COMBUSTION ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL MICROTHRUSTERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 COMBUSTION ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL MICROTHRUSTERS Richard A. Yetter, Vigor Yang, Ming and the effects of downsizing on combustion performance. In particular, combustion of liquid nitromethane in a thruster combustion chamber with a volume of 108 mm3 and diameter of 5 mm was experimentally investigated

Yang, Vigor

403

The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA 15213-1851 CENTRAL STATES SECTION OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE CALL FOR PAPERS TECHNICAL MEETING - SPRING 2002 COMBUSTION 7-9, 2002 #12;CENTRAL STATES SECTION OF THE COMBUSTION INSTITUTE www.cssci.org CALL FOR PAPERS

Tennessee, University of

404

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

405

Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Pulse-combustion deep fat fryer, Phase 2. Final report, December 1983-December 1985  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pulse-combustion burner system was developed that met both efficiency and cooking-performance goals. Work involved modifications to the pulse-combustion deep fat fryer to reduce the sound level, eliminate vibrations, and ensure reliable ignition. Field testing in a major fast-food restaurant chain was initiated, demonstrating that the pulse fryer is reliable and acceptable.

Farnsworth, C.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Predictive modeling of combustion processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in improving the efficiency and lowering the emissions from operating combustors, e.g. internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines. Different fuels, additives etc. are ...

Sharma, Sandeep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Combustion modeling in waste tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data.

Mueller, C.; Unal, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Travis, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

damental renewable energy-to-electricity costs of solar,of the Delivered Cost of Hydrogen, National Renewable EnergyHydrogen Costs Clean Energy Group l l Renewable Hydrogen

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Node-level Energy Management for Sensor Networks in the Presence of Multiple Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

some policy P . The energy management system proposed here,in [4]. In our energy management system there are threein section 3.2, our energy management system measures the

Athanassios Boulis; Mani Srivastava

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

08 08 January 2010 Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions Scott Hempling National Regulatory Research Institute Silver Spring, Maryland Carolyn Elefant The Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant Washington, D.C. Karlynn Cory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Kevin Porter Exeter Associates, Inc. Golden, Colorado National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-47408 January 2010

413

Oxy-Combustion Activities Worldwide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews oxy-combustion development activities throughout the world. The report opens by reviewing carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies and their relative advantages and disadvantages before focusing on oxy-combustion concepts and giving details on potential designs. It then delves into each sub-system (air separation, oxy boiler, gas quality control, and CO2 purification) giving the latest updates on technologies and associated development issues, pulling from work reported at the Second...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

414

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006  

SciTech Connect

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006  

SciTech Connect

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

benefits. Visibly Link Hydrogen Production and Clean Energy Technologies: Wind,benefits. Visibly Link Hydrogen Production and Clean Energy Technologies: Wind,

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratorys on-going research in Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.

Yilmaz, S.L.; Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Oxidation in Environments with Elevated CO2 Levels  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy power productions focus primarily on either pre- or post-combustion removal of CO2. The research presented here examines corrosion and oxidation issues associated with two types of post-combustion CO2 removal processesoxyfuel combustion in refit boilers and oxyfuel turbines.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

The first turbulent combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first turbulent combustion arises in a hot big bang cosmological model Gibson (2004) where nonlinear exothermic turbulence permitted by quantum mechanics, general relativity, multidimensional superstring theory, and fluid mechanics cascades from Planck to strong force freeze out scales with gravity balancing turbulent inertial-vortex forces. Interactions between Planck scale spinning and non-spinning black holes produce high Reynolds number turbulence and temperature mixing with huge Reynolds stresses driving the rapid inflation of space. Kolmogorovian turbulent temperature patterns are fossilized as strong-force exponential inflation stretches them beyond the scale of causal connection ct where c is light speed and t is time. Fossil temperature turbulence patterns seed nucleosynthesis, and then hydro-gravitational structure formation in the plasma epoch, Gibson (1996, 2000). Evidence about formation mechanisms is preserved by cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. CMB spectra indicate hydro-gravitational fragmentation at supercluster to galaxy masses in the primordial plasma with space stretched by \\~10^50. Bershadskii and Sreenivasan (2002, 2003) CMB multi-scaling coefficients support a strong turbulence origin for the anisotropies prior to the plasma epoch.

Carl H. Gibson

2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Laboratory (NREL) are studying catalytic reforming of biomass pyrolysis products, primarily to find regenerative,

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Recent experiences with Energy Technology Foresight in Denmark and on Nordic Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

until 2025 for · Future energy supply · Integration of different energy technologies · Availability in energy use in transport c) Environmental concern d) Further development of industrial potentials within partners from R&D institutes, energy companies, industry, public associations · Timeframe: · 1 January 2003

424

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical water splitting and hydrogen producing algae. Clean Energy Group Hydrogen from Biomass Biomass conversion

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. (more)

Ruscio, Amanda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine. Task 1.1.2.2.2, Combustion R&D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 879.8 5.0 2.2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,416.6 17.5 5.7 311221 Wet Corn Milling 21,552.1 43.6 18.2 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 6,629.2 31.3 12.2 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1,075.3 5.5 2.8 3115 Dairy Products 956.3 4.3 1.3 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 493.8 4.4 1.6 312

428

How El Nino affects energy consumption: a study at national and regional levels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

El Nio is typically viewed as an episode of destructive weather anomalies that can last from a few months to several years. The majority of research looks at the negative impacts of this event. However, not all impacts of El Nio are necessarily bad. This study outlines areas of the United States that are most highly impacted by anomalous temperature and rainfall during El Nio years and determines whether these anomalies affect energy consumption. These effects will be examined on both a national and regional scale. Areas of the northwestern and southeastern United States exhibit anomalous temperatures during El Nio years. The southern US and Great Plains area receives positive anomalous precipitation during El Nio years while an area of the east central US experiences negative anomalous precipitation. Natural gas consumption in the northwestern US is reduced by the El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During an ENSO event consumers actually save money because less is spent on natural gas for home heating purposes. Hydroelectricity may also be affected by ENSO in the southeastern US but the results at this time are inconclusive. At the national level, ENSO influences the consumption of nuclear electricity.

Collins, Kathleen Jo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system reference design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility diurnal load-leveling but can also function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. This study explores several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. This report examines aspects of the coil, the superconductor supported off of the dewar shell, the dewar shell, and its configuration and stresses, the underground excavation and construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar, the helium refrigeration system, the electrical converter system, the vacuum system, the guard coil, and the costs. This report is divided into two major portions. The first is a general treatment of the work and the second is seven detailed technical appendices issued as separate reports. The information presented on the aluminum stabilizer for the conductor, on the excavation, and on the converter is based upon industrial studies contracted for this work.

Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I. (comps.)

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

Sandra M Birk

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste: test program results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air classified municipal solid waste (MSW) was fired in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor at low excess air to simulate boiler conditions. The 7 ft/sup 2/ combustor at Combustion Power Company's energy laboratory in Menlo Park, CA, incorporates water tubes for heat extraction and recycles elutriated particles to the bed. System operation was stable while firing processed MSW for the duration of a 300-h test. Low excess air, low exhaust gas emissions, and constant bed temperature demonstrated feasibility of steam generation from fluidized bed combustion of MSW. During the 300-h test, combustion efficiency averaged 99%. Excess air was typically 44% while an average bed temperature of 1400/sup 0/F and an average superficial gas velocity of 4.6 fps were maintained. Typical exhaust emission levels were 30 ppM SO/sub 2/, 160 ppM NO/sub x/, 200 ppM CO, and 25 ppM hydrocarbons. No agglomeration of bed material or detrimental change in fluidization properties was experienced. A conceptual design study of a full scale plant to be located at Stanford University was based on process conditions from the 300-h test. The plant would produce 250,000 lb/hr steam at the maximum firing rate of 1000 tons per day (TPD) processed MSW. The average 800 TPD firing rate would utilize approximately 1200 TPD raw MSW from surrounding communities. The Stanford Solid Waste energy Program was aimed at development of a MSW-fired fluidized bed boiler and cogeneration plant to supply most of the energy needs of Stanford University.

Preuit, L C; Wilson, K B

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

NONE

1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1979. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Ignition Engine with Optimal Combustion Control. US PatentIntroduction to Internal Combustion Engines (3rd Edition).

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J.M. , liThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth Sm osium {International} on Combustion, August 1976 (to beof Various Polymers Under Combustion Conditions," Fourteenth

Chin, W.K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

438

An Approach to Incinerator Combustible Pollutant Control WALTER R. NIESSEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the heat generated by the gasification reactions pro vide the sensible energy of the gasification products at a temperature similar to that of thejet fluid provides the starting point in any review ofjet dynamics. Indeed is proposed to allow quantitative estimation of the generation rate of combustibles along the bed, thus

Columbia University

439

Optimum usage and economic feasibility of animal manure-based biomass in combustion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. Mathematical models were developed to portray the economics of co-firing and reburning coal with MBB. A base case run of the co-fire model in which a 95:5 blend of coal to low-ash MBB was burned at an existing 300-MWe coal-fired power plant was found to have an overall net present cost of $22.6 million. The most significant cost that hindered the profitability of the co-fire project was the cost of operating gas boilers for biomass dryers that were required to reduce the MBB's moisture content before transportation and combustion. However, a higher dollar value on avoided nonrenewable CO2 emissions could overrule exorbitant costs of drying and transporting the MBB to power plants. A CO2 value of $17/metric ton was found to be enough for the MBB co-fire project to reach an economic break-even point. Reburning coal with MBB to reduce NOx emissions can theoretically be more profitable than a co-fire project, due to the value of avoided NOx emissions. However, the issue of finding enough suitable low-ash biomass becomes problematic for reburn systems since the reburn fuel must supply 10 to 25% of the power plant?s heat rate in order to achieve the desired NOx level. A NOx emission value over $2500/metric ton would justify installing a MBB reburn system. A base case run of a mathematical model describing a small-scale, on-the-farm MBB combustion system that can completely incinerate high-moisture (over 90%) manure biomass was developed and completed. If all of the energy or steam produced by the MBB combustion system were to bring revenue to the animal feeding operation either by avoided fueling costs or by sales, the conceptualized MBB combustion system has the potential to be a profitable venture.

Carlin, Nicholas T.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Coal Combustion Products: Challenges  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products: Challenges and Opportunities American Coal Ash Association Conference St. Petersburg, FL January 27-30, 2003 Carl O. Bauer National Energy Technology Laboratory...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Characterization and Combustion Performance of Corn Oil-Based Biofuel Blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In recent years, the development and use of biofuels have received considerable attention due to the high demand for environmentally acceptable (green) fuels. Most of the recent studies have looked at the processes of converting vegetable oils into biodiesel. It is well known vegetable oil to biodiesel conversion involves many processes including transesterification, which makes biodiesel costly and time-consuming to produce. In this study, the effects of blending high-viscosity fresh and used corn oils with low-viscosity diesel and jet fuel mixed with butanol and ethanol were studied. Several corn oil-based blends were formulated and characterized to understand the effect of composition on viscosity, fuel stability and energy content. The formulated corn oil blends were combusted in a 30 kW modified combustion chamber to determine the corresponding NOx and CO emission levels, along with CO? levels. Used corn oil was made by simply heating fresh corn oil for a fixed period of time (about 44 hours), and was characterized by quantifying its total polar material (TPM), iodine value, free fatty acid content, and peroxide value. The combustion experiments were conducted at a constant heat output of 68,620 kJ/hr (19 kW), to observe and study the effects of equivalence ratio, swirl number, and fuel composition on emissions. Used corn oil blends exhibited better combustion performance than fresh corn oil blends, due in part to the higher unsaturation levels in fresh corn oil. NOx emissions for used corn oil increased with swirl number. Among all the blends, the one with the higher amount of diesel (lower amount of corn oil) showed higher NOx emissions. The blend with fresh corn oil showed decreasing NOx with increasing equivalence ratio at swirl number 1.4. All blends showed generally decreasing CO trends at both swirl numbers at very lean conditions. The diesel fuel component as well as the alcohols in the blends were also important in the production of pollutants. Compared to the diesel-based blends mixed with used corn oil, butanol, and ethanol, the jet fuel-based blends showed higher NOx levels and lower CO levels at both swirl numbers.

Savant, Gautam Sandesh

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fluctuations in combustion-driven MHD generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of inherent fluctuations that occur within combustion-driven MHD generators are presented. The primary concern was to determine the presence and effects of axially-propagating, linear hydrodynamic traveling-waves of the magnetoacoustic and magnetoentropic types. The possible development of large fluctuations in high magnetic interaction MHD generators caused by hydrodynamic traveling-waves propagating with increasing amplitude was considered. Experimentally, time-resolved measurements of pressures, electrode currents, and internal differential voltages within a laboratory-scale, combustion-driven MHD generator facility were analyzed. A special probe-tube microphone provided a sensitive measurement of the pressure fluctuations within a combustion-driven MHD generator duct. The time-resolved measurements were analyzed in terms of statistical properties such as relative fluctuation levels, spectraldensity functions, cross-correlation coefficients, and coherence and relative phase functions. The presence and subsequent electrical effects of axially-propagating acoustic and entropy waves were observed. At low mean fluid velocities during MHD generator operation with high current densities, 1.0 Amp/cm/sup 2/, and with applied magnetic field, 2.4 Tesla, fluctuations in the current-magnetic field interaction force caused by the electrical conductivity variations associated with the entropy waves resulted in a threefold increase in pressure fluctuation levels within the upstream part of the MHD duct. Hydrodynamic traveling-waves within an MHD duct were theoretically investigated by considering a first-order linearization analysis of the controlling, quasi-one dimensional fluid and electrical equations of an MHD generator. Comparisons between experimental results and a theoretical model were in qualitative agreement.

Barton, J.P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine  

SciTech Connect

This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of the catalytic bed.

Tom Barton

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

445

Cerion Energy Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

that enhance the fuel efficiency and decrease emissions of combustion engines and coal fired power plants. References Cerion Energy Inc.1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

446

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Near-zero Emissions Oxy-combustion Flue Gas Purification Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) R&D Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D Program portfolio of post- and

447

Background Information : BioEnergy Science Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vocabulary Words Addressed renewable, energy, environment, solar, pollution, biofuel, emission, fossil fuel, carbon cycle, hydrogen, internal combustion engines, lignin,...

448

California's Energy Future - The View to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ideas for energy storage, including pumped hydro, compressedNatural Gas Storage Combustion turbine Pumped hydro Wave,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Leveling Intermittent Renewable Energy Production Through Biomass Gasification-Based Hybrid Systems  

SciTech Connect

The increased use of intermittent renewable power in the United States is forcing utilities to manage increasingly complex supply and demand interactions. This paper evaluates biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be integrated with renewable resources to improve the efficiency, reliability, dispatchability, and cost of other renewable technologies. Two hybrid concepts were analyzed that involve co-production of gaseous hydrogen and electric power from thermochemical biorefineries. Both of the concepts analyzed share the basic idea of combining intermittent wind-generated electricity with a biomass gasification plant. The systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at a cost of $1.67/kg. The proposed hybrid systems seek to either fill energy shortfalls by supplying hydrogen to a peaking natural gas turbine or to absorb excess renewable power during low-demand hours. Direct leveling of intermittent renewable electricity production is accomplished with either an indirectly heated biomass gasifier, or a directly heated biomass gasifier. The indirect gasification concepts studied were found to be cost competitive in cases where value is placed on controlling carbon emissions. A carbon tax in the range of $26-40 per metric ton of CO{sub 2} equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emission makes the systems studied cost competitive with steam methane reforming (SMR) to produce hydrogen. However, some additional value must be placed on energy peaking or sinking for these plants to be economically viable. The direct gasification concept studied replaces the air separation unit (ASU) with an electrolyzer bank and is unlikely to be cost competitive in the near future. High electrolyzer costs and wind power requirements make the hybridization difficult to justify economically without downsizing the system. Based on a direct replacement of the ASU with electrolyzers, hydrogen can be produced for $0.27 premium per kilogram. Additionally, if a non-renewable, grid-mix electricity is used, the hybrid system is found to be a net CO{sub 2}e emitter.

Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.; Munoz, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incentives: Advanced energy technologies can best be promoted with forward-thinking regulatory policies. Many statesIncentives: Ad- vanced energy technologies can best be promoted with forward-thinking regulatory policies. Many states

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Partnership Finalizes Hydro- gen Energy Roadmap, World Wideenergy funds and other stakeholders can help develop this knowledge base for renewable hydro-energy sources; The status of major U.S. state activities for hydro-

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Environment. Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights Short-Term Energy Outlook ...

453

An Evaluation of Fusion Energy R&D Gaps Using Technology Readiness Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power Plants, Demo, and Next Steps / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 2)

M. S. Tillack et al.

454

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Laboratory Renewable Hydrogen Website http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/proj_production_ delivery.html Iowa State

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2} separation, and also syngas production from coal with the calcium sulfide (CaS)/calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) loop utilizing the PDU facility. The results of Phase I were reported in Reference 1, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase I Report' The objective for Phase II was to develop the carbonate loop--lime (CaO)/calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) loop, integrate it with the gasification loop from Phase I, and ultimately demonstrate the feasibility of hydrogen production from the combined loops. The results of this program were reported in Reference 3, 'Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping Coal Power Development Technology Development Phase II Report'. The objective of Phase III is to operate the pilot plant to obtain enough engineering information to design a prototype of the commercial Chemical Looping concept. The activities include modifications to the Phase II Chemical Looping PDU, solids transportation studies, control and instrumentation studies and additional cold flow modeling. The deliverable is a report making recommendations for preliminary design guidelines for the prototype plant, results from the pilot plant testing and an update of the commercial plant economic estimates.

Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

456

EquationFree System-Level Dynamic Modeling and Analysis in Energy Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability of the U.S. Department have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads can be controlled during the summer cooling season

Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

457

HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

Combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. Technical progress report No. 4, September 16, 1977--September 15, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant quantities of wood residue fuels are presently being used in industrial steam generating facilities. Recent studies indicate that substantial additional quantities of wood residue fuels are available for energy generation in the form of steam and/or electricity. A limited data base on the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels has resulted in the installation and operation of inefficient combustion systems for these fuels. This investigation of the combustion characteristics of wood residue fuels was undertaken to provide a data base which could be used to optimize the combustion of such fuels. Optimization of the the combustion process in industrial boilers serves to improve combustion efficiency and to reduce air pollutant emissions generated in the combustion process. This report presents data on the combustion characteristics of Douglas Fir planer shavings. The data were obtained in a pilot scale combustion test facility at Oregon State Univerisity. Other technical reports present data on the combustion characteristics of: Douglas Fir bark, Red Alder sawdust, Red Alder bark, Ponderosa pine bark, Hemlock bark, and Eastern White Pine bark. An executive summary report is also available which compares the combustion characteristics of the various fuel species.

Junge, D.C.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

NETL: News Release - Combustion Optimization Systems - Cleaner Coal Burning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs "Combustion Optimization System" - Cleaner Coal Burning at Lower Costs DOE Joins with Sunflower Electric to Outfit Kansas Coal Plant with Lower Cost System to Cut Air Emissions FINNEY COUNTY, KS - A unique combination of high-tech combustion modifications and sophisticated control systems will be tested on a Kansas coal-fired power plant as part of the federal government's efforts to show how new technology can reduce air emissions and save costs for ratepayers. - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station - Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station will be outfitted with a combination of innovative hardware and software to further reduce air emissions. - The U.S. Department of Energy and Sunflower Electric Power Corporation have signed an agreement to use the utility's Holcomb Station power plant in

460

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

Robert W. Carling; Gurpreet Singh

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levels energy combustion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Straw pellets as fuel in biomass combustion units  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to estimate the suitability of straw pellets as fuel in small combustion units, the Danish Technological Institute accomplished a project including a number of combustion tests in the energy laboratory. The project was part of the effort to reduce the use of fuel oil. The aim of the project was primarily to test straw pellets in small combustion units, including the following: ash/slag conditions when burning straw pellets; emission conditions; other operational consequences; and necessary work performance when using straw pellets. Five types of straw and wood pellets made with different binders and antislag agents were tested as fuel in five different types of boilers in test firings at 50% and 100% nominal boiler output.

Andreasen, P.; Larsen, M.G. [Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resouces. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternate fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are to develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternate fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and to provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. Efforts this past year have been to evaluate experimental procedures for studying alternate fuel combustion effects and to determine current analytical capabilities for prediction of these effects. Jet Stirred Combustor studies during this period have produced new insights into soot formation in strongly backmixed systems and have provided much information for comparison with analytical predictions. The analytical effort included new applications of quasi-global modeling techniques as well as comparison of prediction with the experimental results generated.

Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Harsha, P.T.

1978-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Senior Scientist, formerly with CSM Experimental Station on Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The topic of Diluted Combustion Technologies is reviewed from early developments some 10 ten years ago up to date, for the sake of design and process engineers. Recent efforts of the academic community to supply interpretation and quantitative modelling of the occurring phenomena are briefly described. Diluted combustion with high temperature reactants, in particular with gas firing, has been developed since a few years for industrial use exhibiting ultra-low NOx emissions and suitable properties for extremely high air preheating, and therefore substantial energy savings and process advantages. Successful applications to high temperature furnaces, mainly in the steel industry, are illustrated to show several advantages obtained from applying the new combustion technologies. This story is a good lesson based on conscious, scientific approach, backed by permanent R&TD efforts. These examples should be pursued vigorously if concrete measures to cope with the Kyoto engagements to combat air pollution are to be brought about in reality. Key Words: Diluted firing, flameless combustion, high temperature air, honeycomb regenerative burners, kinetic control, extremely low NOx and pollutant emissions. IFRF Combustion Journal- 3- Milani and Saponaro Article No 200101 February 2001

A. Milani; A. Saponaro; Dr Ing; Ambrogio Milani; Dr Ing; Alessandro Saponaro

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The Relationship between Great Lakes Water Levels, Wave Energies, and Shoreline Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The latter half of the twentieth century can be characterized as a period of rising water levels on the Great Lakes, with record high levels in 1974 and 1986. Concurrent with these periods of high water level are reported periods of high ...

G. A. Meadows; L. A. Meadows; W. L. Wood; J. M. Hubertz; M. Perlin

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

NETL: Combustion Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progress Energy's L.V. Sutton Station Unit 1 and Unit 2 with APFBC Progress Energy's L.V. Sutton Station Unit 1 and Unit 2 with APFBC FBC Repower APFBC AES Greenidge APFBC Dan River FBC, APFBC Four Corners CHIPPS H.F. Lee Products Summary Sheldon Summary APFBC Sheldon GFBCC Sheldon APFBC L.V. Sutton The host site for this DOE APFBC repowering e