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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Nuclear Fuel Recycling - the Value of the Separated Transuranics and the Levelized Cost of Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for three different fuel cycles: a Once-Through Cycle, in which the spent fuel is sent for disposal after one use in a reactor, a Twice-Through Cycle, in which the spent ...

Parsons, John E.

2

Nuclear fuel cycle costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fuel-cycle costs for alternative fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the fuel cycle cost and fresh fuel requirements for a range of nuclear reactor systems including the present day LWR without fuel recycle, an LWR modified to obtain a higher fuel burnup, an LWR using recycle uranium and plutonium fuel, an LWR using a proliferation resistant /sup 233/U-Th cycle, a heavy water reactor, a couple of HTGRs, a GCFR, and several LMFBRs. These reactor systems were selected from a set of 26 developed for the NASAP study and represent a wide range of fuel cycle requirements.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Costs of electronuclear fuel production  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding /sup 233/U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg /sup 233/U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound.

Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reynolds Logistics Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on AddThis.com... July 23, 2011 Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs F ind out how Reynolds Logistics uses electric vehicles to offset petroleum

9

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE: PROSPECTS FOR REDUCING ITS COST  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh would make nuclear power competitive with conventional power in lowcost coal areas if capital and operating costs can be brought to within about 10 percent of those of coal-fired plants. Substantial decreases in fuel fabrication cost are anticipated by 1970: other costs in the fuel cycle are expccted to remain about the same as at present. Unit costs and irradiation levels that would be needed to give a fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh are believed to be attainable by 1970. (auth)

Albrecht, W.L.

1959-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Cost Vehicle Cost Calculator to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on AddThis.com... Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle Cost Calculator This tool uses basic information about your driving habits to calculate total cost of ownership and emissions for makes and models of most vehicles, including alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles. Also

11

Evaluation of Stationary Fuel Cell Deployments, Costs, and Fuels (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes NREL's technology validation of stationary fuel cell systems and presents data on number of deployments, system costs, and fuel types.

Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

GUIDE TO NUCLEAR POWER COST EVALUATION. VOLUME 4. FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

Information on fuel cycle cost is presented. Topics covered include: nuclear fuel, fuel management, fuel cost, fissionable material cost, use charge, conversion and fabrication costs, processing cost, and shipping cost. (M.C.G.)

1962-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Cost of Fuel to General Electricity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Fuel to Generate Electricity of Fuel to Generate Electricity Cost of Fuel to Generate Electricity Herb Emmrich Gas Demand Forecast, Economic Analysis & Tariffs Manager SCG/SDG&E SCG/SDG&E Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) 2009 Fall Meeting November 18, 2009 Ontario, California The Six Main Costs to Price Electricity are:  Capital costs - the cost of capital investment (debt & equity), depreciation, Federal & State income taxes and property taxes and property taxes  Fuel costs based on fuel used to generate electricity - hydro, natural gas, coal, fuel oil, wind, solar, photovoltaic geothermal biogas photovoltaic, geothermal, biogas  Operating and maintenance costs  Transmission costs  Distribution costs  Social adder costs - GHG adder, low income adder,

15

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

16

Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of /sup 235/U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3.1 Fuel Cell System Cost Estimate We define the fuel cellto note that these cost estimates are based on a largeother studies on fuel cell cost estimates Baseline gasoline

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

HEFA and F-T jet fuel cost analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aviation and the Environment 2. HEFA jet fuel from vegetable oil bottom-up cost study 3. HEFA jet fuel from microalgae bottom-up cost

Nick Carter; Michael Bredehoeft; Christoph Wollersheim; Hakan Olcay; James Hileman; Steven Barrett; Website Lae. Mit. Edu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Transparent Cost Database Button The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculator provides a simple calculator for both utility-scale and distributed generation (DG) renewable energy technologies that compares the combination of capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M), performance, and fuel costs. Note that this does not include financing issues, discount issues, future replacement, or degradation costs. Each of these would need to be included for a thorough analysis. To estimate simple cost of energy, use the slider controls or enter values directly to adjust the values. The calculator will return the LCOE expressed in cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program

23

Fuel Cell System Cost for Transporationa--2008 Cost Estimate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell System Cost for Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program NREL/BK-6A1-45457 May 2009 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

24

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Tools Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator Assumptions and Methodology on AddThis.com...

25

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

26

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

James, A cost comparison of fuel-cell and battery electricHowever, battery electric vehicles have lower fuel cost, usebattery-electric vehicles in terms of weight, volume, GHGs and cost,

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

28

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

29

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact 1 Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact 1 August 30, 2012 Form EIA-923 Frame Reduction Impact Schedule 2 of the Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric power plants with at least 50 megawatts (MW) of nameplate capacity primarily fueled by fossil fuels. The proposal is to raise the threshold to 200 megawatts of nameplate capacity primarily fueled by natural gas, petroleum coke, distillate fuel oil, and residual fuel oil. This would result in reducing the Form EIA-923 overall annual burden by 2.2 percent. The threshold for coal plants will remain at 50 megawatts. Natural gas data collection on Schedule 2 will be reduced from approximately 970 to 603 plants

30

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 2018 Levelized Costs AEO 2013 1 January 2013 Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 This paper presents average levelized costs for generating technologies that are brought on line in 2018 1 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) Early Release Reference case. 2 Both national values and the minimum and maximum values across the 22 U.S. regions of the NEMS electricity market module are presented. Levelized cost is often cited as a convenient summary measure of the overall competiveness of different generating technologies. It represents the per-kilowatthour cost (in real dollars) of building and operating a generating plant over an assumed financial life and duty cycle. Key

31

The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

32

Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

CNG Shuttles Save Fuel CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Shuttles Save Fuel Costs for R&R Limousine and Bus on AddThis.com... June 1, 2013

33

Cost-effective fuel cycle closure  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. government is moving toward meeting its obligation to accept spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in 1998 by providing an interim storage facility. Site work and analysis of the deep, geologic repository at Yucca Mountain will continue at a reduced level of effort. This provides the time required to reevaluate the use of spent-fuel recycling instead of direct disposal. A preliminary assessment of this option is presented in this paper.

Ehrman, C.S. [Burns & Roe, Inc., Oradell, NJ (United States); Boardman, C.E. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Low-Level Ethanol Fuel Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet addresses: (a) why Clean Cities promotes ethanol blends; (b) how these blends affect emissions; (c) fuel performance and availability; and (d) cost, incentives, and regulations.

Not Available

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Automotive and MHE Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis (Text Version) on AddThis.com...

36

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Provides comprehensive information concerning the quality, quantity, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity in the United States.

Dean Fennell

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of front-end fuel cost components for nuclear plants, specifically uranium concentrates, uranium conversion services, uranium enrichment services, and nuclear fuel fabrication services. A parametric analysis of light-water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle costs is also included in order to quantify the impacts that result from changes in the cost of one or more front-end components on overall fuel cycle costs.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

40

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Vehicle Incremental Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) must allocate the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Natural Gas Rate and Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Rate and Cost Recovery Authorization on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

42

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: H2 Fueling Appliances Cost and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

H2 Fueling Appliances Cost and Performance H2 Fueling Appliances Cost and Performance Project Summary Full Title: H2 Production Infrastructure Analysis - Task 2: Cost and Performance of H2 Fueling Appliances Project ID: 80 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Costs; steam methane reforming (SMR); autothermal reforming (ATR); hydrogen fueling Purpose The purpose of the analysis was to estimate the capital cost and the resulting cost of hydrogen of several types of methane-fueled hydrogen production systems. A bottoms-up cost analysis was conducted of each system to generate a system design and detailed bill-of-materials. Estimates of the overall capital cost of the hydrogen production appliance were generated. This work supports Systems Analysis Milestone A1. ("Complete techno-economic analysis on production and delivery technologies currently

43

Fuel costs and the retirement of capital goods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the effect that energy prices and market conditions have on the retirement rates of capital goods using new micro data on aircraft lifetimes and fuel costs. The oil shocks of the 1970s made fuel intensive ...

Goolsbee, Austan Dean

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | ENERGY...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

You are here Home Buildings & Plants Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login...

47

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

48

Chapter 4. Receipts and Cost of Fossil Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

74 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 4. Receipts and Cost of Fossil Fuels

49

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

d Total Battery Capacity (Kwh) Cost per Battery ($)e Totalcosts to consumersto purchase a EV fuel economy in miles per kwhKwh equivalent to per-mile gasoline road tax was included. Table 11 Performance and Cost

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Nuclear fuel fabrication and refabrication cost estimation methodology  

SciTech Connect

The costs for construction and operation of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities for several reactor types and fuels were estimated, and the unit costs (prices) of the fuels were determined from these estimates. The techniques used in estimating the costs of building and operating these nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are described in this report. Basically, the estimation techniques involve detailed comparisons of alternative and reference fuel fabrication plants. Increases or decreases in requirements for fabricating the alternative fuels are identified and assessed for their impact on the capital and operating costs. The impact on costs due to facility size or capacity was also assessed, and scaling factors for the various captial and operating cost categories are presented. The method and rationale by which these scaling factors were obtained are also discussed. By use of the techniques described herein, consistent cost information for a wide variety of fuel types can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. In this study, estimates for 52 fuel fabrication plants were obtained in approximately two months. These cost estimates were extensively reviewed by experts in the fabrication of the various fuels, and, in the opinion of the reviewers, the estimates were very consistent and sufficiently accurate for use in overall cycle assessments.

Judkins, R.R.; Olsen, A.R.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Duleep, K.G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

Greene, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Duleep, K.G. (Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate (Book)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Independent review prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Manager.

Not Available

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Flexible Fuel vehicle cost calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Cost Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Department of Energy Phase: "Evaluate Options and Determine Feasibility" is not in the list of possible values (Bring the Right People Together, Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed) for this property. User Interface: Website Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/progs/cost_anal.php?0/E85 Calculate the cost to drive a flex-fueled vehicle (one that can run on either E85 Ethanol or gasoline) on each fuel type.

57

Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System Discussion Fuel Cell Tech Team FreedomCar Detroit. MI October 20, 2004 TIAX LLC Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140-2390 Ref D0006 SFAA No. DE-SCO2- 98EE50526 Topic 1 Subtopic 1C Agenda EC_2004 10 20 FC Tech Team Presentation 1 1 Project Overview 2 Compressed Hydrogen Storage Cost 3 2004 System Cost Update 4 Appendix Project Overview Approach EC_2004 10 20 FC Tech Team Presentation 2 In our final year of the project, we assessed the cost of compressed hydrogen storage and updated the overall system cost projection. Task 1: PEMFC System Technology Synopsis Task 2: Develop Cost Model and Baseline Estimates Task 3: Identify Opportunities for System Cost Reduction Tasks 4, 5, 6 & 7: Annual Updates

58

Today in Energy - High airline jet fuel costs prompt cost ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... and idling time. ... Delta stated that it anticipates cost savings of $300 million per year as a result of this ...

59

A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

Not Available

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs August 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to develop clean, domestic energy sources, the Energy Department today announced a $4.5 million investment in two projects-led by Minnesota-based 3M and the Colorado School of Mines-to lower the cost, improve the durability, and increase the efficiency of next-generation fuel cell systems. This investment is a part of the Energy Department's commitment to maintain American leadership in innovative clean energy technologies, give American businesses more options to cut energy costs, and reduce our reliance on imported oil. "Fuel cell technologies have an important role to play in diversifying

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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61

Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Jennifer Smith, Gabe Stout and Mike Jansen Battelle April 16, 2013 Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Fuel Cells for Material Handling Applications 2 Presentation Outline * Background * Approach * System Design * Fuel Cell Stack Design * Stack, BOP and System Cost Models * System Cost Summary * Results Summary 3 * 10 and 25 kW PEM Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment (MHE) applications Background 5-year program to provide feedback to DOE on evaluating fuel cell systems for stationary and emerging markets by developing independent models and cost estimates * Applications - Primary (including CHP) power, backup power, APU, and material handling * Fuel Cell Types - 80°C PEM, 180°C PEM, SOFC technologies

62

Energy Tips: Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type (sales unit) Type (sales unit) Energy Content Combustion (Btu/sales unit) Efficiency (%) Natural Gas (therm) 100,000 81.7 Natural Gas (cubic foot) 1,030 81.7 Distillate/No. 2 Oil (gallon) 138,700 84.6 Residual/No. 6 Oil (gallon) 149,700 86.1 Coal (ton) 27,000,000 87.6 Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmarking the fuel cost of steam generation ($/1000 lbs of steam) is an effective way to assess the efficiency of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a good first approximation for the cost of generating steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. Table 1 shows the heat input required to produce one pound of saturated

63

Performance and fuel cycle cost study of the R2 reactor with HEU and LEU fuels  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the experiment performance and fuel cycle costs of the 50 MW R2 reactor operated by Studsvik Energiteknik AB has been performed using the current R2 HEU fuel, a variety of LEU fuel element designs, and two core-box/reflector configurations. The results include the relative performance of both in-core and ex-core experiments, control rod worths, and relative annual fuel cycle costs.

Pond, R.B.; Freese, K.E.; Matos, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

FUEL CELLS IN SHIPPING: HIGHER CAPITAL COSTS AND REDUCED FLEXIBILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The paper discusses some main economic characteristics of fuel cell power production technology applied to shipping. Whenever competitive fuel cell systems enter the market, they are likely to have higher capital costs and lower operating costs than systems based on traditional combustion technology. Implications of the difference are investigated with respect to investment flexibility by the use of a real options model of ship investment, lay-up and scrapping decisions under freight rate uncertainty. A higher capital share of total expected costs can represent a significant opportunity cost in uncertain markets. The paper highlights the significance of accounting properly for value of flexibility prior to investment in new technology.

Sigbjørn Sødal

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs 1 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs 1 February 2013 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs What is an end-use model? An end-use model is a set of equations designed to disaggregate a RECS sample household's total annual fuel consumption into end uses such as space heating, air conditioning, water heating, refrigeration, and so on. These disaggregated values are then weighted up to produce population estimates of total and average energy end uses at various levels of geography, by housing unit type, or other tabulations of interest. Why are end-use models needed? Information regarding how total energy is distributed across various end uses is critical to meeting future energy demand and improving efficiency and building design. Using submeters

66

Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the SERC southeast ...

67

Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040

68

Accurate Detection of Impurities in Hydrogen Fuel at Lower Cost  

Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory have developed two alternative strategies for detecting impurities in the hydrogen used in fuel cells. Both yield highly accurate results and use simpler, less costly equipment. As the United States gradually ...

69

Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

Technology Management Inc.

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5005: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2002 versus 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Date: March 20, 2005 5 Date: March 20, 2005 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2002 vs 2005 Originator: Patrick Davis Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Date: May 22, 2006 Item: "Reduced the high-volume cost of automotive fuel cells from $275/kW (50kW system) in 2002 to $110/kW (80kW system) in 2005." Supporting Information: In 2002, TIAX reported a cost of $324/kW for a 50-kW automotive PEM fuel cell system operating on gasoline reformate, based on their modeling of projected cost for 500,000 units per year. See Eric Carlson et al., "Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stack/System." U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Progress Report. (2002) at http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/33098_sec4-1.pdf. Also see "Cost Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automobiles," Eric Carlson et al., SAE

71

Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

costs, the levelized cost ... 4 These results do not include targeted tax credits such as the production or investment tax credit available for some technologies.

72

Economic Analysis on Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors - III: Spent DUPIC Fuel Disposal Cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal costs of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and DUPIC fuels have been estimated based on available literature data and the engineering design of a spent CANDU fuel disposal facility by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The cost estimation was carried out by the normalization concept of total electricity generation. Therefore, the future electricity generation scale was analyzed to evaluate the appropriate capacity of the high-level waste disposal facility in Korea, which is a key parameter of the disposal cost estimation. Based on the total electricity generation scale, it is concluded that the disposal unit costs for spent CANDU natural uranium, CANDU-DUPIC, and PWR fuels are 192.3, 388.5, and 696.5 $/kg heavy element, respectively.

Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hangbok; Roh, Gyuhong; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of this independent review will permit NREL and DOE to better understand the credibility of the TIAX cost estimation process and to implement changes in future cost analyses, if necessary. The Team found the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells to be reasonable and, using 2005 cell stack technology and assuming production of 500,000 units per year, to have calculated a credible cost of $108/kW.

Wheeler, D.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Agricultural scientists cut alcohol fuel costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientists at the US Department of Agriculture have succeeded in lowering the cost of making alcohol from corn by 15 cents to $1.64 per gallon. The cost of drying distillers' solubles dropped because at the end of each cooking/fermenting/distilling run, the solubles are used for cooking, cooling and fermenting in the next run. One evaporation of solubles is required after 10 runs, so energy cost is cut from 17 cents to 1.7 cents. The protein by-products recovered, can be used as swine and poultry feeds and as human food.

Not Available

1981-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

76

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 July 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook Highlights * EIA projects the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price to average about $88 per barrel over the second half of 2012 and the U.S. refiner acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil to average $93 per barrel, both about $7 per barrel lower than last month's Outlook. EIA expects WTI and RAC crude oil prices to remain roughly at these second half levels in 2013. Beginning in this month's Outlook, EIA is also providing a forecast of Brent crude oil spot prices (see Brent Crude Oil Spot Price Added to Forecast), which are expected to average $106 per barrel for 2012 and $98 per barrel in 2013. These price forecasts assume that world oil-consumption-weighted real gross domestic product

77

Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

BestPractices Steam tip sheet regarding ways to assess steam system efficiency. To determine the effective cost of steam, use a combined heat and power simulation model that includes all the significant effects.

Papar, R. [U.S. Department of Energy (US)

2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

78

DOE Hydrogen Program Record 10004, Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record Program Record Record #: 10004 Date: September 16, 2010 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010 Update to: Record 9012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 16, 2010 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2010 technology and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $51/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: In fiscal year 2010, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2009 cost analyses of 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2010 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2]. Both cost estimates are based on performance at beginning of life.

79

Estimating the Economic Cost of Sea-Level Rise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change,

Sugiyama, Masahiro.

80

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Record 12020: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Record Record Record #: 12020 Date: August 21, 2012 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2012 Update to: Record 11012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: September 14, 2012 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2012 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $47/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: The DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program supports analysis projects that perform detailed analysis to estimate cost status of fuel cell systems, updated on an annual basis [1]. In fiscal year 2012, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) updated their 2011 cost analysis of an 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell system, based on 2012 technology and projected to a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pulverizer performance upgrades lower fuel costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Between 2002 and 2005, combustion equipment modifications were carried out at St. Johns River Power Plant in Jacksonville, FL. The effort succeeded in obtaining the desired emission reductions and to increase petroleum coke consumption. Since 2005 the boilers typically fired a blend of 70% Colombia coal and 30% delayed petroleum coke. To realize significant fuel savings, the pulverizer capacity was increased by 14% to allow a lower grade coal to be used. The article describes the changes made to the pulverizer to allow 11,800 Btu/pound coal to be burnt, with annual savings of $6.3 m beginning in 2006. 4 figs., 1 tab.

Hansen, T.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1) 1) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 2001 March 2004 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Preface Background The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 2001 is prepared by the Electric Power Divi- sion; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S.

83

Methodology for estimating reprocessing costs for nuclear fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technological and economic evaluation of reprocessing requirements for alternate fuel cycles requires a common assessment method and a common basis to which various cycles can be related. A methodology is described for the assessment of alternate fuel cycles utilizing a side-by-side comparison of functional flow diagrams of major areas of the reprocessing plant with corresponding diagrams of the well-developed Purex process as installed in the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). The BNFP treats 1500 metric tons of uranium per year (MTU/yr). Complexity and capacity factors are determined for adjusting the estimated facility and equipment costs of BNFP to determine the corresponding costs for the alternate fuel cycle. Costs of capacities other than the reference 1500 MT of heavy metal per year are estimated by the use of scaling factors. Unit costs of reprocessed fuel are calculated using a discounted cash flow analysis for three economic bases to show the effect of low-risk, typical, and high-risk financing methods.

Carter, W. L.; Rainey, R. H.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

Berry, G.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office Record Office Record Record #: 13012 Date: September 18, 2013 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 Update to: Record 12020 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: October 16, 2013 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2013 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $67/kW when manufactured at a volume of 100,000 units/year, and $55/kW at 500,000 units/year. Rationale: The DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Office supports projects that perform detailed analysis to estimate cost status of fuel cell systems, updated on an annual basis [1]. In fiscal year 2013, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) updated their 2012 cost analysis of an 80-kW

86

levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

levelized cost of energy levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 9 April, 2013 - 13:30 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK ocean energy The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) projects is a hierarchical structure designed to facilitate the collection and organization of lifecycle costs of any type of MHK project, including wave energy converters and current energy convertners. At a high level, the categories in the CBS will be applicable to all projects; at a detailed level, however, the CBS includes many cost categories that will pertain to one project but not others. It is expected that many of the detailed levels of the CBS will be populated with "NA" or left blank.Upload

87

BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ·biomass resources - potentials, limits ·biomass carbon cycle ·biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

88

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 Tables 7 Tables May 1998 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1997 Tables ii Contacts The annual publication Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) is no longer published by the EIA. The tables presented in this document are intended to replace that annual publication. Questions

89

Figure 38. Levelized costs of nuclear electricity generation in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 38. Levelized costs of nuclear electricity generation in two cases, 2025 (2011 dollars per megawatthour) Reference Small Modular Reactor

90

EIA - Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011. ... such as investment or production tax credits for specified generation sources, ...

91

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Host and Presentor Contact Information 1 Host and Presentor Contact Information 1 March 2013 Workshop on Biofuels Projections in AEO Host and Presentor Contact Information Hosts: Mindi Farber-DeAnda Team Lead, Energy Information Administration, Biofuels and Emerging Technologies Mindi.Farber-DeAnda@eia.gov 202-586-6419 Vishakh Mantri, Ph.D, P.E. Chemical Engineer, Energy Information Administration, Biofuels and Emerging Technologies Team Vishakh.Mantri@eia.gov 202-586-4815 Presenters: Biofuels in the United States: Context and Outlook Howard Gruenspecht Deputy Administrator, Energy Information Administration Howard.gruenspecht@eia.gov 202-586-6351 Modeling of Biofuels in the AEO, Michael Cole Operations Research Analyst, Energy Information Administration, Liquid Fuels Market Team

92

Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

Ramsden, T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: January 16, 7: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #407: January 16, 2006 Vehicle Fuel Cost vs. Home Heating Cost: Which Causes More Concern? on Digg

94

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser This analysis was funded by the Wind & Water Power Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy factor trends fails to convey recent improvements in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wind

95

Fuel cost adjustments: An idea whose time has gone  

SciTech Connect

Fuel adjustment clauses, now clearly unneeded, are a disincentive to efficient utility planning and operation. They have no place in a competitive marketplace and should not be turned into incentive regulation as some would do. As competition grow stronger, the case for abandoning FACs also grows stronger. Despite recent proposals that FACs be modified to serve conservation goals or to become incentive regulations, FACs are poor instruments to prod utilities toward conservation or efficiency. Recent developments in fuel markets fully warrant removing FACs and replacing them with traditional cost-of-service regulation. There is a final reason to end fuel clauses; the electric industry's inevitable transition to competition will be easier and more efficient under old-style regulation than under FACs.

Michaels, R.J.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

THORIUM BREEDER REACTOR EVALUATION. PART 1. FUEL YIELD AND FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN FIVE THERMAL BREEDERS  

SciTech Connect

The performances of aqueous-homogeneous (AHBR), molten-salt (MSBR), liquid-bismuth (LBBR), gas-cooled graphite-moderated (GGBR), and deuterium- moderated gas-cooled (DGBR) breeder reactors were evaluated in respect to fuel yield, fuel cycle costs, and development status. A net electrical plant capability of 1000 Mwe was selected, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The maximum annual fuel yields were 1.5 mills/ kwhr. The minimum estimated fuel cycle costs were 0.9, 0.6, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 mills/kwhr at fuel yields of were 0.9, 0.9, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.3 mills/kwhr. Only the AHBR and the MSBR are capable of achieving fuel yields substantially in excess of 4%/yr, and therefore, in view of the uncertainties in nuclear data and efficiencies of processing methods, only these two can be listed with confidence as being able to satisfy the main criterion of the AEC longrange thorium breeder program, viz. a doubling time of 25 years or less. The development effort required to bring the various concepts to the stage where a prototype station could be designed was estimated to be least for the AHBR, somewhat more for the MSBR, and several times as much for the other systems. The AHBR was judged to rank first in regard to nuclear capability, fuel cycle potential, and status of development. (auth)

Alexander, L.G.; Carter, W.L.; Chapman, R.H.; Kinyon, R.W.; Miller, J.W.; Van Winkle, R.

1961-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

97

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Date: October 7, 2009 2 Date: October 7, 2009 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2009 Update to: Record 8019 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: October 7, 2009 Item: The cost of an 80-kW automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system operating on direct hydrogen and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year is $61/kW for 2009 technology in 2009 dollars ($51/kW in 2002 dollars for comparison with targets). Rationale: In fiscal year 2009, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2008 cost analyses of 80-kW direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2009 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2]. DTI and TIAX use Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

98

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Date: August 17, 2011 2 Date: August 17, 2011 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2011 Update to: Record 10004 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: September 7, 2011 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2011 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $49/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: In fiscal year 2011, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) 2 updated the 2010 Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) cost analysis of 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems, based on 2011 technology and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year [1]. Results from the analysis were communicated to the DOE

99

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 8002: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02 Date: October 31, 2008 02 Date: October 31, 2008 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2007 Update to: Record 5005 Originator: Nancy Garland and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: April 3, 2009 Item: The cost of an 80-kW automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system operating on direct hydrogen and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year is $94/kW for 2007 technology in 2007 dollars ($82/kW in 2002 dollars for comparison with targets). Rationale: In fiscal year 2007, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2006 cost analyses of direct hydrogen, 80-kW, PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2007 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2].

100

Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario  

SciTech Connect

In the case of new nuclear power stations, it is necessary to pay special attention to the financial strategy that will be applied, time of construction, investment cost, and the discount and return rate. The levelized cost quantifies the unitary cost of the electricity (the kWh) generated during the lifetime of the nuclear power plant; and allows the immediate comparison with the cost of other alternative technologies. The present paper shows levelized cost for different nuclear technologies and it provides comparison among them as well as with gas and coal electricity plants. For the calculations we applied our own methodology to evaluate the levelized cost considering investment, fuel and operation and maintenance costs, making assumptions for the Mexican market, and taking into account the gas prices projections. The study also shows comparisons using different discount rates (5% and 10%), and some comparisons between our results and an OECD 1998 study. The results are i n good agreement and shows that nuclear option is cost competitive in Mexico on the basis of levelized costs.

Palacios, J.C.; Alonso, G.; Ramirez, R.; Gomez, A.; Ortiz, J.; Longoria, L.C.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

FUEL CYCLE COSTS IN A GRAPHITE MODERATED SLIGHTLY ENRICHED FUSED SALT REACTOR  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle economic study has been made for a 315Mwe graphite- moderated slightly enriched fused-salt reactor. Fuel cycle costs of less than 1.5 mills may be possible for such reactors operating on a ten-year cycle even when the fuel is discarded at the end of the cycle. Recovery of the uranium and plutonium at the end of the cycle reduces the fuel cycle costs to approximates 1 mill/kwh. Changes in the waste storage cost, reprocessing cost or salt inventory have a relatively minor effect on fuel cycle costs. (auth)

Guthrie, C.E.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) In the case of a classical linear sea-level rise of one meter per century, the use of DIVA generally decreases the protection fraction of the coastline, and results in a smaller protection cost because of high ...

Sugiyama, Masahiro, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings (Text Version) on

104

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparative Assessment of Fuel Cell Cars, Massachusettselectric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal of PowerTransition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester, Dominic Mc on recycled paper #12;1 Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States Niven Winchester Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation

106

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Overview of Alternative Fossil Fuel Price and Carbonof renewable technology cost, fossil fuel price uncertainty,energy, including the fossil fuel hedge value of renewable

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

109

UW Madison Fleet Fiscal Year 2010 Rates: Fuel, maintenance and insurance costs are included. If fuel prices exceed the budgeted  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UW Madison Fleet Fiscal Year 2010 Rates: Fuel, maintenance and insurance costs are included. If fuel prices exceed the budgeted amount by a significant margin, the rates will be amended with a fuel surcharge at that time and the change notice will be posted in the fleet web site, rates page. Some rate

Sheridan, Jennifer

110

Correlating Cycle Duty with Cost at Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work described in this report is part of the ongoing EPRI Cycling Impacts Program to develop a range of analysis and simulation-capable planning tools. The objectives are to better determine cycling impacts (including incremental costs), reliability impact, component level effects, and impacts and other elements needed to better plan and manage operational and financial aspects of power generation. This report documents early efforts to establish strong correlations between the cycle duty of a produc...

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

111

Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.  

SciTech Connect

A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Fully Closed Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced plutonium and uranium recovery by extraction (PUREX) reprocessing of discharged fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and fabric...

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

113

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

114

Dark spreads measure returns over fuel costs of coal-fired ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The dark spread is a common metric used to estimate returns over fuel costs of coal-fired electric generators. A dark spread is the difference between ...

115

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants 2006 and 2007  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-0191(2007) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants 2006 and 2007 December 2008 Energy Information Administration

116

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Cost of Energy Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Get Feedback, Create Early Successes, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Topics: Finance, Market analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html Web Application Link: www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech_lcoe.html OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools

117

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: DOE Announces New Hydrogen Cost...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

118

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of Compressed Natural Gas as a VehicleFuel-Volumepetroleumgas, compressed natural gas, and electricity.fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

change, and noise. Oil-use costs comprise the cost of theexcept as indicated) Oil-use cost SPR Low Best High BY ROCdirect economic costs of oil dependence – including wealth

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

The continuing rationale for Full and timely recovery of fuel price levels in fuel adjustment clauses  

SciTech Connect

Rate mechanisms that allow for more frequent automatic changes to rates to reflect changing fuel and purchased power costs can reduce the need for full-blown rate cases. With a clear and relatively simple framework, utilities and customers can understand and properly manage their energy costs. (author)

Meehan, Eugene T.; Olson, Wayne P.; Strunk, Kurt

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

Ramsden, T.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Battery-level material cost model facilitates high-power li-ion battery cost reductions.  

SciTech Connect

Under the FreedomCAR Partnership, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously enhancing the calendar life and inherent safety of high-power Li-Ion batteries. Material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in batteries designed to meet the requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In order to quantify the material costs, relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared to the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. The most recent freedomCAR cost goals for 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries are $500 and $800, respectively, which is $20/kW in both cases. In 2001, ANL developed a high-power cell chemistry that was incorporated into high-power 18650 cells for use in extensive accelerated aging and thermal abuse characterization studies. This cell chemistry serves as a baseline for this material cost study. It incorporates a LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode, a synthetic graphite anode, and a LiPF6 in EC:EMC electrolyte. Based on volume production cost estimates for these materials-as well as those for binders/solvents, cathode conductive additives, separator, and current collectors--the total cell winding material cost for a 25-kW power-assist HEV battery is estimated to be $399 (based on a 48- cell battery design, each cell having a capacity of 15.4 Ah). This corresponds to {approx}$16/kW. Our goal is to reduce the cell winding material cost to <$10/kW, in order to allow >$10/kW for the cell and battery manufacturing costs, as well as profit for the industrial manufacturer. The material cost information is obtained directly from the industrial material suppliers, based on supplying the material quantities necessary to support an introductory market of 100,000 HEV batteries/year. Using its battery design model, ANL provides the material suppliers with estimates of the material quantities needed to meet this market, for both 25-kW and 40-kW power-assist HEV batteries. Also, ANL has funded a few volume-production material cost analyses, with industrial material suppliers, to obtain needed cost information. In a related project, ANL evaluates and develops low-cost advanced materials for use in high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries. [This work is the subject of one or more separate papers at this conference.] Cell chemistries are developed from the most promising low-cost materials. The performance characteristics of test cells that employ these cell chemistries are used as input to the cost model. Batteries, employing these cell chemistries, are designed to meet the FreedomCAR power, energy, weight, and volume requirements. The cost model then provides a battery-level material cost and material cost breakdown for each battery design. Two of these advanced cell chemistries show promise for significantly reducing the battery-level material costs (see Table 1), as well as enhancing calendar life and inherent safety. It is projected that these two advanced cell chemistries (A and B) could reduce the battery-level material costs by an estimated 24% and 43%, respectively. An additional cost advantage is realized with advanced chemistry B, due to the high rate capability of the 3-dimensional LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel cathode. This means that a greater percentage of the total Ah capacity of the cell is usable and cells with reduced Ah capacity can be used. This allows for a reduction in the quantity of the anode, electrolyte, separator, and current collector materials needed f

Henriksen, G.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cost/performance comparison between pulse columns and centrifugal contactors designed to process Clinch River Breeder Reactor fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison between pulse columns and centrifugal contactors was made to determine which type of equipment was more advantageous for use in the primary decontamination cycle of a remotely operated fuel reprocessing plant. Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) fuel was chosen as the fuel to be processed in the proposed 1 metric tonne/day reprocessing facility. The pulse columns and centrifugal contactors were compared on a performance and total cost basis. From this comparison, either the pulse columns or the centrifugal contactors will be recommended for use in a fuel reprocessing plant built to reprocess CRBR fuel. The reliability, solvent exposure to radiation, required time to reach steady state, and the total costs were the primary areas of concern for the comparison. The pulse column units were determined to be more reliable than the centrifugal contactors. When a centrifugal contactor motor fails, it can be remotely changed in less than one eight hour shift. Pulse columns expose the solvent to approximately five times as much radiation dose as the centrifugal contactor units; however, the proposed solvent recovery system adequately cleans the solvent for either case. The time required for pulse columns to reach steady state is many times longer than the time required for centrifugal contactors to reach steady state. The cost comparison between the two types of contacting equipment resulted in centrifugal contactors costing 85% of the total cost of pulse columns when the contactors were stacked on three levels in the module. If the centrifugal contactors were all positioned on the top level of a module with the unoccupied volume in the module occupied by other equipment, the centrifugal contactors cost is 66% of the total cost of pulse columns. Based on these results, centrifugal contactors are recommended for use in a remotely operated reprocessing plant built to reprocess CRBR fuel.

Ciucci, J.A. Jr.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during many months of the year). * Similarly, use of PEM fuel cell waste heat for hot water heating wouldFUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY AND MOTOR VEHICLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS UCD-ITS-RP-04-21 April 2004 by Timothy Lipman University of California

Kammen, Daniel M.

125

Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AURORA Program Overview Topic 4A. Transport within the PEM Stack / Transport Studies Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Award#: DE-EE0000472 US DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting Washington, DC September 30, 2009 Program Objectives The objective of this program is to optimize the efficiency of a stack technology meeting DOE cost targets. As cost reduction is of central importance in commercialization, the objective of this program addresses all fuel cell applications. AURORA C. Performance Technical Barriers Premise: DOE cost targets can be met by jointly exceeding both the Pt loading (1.0 W/cm2) targets.

126

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Mission 3 Project Objectives * Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (<3kW) - Develop...

127

Parametric Study of Front-End Nuclear Fuel Cycle Costs Using Reprocessed Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates front-end nuclear fuel cycle costs assuming that uranium recovered during the reprocessing of commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel is available to be recycled and used in the place of natural uranium. This report explores the relationship between the costs associated with using a natural uranium fuel cycle, in which reprocessed uranium (RepU) is not recycled, with those associated with using RepU.

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

128

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system, Energy Policy

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Challenge: Decrease Size and Cost of Fuel Processor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

published papers 2 Patent Applications (mesoporous MOx, Pt/WO3 Fuel Cell Cat) #12;Significant Results

130

Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards  

SciTech Connect

Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Study of costs associated with alternative fuels development: A case study. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the study was to conduct a case study of large-scale fuel conversion project to assess selected costs and related issues. An inventory of public transit agencies engaged in demonstration projects involving alternative fuels as conducted with representative sample of large public transit systems in the nation. Included in the survey were questions pertaining to fuel supply arrangements, fuel reserve storage requirements and/or deficiencies; future plans for managing energy resources and costs associated with fuel conversion/alternative fuels use -- whether planned or currently in operation. The case study approach was used to document the methodological and logistical problems encountered during the course of projects involving alternative fuels use compared with a control sample using diesel fuel. Monthly status reports on the alternative fuel project included data on accumulated mileage, road calls/unscheduled maintenance, fuel consumption, fuel cost per mile, alternative fuel purchases, schedule of activities, personnel, safety , and diesel emission test results. The data collected indicate several conclusions and future implications about technical and safety issues associated with the testing and use of liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Lede, N.W.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane May 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. | Photo courtesy of Community Counseling Services. Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. | Photo courtesy of Community Counseling Services. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000

134

Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane Clean Cities Helps Nonprofit Cut Fuel Costs with Propane May 15, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. | Photo courtesy of Community Counseling Services. Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000 a year. | Photo courtesy of Community Counseling Services. Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program What are the key facts? Mississippi's Community Counseling Services converted 29 vans to run on propane, saving more than $1.50 per gallon on fuel or more than $60,000

135

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

136

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

137

Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Presented to the EIA Energy Conference Presented to the EIA Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when considering "unconventional" resources like wind and solar * EIA is developing a new framework to address the major weaknesses of LCOE analysis

138

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis shows that hybrid and electric cars perform bettercar (4-5 passengers) Fuels Gasoline, CNG, diesel, FT50, methanol, H2 Powertrains ICE, hybrid,

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), synthetic diesel, methanol,FCX Fuels Gasoline, Diesel, CNG, FT diesel, methanol, H2,H2, electricity Gasoline, diesel, CNG, biogas, LPG, ethanol,

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by ...  

Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower emissions. Running the vehicle’s motor on hydrogen rather than gasoline ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives · Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (usage Electrical Conductivity S /cm >100 >100 Resistivity ohm.cm 25

142

Low-Cost Manufacturing of Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Emerging Material Forming Technologies. Presentation Title, Low-Cost ...

143

Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs  

SciTech Connect

A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

145

An Econometric Analysis of the Elasticity of Vehicle Travel with Respect to Fuel Cost per Mile Using RTEC Survey Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of econometric estimation of the ''rebound effect'' for household vehicle travel in the United States based on a comprehensive analysis of survey data collected by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect is defined as the percent change in vehicle travel for a percent change in fuel economy. It summarizes the tendency to ''take back'' potential energy savings due to fuel economy improvements in the form of increased vehicle travel. Separate vehicles use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results are consistent with the consensus of recently published estimates based on national or state-level data, which show a long-run rebound effect of about +0.2 (a ten percent increase in fuel economy, all else equal, would produce roughly a two percent increase in vehicle travel and an eight percent reduction in fuel use). The hypothesis that vehicle travel responds equally to changes in fuel cost-per-mile whether caused by changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon could not be rejected. Recognizing the interdependency in survey data among miles of travel, fuel economy and price paid for fuel for a particular vehicle turns out to be crucial to obtaining meaningful results.

Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.; Gibson, R.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effect of changes in DOE pricing policies for enrichment and reprocessing on research reactor fuel cycle costs  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cycle costs with HEU and LEU fuels for the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor are updated to reflect the change in DOE pricing policy for enrichment services as of October 1985 and the published charges for LEU reprocessing services as of February 1986. The net effects are essentially no change in HEU fuel cycle costs and a reduction of about 8 to 10% in the fuel cycle costs for LEU silicide fuel.

Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

1986-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

147

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual  

SciTech Connect

In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

148

Optimal fuel cell system design considering functional performance and production costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work the optimization-based, integrated concurrent design method is applied to the modelling, analysis, and design of a transportation fuel cell system. A general optimal design model considering both functional performance and production costs is first introduced. Using the Ballard Mark V Transit Bus fuel cell system as an example, the study explores the intrinsic relations among various fuel cell system performance and cost aspects to provide insights for new cost-effective designs. A joint performance and cost optimization is carried out to demonstrate this new approach. This approach breaks the traditional barrier between design Žconcerning functional performance. and manufacturing Ž concerning production costs., allowing both functional performance and production costs to

D. Xue A; Z. Dong B

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

FUEL CONSUMPTION AND COST SAVINGS OF CLASS 8 HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS POWERED BY NATURAL GAS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas and diesel heavy-duty (HD) class 8 trucks under consistent simulated drive cycle conditions. Our study included both conventional and hybrid HD trucks operating with either natural gas or diesel engines, and we compare the resulting simulated fuel efficiencies, fuel costs, and payback periods. While trucks powered by natural gas engines have lower fuel economy, their CO2 emissions and costs are lower than comparable diesel trucks. Both diesel and natural gas powered hybrid trucks have significantly improved fuel economy, reasonable cost savings and payback time, and lower CO2 emissions under city driving conditions. However, under freeway-dominant driving conditions, the overall benefits of hybridization are considerably less. Based on payback period alone, non-hybrid natural gas trucks appear to be the most economic option for both urban and freeway driving environments.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Market Cost of Renewable Jet Fuel Adoption in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the cost to US airlines of meeting this goal ...

Winchester, N.

151

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses on PEM fuel cell components and the overall system are presented including the most important cost factors and the effects of selected scenarios.

Carlson, E. J.; Kopf, P.; Sinha, J.; Sriramulu, S.; Yang, Y.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0011958 Project Description Proof-of-concept of a metal-polymeric...

154

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12021: Cost Projections...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approved by: Sunita Satyapal and Rick Farmer Date: November 28, 2012 Item: Delivery costs associated with distributed production refueling station functions, Compression,...

155

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from U.S. consumers to foreign oil producers (a cost only inThus, the PS received by foreign oil producers is a real

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Persian-Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles, Energy Policythe Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles, UCD-ITS-RR-per gallon of motor fuel, Defense of oil on average; thus,

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2024 Date: September 19, 2012 2024 Date: September 19, 2012 Title: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas Originator: Sara Dillich, Todd Ramsden & Marc Melaina Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: September 24, 2012 Item: Hydrogen produced and dispensed in distributed facilities at high-volume refueling stations using current technology and DOE's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2009 projected prices for industrial natural gas result in a hydrogen levelized cost of $4.49 per gallon-gasoline-equivalent (gge) (untaxed) including compression, storage and dispensing costs. The hydrogen production portion of this cost is $2.03/gge. In comparison, current analyses using low-cost natural gas with a price of $2.00 per MMBtu can decrease the hydrogen levelized cost to $3.68 per gge (untaxed) including

158

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12001: H2 Production and Delivery Cost Apportionment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

01 Date: May 14, 2012 01 Date: May 14, 2012 Title: H 2 Production and Delivery Cost Apportionment Originator: Scott Weil, Sara Dillich, Fred Joseck, and Mark Ruth Approved by: Sunita Satyapal and Rick Farmer Date: December 14, 2012 Item: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the untaxed cost of hydrogen (H 2 ) (produced, delivered, and dispensed) at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a $/mile basis with competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. As established in Record 11007 [1], this cost ranges from $2.00-$4.00/gge a of H 2 (based on $2007). The threshold cost can be apportioned into its constituent H 2 production and delivery costs, which can then serve as the respective cost targets for multi-year planning of the Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT)

159

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Plutonium Multi-Recycling in Fast Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results from a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for a closed fuel cycle with multi-recycling of plutonium in fast reactors (FRs) compared to an open, once-through fuel cycle using PWRs. The study examines the impact on fuel cycle costs from changes in the unit costs of uranium, advanced PUREX reprocessing of discharged uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel and fast-reactor mixed-oxide (FR-MOX) fuel, and FR-MOX fuel fabrication. In addition, the impact associated with changes in ...

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existing facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)

Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N. [Westinghouse Electric Co. LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost $2,458, or $11.1/kWh. Carbon fiber was the major costrange of $10-$17/kWh and carbon fiber contributes about 65%

Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kwh/mile) d Total Battery Capacity (Kwh) Cost per Battery (this study. in Total battery capacity was calculated as:calculated as total battery capacity multiplied by per-unit-

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5035: Cost Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Date: May 22, 2006 Title: Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas 2003 - 2005 Originator: Patrick Davis Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Approval Date: May 22, 2006 Item...

164

Preliminary assessment of costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by barge  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to analyze the costs and risks associated with transporting spent fuel by barge. The barge movements would be made in combination with rail movements to transport spent fuel from plants to a repository. For the purpose of this analysis, three candidate repository sites are analyzed: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington. This report complements a report prepared by Sandia National Laboratories in 1984 that analyzes the costs and risks of transporting spent fuel by rail and by truck to nine candidate repository sites.

Tobin, R.L.; Meshkov, N.K.; Jones, R.H.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Projected Cost, Energy Use, and Emissions of Hydrogen Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Each combination of technologies necessary to produce, deliver, and distribute hydrogen for transportation use has a corresponding levelized cost, energy requirement, and greenhouse gas emission profile depending upon the technologies' efficiencies and costs. Understanding the technical status, potential, and tradeoffs is necessary to properly allocate research and development (R&D) funding. In this paper, levelized delivered hydrogen costs, pathway energy use, and well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions are reported for multiple hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways. Technologies analyzed include both central and distributed reforming of natural gas and electrolysis of water, and central hydrogen production from biomass and coal. Delivery options analyzed include trucks carrying liquid hydrogen and pipelines carrying gaseous hydrogen. Projected costs, energy use, and emissions for current technologies (technology that has been developed to at least the bench-scale, extrapolated to commercial-scale) are reported. Results compare favorably with those for gasoline, diesel, and E85 used in current internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and flexible fuel vehicles. Sensitivities of pathway cost, pathway energy use, WTW energy use, and WTW emissions to important primary parameters were examined as an aid in understanding the benefits of various options. Sensitivity studies on production process energy efficiency, total production process capital investment, feed stock cost, production facility operating capacity, electricity grid mix, hydrogen vehicle market penetration, distance from the hydrogen production facility to city gate, and other parameters are reported. The Hydrogen Macro-System Model (MSM) was used for this analysis. The MSM estimates the cost, energy use, and emissions trade offs of various hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways under consideration. The MSM links the H2A Production Model, the Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM), and the Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emission, and Energy for Transportation (GREET) Model. The MSM utilizes the capabilities of each component model and ensures the use of consistent parameters between the models to enable analysis of full hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways. To better understand spatial aspects of hydrogen pathways, the MSM is linked to the Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis Tool (HyDRA). The MSM is available to the public and enables users to analyze the pathways and complete sensitivity analyses.

Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M. J.; Timbario, T. A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Estimation of Capital and Levelized Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cost for 1 MW systems with various EP ratios Validated PNNL model using PNNL 1 kW, 1 kWh stack performance data Provided a roadmap for cost effective redox flow battery systems...

167

Cost and Performance Comparison Of Stationary Hydrogen Fueling Appliances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or nitrogen from air and the purification of hydrogen from sources such as catalytic reformer off gas, coke oven gas, and ethylene plant effluent gas. Pressure swing systems are based on selective adsorbent beds of hydrogen from natural gas to fuel hydrogen FCV's. Four potential reforming systems were studied: 10

168

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

r---1 DF LPG M85 FFV J E85 FFV M100 FFV S/ton (Thousands)Vehicles MI00 DedL Vehicles E85 FFVs LPGVs Dual-Fuel CNGVsM85 Dedi. M1 00 DF LPG M85 FFV E85 FFV M100 FFV S/ton 3O (

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kick-off Meeting, Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Prime Contractor: W. L. Gore & Associates Elkton, MD Principal Investigator: William B. Johnson Sub-Contractor: dPoint Technologies Vancouver, BC W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Ahluwalia, et. al, ibid. Mirza, Z. DOE Hydrogen Program Review, June 9-13, 2008; Washington, DC Background W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Objective and Technical Barriers Addressed More efficient, low-cost humidifiers can increase fuel cell inlet humidity: Reduce system cost and size of balance of plant; Improve fuel cell performance; Improve fuel cell durability. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate a durable, high performance water

170

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough On the Path to Low Cost Renewable Fuels, an Important Breakthrough April 18, 2013 - 4:10pm Addthis NREL Scientist Bryon Donohoe looks at different views of ultra structures of pre-treated biomass materials in the Cellular Visualization room of the Biomass Surface Characterization Lab. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. NREL Scientist Bryon Donohoe looks at different views of ultra structures of pre-treated biomass materials in the Cellular Visualization room of the Biomass Surface Characterization Lab. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. A researcher examines a strain of the fermentation microorganism Zymomonas mobilis on a culture plate. NREL has genetically engineered and patented its own strains of Zymomonas mobilis to more effectively ferment the multiple sugars found in biomass as part of the cellulosic ethanol-to-renewable fuel conversion process. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL.

171

Analyzing the level of service and cost trade-offs in cold chain transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis discusses the tradeoff between transportation cost and the level of service in cold chain transportation. Its purpose is to find the relationship between transportation cost and the level of service in cold ...

Liu, Saiqi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Title Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects...

173

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1988 the Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States. During the next two decades, alternative fuels such as alcohol (methanol or ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity could become practical alternatives to oil-based fuels in the US transportation sector. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability. To keep interested parties informed about the progress of the DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment, the Department periodically publishes reports dealing with particular aspects of this complex study. This report provides an analysis of the expected costs to produce methanol from biomass feedstock.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

How to utilize hedging and a fuel surcharge program to stabilize the cost of fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper looks at some of these travails as well as the common tools used to approach a volatile priced commodity, diesel fuel. It focuses… (more)

Witalec, Michael R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Koomey, J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

GC-52 provides legal advice to DOE regarding the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). SNF is nuclear fuel that has been used as fuel in a reactor...

177

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the ninth quarter of work performed under this agreement. The design of the vessel for pressure testing has been completed. The design will be finalized and purchased in the next quarter.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

State Level Incentives for Biogas-Fuel Cell Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LEVEL INCENTIVES LEVEL INCENTIVES FOR BIOGAS-FUEL CELL PROJECTS Norma McDonald Vice Chair, American Biogas Council North American Sales Manager, Organic Waste Systems, Inc. www.americanbiogascouncil.org FIGURES * FOUNDED IN 1988 * SALES: $25-35 MILLION * 75 EMPLOYEES ACTIVITIES * BIOGAS CONSULTANCY & SUPPORT * BIODEGRADATION TESTING AND WASTE MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY * DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PLANTS FOR ORGANIC WASTE AND RESIDUALS * NO FORMAL STATE CHAPTERS - YET * MEMBER DRIVEN EFFORTS * LOCAL "TOUCH" IS ESSENTIAL * REAPPLY BEST PRACTICES/POLICIES * PROMOTE/ADVOCATE FOR POLICY PARITY FOR BIOGAS www.americanbiogascouncil.org DYNAMICS SHAPING STATE INCENTIVES * BUDGET WOES, ARRA FUNDS NOW RUNNING OUT

179

Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Critical analysis of the Hanford spent nuclear fuel project activity based cost estimate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1997, the SNFP developed a baseline change request (BCR) and submitted it to DOE-RL for approval. The schedule was formally evaluated to have a 19% probability of success [Williams, 1998]. In December 1997, DOE-RL Manager John Wagoner approved the BCR contingent upon a subsequent independent review of the new baseline. The SNFP took several actions during the first quarter of 1998 to prepare for the independent review. The project developed the Estimating Requirements and Implementation Guide [DESH, 1998] and trained cost account managers (CAMS) and other personnel involved in the estimating process in activity-based cost (ABC) estimating techniques. The SNFP then applied ABC estimating techniques to develop the basis for the December Baseline (DB) and documented that basis in Basis of Estimate (BOE) books. These BOEs were provided to DOE in April 1998. DOE commissioned Professional Analysis, Inc. (PAI) to perform a critical analysis (CA) of the DB. PAI`s review formally began on April 13. PAI performed the CA, provided three sets of findings to the SNFP contractor, and initiated reconciliation meetings. During the course of PAI`s review, DOE directed the SNFP to develop a new baseline with a higher probability of success. The contractor transmitted the new baseline, which is referred to as the High Probability Baseline (HPB), to DOE on April 15, 1998 [Williams, 1998]. The HPB was estimated to approach a 90% confidence level on the start of fuel movement [Williams, 1998]. This high probability resulted in an increased cost and a schedule extension. To implement the new baseline, the contractor initiated 26 BCRs with supporting BOES. PAI`s scope was revised on April 28 to add reviewing the HPB and the associated BCRs and BOES.

Warren, R.N.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the third quarter of work performed under this agreement. Atmospheric testing was conducted as scheduled on June 5 through June 13, 2003. The test results were encouraging, however, the rate of carbon dissolution was below expectations. Additional atmospheric testing is scheduled for the first week of September 2003. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product stream. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct?hydrogen proton ex

184

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

185

Stationery and Emerging Market Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Kathya Mahadevan (Primary Contact), VinceContini, Matt Goshe, and Fritz Eubanks Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH 43201 Phone: (614) 424-3197 Email: mahadevank@battelle.org DOE Managers HQ: Jason Marcinkoski Phone: (202) 586-7466 Email: Jason.Marcinkoski@ee.doe.gov GO: Reg Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005250/001 Project Start Date: September 30, 2011 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives To assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for stationary and emerging markets by developing independent cost models and costs estimates for manufacture and

186

Low-Cost Composite Materials for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCS) are under widespread development to produce electrical power for a variety of stationary and transportation applications. To date, the bipolar plate remains the most problematic and costly component of PEFC stacks (1). In addition to meeting cost constraints, bipolar plates must possess a host of other properties, the most important of which are listed in Table 1. The most commonly used material for single cell testing is machined graphite, which is expensive and costly to machine. The brittle nature of graphite also precludes the use of thin components for reducing stack size and weight, which is particularly important for transportation applications. Other stack designs consider the use of metal hardware such as stainless steel (2,3). But a number of disadvantages are associated with stainless steel, including high density, high cost of machining, and possible corrosion in the fuel cell environment. In light of these difficulties, much of the recent work on fuel cell bipolar plate materials has concentrated on graphite/polymer composites (4--8). Composite materials offer the potential advantages of lower cost, lower weight, and greater ease of manufacture than traditional graphite and metal plates. For instance, flow fields can be molded directly into these composites, thereby eliminating the costly and difficult machining step required for graphite or metal hardware.

Busick, D.N.; Wilson, M.S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

Hadder, G.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

How to utilize hedging and a fuel surcharge program to stabilize the cost of fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper looks at some of these travails as well as the common tools used to approach a volatile priced commodity, diesel fuel. It focuses on the impacts of hedging for companies that are directly impacted through the ...

Shehadi, Charles A., III (Charles Anthony)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.

William L. ROberts

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Figure 80. Levelized electricity costs for new power plants, 2020 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gas combined cycle Wind Nuclear Coal Capital O&M Fuel Transmission 2040.00 2020.00 1.35 5.88 5.98 6.61 1.71 6.98 7.73 8.32 0.20 1.31 1.16 0.68 0.20 1.31 1.16 0.68 6 ...

191

Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

LOW COST MULTI-LAYER FABRICATION METHOD FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

Under this program, Technology Management, Inc, is evaluating the economic advantages of a multi-pass printing process on the costs of fabricating planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The technique, still unproven technically, uses a ''green-field'' or build-up approach. Other more mature processes were considered to obtain some baseline assumptions. Based on this analysis, TMI has shown that multi-pass printing can offer substantial economic advantages over many existing fabrication processes and can reduce costs. By impacting overall production costs, the time is compressed to penetrate early low volume niche markets and more mature high-volume market applications.

Dr. Christopher E. Milliken; Dr. Robert C. Ruhl

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 2000 Tables  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0) 0) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 2000 Tables August 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts The annual publication Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) is no longer published by the EIA. The tables presented in this document are intended to replace that annual publication. Questions

194

On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final Report of On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells. The objective of this effort was to technologically enable a compact, fast start-up integrated Water Gas Shift-Pd membrane reactor for integration into an On Board Fuel Processing System (FPS) for an automotive 50 kWe PEM Fuel Cell (PEM FC). Our approach was to: (1) use physics based reactor and system level models to optimize the design through trade studies of the various system design and operating parameters; and (2) synthesize, characterize and assess the performance of advanced high flux, high selectivity, Pd alloy membranes on porous stainless steel tubes for mechanical strength and robustness. In parallel and not part of this program we were simultaneously developing air tolerant, high volumetric activity, thermally stable Water Gas Shift catalysts for the WGS/membrane reactor. We identified through our models the optimum WGS/membrane reactor configuration, and best Pd membrane/FPS and PEM FC integration scheme. Such a PEM FC power plant was shown through the models to offer 6% higher efficiency than a system without the integrated membrane reactor. The estimated FPS response time was < 1 minute to 50% power on start-up, 5 sec transient response time, 1140 W/L power density and 1100 W/kg specific power with an estimated production cost of $35/kW. Such an FPS system would have a Catalytic Partial Oxidation System (CPO) rather than the slower starting Auto-Thermal Reformer (ATR). We found that at optimum WGS reactor configuration that H{sub 2} recovery efficiencies of 95% could be achieved at 6 atm WGS pressure. However optimum overall fuel to net electrical efficiency ({approx}31%) is highest at lower fuel processor efficiency (67%) with 85% H{sub 2} recovery because less parasitic power is needed. The H{sub 2} permeance of {approx}45 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5} at 350 C was assumed in these simulations. In the laboratory we achieved a H{sub 2} permeance of 50 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5}) with a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 110 at 350 C with pure Pd. We also demonstrated that we could produce Pd-Ag membranes. Such alloy membranes are necessary because they aren't prone to the Pd-hydride {alpha}-{beta} phase transition that is known to cause membrane failure in cyclic operation. When funding was terminated we were on track to demonstrated Pd-Ag alloy deposition on a nano-porous ({approx}80 nm) oxide layer supported on porous stainless steel tubing using a process designed for scale-up.

Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Zissis Dardas; Ying She; Mallika Gummalla; Benoit Olsommer

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

196

The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

1996-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

197

An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the Total Cost Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell- Powered Material Handling Equipment Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56408 April 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell- Powered Material Handling Equipment Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. HT12.8610 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56408

198

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy from U.S. Wind Power Projects Ryan Wiser, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eric Lantz, National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

199

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gas and pollutants than

200

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

205

Preliminary estimates of cost savings for defense high level waste vitrification options  

SciTech Connect

The potential for realizing cost savings in the disposal of defense high-level waste through process and design modificatins has been considered. Proposed modifications range from simple changes in the canister design to development of an advanced melter capable of processing glass with a higher waste loading. Preliminary calculations estimate the total disposal cost (not including capital or operating costs) for defense high-level waste to be about $7.9 billion dollars for the reference conditions described in this paper, while projected savings resulting from the proposed process and design changes could reduce the disposal cost of defense high-level waste by up to $5.2 billion.

Merrill, R.A.; Chapman, C.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs  

SciTech Connect

The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional impacts, licensing, and scheduling of conversion and standardization of these reactor fuels to use of low-enrichment uranium (LEU) have been assessed. The university reactors span a wide range in form and function, from medium-power intense neutron sources where HEU fuel may be required, to low-power training and research facilities where HEU fuel is unnecessary. Conversion provides an opportunity to standardize university reactor fuels and improve reactor utilization in some cases. The entire program is estimated to cost about $10 million and to last about five years. Planning for conversion and standardization is facilitated by the US Department of Energy. 20 refs., 1 tab.

Harris, D.R.; Matos, J.E.; Young, H.H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Cost of Adding E85 Fuel Capability to Existing Gasoline Stations: NREL Survey and Literature Search (Fact Sheet)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Cost of Adding E85 Fueling Capability to Existing Gasoline Stations: Cost of Adding E85 Fueling Capability to Existing Gasoline Stations: NREL Survey and Literature Search The cost of purchasing and installing E85 fueling equip- ment varies widely, yet station owners need to have an idea of what to expect when budgeting or reviewing bids for this upgrade. The purpose of this document is to provide a framework for station owners to assess what a reason- able cost would be. This framework was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) by surveying actual costs for stations, conducting a literature search, not- ing the major cost-affecting variables, addressing anomalies in the survey, and projecting changes in future costs. The findings of NREL's survey and literature search are shown in the table below. This table divides the study's

209

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subcontract Report Subcontract Report Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell NREL/SR-560-39104 Systems for Transportation December 2005 September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL Technical Monitor: K. Wipke Prepared under Subcontract No. KACX-5-44452-01 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-560-39104 December 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy

210

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5014: Electricity Price Effect on Electrolysis Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5014 Date: December 15, 2005 5014 Date: December 15, 2005 Title: Electricity Price Effect on Electrolysis Cost Originator: Roxanne Garland Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Date: January 2, 2006 Item: Effect of Electricity Price on Distributed Hydrogen Production Cost (Assumes: 1500 GGE/day, electrolyzer at 76% efficiency, and capital cost of $250/kW) The graph is based on the 2010 target of a 1500 kg/day water electrolysis refueling station described on page 3-12 of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, February 2005. The graph uses all the same assumptions associated with the target, except for electricity price: Reference: - 76% efficient electrolyzer - 75% system efficiency

214

Toward a Common Method of Cost Estimation for CO2 Capture and Storage at Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are significant differences in the methods employed by various organizations to estimate the cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems for fossil fuel power plants. Such differences often are not readily apparent in publicly reported CCS cost estimates. As a consequence, there is a significant degree of misunderstanding, confusion, and mis-representation of CCS cost information, especially among audiences not familiar with the details of CCS costing. Given the international importance ...

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effect of Highly Enriched/Highly Burnt UO2 Fuels on Fuel Cycle Costs, Radiotoxicity, and Nuclear Design Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Increased Enrichment/High Burnup and Light Water Reactor Fuel Cycle Optimization

Robert Gregg; Andrew Worrall

216

The levelized cost of energy for distributed PV : a parametric study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maturation of distributed solar PV as an energy source requires that the technology no longer compete on module efficiency and manufacturing cost ($/Wp) alone. Solar PV must yield sufficient energy (kWh) at a competitive cost (c/kWh) to justify its system investment and ongoing maintenance costs. These metrics vary as a function of system design and interactions between parameters, such as efficiency and area-related installation costs. The calculation of levelized cost of energy includes energy production and costs throughout the life of the system. The life of the system and its components, the rate at which performance degrades, and operation and maintenance requirements all affect the cost of energy. Cost of energy is also affected by project financing and incentives. In this paper, the impact of changes in parameters such as efficiency and in assumptions about operating and maintenance costs, degradation rate and system life, system design, and financing will be examined in the context of levelized cost of energy.

Goodrich, Alan C. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Cameron, Christopher P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Cost Comparison Between Once-Through and Plutonium Single-Recycling in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the context of long-term waste management and sustainable nuclear fuel supply, there continue to be discussions regarding whether the United States should consider recycling of light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for the current fleet of U.S. LWRs. This report presents a parametric study of equilibrium fuel cycle costs for an open fuel cycle without plutonium recycling (once-through) and with plutonium recycling (single-recycling using mixed-oxide, or MOX, fuel), assuming an all-pre...

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

218

Forest Products: Georgia-Pacific's Insulation Upgrade Leads to Reduced Fuel Costs and Increased Process Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This Steam Challenge Case Study looks at how the company, by insulating steam lines and replacing steam traps, was able to reduce fuel costs, increase process efficiency, and improve plant safety.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

219

Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-494), Section 400EE, states that the Secretary of Energy ...shall study methanol plants, including the costs and practicability of such plants that are (A) capable of utilizing current domestic supplies of unutilized natural gas; (B) relocatable; or (C) suitable for natural gas to methanol conversion by natural gas distribution companies...'' The purpose of this report is to characterize unutilized gas within the lower 48 states and to perform an economic analysis of methanol plants required by the act. The approach with regard to unutilized lower 48 gas is to (1) compare the costs of converting such gas to methanol against the expected price of gasoline over the next 20 years, and (2) compare the economics of converting such gas to methanol against the economics of using the gas as a pipeline-transported fuel. This study concludes that remote gas and low-Btu gas generally cannot be converted to methanol at costs near the expected competitive value of gasoline because of the poor economies of scale of small methanol plants.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

High-Level Functional and Operational Requirements for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facilty  

SciTech Connect

High-Level Functional & Operational Requirements for the AFCF -This document describes the principal functional and operational requirements for the proposed Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). The AFCF is intended to be the world's foremost facility for nuclear fuel cycle research, technology development, and demonstration. The facility will also support the near-term mission to develop and demonstrate technology in support of fuel cycle needs identified by industry, and the long-term mission to retain and retain U.S. leadership in fuel cycle operations. The AFCF is essential to demonstrate a more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and make long-term improvements in fuel cycle effectiveness, performance and economy.

Charles Park

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Stationary Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Brian D. James (Primary Contact), Andrew B. Spisak, Whitney G. Colella Strategic Analysis, Inc. 4075 Wilson Blvd. Suite 200 Arlington, VA 22203 Phone: (703) 778-7114 Email: bjames@sainc.com DOE Managers HQ: Jason Marcinkoski Phone: (202) 586-7466 Email: Jason.Marcinkoski@ee.doe.gov GO: Gregory Kleen Phone: (720) 356-1672 Email: Gregory.Kleen@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Bryan Pivovar Phone: (303) 275-3809 Email: bryan.pivovar@nrel.gov Sub-Contract Number No: AGB-0-40628-01 under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08G028308 Project Start Date: July 8, 2010 Project End Date: September 7, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Perform Design for Manufacturing and Assembly * (DFMA ® ) cost analysis for low-temperature (LT)

225

Case Study: Georgia-Pacific Reduces Outside Fuel Costs and Increases Process Efficiency with Insulation Upgrade Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Georgia-Pacific plywood plant located in Madison, Georgia recently decided to insulate their steam lines for energy conservation, improved process efficiency and personnel protection. The goal of the project was to eliminate dependency on purchased fuel. Georgia-Pacific realized immediate and significant results and reduced fuel cost by about one third over a one year period.

Jackson, D.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Cost probability analysis of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel in the US G.D. Recktenwald, M.R. Deinert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the sustainability of nuclear power while others argue against them on economic, environmental and security groundsCost probability analysis of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel in the US G.D. Recktenwald, M P48 Keywords: Reprocessing Nuclear power Spent fuel The methods by which nuclear power's radioactive

Deinert, Mark

227

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

New New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing (August 2009) on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Status Update: New Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Certification Path, UL Meeting, and Mid-Level Blends Testing

228

A LOW COST AND HIGH QUALITY SOLID FUEL FROM BIOMASS AND COAL FINES  

SciTech Connect

Use of biomass wastes as fuels in existing boilers would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, SO2 and NOx emissions, while beneficially utilizing wastes. However, the use of biomass has been limited by its low energy content and density, high moisture content, inconsistent configuration and decay characteristics. If biomass is upgraded by conventional methods, the cost of the fuel becomes prohibitive. Altex has identified a process, called the Altex Fuel Pellet (AFP) process, that utilizes a mixture of biomass wastes, including municipal biosolids, and some coal fines, to produce a strong, high energy content, good burning and weather resistant fuel pellet, that is lower in cost than coal. This cost benefit is primarily derived from fees that are collected for accepting municipal biosolids. Besides low cost, the process is also flexible and can incorporate several biomass materials of interest The work reported on herein showed the technical and economic feasibility of the AFP process. Low-cost sawdust wood waste and light fractions of municipal wastes were selected as key biomass wastes to be combined with biosolids and coal fines to produce AFP pellets. The process combines steps of dewatering, pellet extrusion, drying and weatherizing. Prior to pilot-scale tests, bench-scale test equipment was used to produce limited quantities of pellets for characterization. These tests showed which pellet formulations had a high potential. Pilot-scale tests then showed that extremely robust pellets could be produced that have high energy content, good density and adequate weatherability. It was concluded that these pellets could be handled, stored and transported using equipment similar to that used for coal. Tests showed that AFP pellets have a high combustion rate when burned in a stoker type systems. While NOx emissions under stoker type firing conditions was high, a simple air staging approach reduced emissions to below that for coal. In pulverized-fuel-fired tests it was found that the ground pellets could be used as an effective NOx control agent for pulverized-coal-fired systems. NOx emissions reductions up to 63% were recorded, when using AFP as a NOx control agent. In addition to performance benefits, economic analyses showed the good economic benefits of AFP fuel. Using equipment manufacturer inputs, and reasonable values for biomass, biosolids and coal fines costs, it was determined that an AFP plant would have good profitability. For cases where biosolids contents were in the range of 50%, the after tax Internal Rates of Return were in the range of 40% to 50%. These are very attractive returns. Besides the baseline analysis for the various AFP formulations tested at pilot scale, sensitivity analysis showed the impact of important parameters on return. From results, it was clear that returns are excellent for a range of parameters that could be expected in practice. Importantly, these good returns are achieved even without incentives related to the emissions control benefits of biomass.

John T. Kelly; George Miller; Mehdi Namazian

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fuel Cost Savings Through Computer Control of a Boiler Complex - - Two Case Histories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the growing need for energy efficiency in industry and describes a new, packaged approach to fuel optimization through direct digital control and accurate in-stack measurement of combustion products. Results are presented for a large pulp and paper mill complex in which multiple power boilers and turbine generators are controlled so as to meet the total energy demand of the mill at minimum cost. Also discussed are results from a second installation involving control of a combined bark and gas boiler, a gas package boiler and a turbine generator, including utility tie-line control.

Worthley, C. M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Marc W. Melaina (Primary Contact), Michael Penev and Darlene Steward National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 275-3836 Email: Marc.Melaina@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@hq.doe.gov Subcontractor: IDC Energy Insights, Framingham, MA Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: September 28, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Identify the capacity (kg/day) and capital costs * associated with "Early Commercial" hydrogen stations (defined below) Identify cost metrics for larger numbers of stations and * larger capacities Technical Barriers This project addresses the following technical barriers

231

Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

Holstein, R.A.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied. Because there is a lack of empirical evidence documenting the performance of these systems, this paper uses electric consumption data collected from buildings before and after retrofits were performed, and analyzes the cost and consumption savings achieved through installation of Bi-Level Lighting systems. The results of this report demonstrate that common areas that are currently not making use of Bi-Level lighting systems would achieve significant financial and environmental benefits from Bi-Level focused retrofits. This project concludes that building codes should be updated to reflect improvements in Bi-Level Lighting technologies, and that government-sponsored energy efficiency programs should explicitly encourage or mandate Bi-Level Lighting installation components of subsidized retrofit projects.

Ackley, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Establishing a Cost Basis for Converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from High Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the auspices of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program, the National Nuclear Security Administration /Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE) has, as a goal, to convert research reactors worldwide from weapons grade to non-weapons grade uranium. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is one of the candidates for conversion of fuel from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). A well documented business model, including tasks, costs, and schedules was developed to plan the conversion of HFIR. Using Microsoft Project, a detailed outline of the conversion program was established and consists of LEU fuel design activities, a fresh fuel shipping cask, improvements to the HFIR reactor building, and spent fuel operations. Current-value costs total $76 million dollars, include over 100 subtasks, and will take over 10 years to complete. The model and schedule follows the path of the fuel from receipt from fuel fabricator to delivery to spent fuel storage and illustrates the duration, start, and completion dates of each subtask to be completed. Assumptions that form the basis of the cost estimate have significant impact on cost and schedule.

Primm, Trent [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20[percent] reduction from 1988 levels, and 50[percent] reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]113, [dollar sign]161, and [dollar sign]517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively [dollar sign]40, [dollar sign]178, [dollar sign]253, and [dollar sign]848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]55, [dollar sign]59, and [dollar sign]135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50[percent] or 20[percent] relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth.

Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements  

SciTech Connect

There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Enterprise level fuel inventory management simulation and optimization.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective is to find the optimal fuel inventory management strategy roadmap for each supplier along the fuel delivery supply chain. SoSAT (System of Systems Analysis Toolset) Enterprise is a suite of software tools: State Model tool; Stochastic simulation tool; Advanced data visualization tools; and Optimization tools. Initially designed to provide DoDand supporting organizations the capability to analyze a System-of-Systems (SoS) and its various platforms: (1) Supporting multiple US Army Program Executive Office Integration (PEO-I) trade studies; (2) Supporting US Army Program Executive Office of Ground Combat Systems (PEO GCS) for Fleet Management and Modernization Planning initiative; and (3) Participating in formal Verification, Validation & Accreditation effort with Army Organizations (AMSAA and ATEC).

Kao, Gio K.; Eddy, John P.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Mass-Production Cost Estimation for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Brian D. James (Primary Contact), Kevin Baum, Andrew B. Spisak, Whitney G. Colella Strategic Analysis, Inc. 4075 Wilson Blvd. Suite 200 Arlington VA 22203 Phone: (703) 778-7114 Email: bjames@sainc.com DOE Managers HQ: Jason Marcinkoski, Phone: (202) 586-7466 Email: Jason.Marcinkoski@ee.doe.gov GO: Gregory Kleen Phone: (720) 356-1672 Email: Gregory.Kleen@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005236 Project Start Date: September 30, 2011 Project End Date: September 30, 2016 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Update 2011 automotive fuel cell cost model to include * latest performance data and system design information. Examine costs of fuel cell systems (FCSs) for light-duty * vehicle and bus applications.

239

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste Requirements (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Maine Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Public Utilities Commission All proposed nuclear power generation facilities must be certified by the Public Utilities Commission under this statute prior to construction and

240

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems … Projected Performance and Cost Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record Record #: 9017 Date: July 02, 2010 Title: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected Performance and Cost Parameters Originators: Robert C. Bowman and Ned Stetson Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: August 10, 2010 This record summarizes the current technical assessments of hydrogen (H 2 ) storage system capacities and projected manufacturing costs for the scenario of high-volume production (i.e., 500,000 units/year) for various types of "on-board" vehicular storage systems. These analyses were performed within the Hydrogen Storage sub-program of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Item: It is important to note that all system capacities are "net useable capacities" able to be delivered to the

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241

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 October 2009 Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables Karlynn Cory and Paul Schwabe National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46671 October 2009 Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables Karlynn Cory and Paul Schwabe Prepared under Task No. WER9.3550 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

242

Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Estimating decommissioning costs: The 1994 YNPS decommissioning cost study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early this year, Yankee Atomic Electric Company began developing a revised decommissioning cost estimate for the Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) to provide a basis for detailed decommissioning planning and to reflect slow progress in siting low-level waste (LLW) and spent-nuclear-fuel disposal facilities. The revision also reflects the need to change from a cost estimate that focuses on overall costs to a cost estimate that is sufficiently detailed to implement decommissioning and identify the final cost of decommissioning.

Szymczak, W.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Cost-effectiveness of recommended nurse staffing levels for short-stay skilled nursing facility patients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anonymous: Employer Costs for Employee Compensation--BioMed Central Open Access Cost-effectiveness of recommendeddiagnoses. However, the cost-effectiveness of increasing

Ganz, David A; Simmons, Sandra F; Schnelle, John F

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity criteria, is described in Shonder and Florita (2003) and Shonder and Hughes (2005). To address the first objective of the Level 2 analysis, we first assembled all the necessary information, and then repeated the ESCOs' calculations of reported annual cost savings. Only minor errors were encountered, the most common being the use of incorrect escalation rates to calculate utility prices or O&M savings. Altogether, our corrected calculations of the ESCO's reported cost savings were within 0.6% of the ESCOs' reported cost savings, and errors found were as likely to favor the government as they were the ESCO. To address the second objective, we gathered data on utility use and cost from central databases maintained by the Department of Defense and the General Services Administration, and directly from some of the sites, to determine the prices of natural gas and electricity actually paid at the sites during the periods addressed by the annual reports. We used these data to compare the actual utility costs at the sites to the contract utility prices. For natural gas, as expected, we found that prices had risen much faster than had been anticipated in the contracts. In 17 of the 18 projects for which the comparison was possible, contract gas prices were found to be lower than the average actual prices being paid. We conclude that overall in the program, the estimates of gas prices and gas price escalation rates used in the Super ESPC projects have been conservative. For electricity, it was possible to compare contract prices with the actual (estimated) marginal prices of electricity in 20 projects. In 14 of these projects, the overall contract electricity price was found to be lower than the marginal price of electricity paid to the serving utility. Thus it appears that conservative estimates of electricity prices and escalation rates have been used in the program as well. Finally we calculated the value of the reported energy savings using the prices of utilities actually paid by the sites instead of the contract

Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity criteria, is described in Shonder and Florita (2003) and Shonder and Hughes (2005). To address the first objective of the Level 2 analysis, we first assembled all the necessary information, and then repeated the ESCOs' calculations of reported annual cost savings. Only minor errors were encountered, the most common being the use of incorrect escalation rates to calculate utility prices or O&M savings. Altogether, our corrected calculations of the ESCO's reported cost savings were within 0.6% of the ESCOs' reported cost savings, and errors found were as likely to favor the government as they were the ESCO. To address the second objective, we gathered data on utility use and cost from central databases maintained by the Department of Defense and the General Services Administration, and directly from some of the sites, to determine the prices of natural gas and electricity actually paid at the sites during the periods addressed by the annual reports. We used these data to compare the actual utility costs at the sites to the contract utility prices. For natural gas, as expected, we found that prices had risen much faster than had been anticipated in the contracts. In 17 of the 18 projects for which the comparison was possible, contract gas prices were found to be lower than the average actual prices being paid. We conclude that overall in the program, the estimates of gas prices and gas price escalation rates used in the Super ESPC projects have been conservative. For electricity, it was possible to compare contract prices with the actual (estimated) marginal prices of electricity in 20 projects. In 14 of these projects, the overall contract electricity price was found to be lower than the marginal price of electricity paid to the serving utility. Thus it appears that conservative estimates of electricity prices and escalation rates have been used in the program as well. Finally we calculated the value of the reported energy savings using the prices of utilities actually paid by the sites instead of the contract prices. In 16 of the 22 projects (

Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Program on Technology Innovation: Advanced Fuel Cycles--Impact on High-Level Waste Disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of advanced fuel cycles is to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy by enhancing the effectiveness of natural uranium resource utilization and by mitigating waste disposal issues, while keeping the costs of energy products, in particular electricity, economically viable. In addition, this aim has to be achieved under conditions that minimize the risks of diversion of separated fissile materials and their possible misuse for non-peaceful ends. The report presents results from recently publi...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Graphical and tabular summaries of decay characteristics for once-through PWR, LMFBR, and FFTF fuel cycle materials. [Spent fuel, high-level waste fuel can scrap  

SciTech Connect

Based on the results of ORIGEN2 and a newly developed code called ORMANG, graphical and summary tabular characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel assembly structural material (cladding) waste are presented for a generic pressurized-water reactor (PWR), a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The characteristics include radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity (water dilution volume). Given are graphs and summary tables containing characteristic totals and the principal nuclide contributors as well as graphs comparing the three reactors for a single material and the three materials for a single reactor.

Croff, A.G.; Liberman, M.S.; Morrison, G.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Commerce study looks at cost of pollution control for fossil-fuel power industry  

SciTech Connect

Environmental controls for fossil-fuel power plants consumed 1.3 percent of the national fuel used in 1974, with the largest demand going for sulfur dioxide emission control. Projections for power plant consumption to meet environmental standards range as high as eight percent in the 1980s. Less-energy-consuming systems include coal blending, tall stacks, and supplementary control systems; while high consumers are using coal washing operations in place of scrubbers, fuel transportation, conversion to acceptable fuels, waste heat disposal, and particulate controls. A summary table presents sulfur dioxide regulations in terms of their goals and their anticipated minimum and maximum fuel consumption. (DCK)

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6) Demonstration of novel processes for composite cathode and cermet anode materials. Track 2--ORNL's development work focused solely on making anode-supported planar cells by tape casting of a porous anode substrate, screen printing of a YSZ electrolyte film, co-sintering of the bi-layer element, and screen-printing of an opposite cathode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale-up of anode tape casting and lamination processes; (2) Development of proprietary ink vehicle for screen-printing processes; (3) Development of screen-printing process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer anode-supported elements; and (5) Development of cathode screen-printing process. Track 3--UMR's process development work involved fabrication of a micro-porous cathode substrate, deposition of a nano-porous interlayer film, deposition of nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films from polymeric precursor solutions, and deposition of an anode coating. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Development and scale up of tape casting and sintering methods for cathode substrates; (2) Deposition of nano-porous ceria interlayer films on cathode substrates; (3) Successful deposition of dense YSZ films on porous cathode substrates; and (4) Identification of several anode material options.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Review PresentationCOST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program during the past year was to complete Technical Objectives 2 and 3 and initiate Technical Objective 4 are described. To assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heavy-water-moderated, light-water-moderated and liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors fueled with natural or low-enriched uranium and containing thorium mixed with the uranium or in separate target channels. U-232 decays with a 69-year half-life through 1.9-year half-life Th-228 to Tl-208, which emits a 2.6 MeV gamma ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWd/kg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4 percent. At this contamination level, a 5 kg sphere of U-233 would produce a gammaray dose rate of 13 and 38 rem/hr at 1 meter one and ten years after chemical purification respectively. The associated plutonium contains 7.5 percent of the undesirable heat-generating 88-year half-life isotope Pu-238. However, just as it is possible to produce weapon-grade plutonium in low-burnup fuel, it is also practical to use heavy-water reactors to produce U-233 containing only a few ppm of U-232 if the thorium is segregated in “target ” channels and discharged a few times more frequently than the natural-uranium “driver ” fuel. The dose rate from a 5-kg solid sphere of U-233 containing 5 ppm U-232 could be reduced by a further factor of 30, to about 2 mrem/hr, with a close-fitting lead sphere weighing about 100 kg. Thus the proliferation resistance of thorium fuel cycles depends very much upon how they are implemented. The original version of this manuscript was received by Science & Global Security on

Jungmin Kang A

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski & Kevin N. Baum One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared under: Subcontract No. AGB-0-40628-01 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the U.S. Department of Energy Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gasses and pollutants than

257

Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Cost Impact of Using ISG-8 Rev. 3 for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Criticality Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidance for applying burnup credit in criticality analyses for spent fuel storage and transportation requirements recently changed with the release of Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8 Revision 3, Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Spent Fuel in Transportation and Storage Casks. If ISG-8 Rev. 3 were imposed upon pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool (SFP) criticality analyses, the burnup requirements for loading would ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

259

Low-Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates - DOE Hydrogen and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Conghua "CH" Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. 201 Washington Rd. Princeton, NJ 08543 Phone: (609) 734-3071 Email:...

260

Microsoft Word - 2011 fuel costs per mile w-header.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of driving an electric vehicle depends on the cost of electricity per kilowatt-hour (kWh) and the energy efficiency of the vehicle. For example, to determine the energy cost...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage - Jesse Wainright, Case Western Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage J.S. Wainright, R. F. Savinell, P.I.s Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Purpose Impact on Iron Based Batteries on the DOE OE Energy Storage Mission Recent Results Recent Results Develop efficient, cost-effective grid level storage capability based on iron. Goals of this Effort: * Minimize Cost/Watt by increasing current density - Hardware Cost >> Electrolyte Cost * Minimize Cost/Whr by increasing plating capacity * Maximize Efficiency by minimizing current lost to hydrogen evolution Electrochemistry of the all-Iron system:

262

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13010: Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems - Current Performance and Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record Record #: 13010 Date: June 11, 2013 Title: Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems - Current Performance and Cost Originators: Scott McWhorter and Grace Ordaz Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: July 17, 2013 Item: This record summarizes the current status of the projected capacities and manufacturing costs of Type IV, 350- and 700-bar compressed hydrogen storage systems, storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen, for onboard light-duty automotive applications when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units per year. The current projected performance and cost of these systems are presented in Table 1 against the DOE Hydrogen Storage System targets. These analyses were performed in support of the Hydrogen Storage

263

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presentation presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information page 1 Overview * Base Period: - 100% complete * Manufacturing costs * Materials costs (particularly precious Timeline Barriers - Feb 17, 2006 to Feb. 16, 2008 * Option year 1 of 3: - 65% complete - Started Feb 16, 2008 metal catalysts) Characteristic Units 2008 2010 2015 Stack Cost $/kW e (net) - $25 $15 - $325K (2 year base period) - $182k (opt. yr. 1) - Contractor share: $0 * Funding for FY 2008 * Extensive interaction with Collaborations System Cost $/kW e (net) - $45 $30 * Funding for FY 2008 - $182k industry/researchers to solicit design & manufacturing metrics as input to cost analysis. page 2 Started Feb 16, 2008 Budget * Total project funding DOE Cost Targets

264

Rough cost estimates of solar thermal/coal or biomass-derived fuels. [Hybrid approach: solar thermal plus either coal or biomass  

SciTech Connect

The production of a synthetic fuel from a solar thermal resource could provide a means of replacing critical liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. The solar thermal resource is large and economics favors a southwestern site. A synthetic fuel would provide a desirable product and a means of transporting solar thermal energy to large load centers outside the southwest. This paper presents cost data for one method of producing synthetic methane. A hybrid approach was chosen, a combination of solar thermal and either coal or biomass. The magnitude of the solar thermal resource is estimated as well as projected cost. Cost projections for coal and biomass are accumulated. The cost of synthetic gas from a hybrid and a conventional fuel source are compared.

Copeland, R. J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, the system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

266

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, our system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

267

Cost modeling approach and economic analysis of biomass gasification integrated solid oxide fuel cell systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a cost modeling approach and the economic feasibility for selected plant configurations operating under three modes: air gasification

Rajesh S. Kempegowda; Øyvind Skreiberg; Khanh-Quang Tran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

Wang, M.Q.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

269

A cost-effective and fuel-conserving nonelectric air conditioner that combines engine-driven compression and absorption cycles  

SciTech Connect

A natural-gas-fueled electricity-producing condensing furnace with the potential of being mass produced at a cost of less than $1000 and providing a cost-effective and highly fuel-conserving alternative to virtually every residential gas furnace in the world has been developed. While this is a new system, it completely consists of existing mass-produced components including single-cylinder air-cooled engines, induction motors/generators, and control devices. Thus, timely commercialization can be expected and an important new energy technology and industry can result. However, all the benefits of this electricity-producing furnace occur during the winter. This has stimulated the search for a new system that can provide comparable benefits in terms of fuel conservation, the environment, and electric utility peak reduction during the summer, along with the prospects of a new and efficient new use for the natural gas surpluses that occur during the summer. The resulting system, which can use existing component equipment, is a commercial-size nonelectric air conditioner that consists of an automobile-type engine converted to natural gas, or possibly a diesel or combustion turbine, driving a Freon compression cycle, with virtually all of the engine reject heat from the exhaust and from the engine cooling system driving a conventional absorption air conditioning cycle.

Wicks, F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Economic costs and environmental impacts of alternative fuel vehicle fleets in local government: An interim assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Environmental policy 1. Introduction High crude oil prices and increasing public awareness of the environmental and fuel provider fleet vehicles (US Department of Energy, 2006). Nevertheless, fleets covered under

Illinois at Chicago, University of

271

Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Carbonate fuel cell monolith design for high power density and low cost  

SciTech Connect

Objective is higher power density operation and cost reduction. This is accomplished by the design of a bipolar plate where the separate corrugated current collectors are eliminated; cost reduction was also derived through higher power density and reduced material usage. The higher volumetric power density operation was achieved through lower cell resistance, increased active component surface area, and reduced cell height.

Allen, J.; Doyon, J.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Estimation of Capital and Levelized Cost for Redox Flow Batteries - Vilayanur Viswanathan, PNNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimation of Capital and Levelized Estimation of Capital and Levelized Cost for Redox Flow Batteries V. Viswanathan, A. Crawford, L. Thaller 1 , D. Stephenson, S. Kim, W. Wang, G. Coffey, P. Balducci, Z. Gary Yang 2 , Liyu Li 2 , M. Kintner-Meyer, V. Sprenkle 1 Consultant 2 UniEnergy Technology September 28, 2012 USDOE-OE ESS Peer Review Washington, DC Dr. Imre Gyuk - Energy Storage Program Manager, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 1 What are we trying to accomplish? PNNL grid analytics team has established ESS cost targets for various applications PNNL cost/performance model estimates cost for redox flow battery systems of various chemistries drives research internally to focus on most important components/parameters/metrics for cost reduction and performance improvement

275

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 13013: Hydrogen Delivery Cost Projections - 2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3013 Date: September 26, 2013 3013 Date: September 26, 2013 Title: H 2 Delivery Cost Projections - 2013 Originator: E. Sutherland, A. Elgowainy and S. Dillich Approved by: R. Farmer and S. Satyapal Date: December 18, 2013 Item: Reported herein are past 2005 and 2011 estimates, current 2013 estimates, 2020 projected cost estimates and the 2015 and 2020 target costs for delivering and dispensing (untaxed) H 2 to 10%- 15% of vehicles within a city population of 1.2M from a centralized H 2 production plant located 100 km from the city gate. The 2011 volume cost estimates are based on the H2A Hydrogen Delivery Scenario Analysis Model (HDSAM) V2.3 projections and are employed as the basis for defining the cost and technical targets of delivery components in Table 3.2.4 in the 2012 Delivery

276

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5040: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

40 Date: December 12, 2008 40 Date: December 12, 2008 Title: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis Originator: Roxanne Garland Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 19, 2008 Item: The 2005 cost status for hydrogen produced from distributed water electrolysis is $5.90 / gge. Assumptions and References: The H2A analysis used to determine the projected cost of $5.88/gge (rounded up to $5.90/gge) was performed by Directed Technologies, Inc. and can be found in Record 5040a. The increase in cost compared to the 2004 analysis ($5.45/gge) is due to two assumptions changed in the model: (a) an increase in the industrial electricity price from 5¢/kWh to 5.5¢/kWh from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook, and (b) an increase in the capital cost estimate of the electrolyzer. The other assumptions in the analysis used standard values

277

Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

Sonnet, Maria Claudia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis, Preliminary Results - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Brian D. James (Primary Contact), Andrew B. Spisak, Whitney G. Colella Strategic Analysis, Inc. 4075 Wilson Blvd. Suite 200 Arlington, VA 22203 Phone: (703) 778-7114 E-mail: bjames@sainc.com DOE Managers HQ: Grace Ordaz Phone: (202) 586-8350 Email: Grace.Ordaz@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005253 Project Start Date: September 30, 2012 Project End Date: September 29, 2016 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop cost models of carbon fiber hydrogen storage * pressure vessels. Explore the sensitivity of pressure vessel cost to design * parameters including hydrogen storage quantity, storage

279

Optimal Control of the Solid Fuel Ignition Model with H1-Cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimal control problems for the stationary as well as the time-dependent solid fuel ignition model are investigated. Existence of optimal controls is proved, and optimality systems are derived. The analysis is based on a closedness lemma for the exponential ... Keywords: control of exponential nonlinearity, explosion phenomena, optimal control, optimality conditions

Kazufumi Ito; Karl Kunisch

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell: a model of the operations cost.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This model description establishes the revenues, expenses incentives and avoided costs of Operation of a Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell-Based. Fuel is the major element of the cost of operation of a natural gas-fired fuel cell. Forecasts of the change in the price of this commodity a re an important consideration in the ownership of an energy conversion system. Differences between forecasts, the interests of the forecaster or geographical areas can all have significant effects on imputed fuel costs. There is less effect on judgments made on the feasibility of an energy conversion system since changes in fuel price can affect the cost of operation of the alternatives to the fuel cell in a similar fashion. The forecasts used in this model are only intended to provide the potential owner or operator with the means to examine alternate future scenarios. The operations model computes operating costs of a system suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

Not Available

1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Comparative analysis of energy costing methodologies. Appendix: report on levelized busbar-costing workshop held at MITRE/Metrek, June 29-30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proceedings of a workshop on levelized busbar costing methodologies which was held at MITRE/Metrek on June 29 and 30, 1978 are described. Particular emphasis was placed on consideration of geothermal energy sources. The objective of the workshop was to determine whether a consensus could be developed regarding the most appropriate methodologies and assumptions for levelized energy costing. The workshop was attended by representatives from energy resource, utility and engineering design companies, and by representatives of the Division of Geothermal Energy and R and D contractors for this Division. It was found that year-by-year calculations in current dollars were generally preferred, using either Discounted Cash Flow or Revenue Requirements methods. No consensus emerged on choice of discount rate or financial parameters such as debt/equity ratio, and tax credit carry forward/carry back provisions. It was felt that engineering aspects deserve close attention.

Leigh, J.G.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Program Record 13006 (Offices of Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies: Life-Cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Program Record (Offices of Vehicle Technologies & Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 13006 Date: April 24, 2013 Title: Life-cycle Costs of Mid-Size Light-Duty Vehicles Originator: Tien Nguyen & Jake Ward Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Pat Davis Date: April 25, 2013 Items: DOE is pursuing a portfolio of technologies with the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and petroleum consumption while being cost-effective. This record documents the assumptions and results of analyses conducted to estimate the life-cycle costs resulting from several fuel/vehicle pathways, for a future mid-size car. The results are summarized graphically in the following figure. Costs of Operation for Future Mid-Size Car

284

Diesel fuel filtration system  

SciTech Connect

The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel`s hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system.

Schneider, D. [Wisconsin Fuel and Light, Wausau, WI (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Costs Project Summary Full Title: Fuel Choice for Fuel Cell Vehicles: Hydrogen Infrastructure Costs Previous Title(s): Guidance for Transportation Technologies: Fuel...

286

Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes  

SciTech Connect

The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage.

Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in tasks seeking greater cell power density and lower cost through new cell designs, new cell materials and lower operating temperature is summarized. The design of the program required Proof-of-Concept unit of residential capacity scale is reviewed along with a summary of results from its successful test. Attachment 1 summarizes the status of cell development. Attachment 2 summarizes the status of generator design, and Attachment 3 of BOP design.

S. D. Vora

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which – in principle – could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

DOE

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

US Department of Energy Storage of Spent Fuel and High Level Waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) storage management. Like commercial reactor fuel, DOE's SNF and HLW were destined for the Yucca Mountain repository. In March 2010, the DOE filed a motion with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to withdraw the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain. A new repository is now decades away. The default for the commercial and DOE research reactor fuel and HLW is on-site storage for the foreseeable future. Though the motion to withdraw the license application and delay opening of a repository signals extended storage, DOE's immediate plans for management of its SNF and HLW remain the same as before Yucca Mountain was designated as the repository, though it has expanded its research and development efforts to ensure safe extended storage. This paper outlines some of the proposed research that DOE is conducting and will use to enhance its storage systems and facilities.

Sandra M Birk

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chapter 3 Appendices 1 Appendix 3A: Levelized Cost of Electricity and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the costs of coal, capital, and labor in Table 3A.1, natural gas with CCS becomes economic at the prices of higher than 100$/ tCO2 for a range $2­6$/MMBtu natural gas prices. At the higher natural gas prices, coal-Cost Generation Technology Zones for Coal and Natural Gas with and without CCS for Different Natural Gas Prices

Reuter, Martin

292

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. EnviRes initiated a wire transfer of funds for procurement of a pressure vessel and associated refractory lining. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS, the gasification testing subcontractor, reported to EnviRes that they were having difficulty with refractory vendors meeting specifications for the lining of the pressure vessel. EnviRes is working to resolve this issue.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4  

SciTech Connect

One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at Low-Level Waste Burial facilities. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect

One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fifth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1994, superseding the values given in the June 1994 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1995 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Flex-fuel Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicles Stations that Sell E85 (Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center AFDC) Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Cost Calculator (compare costs for operating your vehicle...

298

A Scalable Methodology for Cost Estimation in a Transformational High-Level Design Space Exploration Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objective of the methodology presented in this paper is to perform design space exploration on a high level of abstraction by applying high-level transformations. To realize a design loop which is close and settled on upper design levels, a high-level estimation step is integrated. In this paper, several estimation methodologies fixed on different states of the high-level synthesis process are examined with respect to their aptitude on controlling the transformational design space exploration process.

Gerlach

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes activities for the sixteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS, the gasification testing subcontractor, reported to EnviRes that the vendor for the pressure vessel for above atmospheric testing now plans to deliver it by November 20, 2006 instead of October 20, 2006 as previously reported. MEFOS performed a hazardous operation review of pressurized testing. The current schedule anticipates above atmospheric pressure testing to begin during the week of April 16, 2007. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 3 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Preliminary Design and Cost Structure of a 50-kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) System for Stationary Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology in commercial on-site power and co-generation systems. However, little quantitative information is available on such factors as cost structure, size/weight characteristics, and cost/performance tradeoffs. This report both updates and refines results of prior studies to provide a more quantitative basis for developing a program that supports sound product strategy and business decisions.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

NONE

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Goals > Fuels Goals > Fuels XMAT for nuclear fuels XMAT is ideally suited to explore all of the radiation processes experienced by nuclear fuels.The high energy, heavy ion accleration capability (e.g., 250 MeV U) can produce bulk damage deep in the sample, achieving neutron type depths (~10 microns), beyond the range of surface sputtering effects. The APS X-rays are well matched to the ion beams, and are able to probe individual grains at similar penetrations depths. Damage rates to 25 displacements per atom per hour (DPA/hr), and doses >2500 DPA can be achieved. MORE» Fuels in LWRs are subjected to ~1 DPA per day High burn-up fuel can experience >2000 DPA. Traditional reactor tests by neutron irradiation require 3 years in a reactor and 1 year cool down. Conventional accelerators (>1 MeV/ion) are limited to <200-400 DPAs, and

303

Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels  

SciTech Connect

This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

EPRI Review of Geologic Disposal for Used Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste: Volume IV - Lessons Learned  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effective termination of the Yucca Mountain program by the U.S. Administration in 2009 has further delayed the construction and operation of a permanent disposal facility for used fuel and high level radioactive waste (HLW) in the United States. In concert with this decision, the President directed the Energy Secretary to establish the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future to review and provide recommendations on options for managing used fuel and HLW. EPRI is uniquely positioned to prov...

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Pulse superimposition calculational methodology for estimating the subcritcality level of nuclear fuel assemblies.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the subcriticality level of a nuclear fuel assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology simulating the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the experimental and analytical reaction rates and the obtained subcriticality levels. In this methodology, the reaction rate is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the delayed fission neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction rate is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is then superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The analytical results of this new calculation methodology have shown an excellent agreement with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. This methodology can be used to calculate Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor.

Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Rabiti, C.; Aliberti, G.; Kondev, F.; Smith, D.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Serafimovich, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

COMPARATIVE COST STUDY OF PROCESSING STAINLESS STEEL-JACKETED UO$sub 2$ FUEL: MECHANICAL SHEAR-LEACH VS SULFEX-CORE DISSOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

The economics of mechanical shear-leach and Sulfex decladding-core dissolution head end treatments for processing typical tubular bundles of stainless steel-jacketed UO/sub 2/ nuclear fuels were compared. A 2.66 metric ton U/day head end portion of a plant was designed for each process and capital and operating costs were developed. For plants of this size and larger, mechanical shear-leach processing has the advantage of ~20% lower capital cost and 50% lower operating cost. Processing costs of stainless steel-jacketed UO/ sub 2/ by the Sulfex and shear-leach methods, including amortization and waste disposal but excluding solvent extraction, were .78 and 7l/kg U, respectively. Storage of stainless steel waste produced by the shear-leach method is less costly by a factor of 20 than for Sulfex. (auth)

Adams, J.B.; Benis, A.M.; Watson, C.D.

1962-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

307

Apples and oranges: don't compare levelized cost of renewables: Joskow  

SciTech Connect

MIT Prof. Paul Joskow points out that the levelized metric is inappropriate for comparing intermittent generating technologies like wind and solar with dispatchable generating technologies like nuclear, gas combined cycle, and coal. The levelized comparison fails to take into account differences in the production profiles of intermittent and dispatchable generating technologies and the associated large variations in the market value of the electricity they supply. When the electricity is produced by an intermittent generating technology, the level of output and the value of the electricity at the times when the output is produced are key variables that should be taken into account.

NONE

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Cost-Effective Methods for Accurate Determination of Sea Level Rise Vulnerability: A Solomon Islands Example  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For millions of people living along the coastal fringe, sea level rise is perhaps the greatest threat to livelihoods over the coming century. With the refinement and downscaling of global climate models and increasing availability of airborne-...

Simon Albert; Kirsten Abernethy; Badin Gibbes; Alistair Grinham; Nixon Tooler; Shankar Aswani

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cost-Effective Methods for Accurate Determination of Sea Level Rise Vulnerability: A Solomon Islands Example  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For millions of people living along the coastal fringe, sea level rise is perhaps the greatest threat to livelihoods over the coming century. With the refinement and downscaling of global climate models and increasing availability of airborne ...

Simon Albert; Kirsten Abernethy; Badin Gibbes; Alistair Grinham; Nixon Tooler; Shankar Aswani

310

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

penetration (Giebel 2005). Wind integration costs represent2005. Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the Europeanincreases in wind costs; Transmission and integration costs

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

312

Impact of DOE Program Goals on Hydrogen Vehicles: Market Prospect, Costs, and Benefits - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Zhenhong Lin (Primary Contact), David Greene, Jing Dong Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Transportation Research Center 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, TN 37932 Phone: (865) 946-1308 Email: linz@ornl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@hq.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 2011 Project End Date: September 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Project market penetrations of hydrogen vehicles under * varied assumptions on processes of achieving the DOE program goals for fuel cells, hydrogen storage, batteries, motors, and hydrogen supply. Estimate social benefits and public costs under different *

313

Hydrogen Fuel Quality  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

314

Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

Kraft, E.H.

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermal Properties of ThO 2 -Based Fuel Using Atomic Level ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thorium-based nuclear fuel cycles are promising for their intrinsic proliferation resistance and greater thorium abundance. In this presentation ...

316

A Low-Cost Soft-Switched DC/DC Converter for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A highly efficient DC to DC converter has been developed for low-voltage high-current solid oxide fuel cells. The newly developed 'V6' converter resembles what has been done in internal combustion engine that split into multiple cylinders to increase the output capacity without having to increase individual cell size and to smooth out the torque with interleaving operation. The development was started with topology overview to ensure that all the DC to DC converter circuits were included in the study. Efficiency models for different circuit topologies were established, and computer simulations were performed to determine the best candidate converter circuit. Through design optimization including topology selection, device selection, magnetic component design, thermal design, and digital controller design, a bench prototype rated 5-kW, with 20 to 50V input and 200/400V output was fabricated and tested. Efficiency goal of 97% was proven achievable through hardware experiment. This DC to DC converter was then modified in the later stage to converter 35 to 63 V input and 13.8 V output for automotive charging applications. The complete prototype was tested at Delphi with their solid oxide fuel cell test stand to verify the performance of the modified DC to DC converter. The output was tested up to 3-kW level, and the efficiency exceeded 97.5%. Multiple-phase interleaving operation design was proved to be reliable and ripple free at the output, which is desirable for the battery charging. Overall this is a very successful collaboration project between the SECA Core Technology Team and Industrial Team.

Jason Lai

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: · Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs, · Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically, · Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards, · Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste, and · Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Integrated Radiation Transport and Nuclear Fuel Performance for Assembly-Level Simulations  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) is focused on predicting the temperature and strain within a nuclear fuel assembly to evaluate the performance and safety of existing and advanced nuclear fuel bundles within existing and advanced nuclear reactors. AMPFuel was extended to include an integrated nuclear fuel assembly capability for (one-way) coupled radiation transport and nuclear fuel assembly thermo-mechanics. This capability is the initial step toward incorporating an improved predictive nuclear fuel assembly modeling capability to accurately account for source-terms and boundary conditions of traditional (single-pin) nuclear fuel performance simulation, such as the neutron flux distribution, coolant conditions, and assembly mechanical stresses. A novel scheme is introduced for transferring the power distribution from the Scale/Denovo (Denovo) radiation transport code (structured, Cartesian mesh with smeared materials within each cell) to AMPFuel (unstructured, hexagonal mesh with a single material within each cell), allowing the use of a relatively coarse spatial mesh (10 million elements) for the radiation transport and a fine spatial mesh (3.3 billion elements) for thermo-mechanics with very little loss of accuracy. In addition, a new nuclear fuel-specific preconditioner was developed to account for the high aspect ratio of each fuel pin (12 feet axially, but 1 4 inches in diameter) with many individual fuel regions (pellets). With this novel capability, AMPFuel was used to model an entire 17 17 pressurized water reactor fuel assembly with many of the features resolved in three dimensions (for thermo-mechanics and/or neutronics), including the fuel, gap, and cladding of each of the 264 fuel pins; the 25 guide tubes; the top and bottom structural regions; and the upper and lower (neutron) reflector regions. The final, full assembly calculation was executed on Jaguar using 40,000 cores in under 10 hours to model over 162 billion degrees of freedom for 10 loading steps. The single radiation transport calculation required about 50% of the time required to solve the thermo-mechanics with a single loading step, which demonstrates that it is feasible to incorporate, in a single code, a high-fidelity radiation transport capability with a high-fidelity nuclear fuel thermo-mechanics capability and anticipate acceptable computational requirements. The results of the full assembly simulation clearly show the axial, radial, and azimuthal variation of the neutron flux, power, temperature, and deformation of the assembly, highlighting behavior that is neglected in traditional axisymmetric fuel performance codes that do not account for assembly features, such as guide tubes and control rods.

Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Pugmire, Dave [ORNL; Dilts, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Banfield, James E [ORNL

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Development of a Low-Cost 3-10 kW Tubular SOFC Power System - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Norman Bessette Acumentrics Corporation 20 Southwest Park Westwood, MA 02090 Phone: (781) 461-8251; Email: nbessette@acumentrics.com DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-03NT41838 Project Start Date: April 1, 2008 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The goal of the project is to develop a low-cost 3-10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generator capable of meeting multiple market applications. This is accomplished by: Improving cell power and stability * Cost reduction of cell manufacturing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The economics of alternative fuel cycles on sodium-cooled fast reactors and uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of cost estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work was done to create a baseline capital cost model for the SFR in which case studies were performed to identify ways to decrease the capital costs while maintaining safety and performance. This thesis expands ...

Russo, Genevieve V. (Genevieve Virgina)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

45 7.3 Renewable Energy Costand future renewable energy costs, while less volatile thanResource Data Renewable Energy Cost Characterization

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Busbar Cost Data 47 Windanalysis. energy (wind, in particular), as well as the costwind capital cost estimates from EPRI/DOE Renewable Energy

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Expected environments in high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel repositories in salt  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe the expected environments associated with high-level waste (HLW) and spent fuel (SF) repositories in salt formations. These environments include the thermal, fluid, pressure, brine chemistry, and radiation fields predicted for the repository conceptual designs. In this study, it is assumed that the repository will be a room and pillar mine in a rock-salt formation, with the disposal horizon located approx. 2000 ft (610 m) below the surface of the earth. Canistered waste packages containing HLW in a solid matrix or SF elements are emplaced in vertical holes in the floor of the rooms. The emplacement holes are backfilled with crushed salt or other material and sealed at some later time. Sensitivity studies are presented to show the effect of changing the areal heat load, the canister heat load, the barrier material and thickness, ventilation of the storage room, and adding a second row to the emplacement configuration. The calculated thermal environment is used as input for brine migration calculations. The vapor and gas pressure will gradually attain the lithostatic pressure in a sealed repository. In the unlikely event that an emplacement hole will become sealed in relatively early years, the vapor space pressure was calculated for three scenarios (i.e., no hole closure - no backfill, no hole closure - backfill, and hole closure - no backfill). It was assumed that the gas in the system consisted of air and water vapor in equilibrium with brine. A computer code (REPRESS) was developed assuming that these changes occur slowly (equilibrium conditions). The brine chemical environment is outlined in terms of brine chemistry, corrosion, and compositions. The nuclear radiation environment emphasized in this report is the stored energy that can be released as a result of radiation damage or crystal dislocations within crystal lattices.

Claiborne, H.C.; Rickertsen, L.D., Graham, R.F.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Program on Technology Innovation: Advanced Fuel Cycles - Impact on High-Level Waste Disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a dynamic simulation analysis for deployment of advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast burner reactors, as proposed by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. Conditions for the analysis were selected for their potential to challenge the nuclear fuel simulation codes that were used, due to the large variations in nuclear fuel composition for the burner reactors before equilibrium conditions are approached. The analysis was performed in a U.S. conte...

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Extended Storage Collaboration Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) convened a workshop of over 40 representatives of the nuclear industry, federal government, national laboratories, and suppliers of used-fuel dry-storage systems to discuss the potential issues associated with extended dry storage of used fuel, that is, storage considerably beyond the term of current and recently proposed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The workshop was held November 18-19, 2009, at EPRI's offices in Washington, DC.

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

329

Integrated Radiation Transport and Nuclear Fuel Performance for Assembly-Level Simulations  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) is focused on predicting the temperature and strain within a nuclear fuel assembly to evaluate the performance and safety of existing and advanced nuclear fuel bundles within existing and advanced nuclear reactors. AMPFuel was extended to include an integrated nuclear fuel assembly capability for (one-way) coupled radiation transport and nuclear fuel assembly thermo-mechanics. This capability is the initial step toward incorporating an improved predictive nuclear fuel assembly modeling capability to accurately account for source-terms, such as neutron flux distribution, coolant conditions and assembly mechanical stresses, of traditional (single-pin) nuclear fuel performance simulation. A novel scheme is introduced for transferring the power distribution from the Scale/Denovo (Denovo) radiation transport code (structured, Cartesian mesh with smeared materials within each cell) to AMPFuel (unstructured, hexagonal mesh with a single material within each cell), allowing the use of a relatively coarse spatial mesh (10 million elements) for the radiation transport and a fine spatial mesh (3.3 billion elements) for thermo-mechanics with very little loss of accuracy. With this novel capability, AMPFuel was used to model an entire 1717 pressurized water reactor fuel assembly with many of the features resolved in three dimensions (for thermo-mechanics and/or neutronics). A full assembly calculation was executed on Jaguar using 40,000 cores in under 10 hours to model over 160 billion degrees of freedom for 10 loading steps. The single radiation transport calculation required about 50% of the time required to solve the thermo-mechanics with a single loading step, which demonstrates that it is feasible to incorporate, in a single code, a high-fidelity radiation transport capability with a high-fidelity nuclear fuel thermo-mechanics capability and anticipate acceptable computational requirements. The results of the full assembly simulation clearly show the axial, radial, and azimuthal variation of the neutron flux, power, temperature, and deformation of the assembly, highlighting behavior that is neglected in traditional axisymmetric fuel performance codes that do not account for assembly features, such as guide tubes and control rods.

Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

New MEA Materials for Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Performance, Durability, and Cost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Fletcher (Primary Contact), Philip Cox University of North Florida (UNF) 1 UNF Drive Jacksonville, FL 32224 Phone: (904) 620-1844 Email: jfletche@UNF.edu DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000475 Subcontractors: * University of Florida, Gainesville, FL * Northeastern University, Boston, MA * Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Swindon, UK

331

Cost of Adding E85 Fueling Capability to Existing Gasoline Stations: NREL Survey and Literature Search (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet provides framework for gas station owners to access what a reasonable cost would be to install E85 infrastructure.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW Conesville, Ohio plant and contrasted with the cryogenic air separation option (ASU). Design of a large scale CAR unit was completed to support this techno-economic assessment. Based on the finding that the overall cost potential of the CAR technology compared to cryogenic ASU is nominal at current performance levels and that the risks related to both material and process scale up are still significant, the team recommended not to proceed to Phase 2. CAR process economics continue to look attractive if the original and still 'realistic' target oxygen capacities could be realized in practice. In order to achieve this end, a new fundamental materials development program would be needed. With the effective oxygen capacities of the current CAR materials there is, however, insufficient economic incentive to use this commercially unproven technology in oxy-fuel power plant applications in place of conventional ASUs. In addition, it is now clear that before a larger scale pilot demonstration of the CAR technology is made, a better understanding of the impact of flue-gas impurities on the CAR materials and of thermal transients in the beds is required.

Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

PON08010 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PON08010 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) Cost Share: Alternative Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs). 15) A public entity and implementation of those vehicles. Will the budget breakdown include vehicle manufacturer costs involved? If so

335

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas prices is probably not a linear one, due in part to fuel substitution effects, but we assume a linear trend

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydro fuel cells, anaerobic digestion, and MSW incineration.Power Landfill Gas Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Gasificationlandfill gas, and anaerobic digestion. c - Study uses NEMS.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5038: Hydrogen Cost Competitive on a Cents per Mile Basis - 2006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Date: May 22, 2006 8 Date: May 22, 2006 Title: Hydrogen Cost Competitive on a Cents per Mile Basis - 2006 Originator: Patrick Davis & Steve Chalk Approved by: JoAnn Milliken Approval Date: May 22, 2006 Item : Lower the cost of hydrogen from natural gas to be competitive on a cents per mile basis with conventional gasoline vehicles. Supporting Information: The results of a 2003 economic analysis were used to estimate the cost of hydrogen produced from distributed natural gas reforming at $5 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) (See U.S. DOE Record 5030: Hydrogen Baseline Cost of $5 per gge in 2003; available at http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/program_records). Since the original analysis, DOE-sponsored R&D has resulted in significant cost reductions,

340

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells and modeling the impact of system parameters on levelized cost of electricity .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis is to develop low-cost high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells which are at the right intersection of cost and performance to… (more)

Kang, Moon Hee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Environmental benefits and cost savings through market-based instruments : an application using state-level data from India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper develops a methodology for estimating potential cost savings from the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) when local emissions and abatement cost data are not available. The paper provides estimates of the ...

Gupta, Shreekant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Emory S. De Castro BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. 39 Veronica Avenue Somerset, NJ 08873 Phone: (732) 545-5100 ext 4114 Email: Emory.DeCastro@BASF.com DOE Managers HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000384 Subcontractor: Dr. Vladimir Gurau Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Project Start Date: July 1, 2009 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Reduce cost in fabricating gas diffusion electrodes * through the introduction of high speed coating technology, with a focus on materials used for the high- temperature membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)

344

Development of a New Class of Low Cost, High Frequency Link Direct DC to AC Converters for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)  

SciTech Connect

This project proposes to design and develop a new class of power converters (direct DC to AC) to drastically improve performance and optimize the cost, size, weight and volume of the DC to AC converter in SOFC systems. The proposed topologies employ a high frequency link; direct DC to AC conversion approach. The direct DC to AC conversion approach is more efficient and operates without an intermediate dc-link stage. The absence of the dc-link, results in the elimination of bulky, aluminum electrolytic capacitors, which in turn leads to a reduction in the cost, volume, size and weight of the power electronic converter. The feasibility of two direct DC to AC converter topologies and their suitability to meet SECA objectives will be investigated. Laboratory proto-type converters (3-5kW) will be designed and tested in Phase-1. A detailed design trade-off study along with the test results will be available in the form of a report for the evaluation of SECA Industrial partners. This project proposes to develop a new and innovative power converter technology suitable for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power systems in accordance with SECA objectives. The proposed fuel cell inverter (FCI) employs state of the art power electronic devices configured in two unique topologies to achieve direct conversion of DC power (24-48V) available from a SOFC to AC power (120/240V, 60Hz) suitable for utility interface and powering stand alone loads. The primary objective is to realize cost effective fuel cell converter, which operates under a wide input voltage range, and output load swings with high efficiency and improved reliability.

Prasad Enjeti; J.W. Howze

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Long-run incremental costs and the pricing of electricity. Part II. [Comparative evaluation of marginal cost pricing and average cost pricing  

SciTech Connect

Total costs have essentially the same cost components whether long-run average costs or long-run incremental costs are used. The variable components, chiefly fuel, may be somewhat different in the new incremental plant compared to the old average plant; where the difference is between nuclear fuel and fossil fuel, its size is substantial. However, given the same kind of plant, the current prices of materials and labor will be essentially the same whether used in the new or the old plant with long-run incremental costs (LRIC) or long-run average costs (LRAC). The lower cost of electricity produced in nuclear plants constructed today, as compared to fossil fuel plants constructed at the same time, is not to be confused with the relation between LRIC and LRAC. LRAC is the average cost of electricity from all existing plants priced at their historical costs, which were generally lower than current costs. These average historical costs per kilowatt are still likely to be lower than the current incremental cost per kilowatt of the newest nuclear plant built at present price levels. LRAC is, therefore, still likely to be lower than LRIC for either fossil or nuclear. Data from the Wisconsin Power and Light Company, the Madison Gas and Electric Company, and Tuscon Gas and Electric Company are examined to study some comparisons. Some pricing principles that vary seasonally for resort hotels are reviewed. (MCW)

Morton, W.A.

1976-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

347

Cost Estimate for an Away-From-Reactor Generic Interim Storage Facility (GISF) for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As nuclear power plants began to run out of storage capacity in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pools, many nuclear operating companies added higher density pool storage racks to increase pool capacity. Most nuclear power plant storage pools have been re-racked one or more times. As many spent fuel storage pools were re-racked to the maximum extent possible, nuclear operating companies began to employ interim dry storage technologies to store SNF in certified casks and canister-based systems outside of ...

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Unit costs of waste management operations  

SciTech Connect

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

350

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Average Retail Electricity Rates.. 14Projected RPS Electricity Rate Impacts by RPS CostRPS Targets and Retail Electricity Rate Impacts 16 Typical

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

California studies. Biomass co-firing and direct combustionCalifornia studies. Biomass co-firing and direct combustionin the study is biomass co-firing. e - Study models fuel

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

Energy and Environmental Solutions

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other materials to high-level-waste glass  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the cold war the United States, Russia, and other countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. The United States Academy of Sciences (NAS) has recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This spent fuel standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The NAS recommended investigation of three sets of options for disposition of SFMs while meeting the spent fuel standard: (1) incorporate SFMs with highly radioactive materials and dispose of as waste, (2) partly burn the SFMs in reactors with conversion of the SFMs to SNF for disposal, and (3) dispose of the SFMs in deep boreholes. The US Government is investigating these options for SFM disposition. A new method for the disposition of SFMs is described herein: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptinium, americium, and {sup 233}U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal.

Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Economic Analyiss of "Symbiotic" Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle costs are included in the analysis, with the fast reactors having a higher $/kw(e) capital cost than the LWRs, the overall busbar generation cost ($/MWh) for the closed cycles is approximately 12% higher than for the all-LWR once-through fuel cycle case, again based on the expected values from an uncertainty analysis. It should be noted that such a percentage increase in the cost of nuclear power is much smaller than that expected for fossil fuel electricity generation if CO2 is costed via a carbon tax, cap and trade regimes, or carbon capture and sequestration (CCS).

Williams, Kent Alan [ORNL; Shropshire, David E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste ultimately destined for geologic disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the late 1950s, Americans have come to rely more and more on energy generated from nuclear reactors. Today, 109 commercial nuclear reactors supply over one-fifth of the electricity used to run our homes, schools, factories, and farms. When the nuclear fuel can no longer sustain a fission reaction in these reactors it becomes `spent` or `used` and is removed from the reactors and stored onsite. Most of our Nation`s spent nuclear fuel is currently being stored in specially designed deep pools of water at reactor sites; some is being stored aboveground in heavy thick-walled metal or concrete structures. Sites currently using aboveground dry storage systems include Virginia Power`s Surry Plant, Carolina Power and Light`s H.B. Robinson Plant, Duke Power`s Oconee Nuclear Station, Colorado Public Service Company`s shutdown reactor at Fort St. Vrain, Baltimore Gas and Electric`s Calvert Cliffs Plant, and Michigan`s Consumer Power Palisades Plant.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Treatment of high-level wastes from the IFR fuel cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is being developed as a future commercial power source that promises to have important advantages over present reactors, including improved resource conservation and waste management. The spent metal alloy fuels from an IFR will be processed in an electrochemical cell operating at 500{degree}C with a molten chloride salt electrolyte and cadmium metal anode. After the actinides have been recovered from several batches of core and blanket fuels, the salt cadmium in this electrorefiner will be treated to separate fission products from residual transuranic elements. This treatment produces a waste salt that contains the alkali metal, alkaline earth, and halide fission products; some of the rare earths; and less than 100 nCi/g of alpha activity. The treated metal wastes contain the rest of the fission products (except T, Kr, and Xe) small amounts of uranium, and only trace amounts of transuranic elements. The current concept for the salt waste form is an aluminosilicate matrix, and the concept for the metal waste form is a corrosion-resistant metal alloy. The processes and equipment being developed to treat and immobilize the salt and metal wastes are described.

Johnson, T.R.; Lewis, M.A.; Newman, A.E.; Laidler, J.J.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

NREL: Energy Analysis - Energy Technology Cost and Performance Data for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bookmark and Share Bookmark and Share Energy Technology Cost and Performance Data for Distributed Generation Transparent Cost Database Button Recent cost estimates for distributed generation (DG) renewable energy technologies are available across capital costs, operations and maintenance (O&M) costs, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Use the tabs below to navigate the charts. The LCOE tab provides a simple calculator for both utility-scale and DG technologies that compares the combination of capital costs, O&M, performance, and fuel costs. If you are seeking utility-scale technology cost and performance estimates, please visit the Transparent Cost Database website for NREL's information regarding vehicles, biofuels, and electricity generation. Capital Cost (September 2013 Update)

360

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Power from the Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power for Buildings Using Fuel-Cell Cars,” Proceedings ofwell as to drive down fuel-cell system costs through productis most likely to be the fuel-cell vehicle. Fuel cells are

Lipman, Timothy E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dr. Katherine Ayers (Primary Contact), Andy Roemer Proton Energy Systems d/b/a Proton OnSite 10 Technology Drive Wallingford, CT 06492 Phone: (203) 678-2190 Email: kayers@protononsite.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: Dave Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE000276 Subcontractors: * Entegris, Inc., Chaska, MN * The Electrochemical Engine Center at Penn State, University Park, PA * Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Project Start Date: September 1, 2009

363

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Monjid Hamdan (Primary Contact), Tim Norman Giner, Inc. (Formerly Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC.) 89 Rumford Ave. Newton, MA 02466 Phone: (781) 529-0526 Email: mhamdan@ginerinc.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18065 Subcontractors: * Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, Blacksburg, VA * Parker Hannifin Ltd domnick hunter Division, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom Project Start Date: May 1, 2008

364

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

365

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

versus out-of-state renewable energy project development andbarriers to renewable energy in many states, but these costsPV technology or renewable energy generated in-state. For an

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

367

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

368

Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Energy Department Invests Over $7 Million to Commercialize Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Over 7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Energy Department Invests Over 7 Million to Commercialize Cost-Effective Hydrogen and Fuel...

370

Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough, component sizing, and utility needs. These data, along with process efficiency results from the model, were subsequently used to calculate the cost of electricity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correlate the concentrations of key impurities in the fuel gas feedstock to the cost of electricity.

Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Genevieve Saur (Primary Contact), Chris Ainscough. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401-3305 Phone: (303) 275-3783 Email: genevieve.saur@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Corroborate recent wind electrolysis cost studies using a * more detailed hour-by-hour analysis. Examine consequences of different system configuration * and operation for four scenarios, at 42 sites in five

372

Infrastructure Costs Associated with Central Hydrogen Production from Biomass and Coal - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Darlene Steward (Primary Contact), Billy Roberts, Karen Webster National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401-3305 Phone: (303) 275-3837 Email: Darlene.Steward@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@hq.doe.gov Project Start Date: Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE FY 2012 Objectives Elucidate the location-dependent variability of * infrastructure costs for biomass- and coal-based central hydrogen production and delivery and the tradeoffs inherent in plant-location choices Provide modeling output and correlations for use in other * integrated analyses and tools

373

Effects of Technology Cost Parameters on Hydrogen Pathway Succession - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Mark F. Ruth* (Primary Contact), Victor Diakov*, Brian James † , Julie Perez ‡ , Andrew Spisak † *National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Pkwy. Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 817-6160 Email: Mark.Ruth@nrel.gov and Victor.Diakov@nrel.gov † Strategic Analysis, Inc. ‡ New West Technologies DOE Manager HQ: Fred Joseck Phone: (202) 586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Strategic Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA Project Start Date: February 1, 2009 Project End Date: October 31, 2011 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a macro-system model (MSM): * Aimed at performing rapid cross-cutting analysis - Utilizing and linking other models - Improving consistency between models -

374

SECA Fuel Processing Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 3, 2003 SECA Fuel Processing National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Strategic Center for Natural Gas REFORMING * Focus - Heavy hydrocarbons - Minimal use of water - Simplified system - Reduced cost - Sulfur tolerance with conversion to hydrogen sulfide * Challenges - Carbon deposition - Sulfur poisoning - Thermal gradients - Vaporization * Approaches - Metal oxide catalysts - Nobal metal cPox or ATR - Decorated nickel surface - Complete system interactions Tubular cPox Reformer Strategic Center for Natural Gas NETL Fuel Processing Budget Summary Proj. # PROJECT PERSONNEL KEY TASKS COST EST. 1 Diesel Reforming Kinetic Fundamentals *Shekhawat Gardner Berry 1.) Bring Reforming Lab Online 2.) Conduct Diesel Compound Interaction Study 3.) Level 1

375

Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Estimate Costs to Implement Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:25am Addthis After determining the best greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction strategies using renewable energy, a Federal agency should estimate the cost of implementing them in a building or buildings. There are several cost factors that need to be considered when developing a renewable energy project. Capital costs, fixed and variable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs and in the case of biomass and waste-to-energy projects, fuel costs all contribute to the total cost of operating a renewable energy system. The levelized system cost takes into account these

376

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and future renewable energy costs, while less volatile thandifference between renewable energy costs and the cost ofto be the least-cost renewable energy source and, as noted

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

380

System Level Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Options - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Rajesh K. Ahluwalia (Primary Contact), T. Q. Hua, J-K Peng, Hee Seok Roh, and Romesh Kumar Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Phone: (630) 252-5979 Email: walia@anl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Grace Ordaz Phone: (202) 586-8350 Email: Grace.Ordaz@ee.doe.gov Start Date: October 1, 2004 Projected End Date: September 30, 2014 Objective The overall objective of this effort is to support DOE with independent system level analyses of various H 2 storage approaches, to help to assess and down-select options, and to determine the feasibility of meeting DOE targets. Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Model various developmental hydrogen storage systems. * Provide results to Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center *

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

382

DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Investigation of the viability and cost effectiveness of solid fuel gasifiers close coupled to internal combustion engines for 200 kWe power generation. Technical progress report No. 9  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viability and cost effectiveness of a 200 kWe engine generator unit fueled by a direct coupled, solid fuel gasifier were studied. Recent literature describing gasifier technology was obtained and personal visits were made to test facility sites and engine manufacturing plants to discuss the subject with researchers and engineers. Two prototype units were inspected, one of which was in partial operation. This report presents a brief discussion of fuel and gasifier technology, gas treatment (clean up) for engine use, engine use technology, other uses for gasifiers, the viability of close coupled units, and an estimate of cost effectiveness. Present small experimental gasifier systems perform as expected and have served to demonstrate the technology. Typically they operate with fuel species which are present and collected on the site of a processing plant. Certain needed development efforts are discussed. Also, fuel must be available at low cost and even then electric power produced in this way is unlikely to be competitive economically where utility poles are available. (LTN)

Mingle, J. G.; Junge, D. C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Alcohol fuel use: Implications for atmospheric levels of aldehydes, organic nitrates, pans, and peroxides: Separating sources using carbon isotopes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed DiNitroPhenylHydrazone (DNPH) derivatization--high performance liquid chromatographic methods for measuring aldehydes in ambient samples with detection limits of approximately 1ppbV. These methods can be used for air or precipitation studies, and have been used for indoor measurements at much higher levels using shorter integration times. We are using gas chromatographs with electron capture detection (GCECD) to measure ambient levels of peroxyacyl nitrates and organic nitrates. Diffusion tubes with synthetically produced organic nitrates in n-tridecane solution are used to calibrate these systems. These compounds are important means of transporting NO/sub x/ over large scales due to their reduced tropospheric reactivity, low water solubilities, photolytic, and thermal stability. Their chemistries are coupled to aldehyde chemistry and are important greenhouse gases as well as phytotoxins. We have completed preliminary studies in Rio de Janeiro examining the atmospheric chemistry consequences of ethanol fuel usage. The urban air mass has been effected by the direct uncontrolled usage of ethanolgasoline and ethanoldiesel mixtures. We are exploring the use of luminol chemiluminescent detection of peroxides using gas chromatography to separate the various organic and inorganic peroxides. These compounds are coupled to the aldehyde chemistry, particularly in remote chemistries down-wind of urban sources. 13 refs.

Gaffney, J.S.; Tanner, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100{degree}C. 52 refs., 9 figs.

Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Report on Waste Burial Charges Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, make any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for any third party’s use or the results of such use, of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed in this report, or represents that its use by such third party would not infringe privately owned rights. The views expressed in this paper are not necessarily those of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1307, Revision 13, is not a substitute for NRC regulations, and compliance is not required. The approaches and/or methods described in this NUREG are provided for information only. Publication of this report does not necessarily A requirement placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is that licensees must annually adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is revised periodically, explains the formula that is acceptable to the NRC for determining the minimum decommissioning fund requirements for nuclear power plants. The sources of information used in the formula are identified, and the values developed for the estimation of radioactive waste burial/disposition costs, by site and by year, are given. Licensees may use the formula, coefficients, and burial/disposition adjustment factors from this report in their cost analyses,

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

388

Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Five Kilowatt Fuel Cell Demonstration for Remote Power Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While most areas of the US are serviced by inexpensive, dependable grid connected electrical power, many areas of Alaska are not. In these areas, electrical power is provided with Diesel Electric Generators (DEGs), at much higher cost than in grid connected areas. The reasons for the high cost of power are many, including the high relative cost of diesel fuel delivered to the villages, the high operational effort required to maintain DEGs, and the reverse benefits of scale for small utilities. Recent progress in fuel cell technologies have lead to the hope that the DEGs could be replaced with a more efficient, reliable, environmentally friendly source of power in the form of fuel cells. To this end, the University of Alaska Fairbanks has been engaged in testing early fuel cell systems since 1998. Early tests were conducted on PEM fuel cells, but since 2001, the focus has been on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. In this work, a 5 kW fuel cell was delivered to UAF from Fuel Cell Technologies of Kingston, Ontario. The cell stack is of a tubular design, and was built by Siemens Westinghouse Fuel Cell division. This stack achieved a run of more than 1 year while delivering grid quality electricity from natural gas with virtually no degradation and at an electrical efficiency of nearly 40%. The project was ended after two control system failures resulted in system damage. While this demonstration was successful, considerable additional product development is required before this technology is able to provide electrical energy in remote Alaska. The major issue is cost, and the largest component of system cost currently is the fuel cell stack cost, although the cost of the balance of plant is not insignificant. While several manufactures are working on schemes for significant cost reduction, these systems do not as yet provide the same level of performance and reliability as the larger scale Siemens systems, or levels that would justify commercial deployment.

Dennis Witmer; Tom Johnson; Jack Schmid

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

AVCEM: Advanced-Vehicle Cost and Energy Use Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the battery, according to the battery cost equations (seediscussion of battery cost above). There actually are twoin the amount and cost of fuel-storage, battery, vehicle

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design considerations for vehicular fuel cell power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells show great promise as an efficient, nonpolluting vehicular power source that can operate on nonpetroleum fuel. As with other power sources, design tradeoffs can be made that either improve vehicle performance or reduce the size and cost of the fuel cell power system. To evaluate some of these tradeoffs, a number of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant designs have been studied to determine the performance level they would provide, both for a compact passenger vehicle and a 40-ft city bus. The fuel is steam reformed methanol. The analyses indicate that 1978 fuel cell technology can provide a 22 to 50% improvement in fuel economy over the 1980 EPA estimate for the conventionally powered General Motors X car. With this technology the city bus can meet the DOT acceleration, gradability, and top speed requirements. A reasonable advance in fuel cell technology improves performance and fuel consumption of both vehicles substantially.

Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; Bobbett, R.E.; Srinivasan, S.; Huff, J.R.

1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use. by Anthony Radich. Introduction. The idea of using vegetable oil for fuel has been around as long as the diesel engine.

393

Fuel Guide Economy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS IN POPULAR VEHICLE CLASSES Listed below are the vehicles with the highest fuel economy for the most popular classes, including both automatic and manual transmissions and gasoline and diesel vehicles. Please be aware that many of these vehicles come in a range of engine sizes and trim lines, resulting in different fuel economy values. Check the fuel economy guide or the fuel economy sticker on new vehicles to find the values for a particular version of a vehicle. CONTENTS MODEL YEAR 2000 FUEL ECONOMY LEADERS ................. 1 HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE ..................................................... 2 FUEL ECONOMY AND YOUR ANNUAL FUEL COSTS .......... 3 WHY FUEL ECONOMY IS IMPORTANT .................................

394

Vehicle Cost Calculator  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

395

Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 * November 2010 3 * November 2010 Electricity Natural Gas Power Heat Natural Gas or Biogas Tri-Generation Fuel Cell Hydrogen Natural Gas Converted to hydrogen on site via steam-methane reforming electrolyzer peak burner heat sink FC SYSTEM + H 2 Renewables H 2 -FC H 2 -storage 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Electricity Demand (kW) Heat Demand (kW) Hydrogen Demand (kW) * Grid electricity (hourly) * Fuel prices * Water price 0 2 4

396

Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted.

Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High Level Waste to Yucca Mountain: The Next Step in Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the U.S. Department of Energy's ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada,'' the Department states that certain broad transportation-related decisions can be made. These include the choice of a mode of transportation nationally (mostly legal-weight truck or mostly rail) and in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or mostly heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), as well as the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. Although a rail line does not service the Yucca Mountain site, the Department has identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. If mostly rail is selected for Nevada, the Department would then identify a preference for one of the rail corridors in consultation with affected stakeholders, particularly the State of Nevada. DOE would then select the rail corridor and initiate a process to select a specific rail alignment within the corridor for the construction of a rail line. Five proposed rail corridors were analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement. The assessment considered the impacts of constructing a branch rail line in the five 400-meter (0.25mile) wide corridors. Each corridor connects the Yucca Mountain site with an existing mainline railroad in Nevada.

Sweeney, Robin L,; Lechel, David J.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005. Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the Europeanincreases in wind costs; Transmission and integration costs

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Study Report II. Albany, New York: New York DepartmentOrder Cost Analysis. Albany, New York: New York Public

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Requirements for low cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multi-unit intertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reducing USdependenceon foreign oil imports, the associatedor, as they do fuel now,to foreign oil producers, assuming

Logan, B. Grant; Moir, Ralph; Hoffman, Myron A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

Colon-Mercado, H.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

403

The Social-Cost Calculator (SCC): Documentation of Methods and Data, and Case Study of Sacramento  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. I. Tishchcishyna, Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update,costs • Climate change costs • Oil use costs • Fuel costs •sections on climate-change costs, oil-use external costs,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

THE SOCIAL-COST CALCULATOR (SCC): DOCUMENTATION OF METHODS AND DATA, AND CASE STUDY OF SACRAMENTO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. I. Tishchcishyna, Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update,costs • Climate change costs • Oil use costs • Fuel costs •sections on climate-change costs, oil-use external costs,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The outside battery-limit (OSBL) costs include the cost of cooling water, steam and electric power generation and distribution, fuel oil and fuel gas ...

406

Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

407

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost Assumptions Wind power is often found to be the least-cost renewable energycost studies. The capacity value of renewable energy (wind,wind costs persist. Natural Gas Price Forecasts The difference between renewable energy

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Modeling of Cost Curves 1.0 Costs of Generating Electrical Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production costs. Some typical average costs of fuel are given in the following table for coal, petroleum [1] Petroleum [2] Natural Gas [3] All Fossil Fuels Receipts (Billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke (converted to liquid petroleum, see Technical Notes for conversion

McCalley, James D.

410

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the U.S. transportation sector. Technical report fourteen: Market potential and impacts of alternative fuel use in light-duty vehicles -- A 2000/2010 analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, estimates are provided of the potential, by 2010, to displace conventional light-duty vehicle motor fuels with alternative fuels--compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol from natural gas, ethanol from grain and from cellulosic feedstocks, and electricity--and with replacement fuels such as oxygenates added to gasoline. The 2010 estimates include the motor fuel displacement resulting both from government programs (including the Clean Air Act and EPACT) and from potential market forces. This report also provides an estimate of motor fuel displacement by replacement and alterative fuels in the year 2000. However, in contrast to the 2010 estimates, the year 2000 estimate is restricted to an accounting of the effects of existing programs and regulations. 27 figs., 108 tabs.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit A tax credit is available for the cost of hydrogen fueling equipment placed

413

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contents Contents CR-iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page 8. Transportation Modes, Routes, Affected Environment, and Impacts............................................ CR8-1 8.1 General Opposition to Transporting Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ............................................................................................................ CR8-6 8.2 Number of Shipments ..................................................................................................... CR8-37 8.3 Transportation Modes and Routes .................................................................................. CR8-41 8.3.1 State Highway 127, Hoover Dam, Nevada Department of Transportation Alternatives ..............................................................................................................

414

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment is heavy and costly * Slow response time of the fuel cell adversely affects regenerative energy recovery potential and efficiency Barriers to full fuel cell bus...

417

Forecast of California car and truck fuel demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to forecast likely future car and truck fuel demand in California in light of recent and possible additional improvements in vehicle efficiency. Forecasts of gasoline and diesel fuel demand are made based on projections of primary economic, demographic, and transportation technology variables. Projections of car and light truck stock and new sales are based on regression equations developed from historical data. Feasible future vehicle fuel economies are determined from technical improvements possible with existing technology. Several different cases of market-induced efficiency improvement are presented. Anticipated fuel economy improvements induced by federal mileage standards and rising fuel costs will cause lower future fuel demand, even though vehicle miles traveled will continue to increase both on a per capita and total basis. If only relatively low-cost fuel economy improvements are adopted after about 1985, when federal standards require no further improvements, fuel demand will decrease from the 1982 level of 11.7 billion gallons (gasoline equivalent) to 10.6 billion gallons in 2002, about a 9% reduction. Higher fuel economy levels, based on further refinements in existing technology, can produce an additional 7% reduction in fuel demand by 2002.

Stamets, L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit A tax credit is available for 25% of the cost to install or retrofit

419

High-burnup fuel and the impact on fuel management  

SciTech Connect

Competition in the electric utility industry has forced utilities to reduce cost. For a nuclear utility, this means a reduction of both the nuclear fuel cost and the operating and maintenance cost. To this extent, utilities are pursuing longer cycles. To reduce the nuclear fuel cost, utilities are trying to reduce batch size while increasing cycle length. Yankee Atomic Electric Company has performed a number of fuel cycle studies to optimize both batch size and cycle length; however, certain burnup-related constraints are encountered. As a result of these circumstances, longer fuel cycles make it increasingly difficult to simultaneously meet the burnup-related fuel design constraints and the technical specification limits. Longer cycles require fuel assemblies to operate for longer times at relatively high power. If utilities continue to pursue longer cycles to help reduce nuclear fuel cost, changes may need to be made to existing fuel burnup limits.

Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Requirements for low cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multi-unit intertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steam generators (SG),steam turbines(T), generators andawith the costs of modern steam turbine generator plants forSteam generators Remote maintenance equipment Turbine plant

Logan, B. Grant; Moir, Ralph; Hoffman, Myron A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "levelized fuel cost" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Opportunity Fuels Guidebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power generators are considering cofiring alternative fuels in their coal-fired boilers because such operations may offer opportunities to lower their fuel costs, enhance customer relationships, or meet possible future mandates requiring renewable sources or reduced fossil carbon emissions. In this guidebook, companies can find information drawn from research, testing, and experience with six categories of these opportunity fuels.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

422

Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fuels - Biodiesel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Biodiesel * Biodiesel * Butanol * Ethanol * Hydrogen * Natural Gas * Fischer-Tropsch Batteries Cross-Cutting Assessments Engines GREET Hybrid Electric Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Materials Modeling, Simulation & Software Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles PSAT Smart Grid Student Competitions Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Clean Diesel Fuels Background Reducing our country's dependence on foreign oil and the rising costs of crude oil are primary reasons for a renewed interest in alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Stringent emissions regulations and public concern about mobile sources of air pollution provide additional incentives to develop fuels that generate fewer emissions, potentially reducing the need for sophisticated, expensive exhaust after-treatment devices.

424

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions. The model uses generation dispatch algorithms, efficiency levels, and capacity factorsemissions factors for fuel and electricity. Table A-3.3.2 Energy Savings, Costs, and Carbon Dioxide

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Compression, Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost...

426

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: PEMFC Manufacturing Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMFC Manufacturing Cost PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Project Summary Full Title: Manufacturing Cost of Stationary Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems Project ID: 85 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Costs; fuel cells; stationary Performer Principal Investigator: Brian James Organization: Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) Address: 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 650 Arlington, VA 22201 Telephone: 703-243-3383 Email: brian_james@directedtechnologies.com Period of Performance End: November 1999 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Cross-Cutting Objectives: Estimate the cost of the fuel cell system using the Directed Technologies, Inc. cost database built up over the several years under U.S. Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company contracts.

427

EPA Fuel Economy Ratings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Window Sticker Current Window Sticker The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recently redesigned and enhanced the window sticker that appears on new vehicles. The new Fuel Economy and Environment Label will be mandatory on all new vehicles beginning with the 2013 model year. For the 2012 model year, manufacturers can use the new window sticker or the older window sticker shown below. Roll over the highlighted elements on the label below to learn more about EPA's current fuel economy label. EPA's Current Fuel Economy Label EPA's New Fuel Economy Label Estimated Annual Fuel Cost: $2,039 based on 15,000 mile at $2.80 per gallon Your fuel cost may differ depending on annual miles and fuel prices. Combined Fuel Economy for this Vehicle: 21 MPG, Range for all SUVs: 10-31

428

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Learn more... Learn more... Price trends and regional differences What causes fluctuations in motor gasoline prices? Retail gasoline prices are mainly affected by crude oil prices and the level of gasoline supply relative to demand. Strong and increasing demand for gasoline and other petroleum products in the United States and the rest of the world at times places intense pressure on available supplies. Even when crude oil prices are stable... read more in Gasoline Explained What causes fluctuations in diesel fuel oil prices? The retail price of a gallon of diesel fuel reflects the underlying costs and profits (or losses) of producing and delivering the product to customers. The price of diesel at the pump reflects the costs and profits of the entire production and distribution chain, including... read more in

429

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability Low-Cost Supports - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Radoslav Adzic (Primary Contact), Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Jia Wang, Yang Shao-Horn 1 , Rachel O'Malley 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Bldg. 555 Upton, NY 11973-5000 Phone: (631) 344-4522 Email: adzic@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Subcontractors: 1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge MA 2 Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (JMFC), London, England Project Start Date: July 1, 2009 Project End Date: September 30, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Developing high-performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer (ML) on stable, inexpensive metal

430

COSTS OF NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The discussion on the costs of nuclear power from stationary plants, designed primarily for the generation of electricity. deals with those plants in operation, being built, or being designed for construction at an early date. An attempt is made to consider the power costs on the basis of consistent definitions and assumptions for the various nuclear plants and for comparable fossil-fuel plants. Information on several new power reactor projects is included. (auth)

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicleJP, et al. Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis,”Year 2006 UCD—ITS—RR—06—04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

EPRI Review of Geologic Disposal for Used Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste: Volume II--U.S. Regulations for Geologic Disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. efforts to site and construct a deep geologic repository for used fuel and high level radioactive waste (HLW) proceeded sporadically over a three-decade period from the late 1950s until 1982, when the U.S. Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) codifying a national approach for developing a deep geologic repository. Amendment of the NWPA in 1987 resulted in a number of dramatic changes in direction for the U.S. program, most notably the selection of Yucca Mountain as the only site of t...

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

EPRI Review of Geologic Disposal for Used Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste: Volume III - Review of National Repository Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effective termination of the Yucca Mountain program by the U.S. Administration in 2009 has left the U.S. program for management of used fuel and high level radioactive waste (HLW) in a state of uncertainty. In concert with this major policy reset and in response to the resulting policy vacuum, the President directed the Energy Secretary to establish the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) "...to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear f...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

Not Available