National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for levelized costs include

  1. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  3. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  4. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  5. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  6. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and ...

  7. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Levelized Cost of Energy in US Home I'd like to pull a cost comparison for the levelized cost of energy in the US. How do I do this on this site? Does the LCOE interactive table...

  8. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric ... a reduction of approximately 9 percent of natural gas purchases, cost, and quality data. ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Those schedules include; * Schedule 2, General Information and Energy Sources and ... EIA-861. These schedules include Schedule 2C Green Pricing and Schedule 2D Net Metering. ...

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in 2016. On January 16, economic sanctions on Iran related to its nuclear program were lifted, officially allowing Iran to increase its crude oil production and export levels. ...

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    liquid fuels Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel) Electricity (including electricity from solar energy) ...

  13. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Even if all other variables are held constant, the annual energy yield (kWhkW p ) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and ...

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After reaching a four-month low in the beginning of August, crude oil prices rebounded close to the highest levels of the year. The front-month Brent crude oil price increased $3.31 per barrel (b) since August 1, settling at $45.45/b on September 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front-month crude oil price settled at $43.16/b, an increase of $3.10/b over the same period. Price volatility in global equity markets declined in

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After an upward move in mid-June, crude oil prices retreated close to previous levels. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $111/barrel on July 3, an increase of $2.17/barrel from June 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract also rose, settling at $104.06/barrel on July 3, $1.59/barrel higher than on June 2. Tensions in Iraq were the primary driver of the crude oil price increase in mid-June.

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rebounded in April and approached the top of their recent trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $107.76 per barrel (bbl) on May 1, an increase of $2.14/bbl from April 1 (Figure 1). West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices at the start of May were near the same levels as the beginning of April. The front month WTI contract settled at $99.42/bbl on May 1, a slight decrease

  17. Lighting system replacement brings energy costs down, light levels up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radmer, D.J.

    1984-11-08

    The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high light levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor lighting was installed consistent with the current state of the art for lighting such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that electric energy costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that lighting accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for lighting energy over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric energy rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.

  18. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annualmore » thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.« less

  19. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  20. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  1. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  2. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  3. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Presented to the EIA Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when

  4. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; Copping, Andrea E.; Copeland, Guild

    2016-07-18

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied withinmore » the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.« less

  5. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  6. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOEup to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  7. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  8. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  9. Transparent Cost Database for Generation at Regional Level? ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cost of electricity generation using different technologies. I think at all these data are national averages, however. I was wondering if such data was available at...

  10. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Le [Ames Laboratory; MacDonald, Erin [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-01

    This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustiy. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  12. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  13. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  14. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  15. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report surveys and summarizes existing state-level RPS cost and benefit estimates and examines the various methods used to calculate such estimates. The report relies largely upon data or results reported directly by electric utilities and state regulators. As such, the estimated costs and benefits itemized in this document do not result from the application of a standardized approach or the use of a consistent set of underlying assumptions. Because the reported values may differ from those derived through a more consistent analytical treatment, we do not provide an aggregate national estimate of RPS costs and benefits, nor do we attempt to quantify net RPS benefits at national or state levels.

  16. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  17. Agenda of critical issues: coal price and availability. Final report. [Includes effect of legislation, sulfur content and rail transport costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennican, M.L.; Wayland, R.E.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Temple, Barker, and Sloane, Inc. developed an agenda of critical issues regarding future coal prices and coal availability for EPRI. TBS interviewed nearly 50 utility, coal company, and railroad officials, academic experts, and coal consultants; held a one-day participatory workshop; and conducted a literature review and follow-up interviews with selected utilities. TBS found four causes of uncertainty in the utility industry over future coal prices. First, the acid deposition proposals in Congress vary in terms of the structure of the legislation, the costs of compliance, and the impact on coal prices; in turn these uncertainties impede utility fuel planning and decision making. Second, powerplant-specific factors will have a major impact on whether utilities switch or scrub in response to acid deposition legislation; existing analyses do not capture these factors. The most important powerplant-specific factors are matching unit characteristics with coal specifications, retrofit scrubber costs, and differing state regulatory environments. Third, TBS found that utility fuel managers have great uncertainty over the availability and future cost of compliance coal. TBS estimated that the existing production capacity of eastern compliance coal is at least twice as high as current production. Fourth, TBS concluded that uncertainty over future coal transportation rates was a major reason for utilities' uncertainty over future delivered prices of coal. Critical transportation-related issues are the strategic and tactical response of eastern coal producers to the Staggers Act; the impact on rail rates of the sale of Conrail, of possible transcontinental mergers, and of multi-modal mergers; and the future pricing policies that eastern railroads will adopt in response to imports of Colombian coal. 21 references.

  18. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity

  19. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  20. Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

  1. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

  2. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  3. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  5. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  6. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models Preprint D. S. Jenne and Y.-H. Yu National Renewable Energy Laboratory V. Neary Sandia National Laboratories To be presented at the 3 rd Marine Energy Technology Symposium (METS 2015) Washington, D.C. April 27-29, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5000-64013 April 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government

  7. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  8. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  9. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  10. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonell, W R

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms.

  11. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... have used different methods to estimate RPS ... to the cost of a new coal-fired facility, determined by ... potential future federal regulation of coal plants. ...

  12. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  13. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    267 September 2009 Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2 T. Ramsden and D. Steward National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Zuboy Independent Contractor National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for

  14. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  15. Ocean-current measurements at the Farallon Islands Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, 1977-1978. Includes appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report discusses the results of ocean bottom current measurements obtain from the Farallon Islands Low-Level Waste Disposal Site off the California coast, near San Francisco. The report includes a discussion of the velocity of the currents over the time period and area measured relative to large-scale currents off the California coast, and the possibility for shoreward transport of LLW Materials from the Farallon Islands Site.

  16. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  17. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  18. PACKAGE INCLUDES:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACKAGE INCLUDES: Airfare from Seattle, 4 & 5 Star Hotels, Transfers, Select Meals, Guided Tours and Excursions DAY 01: BANGKOK - ARRIVAL DAY 02: BANGKOK - SIGHTSEEING DAY 03: BANGKOK - FLOATING MARKET DAY 04: BANGKOK - AT LEISURE DAY 05: BANGKOK - CHIANG MAI BY AIR DAY 06: CHIANG MAI - SIGHTSEEING DAY 07: CHIANG MAI - ELEPHANT CAMP DAY 08: CHIANG MAI - PHUKET BY AIR DAY 09: PHUKET - PHI PHI ISLAND BY FERRY DAY 10: PHUKET - AT LEISURE DAY 11: PHUKET - CORAL ISLAND BY SPEEDBOAT DAY 12: PHUKET

  19. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  20. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  1. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  2. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  3. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  4. Potential for savings in compliance costs for reducing ground-level ozone possible by instituting seasonal versus annual nitric oxide emission limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lookman, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere from its precursor emissions, namely nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with its rate of formation dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since ozone levels tend to be highest during the summer months, seasonal controls of precursors have been suggested as a means of reducing the costs of decreasing ozone concentrations to acceptable levels. This paper attempts to quantify what the potential savings if seasonal control were instituted for coal-fired power plants, assuming that only commercially available NO{sub x} control technologies are used. Cost savings through seasonal control is measured by calculating the total annualized cost of NO{sub x} removal at a given amount of seasonal control for different target levels of annual control. For this study, it is assumed that trading of NO{sub x} emissions will be allowed, as has been proposed by the Ozone Transportation Commission (OTC). The problem has been posed as a binary integer linear programming problem, with decision variables being which control to use at each power plant. The results indicate that requiring annual limits which are lower than seasonal limits can substantially reduce compliance costs. These savings occur because requiring stringent compliance only on a seasonal basis allows power plants to use control methods for which the variable costs are paid for only part of the year, and through the use of gas-based controls, which are much cheaper to operate in the summer months.

  5. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  6. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  8. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  11. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  12. Levelized cost and levelized avoiced cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Technologies Wind 34 56.6 13.3 0.0 3.2 73.1 Wind - Offshore 37 141.7 22.8 0.0 5.7 170.3 Solar PV 2 25 95.3 11.4 0.0 4.0 110.8 -9.5 101.3 Solar Thermal 20 156.2 42.1 0.0 5.9 204.3...

  13. Levelized Cost of Electricity and Levelized Avoided Cost of Electricit...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... are the number of hours in a year that the plant is assumed to operate. For dispatchable generation such as coal, nuclear, or gas-fired plants, EIA calculates this based on an ...

  14. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  15. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  16. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  17. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  18. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  19. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  20. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  1. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  2. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  3. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  4. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  5. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  6. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  9. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  10. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  11. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  12. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. ...

  13. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative Island approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this islands used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of

  14. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  15. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  16. Wind energy`s declining costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gipe, P.

    1995-11-01

    Wind energy is competitive with traditional energy sources for the first time since European windmills graced the landscapes of the Old World. This article explores the current economics of wind power. Topics discussed include the following: standardizing cost of energy reporting and the cost of wind energy; wind power plant price; maintenance costs; effect of installed cost on the cost of energy; future costs; decommissioning; modularity; social or environmental costs; cost of capital; bidding and price.

  17. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  18. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  19. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  20. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  1. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  2. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs 1 February 2013 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs What is an end-use model? An end-use model is a set of equations designed to disaggregate a RECS sample household's total annual fuel consumption into end uses such as space heating, air conditioning, water heating, refrigeration, and so on. These disaggregated values are then weighted up to produce population estimates of total and average energy end

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Table 7d), electricity generation fuel consumption (Table 7e), and renewable energy (Table 8). ... industrial sectors into a single "end use" sector. 1 Table 7a will now ...

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The number of operational oil rigs in the United States dropped each week in September and the latest Petroleum ... Fall seasonal maintenance at U.S. refineries typically does not ...

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    when global demand for petroleum products is weakening, ... into the United States were relatively constant from September to October, and with U.S. refineries currently ...

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Key members of The Organization of Petroleum Exporting ... straight weeks in the United States through November 27 and ... 3), gross inputs to refineries rose 0.21 million ...

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    At a time of seasonally increasing demand and higher petroleum product consumption in the United States and ... Over time, refineries can adjust petroleum product yields in order ...

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    supply reductions and better economic data in the United States. ... leading Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ... Gross inputs to refineries in PADD 3 rose 0.1 million bd ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent manufacturing data for the United States and China were above expectations, supporting demand for petroleum ... by the ability of refineries in the U.S. to absorb ...

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recent actions by the People's Bank of China (PBoC) and worse-than-expected economic data from China and Japan have increased uncertainty about global economic growth, particularly ...

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing activity in China continued to contract and volatility in Chinese financial ... purchasing managers' index: The Caixin China General Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' ...

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Outlook September 2014 3 Brent and the U.S. dollar: The divergence of growth expectations between the United States and the rest of the world is also reflected in currency markets. ...

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... curves further suggests that the recent tightness in the crude oil markets reflects high refinery runs in the United States and the rest of the world as well as supply issues. ...

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Although the U.S. economic data was strong, economic data in the rest of the world was generally below expectations and was met with declining equity prices and higher bond yields ...

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    On the consumption side, the demand response to lower oil prices may be higher than anticipated, particularly in the United States and Europe, and could tighten markets during peak ...

  17. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model Jennifer E. Granata, Steven Miller, and Joshua S. Stein PO Box 5800, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1033 Contact info: 505 844 8813, jegrana@sandia.gov INTRODUCTION Accurately predicting the performance of photovoltaic systems can be a challenging undertaking, but a necessary one to assess the financial viability of a PV system and to accelerate the wide scale deployment of PV. PV system energy production can be affected by

  18. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... between OK and TN) Assumptions on alternatives Plains & Eastern line o Electric losses - 5% o Transmission charge - 8.00 kW-mo Oklahoma wind o Utilization rate - see OK ...

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table 6. Natural gas processed, liquids extracted, and natural gas plant liquids production, by state, 2014 Alabama 80,590 5,139 7,044 Alabama Onshore Alabama 31,116 2,620 3,323 Alabama Offshore Alabama 49,474 2,519 3,721 Alaska 2,735,783 15,724 18,434 Alaska Onshore 2,735,783 15,724 18,434 Alaska Offshore 0 0 0 Arkansas 8,058 457 582 Arkansas 8,058 457 582 California 162,794 9,605 13,201 California Onshore California 162,413 9,597 13,192 California Offshore California 381 8 9 Federal Offshore

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing in February, global crude oil prices declined in March. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $54.95/bbl on April 2, a decline of $4.59/bbl since the close on March 2 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined by $0.45/bbl over the same period to settle at $49.14/bbl on April 2. The average Brent price for March was 3.2% lower

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing at the start of March, crude oil prices stabilized and traded within a relatively narrow range through the first week of April. The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $2.62 per barrel (b) from March 1 to settle at $39.43/b on April 7 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose $2.86/b and settled at $37.26 over the same period. The increase in crude oil prices alongside

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved lower through much of July and early August. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $12.49 per barrel (b) since July 1 to settle at $49.52/b on August 6 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $12.30/b over the same time, settling at $44.66/b on August 6. Both benchmarks recorded their largest month-over-month decline since January 2015. One of the factors that

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued to move lower in November and recorded their fifth consecutive month of declines. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $69.64/bbl on December 4, a decline of $15.14/bbl from November 3 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $66.81/bbl on December 4, decreasing by $11.97/bbl since the start of November. The

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved higher toward the end of January and into the first week of February. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $56.57/bbl on February 5, an increase of $0.15/bbl from January 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $50.48/bbl on February 5, $2.21/bbl lower than at the start of January. These changes were relatively small compared to an average

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Global and domestic crude oil prices traded in a narrow range in June. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $2.87 per barrel (b) since June 1 to settle at $62.01/b on July 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $3.24/b over the month, settling at $56.96/b on July 1. As global crude oil supply remains robust, demand-side factors are likely contributing to renewed price stability

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices declined in May and in the first week of June while domestic crude oil prices stayed relatively stable. The North Sea Brent front month futures declined $4.43 per barrel (b) since May 1 to settle at $62.03/b on June 4 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price decreased $1.15/b over the same period to settle at $58/b on June 4. Elevated crude oil production from members of The

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rose over the previous month but remained within the recent, and relatively narrow, trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $108.10 per barrel (bbl) on March 6, an increase of $2.06/bbl from February 3 (Figure 1). Over the same period, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $5.13/bbl, settling at $101.56/bbl on March 6. The brief uptick in

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: North Sea Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contracts continued their recent decline in October and the first week of November as a larger-than-normal seasonal decrease in global refinery runs from August through October lessened demand for crude oil. The Brent contract settled at $103.46 per barrel on November 7, a decline of $4.48 per barrel compared to October 1 (Figure 1). The decreases in WTI futures prices

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 November 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Both international and domestic crude oil prices moved sharply lower over the previous five weeks. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $82.86/bbl on November 6, a decline of $11.30/bbl from October 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $77.91/bbl on November 6, decreasing by $12.82/bbl since the start of October. November marked

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Front month futures prices for the Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil benchmarks fell in September. The Brent contract settled at $109.00 per barrel on October 3, a decline of $6.68 per barrel since September 3, and WTI settled at $103.31 per barrel on October 3, falling by $5.23 per barrel over the same period (Figure 1). These changes marked the first month-over-month declines in

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Notes: The approximate break between historical and forecast values is shown with ... EIA does not estimate or project end-use consumption of non-marketed renewable energy. (d) ...

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The decline was largely due to U.S. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) crude oil prices strengthening against international benchmarks. The Brent-Light Louisiana Sweet (LLS) price spread settled ...

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Brent-Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) spread settled at -0.34bbl on October 2, a decline of 4.30bbl since September 2 (Figure 3). A small differential between Brent and LLS, ...

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2016 2 Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) crude oil prices rose more than other crude oils and is trading at a premium to Brent. ...

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The differential is composed of a relatively stable Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS)-WTI ... on the discount needed to incentivize PADD 3 refineries to run light sweet crude oil. ...

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    International crude oil prices increased compared with domestic ones in June. The Brent-Light Louisiana Sweet (LLS) differential increased 50 centsb since June 1, settling at -54 ...

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decreased demand for crude oil from refineries on the U.S. Gulf Coast closed the import window for light sweet crude oil into the U.S. Gulf Coast, as can been by the LLS-Brent ...

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Increases in both the Brent-Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) and LLS-WTI contributed to the wider Brent-WTI differential. These spread movements should encourage incremental movements ...

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... The buyer must return the propane portion to the seller either through physical delivery or a separate payment at the propane market price. Propane prices were high enough that ...

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Confidentiality of information The information contained on Form EIA-877 will be kept confidential and not disclosed to the public to the extent that it satisfies the criteria for ...

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    From a market perspective, commodity buyers do not typically care about the source of a product as long as its chemical composition meets specifications. We are proposing to rework ...

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    202-586-6419 Vishakh Mantri, Ph.D, P.E. Chemical Engineer, Energy Information ... tcapehart@ers.usda.gov 202-694-5313 Chemical Production in the AEO Peter Gross Energy ...

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... as well as a general loosening of international balances, impacted the Brent curve. ... Oil company integration: Most energy companies recently released full-year financial ...

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Oklahoma, inventories for the week ending August 1. Crude production in the Permian Basin, the largest crude oil producing region in the United States, increased 0.23 million ...

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prices and future policies may cause plant owners or investors who finance plants to ... when evaluating investments in new coal-fired power plants, new coal-to-liquids (CTL) ...

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  8. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  10. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  11. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  12. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  13. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  14. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a

  15. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  16. Section L Attachment G - Management Team Cost Sheet.xlsx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    G Management Team Cost Sheet Definitions of items to be included in the worksheet Name Title Reimbursable* Annual Base Salary Reimbursable* Incentive Pay and bonuses Reimbursable* Deferred compensation Reimbursable* Employer contributions to Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) Reimbursable* Employer Contributions to Defined Contribution Pension Plans Total Reimbursable* Annual Compensation Current Annual Base Salary Current Total Annual Compensation Benchmark job title/level Median Annual

  17. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  18. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  19. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and or efficiency level. INPUT ...

  20. Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A Comparison...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 16, 2014, Research Highlights Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A ... First comprehensive determination of materials to system level performance and cost ...

  1. MHK technology developments include current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology developments include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, for example, hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering, design, and analysis of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high- performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  2. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  3. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the cost of the survey. Developing a detailed scope of work and a fixed price for this work is important to eliminate risk to the Agency and the ESCo. Including a detailed scope...

  4. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  5. PAFC Cost Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell® 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ® FUEL CELL SYSTEM First cost 2010 cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology & low cost sourcing Technology advances are required to reduce further cost and attain UTC Power's commercialization targets 2010 First unit 2010 Last unit Commercialization target Powerplant cost 4

  6. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  7. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  8. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  9. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  10. Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis (FPM 207), Amarillo ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Course topics include: identifying cost and schedule estimates; Basic estimating methods; Group analysis techniques; Applying life-cycle costing technique; Validating estimates; ...

  11. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  12. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  13. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  14. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  15. Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Technology to Market » Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty As a basis for strategic planning, competitiveness analysis, funding metrics and targets, SunShot supports analysis teams at national laboratories to assess technology costs, location-specific competitive advantages, policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the

  16. Workplace Charging Equipment and Installation Costs | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Charging equipment costs depend on the type of charging station you decide to install in your workplace. Level 1 (300-1,500) and Level 2 (400-6,500) charging stations are ...

  17. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  18. Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plenary Talk May 21, 2013 Cellulosic Ethanol Cost Target 2 | Biomass Program ... "Our goal is to make cellulosic ethanol practical and cost competitive within 6 ...

  19. Decontamination and melting of low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.W.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes the decommissioning project of the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant in Europe. Over 99 percent of the low-level waste was successfully treated and recycled. Topics include the following: decommissioning philosophy; specialized techniques including plant pretreatment, plant dismantling, size reduction, decontamination, melting, and encapsulation of waste; recycled materials and waste stream; project safety; cost drivers and savings. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs ...

  1. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  2. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  3. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  4. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  5. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  6. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  7. Yearly Energy Costs for Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-03-20

    COSTSAFR3.0 generates a set of compliance forms which will be attached to housing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) issued by Departments or Agencies of the Federal Government. The compliance forms provide a uniform method for estimating the total yearly energy cost for each proposal. COSTSAFR3.0 analyzes specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. The program is designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservationmore » design, including first cost and future utility costs, and estabilishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It provides a point table for each housing type that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design can be modified to meet the standard.« less

  8. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  9. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  10. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  11. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the

  12. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  13. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  14. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  15. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  16. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  17. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  18. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  19. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  20. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  1. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, Drew

    2012-07-01

    This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil, mechanical, electrical, structural and nuclear

  4. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  5. High efficiency, low cost scrubber upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingspor, J.S.; Walters, M.

    1998-07-01

    ABB introduced the LS-2 technology; a limestone based wet FGD system, which is capable of producing high purity gypsum from low grade limestone, in late 1995. Drawing from 30,000 MWe of worldwide wet FGD experience, ABB has incorporated several innovations in the new system designed to reduce the overall cost of SO{sub 2} compliance. Collectively, these improvements are referred to as LS-2. The improvements include a compact high efficiency absorber, a simple dry grinding system, a closed coupled flue gas reheat system, and a tightly integrated dewatering system. The compact absorber includes features such a high velocity spray zone, significantly improved gas-liquid contact system, compact reaction tank, and a high velocity mist eliminator. The LS-2 system is being demonstrated at Ohio Edison's Niles Plant at the 130 MWe level, and this turnkey installation was designed and erected in a 20-month period. At Niles, all of the gypsum is sold to a local wallboard manufacturer. Many of the features included in the LS-2 design and demonstrated at Niles can be used to improve the efficiency and operation of existing systems including open spray towers and tray towers. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be significantly improved by installing the high efficiency LS-2 style spray header design and the unique wall rings. The absorber bypass can be eliminated or reduced by including the LS-2 style high velocity mist eliminator. Also, the LS-2 style spray header design combined with wall rings allow for an increase in absorber gas velocity at a maintained or improved performance without the need for costly upgrades of the absorber recycle pumps. the first upgrade using LS-2 technology was done at CPA's Coal Creek Station (2{times}545 MWe). The experience form the scrubber upgrade at Coal Creek is discussed along with operating results.

  6. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  7. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  8. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  9. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  10. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  11. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft Home > Groups > Water Power Forum Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  13. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore » the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  14. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  15. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  16. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  17. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * ...

  18. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  19. Energy Department Awards $3.5 Million to Develop Cost-Competitive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    project aimed at accelerating the development of sustainable, affordable algal biofuels. ... toward reducing the cost of algal biofuels to cost-competitive levels of 5,000 ...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions ...

  1. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  2. H2A Delivery: Miscellaneous Cost and H2 Losses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Miscellaneous Costs and H2 Losses Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2006 Matt Ringer National Renewable Energy Laboratory H2A Delivery Presentation Outline * Direct and Indirect Costs * Operating and Maintenance Costs * Labor Costs and Scaling Factor * Component Hydrogen Losses H2A Delivery Direct and Indirect Costs * Currently posted model includes site preparation, engineering and design, project contingency, one-time licensing fees and permitting - Factor of 1.225 above installed

  3. Mixed Waste Treatment Cost Analysis for a Range of GeoMelt Vitrification Process Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, L. E.

    2002-02-27

    GeoMelt is a batch vitrification process used for contaminated site remediation and waste treatment. GeoMelt can be applied in several different configurations ranging from deep subsurface in situ treatment to aboveground batch plants. The process has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminated wastes and debris including: mixed low-level radioactive wastes; mixed transuranic wastes; polychlorinated biphenyls; pesticides; dioxins; and a range of heavy metals. Hypothetical cost estimates for the treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste were prepared for the GeoMelt subsurface planar and in-container vitrification methods. The subsurface planar method involves in situ treatment and the in-container vitrification method involves treatment in an aboveground batch plant. The projected costs for the subsurface planar method range from $355-$461 per ton. These costs equate to 18-20 cents per pound. The projected cost for the in-container method is $1585 per ton. This cost equates to 80 cents per pound. These treatment costs are ten or more times lower than the treatment costs for alternative mixed waste treatment technologies according to a 1996 study by the US Department of Energy.

  4. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  5. PACCOM: A nuclear waste packaging facility cost model: Draft technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dippold, D.G.; Tzemos, S.; Smith, D.J.

    1985-05-01

    PACCOM is a computerized, parametric model used to estimate the capital, operating, and decommissioning costs of a variety of nuclear waste packaging facility configurations. The model is based upon a modular waste packaging facility concept from which functional components of the overall facility have been identified and their design and costs related to various parameters such as waste type, waste throughput, and the number of operational shifts employed. The model may be used to either estimate the cost of a particular waste packaging facility configuration or to explore the cost tradeoff between plant capital and labor. That is, one may use the model to search for the particular facility sizes and associated cost which when coupled with a particular number of shifts, and thus staffing level, leads to the lowest overall total cost. The functional components which the model considers include hot cells and their supporting facilities, transportation, cask handling facilities, transuranic waste handling facilities, and administrative facilities such as warehouses, security buildings, maintenance buildings, etc. The cost of each of these functional components is related either directly or indirectly to the various independent design parameters. Staffing by shift is reported into direct and indirect support labor. These staffing levels are in turn related to the waste type, waste throughput, etc. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Simple Modular LED Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LED Cost Model, developed by the DOE Cost Modeling Working Group, provides a simplified method for analyzing the manufacturing costs of an LED package. The model focuses on the major cost...

  7. Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Topic A Note: Includes STEPS Subtopic 33 Total Projects Developing and Enhancing Workforce Training Programs

  8. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  9. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) | Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) The Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) funding program aims to further accelerate progress toward

  11. High-Level Waste Melter Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

  12. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  13. Cost benefit analysis of waste compaction alternatives at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report presents a cost benefit analysis of the potential procurement and operation of various solid waste compactors, or, of the use of commercial compaction services, for compaction of solid transuranic (TRU), low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. The cost benefit analysis was conducted to determine if increased compaction capacity at HWM might afford the potential for significant waste volume reduction and annual savings in material, shipping, labor, and disposal costs. In the following cost benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of increased HWM compaction capabilities are considered. Recurring costs such as operating and maintenance costs are estimated based upon detailed knowledge of system parameters. When analyzing the economic benefits of enhancing compaction capabilities, continued use of the existing HWM compaction units is included for comparative purposes. In addition, the benefits of using commercial compaction services instead of procuring a new compactor system are evaluated. 31 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  14. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  15. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with conventional forms of energy by the end of the decade. ...

  16. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  17. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel ...

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  19. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  20. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  1. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Pipeline Costs Collected historical Oil & Gas Journal data, and surveyed for ... mile Downtown: 1 to 8 in. Downtown: 4 to 20 in. Urban H2A Right of Way Oil & Gas Journal

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Intertek APTECH has organized the cycling cost data in consultation with NREL and WECC by the following eight generator plant types: 1. Small coal-fired sub-critical steam (35-299 ...

  3. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  4. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  5. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Choose a vehicle to compare fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Update Your Widget Code This widget version will stop working on March 31. Update your widget code. × Widget Code Select All Close U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  6. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  7. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  8. Microsoft Word - SEC J_Appendix O - Program Mgt and Cost Reports...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    submit periodic cost, schedule, and technical performance plans and reports in such ... The analysis of funds expenditure shall include a report of monthly and cumulative costs ...

  9. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs » Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking

  10. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  11. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  12. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  13. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  14. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, Arturo

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  15. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  16. Electricity Plant Cost Uncertainties (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Construction costs for new power plants have increased at an extraordinary rate over the past several years. One study, published in mid-2008, reported that construction costs had more than doubled since 2000, with most of the increase occurring since 2005. Construction costs have increased for plants of all types, including coal, nuclear, natural gas, and wind.

  17. Certificate of Current Cost and Pricing Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CERTIFICATE OF CURRENT COST AND PRICING DATA (OCT 1997) This is to certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the cost or pricing data (as defined in section 15.401 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and required under FAR subsection 15.403-4) submitted, either actually or by specific identification in writing, to the Contracting Officer or to the Contracting Officer's representative in support of * are accurate, complete, and current as of **. This certification includes the

  18. Appendix C: Calculation Methodology for Cost Goals, Bioenergy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the primary documents-including the Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)- that cover the evolution of technology design and cost projections for specific conversion concepts....

  19. The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the database that already includes published historical and projected cost estimates for electricity generation, biofuels, and vehicle technologies. To access the TCDB at...

  20. Project Profile: Evaluating the Causes of Photovoltaics Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motivation Photovoltaic technologies, including silicon and thin film solar cells, have experienced unprecedented cost reductions among electricity-conversion technologies. A ...

  1. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  2. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of ... data analysis, business innovation, and training. ... for as much as 64% of the total cost of a new solar system. ...

  3. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  4. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstrate the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (<5000 m3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  7. Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of

  8. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  9. NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop...

  10. SBIR/STTR FY15 Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel Cell...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Release 1 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel Cell Catalyst and Hydrogen Contamination Detection R&D SBIR... DOE's key hydrogen objectives are to reduce the cost of producing and ...

  11. Turbine Cost Systems Engineering Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-30

    turb_costSE is a set of models that link wind turbine component masses (and a few other key variables) to component costs.

  12. Acquisition Letter on Allowability of Incurred Costs Due to Contractor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Errors | Department of Energy on Allowability of Incurred Costs Due to Contractor Errors Acquisition Letter on Allowability of Incurred Costs Due to Contractor Errors The attached Acquisition Letter has been issued to provide application guidance to contracting officers for determining the allowability of incurred costs due to contractor errors. It applies to all contracts, including management and operating contracts, whose price or cost reimbursement is based on estimated or incurred

  13. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  14. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  15. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  16. Technological cost%3CU%2B2010%3Ereduction pathways for axial%3CU%2B2010%3Eflow turbines in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, Daniel L.; Johnson, Erick L.; Ochs, Margaret Ellen; Boren, Blake

    2013-05-01

    This report considers and prioritizes potential technical costreduction pathways for axialflow turbines designed for tidal, river, and ocean current resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were utilized to understand current cost drivers and develop a list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to axialflow turbines, the U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model effort, and informal webinars and other targeted interactions with industry developers. Data from these various information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy. The four most promising costreduction pathways include structural design optimization; improved deployment, maintenance, and recovery; system simplicity and reliability; and array optimization.

  17. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  18. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  19. Integrated Cost and Schedule using Monte Carlo Simulation of a CPM Model - 12419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulett, David T.; Nosbisch, Michael R.

    2012-07-01

    This discussion of the recommended practice (RP) 57R-09 of AACE International defines the integrated analysis of schedule and cost risk to estimate the appropriate level of cost and schedule contingency reserve on projects. The main contribution of this RP is to include the impact of schedule risk on cost risk and hence on the need for cost contingency reserves. Additional benefits include the prioritizing of the risks to cost, some of which are risks to schedule, so that risk mitigation may be conducted in a cost-effective way, scatter diagrams of time-cost pairs for developing joint targets of time and cost, and probabilistic cash flow which shows cash flow at different levels of certainty. Integrating cost and schedule risk into one analysis based on the project schedule loaded with costed resources from the cost estimate provides both: (1) more accurate cost estimates than if the schedule risk were ignored or incorporated only partially, and (2) illustrates the importance of schedule risk to cost risk when the durations of activities using labor-type (time-dependent) resources are risky. Many activities such as detailed engineering, construction or software development are mainly conducted by people who need to be paid even if their work takes longer than scheduled. Level-of-effort resources, such as the project management team, are extreme examples of time-dependent resources, since if the project duration exceeds its planned duration the cost of these resources will increase over their budgeted amount. The integrated cost-schedule risk analysis is based on: - A high quality CPM schedule with logic tight enough so that it will provide the correct dates and critical paths during simulation automatically without manual intervention. - A contingency-free estimate of project costs that is loaded on the activities of the schedule. - Resolves inconsistencies between cost estimate and schedule that often creep into those documents as project execution proceeds

  20. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  1. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  2. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  3. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  4. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  5. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  6. Least cost options for life extension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M.

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  7. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  8. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cells: Diverse Fuels and Applications More than $40 million from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to fund 12 projects to deploy up to 1,000 fuel cells Recovery Act Funding for Fuel Cells COMPANY AWARD APPLICATION Delphi Automotive $2.4 M Auxiliary Power FedEx

  9. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  10. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  11. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  12. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis NREL analyzed the cost of hydrogen production via wind-based water electrolysis at 42 potential sites in 11 states across the nation. This analysis included centralized plants producing the Department of Energy (DOE) target of 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day, using both wind and grid electricity. The use of wind and grid electricity can be balanced either by power or cost, including or excluding the purchase of peak summer electricity. Current wind incentives-such

  13. U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes U.S. geographic analysis of the cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. Wind-based water electrolysis represents a viable path to renewably-produced hydrogen production. It might be used for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, energy storage to augment electricity grid services, or as a supplement for other industrial hydrogen uses. This analysis focuses on the levelized production, costs of producing green hydrogen, rather than market prices which would require more extensive knowledge of an hourly or daily hydrogen market. However, the costs of hydrogen presented here do include a small profit from an internal rate of return on the system. The cost of renewable wind-based hydrogen production is very sensitive to the cost of the wind electricity. Using differently priced grid electricity to supplement the system had only a small effect on the cost of hydrogen; because wind electricity was always used either directly or indirectly to fully generate the hydrogen. Wind classes 3-6 across the U.S. were examined and the costs of hydrogen ranged from $3.74kg to $5.86/kg. These costs do not quite meet the 2015 DOE targets for central or distributed hydrogen production ($3.10/kg and $3.70/kg, respectively), so more work is needed on reducing the cost of wind electricity and the electrolyzers. If the PTC and ITC are claimed, however, many of the sites will meet both targets. For a subset of distributed refueling stations where there is also inexpensive, open space nearby this could be an alternative to central hydrogen production and distribution.

  14. Service Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Levels Service Levels NERSC Supported Services Model NERSC supports various services at various levels of support. This document outlines the different levels of support that can be expected for a given service. Production Services All production services at NERSC have the following characteristics: Monitored by NERSC Operations with automated tools (Nagios). Outages are announced on the MOTD and must follow the rules defined in System Outages document. User facing documentation

  15. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These are not included in Table II-6 for greater ease in exposition, but they are included ... risk and changes in health incidents that lead to health care costs andor lost workdays. ...

  16. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  17. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources ...

  18. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  19. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review their decommissioning cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  20. Estimating boiling water reactor decommissioning costs. A user`s manual for the BWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierschbach, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the U.S. Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personal computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning BWR power stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  1. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  2. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  3. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn (Ithaca, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  4. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  5. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  6. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  8. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  9. Articles including thin film monolayers and multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    Articles of manufacture including: (a) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, and a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, (b) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, and a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, (c) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, and a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and (d) a base substrate having an oxide surface layer, a multidentate ligand, capable of binding a metal ion, attached to the oxide surface layer of the base substrate, a metal species attached to the multidentate ligand, a multifunctional organic ligand attached to the metal species, and a second metal species attached to the multifunctional organic ligand, are provided, such articles useful in detecting the presence of a selected target species, as nonliear optical materials, or as scavengers for selected target species.

  10. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-14

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  11. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  13. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating Applications Only | Department of Energy Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable

  14. COST OF ADDRESSING TARGETS OF UNEQUAL VALUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-08-01

    The formalism for evaluating first strike costs and incentives for military targeting generalize to include higher value targets. That introduces two new allocations to the usual allocation between missiles and military targets, but they can be performed analytically. As the number of weapons on each side decreases, the optimal fraction of second strike weapons allocated to military values falls. The shift to high value targets is more pronounced below about 1,000 weapons for nominal parameters. Below 500 weapons the first striker's cost of action drops below its cost of inaction. A strike would induce a second strike of about 250 weapons on high value targets. An increase in the first striker's preference for damage to the other's high value targets increases or a decrease in its preference for preventing damage to its own high value targets decreases first strike costs and stability margins. Including defenses complicates allocations slightly. The main effect is increased attrition of second strikes, particularly at larger defenses, which makes it possible to significantly reduce damage to high value targets. At 1,000 weapons, by 300 to 400 interceptors the first striker's costs are reduced to 30% below that of inaction and the number of weapons delivered on the first striker's high value targets is reduced to about 100.

  15. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the entire effort, including report preparation and logistics, on comparatively straightforward ICRs for which no contractor support is required. However, for more complex ICRs...

  16. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  17. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  18. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  19. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  20. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  1. Improvement to low-level radioactive-waste vitrification processes. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W.S.

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive waste vitrification (LLWV) is a technically feasible and cost-competitive alternative to the traditional immobilization options, i.e., cementation or bituminization. This thesis analyzes cementation, bituminization and vitrification, reviews the impact of the low-level Waste-stream composition on the vitrification process, then proposes and discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV). The techniques that control the volatile radionuclides include chemical precipitation, electrodialysis, and ion exchange. Ion exchange is preferred. A comparison of the technical specifications, of the regulatory compliance, and of the cost considerations shows the PILLWV to be the superior LLW immobilization option.

  2. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  3. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  4. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  5. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) space transportation cost analysis and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a clear picture of SPS space transportation costs at the present time with respect to their accuracy as stated, the reasonableness of the methods used, the assumptions made, and the uncertainty associated with the estimates. The approach used consists of examining space transportation costs from several perspectives - to perform a variety of sensitivity analyses or reviews and examine the findings in terms of internal consistency and external comparison with analogous systems. These approaches are summarized as a theoretical and historical review including a review of stated and unstated assumptions used to derive the costs, and a performance or technical review. These reviews cover the overall transportation program as well as the individual vehicles proposed. The review of overall cost assumptions is the principal means used for estimating the cost uncertainty derived. The cost estimates used as the best current estimate are included.

  6. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  7. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. They include BLCC5, the Energy Escalation Rate Calculator, Handbook 135, and the Annual Supplement to Handbook 135. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-15 (for Windows or Mac OS X). BLCC version 5.3-15 contains the

  8. Technical approaches for reducing cost of power support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Methods for reducing the cost of Chinese-made power supports are discussed. A reasonable selection of functions is proposed, including protection from side collapse, anti-sliding and anti-toppling, prop extension, loading capacity and hydraulic pressure. Material costs constitute 34-44% of the total cost, and so optimisation of design and materials is required. Standardisation of hydraulic components is recommended; and the use of appropriate and effective technological and managerial techniques is advocated. (In Chinese)

  9. Building Life Cycle Cost Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Life Cycle Cost Programs Building Life Cycle Cost Programs The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed the Building Life Cycle Cost (BLCC) Programs to provide computational support for the analysis of capital investments in buildings. They include BLCC5, the Energy Escalation Rate Calculator, Handbook 135, and the Annual Supplement to Handbook 135. BLCC5 Program Register and download. BLCC 5.3-15 (for Windows or Mac OS X). BLCC version 5.3-15 contains the

  10. Using life-cycle cost management to cut costs and reduce waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gess, D.; Cohan, D.; McLearn, M.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing competition is forcing electric utility companies to reduce costs and improve efficiency. At the same time, increasing costs for waste disposal and emissions control and growing environmental regulatory pressure are providing powerful incentives for firms in virtually every industry to investigate opportunities to reduce or even eliminate the adverse environmental impacts associated with their operations. companies are also striving toward environmental stewardship to realize the potential benefits to the firms`s public image, employees, an shareholders. Motivated by these cost and environmental concerns, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Decision Focus Inc. (DFI), and a consortium of electric utility companies have developed techniques and tools to help electric utility companies to make purchase and operating decisions based on their full life-cycle costs, which explicitly include environmental, health, and safety costs. The process, called Life-Cycle Cost Management (LCCM), helps utilities to efficiently assemble the appropriate life-cycle information and bring it to bear on their business decisions. To date, several utilities have used LCCM to evaluate a range of product substitution and process improvement decisions and to implement cost-savings actions. This paper summarizes some of these applications.

  11. Fact Sheet: Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications (August 2013) In June 2012, Aquion Energy, Inc. completed the testing and demonstration requirements for the DOE's program with its low-cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature Aqueous Hybird Ion (AHI) energy storage device. For more information about how OE performs research and development on a wide variety of storage technologies, including batteries,

  12. Current level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  13. System performance and cost sensitivity comparisons of stretched membrane heliostat reflectors with current generation glass/metal concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.; Anderson, J.V.; Short, W.; Wendelin, T.

    1985-12-01

    Heliostat costs have long been recognized as a major factor in the cost of solar central receiver plants. Research on stretched membrane heliostats has been emphasized because of their potential as a cost-effective alternative to current glass/metal designs. However, the cost and performance potential of stretched membrane heliostats from a system perspective has not been studied until this time. The optical performance of individual heliostats is predicted here using results established in previous structural studies. These performance predictions are used to compare both focused and unfocused stretched membrane heliostats with state-of-the-art glass/metal heliostats from a systems perspective. We investigated the sensitivity of the relative cost and performance of fields of heliostats to a large number of parameter variations, including system size, delivery temperature, heliostat module size, surface specularity, hemispherical reflectance, and macroscopic surface quality. The results indicate that focused stretched membrane systems should have comparable performance levels to those of current glass/metal heliostat systems. Further, because of their relatively lower cost, stretched membrane heliostats should provide an economically attractive alternative to current glass/metal heliostats over essentially the entire range of design parameters studied. Unfocused stretched membrane heliostats may also be attractive for a somewhat more limited range of applications, including the larger plant sizes and lower delivery temperatures.

  14. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SunShot Award Amount: 125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling a lower levelized cost of energy. The project will develop ...

  17. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  18. Multi-level Hybrid Cache: Impact and Feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kim, Youngjae; Ma, Xiaosong; Shipman, Galen M; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-02-01

    Storage class memories, including flash, has been attracting much attention as promising candidates fitting into in today's enterprise storage systems. In particular, since the cost and performance characteristics of flash are in-between those of DRAM and hard disks, it has been considered by many studies as an secondary caching layer underneath main memory cache. However, there has been a lack of studies of correlation and interdependency between DRAM and flash caching. This paper views this problem as a special form of multi-level caching, and tries to understand the benefits of this multi-level hybrid cache hierarchy. We reveal that significant costs could be saved by using Flash to reduce the size of DRAM cache, while maintaing the same performance. We also discuss design challenges of using flash in the caching hierarchy and present potential solutions.

  19. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-28

    When someone mentions integration costs, thoughts of the costs of integrating renewable generation into an existing system come to mind. We think about how variability and uncertainty can increase power system cycling costs as increasing amounts of wind or solar generation are incorporated into the generation mix. However, seldom do we think about what happens to system costs when new baseload generation is added to an existing system or when generation self-schedules. What happens when a highly flexible combined-cycle plant is added? Do system costs go up, or do they go down? Are other, non-cycling, maintenance costs impacted? In this paper we investigate six technologies and operating practices--including VG, baseload generation, generation mix, gas prices, self-scheduling, and fast-start generation--and how changes in these areas can impact a system's operating costs. This paper provides a working definition of integration costs and four components of variable costs. It describes the study approach and how a production cost modeling-based method was used to determine the cost effects, and, as a part of the study approach section, it describes the test system and data used for the comparisons. Finally, it presents the research findings, and, in closing, suggests three areas for future work.

  20. On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deployment and Costs On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs On the Path to SunShot - Deployment and Costs In the On the Path to SunShot report series, the Role of Advancements in Photovoltaic Efficiency, Reliability, and Costs report highlights how the cost of solar panels has decreased with technological improvements, which has resulted in higher levels of solar deployment

  1. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  2. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  3. Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

  4. Understanding Wind Power Costs: The Value of a Comprehensive Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    The evolution and maturity of the wind industry have often been assessed by considering changes in key metrics including capital costs, capacity factor, turbine pricing, and in some cases electricity sales data. However, wind turbines and plants represent a complex system optimization problem and each of these metrics, in isolation, fails to tell the complete story of technological progress and industry advancement. By contrast, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) provides a more comprehensive and nuanced perspective on industry trends. LCOE can be used to analyze the effect of individual changes (by holding other variables constant) or to understand the complex interactions that might occur for example between turbine costs and productivity. Moreover, LCOE offers a reflection of the total production costs and required revenue for wind plants. This presentation provides examples of how a narrow focus on individual industry metrics can provide inaccurate representations of industry trends while also demonstrating how LCOE captures the array of critical industry variables to provide a greater level of insight.

  5. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enabling Mass-Scale Financing for Federal Energy, Water, and Sustainability Projects Retro-Commissioning Increases Data Center Efficiency at Low Cost Energy Savings Performance ...

  6. NREL: Technology Deployment - Cities-LEAP Energy Profile Tool Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Data on More than 23,400 U.S. Cities Cities-LEAP Energy Profile Tool Includes Energy Data on More than 23,400 U.S. Cities News NREL Report Examines Energy Use in Cities and Proposes Next Steps for Energy Innovation Publications Citi-Level Energy Decision Making: Data Use in Energy Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation in U.S. Cities Sponsors DOE's Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policy and Analysis Office Related Stories Hawaii's First Net-Zero Energy

  7. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    es_02_barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  8. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  9. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  10. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... information to improve the modeling, forecasting and controls of the grid Standards ... Department of Energy |September 2014 Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs | Page 3 ...

  11. CBEI: VOLTTRON Compatible and Cost-effective Fault Diagnostic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... data-driven and rule-based methods * Including energy impact estimation * Automated for rapid, low-cost deployment Demonstrate the solutions in a variety of small to medium ...

  12. Energy Department Awards More than $5 Million to Reduce Cost...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE targets for vehicles include direct hydrogen fuel cell systems that, by 2017, have a peak efficiency of 60%, cost 30 per kilowatt, and have 5,000 hours durability, which is ...

  13. Audit of Selected Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The audit included a review of costs charged to Warner Robins Air Logistics Center at Robins Air Force Base and to Wright Patterson Air Force Base between October 1992 and May ...

  14. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Handling Equipment | Department of Energy An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment This report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of

  15. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  16. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  17. Unreasonable Cost Waivers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Unreasonable Cost Waivers Unreasonable Cost Waivers unreasonablecost10-03-2012.pdf cnmidecision.pdf eaglepassdecision.pdf...

  18. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities ...

  19. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  20. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  1. Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy February 25, 2016 - 10:00am Addthis Soft Costs 101: The Key to Achieving Cheaper Solar Energy Dr. Elaine Ulrich Dr. Elaine Ulrich Balance of Systems/Soft Costs Program Manager What are "soft costs"? Soft costs are those not related to hardware, including installation, buying permits and financing. By lowering these costs, solar power becomes more affordable.

  2. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  3. Proceedings of the tenth annual DOE low-level waste management conference: Session 4: Waste treatment minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This document contains eleven papers on various aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Topics in this volume include: volume reduction plans; incentitives; and cost proposals; acid detoxification and reclamation; decontamination of lead; leach tests; West Valley demonstration project status report; and DOE's regional management strategies. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  4. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  5. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  6. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  7. Resources at the State and Regional Level for Manufacturers ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources at the State and Regional Level for Manufacturers Manufacturers can use resources delivered by industrial energy efficiency programs in their area. AMO's cost-shared ...

  8. Trends in U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Upstream Costs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Average 2015 well drilling and completion costs in five onshore areas decline 25% and 30% below their level in 2012 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned IHS Global Inc. (IHS) to perform a study of upstream drilling and production costs. The IHS report assesses capital and operating costs associated with drilling, completing, and operating wells and facilities.

  9. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  10. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Tuesday, November 27, 2012 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. National Renewable Energy Lab Offices - Suite 930 901 D Street, SW, Washington, DC 20585 AGENDA ...

  11. Cost and Impacts of Policies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Impacts of Policies David L. Greene Paul N. Leiby ORNL David C. Bowman Econotech 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Infrastructure January 31, 2007 Washington, D.C. Plan of presentation: Brief review of HyTrans Calibration of FCV learning, scale, technological change Scenarios and Policies RESULTS 2010-2025 and long-run impacts 2010-2025 Government/Industry Costs Hydrogen production, infrastructure & cost HyTrans merges the early transition scenarios with

  12. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur and Todd Ramsden Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-50408 May 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization Genevieve Saur, Todd

  13. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost Non-Reactive Coating for Refractory Metals A non-reactive coating for refractory metals has been developed at The Ames Laboratory. Contamination of rare earth and reactive metals and their alloys has been a chronic problem that results from their interaction with the crucibles or other vessels used in high temperature processing or during other applications. As a consequence, processing and other costs are high due to the need to replace equipment or containers, or

  14. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  15. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  16. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  17. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  18. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and

  19. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  20. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rote, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

  1. FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 FY 2007 Total System Life Cycle Cost, Pub 2008 The Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program presents the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) May 2007 total system cost estimate for the disposal of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The TSLCC analysis provides a basis for assessing the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund

  2. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    Chemical and energy conversion systems based on microchannel process technology (MPT) demonstrate high performance in applications in which rates are controlled by diffusive heat and mass transfer flux. The performance of MPT-based heat exchangers, absorbers/desorbers and chemical reactors all benefit from process intensification and have been used in a variety of mobile energy conversion systems including fuel reformers/converters, heat pumps and waste heat scavenging technologies. The service environments typical of MPTs often require the devices to be fabricated from metals such as aluminum, titanium, stainless steel or high temperature super alloys. Flow channels and associated critical dimensions in these devices can be as small as 50 um, but generally range from 100 to 1000 um in width and height with characteristic flow channel lengths normally in the mm to cm range. High surface area architectures (e.g. wicks or textured surfaces) are often included in the flow channels as well for enhanced mass transfer and/or catalytic functionality. Fabrication of MPT devices has historically been performed using a stacked-shim approach in which individual metal sheets are first patterned with micro- and meso-scale flow channels and subsequently bonded in a stack to create an array of miniaturized, parallel flow paths. Typical proof-of-concept fabrication efforts have utilized photo chemical machining (PCM) for shim patterning and diffusion bonding or diffusion brazing for joining of shim stacks. While flexible and capable of supporting technology demonstration, however, these techniques can be expensive at prototyping volumes. The high fabrication cost associated with these prototyping processes has contributed to a perception that MPT technology is expensive and will be relegated to a small application space. Recent work at the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (MBI) has focused on exploring the cost structure of high volume manufacturing of MPT devices in effort to

  3. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  4. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  5. Cost savings from nuclear regulatory reform: An econometric model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canterbery, E.R. |; Johnson, B.; Reading, D.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-generated power touted in the 1950s as someday being {open_quotes}too cheap to meter{close_quotes} got dismissed in the 1980s as incapable of being both safe and cost effective. Today, less than 20 percent of American`s electricity is nuclear-generated, no new plants are planned or on order, and some of the earliest units are scheduled for decommissioning within the next decade. Even so, interest in nuclear power has been revived by increasing energy demands, concerns about global warming, and the uncertainty surrounding oil resources in the Persian Gulf. As a long-term alternative to fossil fuels, atomic energy offers the important advantages of clean air and domestic availability of fuel. But these advantages will count for little unless and until the costs of nuclear power can be seen as reasonable. The authors premise is that the relevant costs are those of providing safe and environmentally clean electric energy. To the extent that increased costs have resulted from increasingly stringent regulations, they reflect the internalization of external costs. Indeed, the external costs of nuclear power (particularly safety and environmental protection) have been internalized to a greater degree than with most alternative fuel sources used by electric utilities. Nuclear construction costs are properly compared with those of alternative sources only after the latter are adjusted for environmental damage and endangerment, including, as examples, the costs of oil spills, of building double-hulled tankers, and of building off-shore offloading facilities. A shift to nuclear sources could reduce these costs whereas it would increase disposal costs for radioactive materials. The authors contend that a better understanding of nuclear plant construction costs is pivotal to a balanced evaluation of the merits of uranium relative to other fuel choices. 12 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. New Berkeley Lab Report Tracks a Decade of PV Installed Cost Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-04-15

    Installations of PV systems have been expanding at a rapid pace in recent years. In the United States, the market for PV is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including upfront cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy and by the positive attributes of PV - e.g., modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. A new Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report, 'Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007', helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost (i.e., the cost paid by the system owner) of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The report is based on an analysis of project-level cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems completed from 1998-2007 and installed on the utility-customer-side of the meter. These systems total 363 MW, equal to 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007, representing the most comprehensive data source available on the installed cost of PV in the United States. The data were obtained from administrators of PV incentive programs around the country, who typically collect installed cost data for systems receiving incentives. A total of 16 programs, spanning 12 states, ultimately provided data for the study. Reflecting the broader geographical trends in the

  7. Postmortem Cost and Schedule Analysis - Lessons Learned On NCSX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Strykowsky, T. Brown, J. Chrzanowski, M. Cole, P. Heitzenroeder, G.H. Neilson, Donald Rej, and M. Viola

    2012-03-08

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative fusion energy confinement device developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract from the US Department of Energy. The project was technically very challenging, primarily due to the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. As the project matured these challenges manifested themselves in significant cost overruns through all phases of the project (i.e. design, R&D, fabrication and assembly). The project was subsequently cancelled by the DOE in 2008. Although the project was not completed, several major work packages, comprising about 65% of the total estimated cost (excluding management and contingency), were completed, providing a data base of actual costs that can be analyzed to understand cost drivers. Technical factors that drove costs included the complex geometry, tight tolerances, material requirements, and performance requirements. Management factors included imposed annual funding constraints that throttled project cash flow, staff availability, and inadequate R&D. Understanding how requirements and design decisions drove cost through this top-down forensic cost analysis could provide valuable insight into the configuration and design of future state-of-the art machines and other devices.

  8. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, Ulrich; Fishman, Oleg

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  9. Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger batch solar water heater: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1987-05-01

    A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

  10. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

  11. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  12. Liquid-level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  13. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  14. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles | Department of Energy Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests huxtable.pdf (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

  15. Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past June 7, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Franklin County Courthouse (Before) 1 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) A court employee and news photographer survey the bomb damage in the Franklin County Courthouse's main courtroom in November 1969. Image: Courtesy of the Washington Missourian. Franklin County Courthouse (After) 2 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (After) The fully restored main courtroom includes

  16. Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For example, Lockheed indicated that its costs included a "common support" burden that ... requirements, and therefore ask that you consider sharing your thoughts with us. ...

  17. Plug-in Hybrid Modeling and Application: Cost/Benefit Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-08-24

    Presents data from a simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle efficiency and cost, including baseline vehicle assumptions, powertrain technology scenarios, and component modeling.

  18. Trends in U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Upstream Costs - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The IHS report assesses capital and operating costs associated with drilling, completing, and operating wells and facilities. The report focuses on five onshore regions, including ...

  19. Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

  20. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Bloom, Ira D.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publicly available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publicly peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on

  1. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Threshold Cost Calculation Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. 11007_h2_threshold_costs.pdf (443.22 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting Fuel Cell Technologies

  2. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  3. Aquion Energy Inc Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aquion Energy Inc Sodium-ion Battery for Grid-level Applications Project Description Aquion Energy and its partners will demonstrate a low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium-ion energy storage device. The energy storage chemistry in this device uses an electrochemical couple that combines a high capacity carbon anode with a sodium intercalation cathode capable of thousands of deep discharge cycles over extended periods of time. The proposed aqueous sodium-ion technology includes the

  4. Electric power substation capital costs (Technical Report) |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Subject: 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED COST; CALCULATION METHODS; PLANNING; COST ESTIMATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS Word Cloud More Like This ...

  5. California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators AgencyCompany...

  6. Property:Cost | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Cost&oldid285418...

  7. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  8. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos A consortium led by the University of Michigan that includes LANL as ...

  10. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  11. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  12. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reader, Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. Includes glossary You are ...

  13. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in California (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in California (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun ...

  14. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? ...

  15. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic devices and methods ...

  16. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths ...

  17. Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnewport-news-review-ch-47-segment-includes-tedf-groundbreaking-event Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event...

  18. Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

  19. Property:Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Property Type String Description Number of...

  20. FEMP Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation Measures FEMP Expands ESPC ENABLE Program to Include More Energy Conservation Measures November 13, 2013 - 12:00am...

  1. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Minnesota (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minnesota (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in Minnesota (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun ...

  2. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  3. AMO Issues Request for Information on Clean Energy Manufacturing Topics, Including Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AMO seeks information on mid-Technology Readiness Level R&D needs, market challenges, supply chain challenges, and shared facility needs addressing clean energy manufacturing topics, including the fuel cell and hydrogen sectors.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  5. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  6. A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

  7. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  8. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  9. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  10. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  11. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  12. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  13. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  14. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  15. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  16. Understanding coal quality and its relationship to power plant performance and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennison, K.D.; Stallard, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of reliable, reasonably priced energy is a necessary cornerstone for established and emerging economies. In addition to addressing coal quality issues strictly at a plant level, it is now prudent to consider long-term performance and economics of particular fuel sources to be selected in the light of system economics and reliability. In order to evaluate coal quality issues in a more comprehensive manner, it is important to develop both an approach and a set of tools which can support the various phases of the planning/analysis processes. The processes must consider the following: (1) Cost/availability of other potential coal supplies, including {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} domestic sources, {open_quotes}cleaned {close_quotes} domestic sources, and other internationally marketed coals. (2) Power plant performance issues as function of plant design and fuel properties. (3) System expansion plans, candidate technologies, and associated capital and operating costs. (4) Projected load demand, for system and for individual units within the system. (5) Legislative issues such as environmental pressures, power purchase agreements, etc. which could alter the solution. (6) Economics of potential plans/strategies based on overall cost-effectiveness of the utility system, not just individual units. (7) Anticipated unit configuration, including addition of environmental control equipment or other repowering options. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}) is a PC-based computer program capable of predicting coal-related cost and performance impacts at electric power generating sites. The CQIM was developed for EPRI by Black & Veatch and represents over a decade of effort geared toward developing an extensible state-of-the-art coal quality assessment tool. This paper will introduce CQIM, its capabilities, and its application to Eastern European coal quality assessment needs.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  18. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  19. Water Availability, Cost, and Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Availability, Cost, and Use - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  20. Support for Cost Analyses on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    35 Hartwell Ave Lexington, MA 02421 Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles Final Report to: Department of Energy Order DE-DT0000951 Report prepared by TIAX LLC Reference D0535 February 22, 2011 Matt Kromer (Principal Investigator) Kurt Roth Rosalind Takata Paul Chin Copyright 2011, TIAX LLC Notice: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government

  1. Power plant capital investment cost estimates: current trends and sensitivity to economic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes power plant capital investment cost studies that were carried out as part of the activities of the Plans and Analysis Division, Office of Nuclear Energy Programs, US Department of Energy. The activities include investment cost studies prepared by an architect-engineer, including trends, effects of environmental and safety requirements, and construction schedules. A computer code used to prepare capital investment cost estimates under varying economic conditions is described, and application of this code is demonstrated by sensitivity studies.

  2. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O'Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  3. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-21

    Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

  4. Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

    2011-04-15

    Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

  5. Unitarity bounds in the Higgs model including triplet fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Higgs potential, by which the electroweak rho parameter is unity at the tree level. ... Language: English Subject: 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; EIGENVALUES; ...

  6. Cost Comparison for the Transfer of Select Calcined Waste Canisters to the Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael B. Heiser; Clark B. Millet

    2005-10-01

    This report performs a life-cycle cost comparison of three proposed canister designs for the shipment and disposition of Idaho National Laboratory high-level calcined waste currently in storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center to the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concept A (2 10-ft) and Concept B (2 15-ft) canisters are comparable in design, but they differ in size and waste loading options and vary proportionally in weight. The Concept C (5.5 17.5-ft) canister (also called the super canister), while similar in design to the other canisters, is considerably larger and heavier than Concept A and B canisters and has a greater wall thickness. This report includes estimating the unique life-cycle costs for the three canister designs. Unique life-cycle costs include elements such as canister purchase and filling at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, cask preparation and roundtrip consignment costs, final disposition in the monitored geologic repository (including canister off-loading and placement in the final waste disposal package for disposition), and cask purchase. Packaging of the calcine "as-is" would save $2.9 to $3.9 billion over direct vitrification disposal in the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Using the larger Concept C canisters would use 0.75 mi less of tunnel space, cost $1.3 billion less than 10-ft canisters of Concept A, and would be complete in 6.2 years.

  7. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in New Mexico (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul ...

  8. SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How-To Webinar SWS Online Tool now includes Multifamily Content, plus a How-To Webinar This announcement contains ...

  9. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GHG Emissions | Department of Energy Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting Misconceptions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Jennifer B. Dunn, Energy Systems and Sustainability Analyst, Argonne National Laboratory

  11. Energy Cost Calculator for Faucets and Showerheads | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use gal Annual Water Cost Lifetime Water Cost WITH ELECTRIC WATER HEATING Annual Energy Use kWh Annual Energy Cost Lifetime Energy Cost ...

  12. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  13. Cycling fossil-fired units proves costly business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefton, S.; Grimsrud, P.; Besuner, P.

    1997-07-01

    Competition in the electric utility business is having a far-reaching impact. Cost-cutting measures have in major downsizing efforts in virtually every utility in the country. After several cost-cutting rounds to reduce the low hanging fruit of inefficiency, utilities are still challenged to become leaner and meaner in order to compete in a deregulated environment. The problem for many power utilities, however, is they have not precisely determined their costs in every aspect of the plant`s operation. Naturally, obtaining an accurate understanding of expenditures is the starting point for utilities that wish to develop strategic plans to better manage assets, minimize costs and maximize return on investment better understand plant O&M costs and take measures to use this knowledge to their advantage. Cycling is a major reason for the increase in O&M costs of many fossil units. Cycling, in this context, refers to the operation of generating units at varying load levels in response to changes in system-load requirements.

  14. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  16. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  17. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-economic analysis (TEA) - Feedback to the research efforts Specific objective in 2012: Provide TEA and validate DOE BETO's goal to demonstrate technologies capable of producing cost competitive ethanol from biomass by the year 2012. 2 Quad Chart Overview 3 Start Date Oct 1, 2006 End Date Sept 30, 2012 % Complete 100% Timeline for Mixed Alcohols Year Total [Gasification/Pyrolysis] FY12 $860k [$700k/$160k] FY13 $1,000k [$250k/$750k] FY14 $1,050k [$350k/$700k] projected Years 10 (FY04 to

  19. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  20. Estimated Costing of an EUV Mask Inspection Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S

    2002-08-20

    This document is the fourth sub-report of the EUV AIM design study being conducted at LLNL on behalf of International SEMATECH (ISMT) and addresses the issue of preliminary system costing. The purpose of the LLNL study, as identified in section 1.2 of the statement of work, is to research the basic user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool, potential design configurations and top-level specifications. The objectives of this design study specifically identified in section 1.3 of the statement of work were to: (1) Determine the user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool; (2) Determine if an EUV AIM tool is an appropriate platform for actinic defect characterization; (3) Determine possible design configurations and top-level performance specifications; (4) Identify potential technical issues and risks of different technical approaches; (5) Provide estimates of cost relating to different technical approaches; and (6) Provide simulated performance for key subsystems and the entire system. The sub-sections of the study to be addressed were accordingly defined in the statement of work as being: (1) Formulation of top-level specifications; (2) Identification of system configurations suitable for meeting the top-level specifications; (3) Preliminary design of imaging systems; (4) Preliminary design of illumination systems; (5) Prediction and comparison of performance through aerial image calculation; (6) Identification of sub-system requirements; (7) Identification of potential vendors; (8) Estimation of system cost; (9) Identification of technical issues; and (10) Definition of technology transfer or development required. Points 1 to 7 and 9 to 10 are addressed in separate reports to ISMT. This report addresses item 8, system costing, and is provided as a separate report so that its content can be kept confidential at the discretion of ISMT. In this analysis we cost two systems--one based on normal-incidence multilayer-coated optics and

  1. Switch wear leveling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  2. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Commercial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S.

  3. DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts | Department of Energy Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including Fuel Cell Platinum Group Metal Catalysts February 17, 2016 - 3:03pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has released a Request for Information (RFI) on critical materials in the energy sector, including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts. The RFI

  4. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous

  5. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010

  6. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Industrial Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S.

  7. Percentage of Total Natural Gas Residential Deliveries included in Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    City Gate Price Residential Price Percentage of Total Residential Deliveries included in Prices Commercial Price Percentage of Total Commercial Deliveries included in Prices Industrial Price Percentage of Total Industrial Deliveries included in Prices Electric Power Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S.

  8. Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Focus...

  9. Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    California (Million Cubic Feet) Natural Gas Deliveries to Commercial Consumers (Including Vehicle Fuel through 1996) in California (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun ...

  10. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to validate statistical models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical simulations for ...

  11. U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.

  12. Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulations for low energy nuclear reactions including direct channels to ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  13. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to ...

  14. DOE Releases Request for Information on Critical Materials, Including...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    including fuel cell platinum group metal catalysts. ... on issues related to the demand, supply, opportunities for ... Announces Second RFI on Rare Earth Metals DOE Announces RFI ...

  15. Search for Earth-like planets includes LANL star analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their interiors. Consortium team members at Los Alamos include Joyce Ann Guzik, Paul Bradley, Arthur N. Cox, and Kim Simmons. They will help interpret the stellar oscillation...

  16. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document describes guidance on the importance of (and steps to) including retro-commissioning in federal energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs).

  17. Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Measuring and modeling the lifetime of nitrous oxide including its variability: NITROUS OXIDE AND ITS CHANGING LIFETIME Prev Next Title: Measuring and ...

  18. Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems...

  19. Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eulerian Sliding Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces You are accessing a ...

  20. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  1. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  2. Are renewables portfolio standards cost-effective emission abatement policy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katerina Dobesova; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave

    2005-11-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) could be an important policy instrument for 3P and 4P control. The authors examine the costs of renewable power, accounting for the federal production tax credit, the market value of a renewable credit, and the value of producing electricity without emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx, mercury, and CO{sub 2}. The focus is on Texas, which has a large RPS and is the largest U.S. electricity producer and one of the largest emitters of pollutants and CO{sub 2}. The private and social costs of wind generation in an RPS is compared with the current cost of fossil generation, accounting for the pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions. It was found that society paid about 5.7 cents/kWh more for wind power, counting the additional generation, transmission, intermittency, and other costs. The higher cost includes credits amounting to 1.1 cents/kWh in reduced SO{sub 2}, NOx, and Hg emissions. These pollution reductions and lower CO{sub 2} emissions could be attained at about the same cost using pulverized coal (PC) or natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS); the reductions could be obtained more cheaply with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CCS. 35 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a networkmore » of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  4. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a network of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.

  5. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  6. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  7. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  8. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumpingsystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-07-08

    Industries worldwide depend upon pumping systems for theirdaily operation. These systems account for nearly 20 percent of theworld's industrial electrical energy demand and range from 25-50 percentof the energy usage in certain industrial plant operations. Purchasedecisions for a pump and its related system components are typicallybased upon a low bid, rather than the cost to operate the system over itslifetime. Additionally, plant facilities personnel are typically focussedon maintaining existing pumping system reliability rather than optimizingthe systems for best energy efficiency. To ensure the lowest energy andmaintenance costs, equipment life, and other benefits, the systemcomponents must be carefully matched to each other, and remain sothroughout their working lives. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis is a toolthat can help companies minimize costs and maximize energy efficiency formany types of systems, including pumping systems. Increasing industryawareness of the total cost of pumping system ownership through lifecycle cost analysis is a goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Thispaper will discuss what DOE and its industry partners are doing to createthis awareness. A guide book, Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCCAnalysis for Pumping Systems, developed by the Hydraulic Institute (HI)and Europump (two pump manufacturer trade associations) with DOEinvolvement, will be overviewed. This guide book is the result of thediligent efforts of many members of both associations, and has beenreviewed by a group of industrial end-users. The HI/Europump Guideprovides detailed guidance on the design and maintenance of pumpingsystems to minimize the cost of ownership, as well as LCC analysis. DOE,Hydraulic Institute, and other organizations' efforts to promote LCCanalysis, such as pump manufacturers adopting LCC analysis as a marketingstrategy, will be highlighted and a relevant case studyprovided.

  9. Cost guide. Volume 2. Standard procedures for determining revenue requirements (product cost)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The DOE has conducted economic analyses of alternative energy projects over the past several years which compared emerging technologies to conventional technologies and also to competing emerging technologies. The method used was to determine and compare the product costs of the technologies being assessed. A review of the application of this product cost technique over the past few years revealed that slightly different financial assumptions, economic factors, and scope were used. Therefore, it is not meaningful to compare results. Consistent comparison of the economic benefits of programs and projects being evaluated by DOE is essential to accomplish the assigned missions and functions. The process of reviewing much of the work accomplished by DOE and its support contractors failed to disclose a single source document or methodology which had potential application across the full range of DOE interests. However, the 1981 version of the Technical Assessment Guide published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) appears to have all of the necessary elements, economic factors, assumptions, and cost performance information necessary to meet the DOE's needs. A review of the document indicates that the methodology described by EPRI can be applied to almost any energy project so long as appropriate business and financial assumptions are made.The financial and business assumptions presented in EPRI technical report P-2410-SR are typical of the electric utility industry. Moreover, using a methodology already widely accepted by the utility industry, DOE can help reduce proliferation of different methods and promote the adoption of a standard. This guide presents a summary of the methodology, data on fuel price projections, and cost and performance information for transmission and generation technologies, and reflects an explanation of the economic methodology to include sample problems.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  12. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  13. Cost Participation in Research and Development Contracting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Section 988 also provides guidance, in addition to the applicable cost principles, for determining allowable costs. 2.1.1 Authority to Exclude Research and Development of a Basic ...

  14. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  15. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  16. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4utc.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  17. NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Reports Soft Costs Now Largest Piece of Solar Installation Total Cost December 2, 2013 Two detailed reports from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) find that solar financing and other non-hardware costs - often referred to as "soft costs" - now comprise up to 64% of the total price of residential solar energy systems, reflecting how soft costs are becoming an increasingly larger fraction of the cost of installing solar.

  18. Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2014-12-09

    An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.

  19. Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbiotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration &...

  20. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, Durable Seal Low Cost, Durable Seal This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_roberts_utc.pdf (823.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Improved AST's Based on Real World FCV Data Low Cost Durable Seal Breakout Group 3: Water Management