National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for levelized costs include

  1. Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Avani

    2009-01-01

    Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...

  2. Estimating the Economic Cost of Sea-Level Rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Masahiro.

    To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change,

  3. Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Masahiro, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    (cont.) In the case of a classical linear sea-level rise of one meter per century, the use of DIVA generally decreases the protection fraction of the coastline, and results in a smaller protection cost because of high ...

  4. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  5. Two objectives are included in the model: A cost minimization and an environmental impact minimization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Method Two objectives are included in the model: A cost minimization and an environmental impact minimization. The environmental impact is evaluated using the Eco- indicator 99 method. A set of Pareto optimal solutions is generated using the -constraint method. Conclusions · Environmental impact can be reduced by up

  6. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore »of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  7. Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

    2013-09-01

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  8. A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS Galenthe incremental cost of renewables portfolio standards (RPS)Washington DC have adopted renewables portfolio standards (

  9. NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distributed generation data used within this calculator. If you are seeking utility-scale technology cost and performance estimates, please visit the Transparent Cost Database...

  10. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  11. Analyzing the level of service and cost trade-offs in cold chain transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Saiqi

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses the tradeoff between transportation cost and the level of service in cold chain transportation. Its purpose is to find the relationship between transportation cost and the level of service in cold ...

  12. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  13. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Le [Ames Laboratory; MacDonald, Erin [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-01

    This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustiy. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

  15. Level of Repair Analysis and Minimum Cost Homomorphisms of Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutin, Gregory

    of Lillian Barros Abstract. Level of Repair Analysis (LORA) is a prescribed procedure for defence logistics, LORA seeks to determine an optimal provision of repair and maintenance facilities to minimize overall on bipartite graphs is polynomial time solvable. Keywords: Computational Logistics; Level of Repair Analysis

  16. A LOW COST WAFER-LEVEL MEMS PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Pejman Monajemi, Paul J. Joseph*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    A LOW COST WAFER-LEVEL MEMS PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Pejman Monajemi, Paul J. Joseph* , Paul A. Kohl-cost low-temperature packaging technique for wafer-level encapsulation of MEMS devices fabricated on any arbitrary substrate. The packaging process presented here does not involve wafer bonding and can be applied

  17. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  18. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan)data book Homefuelleasing Home Alevine'slevelized cost of

  19. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  20. System level design enhancements for cost effective renewable power generation by reverse electrodialysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Adam Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the future competitiveness of reverse electrodialysis (RED) with other energy technologies show that the projected levelized cost of electricity realized through current stack designs is prohibitively high. ...

  1. Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Electrical energy can be generated from renewable resources the potential to meet the worldwide demand of electricity and they contribute to the total generation

  2. GUIDANCE ON ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS This document includes definitions and examples of expenditure types that would typically be considered unallowable direct charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    GUIDANCE ON ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS This document includes definitions and examples Circular A-21 and the Cost Accounting Standards (CAS). This document is meant to be a reference tool to as needed. This document is general in nature and is NOT an exhaustive list of unallowable costs for all

  3. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report surveys and summarizes existing state-level RPS cost and benefit estimates and examines the various methods used to calculate such estimates. The report relies largely upon data or results reported directly by electric utilities and state regulators. As such, the estimated costs and benefits itemized in this document do not result from the application of a standardized approach or the use of a consistent set of underlying assumptions. Because the reported values may differ from those derived through a more consistent analytical treatment, we do not provide an aggregate national estimate of RPS costs and benefits, nor do we attempt to quantify net RPS benefits at national or state levels.

  4. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  5. Including probe-level uncertainty in model-based gene expression clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xuejun; Lin, Kevin K; Andersen, Bogi; Rattray, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    quantity. For the six-group and seven-group datasets, threeexpression level for group seven is x qij = A qi , where Asecond column is for the seven group dataset with one noise

  6. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    in electricity sector generation costs. In addition, the5/MWh change in levelized generation costs. We find that thethe cost and potential of renewable generation technologies

  7. Nuclear Fuel Recycling - the Value of the Separated Transuranics and the Levelized Cost of Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    We analyze the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for three different fuel cycles: a Once-Through Cycle, in which the spent fuel is sent for disposal after one use in a reactor, a Twice-Through Cycle, in which the spent ...

  8. Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise Masahiro Sugiyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise by Masahiro Sugiyama Bachelor of Science in Earth Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology February 2007 ©2007 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights

  9. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  10. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

  11. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  12. Agenda of critical issues: coal price and availability. Final report. [Includes effect of legislation, sulfur content and rail transport costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennican, M.L.; Wayland, R.E.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Temple, Barker, and Sloane, Inc. developed an agenda of critical issues regarding future coal prices and coal availability for EPRI. TBS interviewed nearly 50 utility, coal company, and railroad officials, academic experts, and coal consultants; held a one-day participatory workshop; and conducted a literature review and follow-up interviews with selected utilities. TBS found four causes of uncertainty in the utility industry over future coal prices. First, the acid deposition proposals in Congress vary in terms of the structure of the legislation, the costs of compliance, and the impact on coal prices; in turn these uncertainties impede utility fuel planning and decision making. Second, powerplant-specific factors will have a major impact on whether utilities switch or scrub in response to acid deposition legislation; existing analyses do not capture these factors. The most important powerplant-specific factors are matching unit characteristics with coal specifications, retrofit scrubber costs, and differing state regulatory environments. Third, TBS found that utility fuel managers have great uncertainty over the availability and future cost of compliance coal. TBS estimated that the existing production capacity of eastern compliance coal is at least twice as high as current production. Fourth, TBS concluded that uncertainty over future coal transportation rates was a major reason for utilities' uncertainty over future delivered prices of coal. Critical transportation-related issues are the strategic and tactical response of eastern coal producers to the Staggers Act; the impact on rail rates of the sale of Conrail, of possible transcontinental mergers, and of multi-modal mergers; and the future pricing policies that eastern railroads will adopt in response to imports of Colombian coal. 21 references.

  13. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity criteria, is described in Shonder and Florita (2003) and Shonder and Hughes (2005). To address the first objective of the Level 2 analysis, we first assembled all the necessary information, and then repeated the ESCOs' calculations of reported annual cost savings. Only minor errors were encountered, the most common being the use of incorrect escalation rates to calculate utility prices or O&M savings. Altogether, our corrected calculations of the ESCO's reported cost savings were within 0.6% of the ESCOs' reported cost savings, and errors found were as likely to favor the government as they were the ESCO. To address the second objective, we gathered data on utility use and cost from central databases maintained by the Department of Defense and the General Services Administration, and directly from some of the sites, to determine the prices of natural gas and electricity actually paid at the sites during the periods addressed by the annual reports. We used these data to compare the actual utility costs at the sites to the contract utility prices. For natural gas, as expected, we found that prices had risen much faster than had been anticipated in the contracts. In 17 of the 18 projects for which the comparison was possible, contract gas prices were found to be lower than the average actual prices being paid. We conclude that overall in the program, the estimates of gas prices and gas price escalation rates used in the Super ESPC projects have been conservative. For electricity, it was possible to compare contract prices with the actual (estimated) marginal prices of electricity in 20 projects. In 14 of these projects, the overall contract electricity price was found to be lower than the marginal price of electricity paid to the serving utility. Thus it appears that conservative estimates of electricity prices and escalation rates have been used in the program as well. Finally we calculated the value of the reported energy savings using the prices of utilities actually paid by the sites instead of the contract prices. In 16 of the 22 projects (

  14. A COST-EFFECTIVE TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTOR STEVEN, G. B., EGAN, C., SHIM, W. VINTAN, L.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vintan, Lucian N.

    - 1 - A COST-EFFECTIVE TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTOR STEVEN, G. B., EGAN, C., SHIM, W. VINTAN.B.Steven@herts.ac.uk wonshim@duck.snut.ac.kr vintan@cs.sibiu.ro ABSTRACT During the 1990s Two-level Adaptive Branch Predictors processors. However, while two-level adaptive predictors achieve very high prediction rates, they tend

  15. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  16. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonell, W R

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms.

  17. Cost of stockouts in the microprocessor business and its impact in determining the optimal service level/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonnet, Maria Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In order to develop optimal inventory policies, it is essential to know the consequences of stockouts and the costs related to each kind of stockout; at Intel, however, such costs have not yet been quantified. The primary ...

  18. A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar TechnologiesRPS costs, per unit of renewable energy generation, rangedFlores-Espino National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  19. Randomized min-max optimization: the exact risk of multiple cost levels Algo Car`e, Simone Garatti, Marco C. Campi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garatti, Simone

    . Our goal is to evaluate the risks associated to the various costs, where the risk associated to a cost. This evaluation characterizes completely the risks associated to the costs, and represents a full-fledged resultRandomized min-max optimization: the exact risk of multiple cost levels Algo Car`e, Simone Garatti

  20. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    projections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel priceboth renewable technology costs and avoided fuel costs. Theof future renewable technology cost and performance would

  1. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  2. Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackley, J.

    2010-01-01

    through installation of Bi-Level Lighting systems. The results of this report demonstrate that common areas that are currently not making use of Bi-Level lighting systems would achieve significant financial and environmental benefits from Bi-Level focused...

  3. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  4. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    factors: wind power capital costs and natural gas prices.key assumptions – wind capital cost and the duration of PTC47 7.3.2 Wind Capital Cost

  5. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    to RPS generation requirements, wind cost assumptions arethe sudden leap in wind costs over the past several years,especially if higher wind costs persist. However, most, if

  6. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    resource types and generation costs are estimated externallystudy reports cost and renewable generation results for thestudy reports cost and renewable generation results for the

  7. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  8. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  9. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    of Alternative Fossil Fuel Price and Carbon Regulationtechnology cost, fossil fuel price uncertainty, andtechnology cost, fossil fuel price uncertainty, and

  10. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  11. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  12. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION in this paper. #12;ABSTRACT In this 2007 report of the cost of generation of electricity for California located technologies, California Energy Commission staff provides levelized costs, including the cost assumptions

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    impacts We converted other cost metrics to ˘/kWh retail ratePower System Operating Costs: Summary and Perspective onA. Bibliography of RPS Cost Studies Studies listed in

  14. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    45 7.3 Renewable Energy Costand future renewable energy costs, while less volatile thanResource Data Renewable Energy Cost Characterization

  15. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    or clean energy policies, unless RPS-specific costs areCost Impacts of a Vermont Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard Economics of a Washington Energy Portfolio Standard: Effects on Ratepayers The Washington Clean Energy

  16. Environmental benefits and cost savings through market-based instruments : an application using state-level data from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology for estimating potential cost savings from the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) when local emissions and abatement cost data are not available. The paper provides estimates of the ...

  17. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  18. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  19. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    on Average Retail Electricity Rates.. 14Projected RPS Electricity Rate Impacts by RPS CostRPS Targets and Retail Electricity Rate Impacts 16 Typical

  20. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    wholesale electricity price projections as a model output.in natural gas prices projections over the past severalprojections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel price

  1. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    detailed wholesale electricity price projections as a modelelectricity bills, and renewable energy certificate (REC) prices. Developing a consistent set of metrics for comparing cost projections

  2. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  3. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  4. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    and future renewable energy costs, while less volatile thandifference between renewable energy costs and the cost ofto be the least-cost renewable energy source and, as noted

  5. This is a preprint of the following article, which is available from http://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published article.A.M. van Kuik. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines for Minimum Levelized Cost of Energy. Renewable Energy (In press), 2014 Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

  6. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    would stimulate wind technology cost reductions on theprojections of renewable technology costs, fossil fuel priceavailability. Renewable technology cost: Reflects changes to

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    New Jersey “high technology cost” scenario, which exceedsthan-expected solar technology costs would probably causeAvailability Renew able Technology Cost Fossil Fuel Price

  8. Chinese Major (Thirty Credit Hours) 1. Fifteen credit hours of Chinese language at or above 100-level (must include CHIN 101,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Worksheet Chinese Major (Thirty Credit Hours) 1. Fifteen credit hours of Chinese language hours) CHIN 296 (3 credit hours) 2. Fifteen credit hours of Chinese history and culture (must include WLIT 110) a. 3 credit hours of Chinese literature WLIT 110 (3 credit hours) b. 6 credit hours at any

  9. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Cost Studies en al ty CO2 Reduction Cost in 1st Peak Targetdo not represent the average costs of CO2 abatement over theestimated CO2 reductions. Since these are single-year costs,

  10. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  11. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  12. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  13. Effects of protein and energy levels during the growing and laying periods on performance and egg production costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santana, Jose

    1968-01-01

    Ih O O I IA I O o 0' V V V V Al F! I nlI 0 o 0 0 a J2 nl 0 C4 H 0 I! I! IA O nl A u nl nl nl W A nl A nl nl I! Cl 4 W W 0 0 V 0 '0 cl nl u u V II nl Sl nl nl In n! nl m M nl g A CI CI nl ~ In 28... of diet to pullets from 8 to 21 weeks of age, combined with an all-mash and a mash plus unground milo free choice feeding system, in a factorial arrangement (3xZx2) had no effect on body weight, level of peak production or egg size during the laying...

  14. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    Notable is that current wind costs are in the $1600-2000/kWin place. As a result, the wind cost assumptions employed inespecially if higher wind costs persist. Natural Gas Price

  15. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  16. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    technology costs, fossil fuel price uncertainty, alternativeand performance assumptions. Fossil fuel price uncertainty:able Technology Cost Fossil Fuel Price Uncertainty Alternate

  17. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  18. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  19. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  20. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  1. Measuring the Effects of Peaking, Vehicle Capital, and Passenger Capacity on the Cost of Providing Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostthe Peak Period Operating Vehicle Non-vehicle Costs CapitalCosts Capital Costs Total Capital Total Costs Costs This

  2. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Curation: Cost of Digital Migration Ulla Břgvad Kejser, Thefocus especially on costing digital migration activities. Inof the OAIS Model digital migration includes both transfer (

  3. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    include different energy efficiency resource savings levels,bidding strategy of energy efficiency resources and receiveResource Costs and Benefits of Alternative Energy Efficiency

  4. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    clean_energy_policies/increase-wisconsin- rps.html Table 1. State RPS Policies as Modeled by RPS Cost

  5. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  6. Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, G.

    2010-01-01

    calculation include the installed consumer cost (purchase price plus installation cost), operating expenses (energy and

  7. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  8. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of nochanges in retail electricity rates, and (2) monthlydeployment on retail electricity rates and bills. Direct

  9. Measuring Cost Variability in Provision of Transit Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Brian D.; Garrett, Mark; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    include both operating costs and capital costs, though mostof semi?xed operating and capital-cost allocation generallyresearch, both operating and capital costs are combined, and

  10. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    cost projections · Chemical Engineering (CE) Plant Construction Cost Index ­ Base value = 100 in 1957.0 in 2Q 2001 · Engineering News Record (ENR) · Nelson Refinery (NR) Construction Cost Index Cost Indices available for estimation are based upon the past · These data must be updated using cost indexes . · Cost

  11. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  12. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  13. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes test methods and data analyses used to develop models for the prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, such as engineered barrier system (EBS) materials and waste forms, used in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level nuclear waste in a geologic repository. The alteration behavior of waste form and EBS materials is important because it affects the retention of radionuclides by the disposal system. The waste form and EBS materials provide a barrier to release either directly (as in the case of waste forms in which the radionuclides are initially immobilized), or indirectly (as in the case of containment materials that restrict the ingress of groundwater or the egress of radionuclides that are released as the waste forms and EBS materials degrade). 1.1.1 Steps involved in making such predictions include problem definition, testing, modeling, and model confirmation. 1.1.2 The predictions are based on models derived from theoretical considerat...

  14. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  15. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  16. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  17. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  18. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  19. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  20. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  1. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  2. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  3. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  4. CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    CAS Indirect Cost Recovery Practices "Facilities and Administration" (F&A) Costs or, "Indirect Cost Recovery (ICR)," are costs incurred by the University for common or joint projects and cannot be specifically attributed to an individual project. Some examples of indirect costs include accounting staff

  5. Wind power costs in Portugal Saleiro, Carla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind power costs in Portugal Saleiro, Carla Department of Biological Engineering, University, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O&M costs, fuel

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a â��bottom-upâ� costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMA�® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

  7. Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    Cost Transfer Review Criteria Revised: 01/28/2011 Cost transfers should contain sufficient. The cost transfer narrative should include enough detail to determine who or what the cost transfer relates to, the type of cost transferred, where the cost is transferred from and to, when the cost

  8. NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWEC Comments: Environmental Costs and Benefits 1 Methodology for Determining Quantifiable Environmental Costs and Benefits Comments of the NW Energy Coalition October 31, 2014 Introduction: Applying (Council) to include a methodology for determining quantifiable environmental costs and benefits in its

  9. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  10. Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valasek, John

    Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation for Spacecraft Rendezvous Functions of automation than previous NASA vehicles, due to program requirements for automation, including Automated Ren authority between humans and computers (i.e. automation) as a prime driver for cost, safety, and mission

  11. Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

    1972-01-01

    would be approximately 34 cents. Labor cost was calculated at $1.50 per hour. Total operating cost, including labor and all equipmen! use, was 8.2 cents per bale and $5.73 per acre (a$ shown in Table 2). Assuming an average yieltl oi seventy 60.... averaged $5.73 per acre for each be 8.2 cents per bale. At a cost of 10 cents per baly cutting or $2.73 per ton. With an average of 70 for custom hauling, direct, out-of-pocket costs will be 18.2 cents per bale. I Table 3. Estimated Cost Per Ton and Per...

  12. Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    Federal Indirect Costs Program Definition of the indirect costs of research Concordia University defines "Indirect Costs" as costs which cannot be associated specifically with a particular research program or other activity. Indirect costs include the provision and maintenance of physical space

  13. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotal

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotalHost and

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers THURSDAY, APRILCustomersTotalHost andFAQs 1

  17. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. " 21 ran PPPO-03-1RESEARCH CALL

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n pTotalEnergy1

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n pTotalEnergy1

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n pTotalEnergy1012

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 2015

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 2015

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 2015

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 2015

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 2015

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April 20151

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market4

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April Market3

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5 1

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5 1

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5 1

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5 1

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5 1About

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.10 CoolingNotes &* j o n5 1 April5

  11. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13, 2009 In reply refer June

  12. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13, 2009 In reply refer

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabama AlabamaSurvey Forms Proposed

  14. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  15. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  16. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  17. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  18. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  19. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  20. Total Ownership Cost (TOC) Cost as an Independent Variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $ + procurement $ + operation $ + logistical support $ + disposal $ Linked - Indirect Direct Direct Cost Life with the research, development, procurement, operation, logistical support and disposal of an individual weapon, operation, logistical support and disposal of an individual weapon system including the total supporting

  1. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    into COEUS x OPAFS establishes project related IFIS fund and index numbers x Department tracks cost sharing sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  2. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  3. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  4. How Much Does That Incinerator Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

    2008-07-25

    Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication...

  5. Low-cost interference lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fucetola, Corey P.

    The authors report demonstration of a low-cost ( ? 1000 USD) interference lithography system based on a Lloyd’s mirror interferometer that is capable of ? 300?nm pitch patterning. The components include only a 405?nm GaN ...

  6. Cost Sharing Basics Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Cost Sharing Basics Definitions Some funding agencies require the grantee institution the project costs. Cost sharing is defined as project costs not borne by the sponsor. Cost sharing funds may resources or facilities. If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing

  7. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  8. THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMMISSIONS FROM 21 INDUSTRIES BY JONATHAN FISHER CSERGE WORKING PAPER WM 97-03 #12;THE COST OF REDUCING VOC EMISSIONS FROM 21 INDUSTRIES by Jonathan Fisher ERM Economics 8 and Industry to estimate the costs of various levels of controls on emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds

  9. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  10. Hydroblasting permits safe, cost-effective dam rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lever, G. [Cavi-Tech Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The cost of using traditional methods to remove lead-based paint from structures subject to strict environmental regulations can be prohibitive, leaving many rehabilitation projects undone. However, alternative methods, including hydroblasting, can reduce debris containment and disposal costs to a tolerable level. This article describes a project which involved the removal of old lead paint and the repainting of a dam situated in a populated recreational area. It details the budgetary, environmental, and public health issues that led to strict specifications and oversight requirements, which saved money and protected the area from lead contamination.

  11. Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the cost of the survey. Developing a detailed scope of work and a fixed price for this work is important to eliminate risk to the Agency and the ESCo. Including a detailed scope...

  12. Levelized cost and levelized avoiced cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural2009343 342 328 37056

  13. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProved ReservesCubic Feet) Kenai, AK Liquefied Natural2009343 342 328 37056April 2014

  14. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13, 2009 In reply refer

  15. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13, 2009 In reply refer June 2015

  16. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  17. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  18. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  19. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  20. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton © GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi· Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length · Set-up time, etc. · Personal time

  1. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  2. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  3. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  4. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-01

    vitrification process is very costly (it is estimated that a canister of vitrified high level waste costs

  5. Utility Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, S.

    1984-01-01

    One of the first steps in setting up an energy management program in a commercial building is determining operating costs per energy consuming system through a utility cost analysis. This paper illustrates utility cost analysis methods used...

  6. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation costs, including well drilling and the diggingplastic pipe drilling & installing pipe Total costs to beproject costs: Tower Foundation (including drilling,

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Installation costs, including well drilling and the diggingproject costs: Tower Foundation (including drilling,plastic pipe drilling & installing pipe Total costs to be

  9. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  10. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  11. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  12. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  13. Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection Joseph E. Harrington to cost shocks. During the stationary phase, price responds to cost but is much less sensitive than under of cost shocks. It is also shown that the cartel price path may overshoot its long-run level so that price

  14. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  15. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the scope and magnitude of the cost-overrun problem, the benefits are likely to be significant.

  16. Probabilistic cost estimation methods for treatment of water extracted during CO2 storage and EOR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Enid J. Sullivan; Chu, Shaoping; Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2015-08-08

    Extraction and treatment of in situ water can minimize risk for large-scale CO2 injection in saline aquifers during carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), and for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Additionally, treatment and reuse of oil and gas produced waters for hydraulic fracturing will conserve scarce fresh-water resources. Each treatment step, including transportation and waste disposal, generates economic and engineering challenges and risks; these steps should be factored into a comprehensive assessment. We expand the water treatment model (WTM) coupled within the sequestration system model CO2-PENS and use chemistry data from seawater and proposed injection sites in Wyoming, to demonstratemore »the relative importance of different water types on costs, including little-studied effects of organic pretreatment and transportation. We compare the WTM with an engineering water treatment model, utilizing energy costs and transportation costs. Specific energy costs for treatment of Madison Formation brackish and saline base cases and for seawater compared closely between the two models, with moderate differences for scenarios incorporating energy recovery. Transportation costs corresponded for all but low flow scenarios (3/d). Some processes that have high costs (e.g., truck transportation) do not contribute the most variance to overall costs. Other factors, including feed-water temperature and water storage costs, are more significant contributors to variance. These results imply that the WTM can provide good estimates of treatment and related process costs (AACEI equivalent level 5, concept screening, or level 4, study or feasibility), and the complex relationships between processes when extracted waters are evaluated for use during CCUS and EOR site development.« less

  17. A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, Drew [Project Time and Cost Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil, mechanical, electrical, structural and nuclear disciplines and by performing a Line by Line, WBS element by WBS element review of the Projects' CD-2 baseline package helped the DOE Project Team experience success. The second opinion that PT and C provide by conducting a Pre-EIR review of the Project baseline package and the cost review of the TPC helped the DOE Team pass the CD-2 EIR and reduced the TPC. The Line-by-Line review of the DOE Project identified opportunities to reduce the TPC from $1.1 billion to $740.8 million, thus realizing a saving of approximately $359.2 million, or roughly 32% of the original TPC. This significant cost savings underscores the cost in obtaining the second opinion. This same Line by Line review can be applied to any DOE project in the Energy Management or Weapons complex. In the case of this DOE Project a second opinion was worth the cost. (authors)

  18. Does Competition Reduce Costs? Assessing the Impact of Regulatory Restructuring on U.S. Electric Generation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markiewicz, Karl; Rose, Nancy L.; Wolfram, Catherine

    2006-03-14

    cost to managers of the marginal unit of labor. We address this by using state-level average wages from industries with workers of similar skills and training to power plant operators, including natural gas distribution, petroleum refining... and other owners, number of employees, capacity factor, operating expense, year built, and many other plant-level statistics. Our base data set includes all large steam and combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) generating plants for which data were reported...

  19. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  20. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

  1. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  2. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  3. Neutralino relic density including coannihilations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Gondolo; Joakim Edsjo

    1997-11-25

    We give an overview of our precise calculation of the relic density of the lightest neutralino, in which we included relativistic Boltzmann averaging, subthreshold and resonant annihilations, and coannihilation processes with charginos and neutralinos.

  4. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  5. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa ­ 2002 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs

  6. INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    1 INDIRECT COSTS OF RESEARCH University Policy No: FM5400 Classification: Financial Management recoveries towards the indirect costs associated with externally funded Research conducted at the University Costs of Research include, but are not limited to those costs associated with: the operation

  7. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa ­ 2000 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agriculture cooperatives around the state. These costs estimates are representative

  8. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa ­ 2006 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs

  9. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa ­ 2005 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs

  10. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa ­ 2001 The estimated costs of corn, corn silage. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agriculture cooperatives around the state. These costs estimates are representative

  11. Estimating Well Costs for Enhanced Geothermal System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; P. T. Laney

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the work reported was to investigate the costs of drilling and completing wells and to relate those costs to the economic viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This is part of a larger parametric study of major cost components in an EGS. The possibility of improving the economics of EGS can be determined by analyzing the major cost components of the system, which include well drilling and completion. Determining what costs in developing an EGS are most sensitive will determine the areas of research to reduce those costs. The results of the well cost analysis will help determine the cost of a well for EGS development.

  12. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Research. Bloomberg New Energy Finance. 2011. Levelized Cost2011, and Bloomberg New Energy Finance 42 specifies a cost

  13. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  14. Mixed Waste Treatment Cost Analysis for a Range of GeoMelt Vitrification Process Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, L. E.

    2002-02-27

    GeoMelt is a batch vitrification process used for contaminated site remediation and waste treatment. GeoMelt can be applied in several different configurations ranging from deep subsurface in situ treatment to aboveground batch plants. The process has been successfully used to treat a wide range of contaminated wastes and debris including: mixed low-level radioactive wastes; mixed transuranic wastes; polychlorinated biphenyls; pesticides; dioxins; and a range of heavy metals. Hypothetical cost estimates for the treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste were prepared for the GeoMelt subsurface planar and in-container vitrification methods. The subsurface planar method involves in situ treatment and the in-container vitrification method involves treatment in an aboveground batch plant. The projected costs for the subsurface planar method range from $355-$461 per ton. These costs equate to 18-20 cents per pound. The projected cost for the in-container method is $1585 per ton. This cost equates to 80 cents per pound. These treatment costs are ten or more times lower than the treatment costs for alternative mixed waste treatment technologies according to a 1996 study by the US Department of Energy.

  15. UC Investment in Astronomy vs. Other Sciences: A Comparative Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    many other UC-supported research sciences. (3) The ORGS report included capital costs for Astronomy (UC's contribution to Keck capital costs were counted as operating costs), but failed to include capital costs1 UC Investment in Astronomy vs. Other Sciences: A Comparative Cost Analysis Jean P. Brodie and S

  16. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  17. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug [Sentech, Inc.; Goggin, Mr. Michael [Sentech, Inc.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  18. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix G: MCS Cost-effectiveness for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , cost and savings assumptions used to establish the efficiency level that achieves all electricity.............................................................................................................. 1 Measure Cost Assumptions savings that are cost-effective to the region's power system. The second section describes the methodology

  1. Variability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Year Outcomes of Observation Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbass, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the initial costs of care across theVariability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Yearis associated with lower costs and comparable level of care

  2. What is the Economic Cost of Climate Change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanemann, W. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Sea Level, California Climate Change Center, Report CEC-500-in the assessment of climate change damages: illustrationThe Economic Cost of Climate Change Impact on California

  3. Project Functions and Activities Definitions for Total Project Cost

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides guidelines developed to define the obvious disparity of opinions and practices with regard to what exactly is included in total estimated cost (TEC) and total project cost (TPC).

  4. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  5. How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G.

    2007-01-01

    customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers...

  6. APT cost scaling: Preliminary indications from a Parametric Costing Model (PCM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-03

    A Parametric Costing Model has been created and evaluate as a first step in quantitatively understanding important design options for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) concept. This model couples key economic and technical elements of APT in a two-parameter search of beam energy and beam power that minimizes costs within a range of operating constraints. The costing and engineering depth of the Parametric Costing Model is minimal at the present {open_quotes}entry level{close_quotes}, and is intended only to demonstrate a potential for a more-detailed, cost-based integrating design tool. After describing the present basis of the Parametric Costing Model and giving an example of a single parametric scaling run derived therefrom, the impacts of choices related to resistive versus superconducting accelerator structures and cost of electricity versus plant availability ({open_quotes}load curve{close_quotes}) are reported. Areas of further development and application are suggested.

  7. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Steece, B. 2000. Software cost estimation with COCOMO II.Developing a Framework of Cost Elements for PreservingAshley, K. 1999. Digital archive costs: Facts and fallacies.

  8. Handbook for cost estimating. A method for developing estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.; Cohen, S.; Ziegler, E.Z.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides overall guidance to assist the NRC in preparing the types of cost estimates required by the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines and to assist in the assignment of priorities in resolving generic safety issues. The Handbook presents an overall cost model that allows the cost analyst to develop a chronological series of activities needed to implement a specific regulatory requirement throughout all applicable commercial LWR power plants and to identify the significant cost elements for each activity. References to available cost data are provided along with rules of thumb and cost factors to assist in evaluating each cost element. A suitable code-of-accounts data base is presented to assist in organizing and aggregating costs. Rudimentary cost analysis methods are described to allow the analyst to produce a constant-dollar, lifetime cost for the requirement. A step-by-step example cost estimate is included to demonstrate the overall use of the Handbook.

  9. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost modeling framework of other studies to include operational costs and life-cycle impact assessment of possible ancillary financial benefits during operation and at...

  10. 2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs of Research Program provides Canadian universities with annual funding to help

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    2011-12 Report on the Indirect Costs of Research Program Since 2003 the Federal Indirect Costs or "indirect" costs of research. Examples of such costs include lighting and heating for research space, salaries for staff that provide technical or administrative research support, training costs for workplace

  11. Cost-Informed Operational Process Support M. T. Wynn1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Cost-Informed Operational Process Support M. T. Wynn1 , H. A. Reijers2,3 , M. Adams1 , C. Ouyang1 operations in alignment with the true origins of costs, and to be informed about this on a real-time basis, allows businesses to increase profitability. In most organisations however, high-level cost

  12. Facility Location with Hierarchical Facility Costs Zoya Svitkina #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tardos, Ă?va

    Facility Location with Hierarchical Facility Costs Zoya Svitkina # â?? Eva Tardos + Abstract We consider the facility location problem with hierarchi­ cal facility costs, and give a (4 installation costs. Shmoys, Swamy and Levi [13] gave an approxi­ mation algorithm for a two­level version

  13. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    including specific energy and cost savings data. For otherdevelops estimates of energy and cost savings for upgradesdevelop estimates of energy and cost savings for upgrades

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2008-01-01

    include specific energy and cost savings data as well asbudgeted. In addition to energy and cost savings, properalso identify potential energy and cost savings. Quick PEP

  15. Cost-effectiveness of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG): evidence from a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Mavros P, Jönsson B. Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis inDecision-Making: How Are Cost-Effectiveness Thresholdsof abortion were collected. Costs include personnel, equip-

  16. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    2011b). Development in LCOE for Wind Turbines in Denmark.levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses are shown in Tablethe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore wind energy.

  17. Environmental Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, D.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis David Edge Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission 131 ESL-IE-00-04-21 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 2000 Tuas Natural Resource Conservation Cor...DDliuion Environmental Cost Analysis Presented By David Edge Determine the Costs c> Input co Output c> Hidden c> Capital (non recurring) Envirormenlal Cost Analy.;is "There has to be a measurable result ofimprovement and it should be tied to dollars...

  18. Technological cost%3CU%2B2010%3Ereduction pathways for axial%3CU%2B2010%3Eflow turbines in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laird, Daniel L.; Johnson, Erick L.; Ochs, Margaret Ellen; Boren, Blake

    2013-05-01

    This report considers and prioritizes potential technical costreduction pathways for axialflow turbines designed for tidal, river, and ocean current resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were utilized to understand current cost drivers and develop a list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to axialflow turbines, the U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model effort, and informal webinars and other targeted interactions with industry developers. Data from these various information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy. The four most promising costreduction pathways include structural design optimization; improved deployment, maintenance, and recovery; system simplicity and reliability; and array optimization.

  19. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Ardani, K.; Feldman, D.; Citron, R.; Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed to benchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data and analysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.

  20. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO sub 2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: Emissions, cost, and employment tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-08-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO{sub 2} emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: accurately models random outages of generating units, must-run constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emissions trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable.

  1. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Modeling Advanced Li-ion Couples 13 Courtesy of Junbing Yang & K. Amine Graphite with LNMO and LMRNMC similar in cost and energy density LMRNMC shows synergy...

  2. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

  3. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  4. Apportioning Climate Change Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention

  5. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  6. #include #include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Christoph

    ] (where a[n] = +infty). C's * bsearch() can't be used, it requires a[j]==key. */ int findloc( void *key Combine­CRCW BSP­Quicksort * variant by Gerbessiotis/Valiant JPDC 22(1994) * implemented in NestStep­C. */ int N=10; // default value /** findloc(): find largest index j in [0..n­1] with * a[j

  7. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschall, R.K. (Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International Corporation, Mail Stop IB57, 6633 Canoga Avenue, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-10

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp[gt]870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified.

  8. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  9. AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

  10. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2011-01-01

    level cost data provided by the California Solar Initiative,data for 2010 indicate that the average cost of systems installed through the California Solar

  11. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    levelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). Tax Equity Yield (after-power closer to achieving LCOE goals (and at no additionallevelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). 3. Model Descriptions and

  12. Appendix C: Calculation Methodology for Cost Goals, Bioenergy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the primary documents-including the Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)- that cover the evolution of technology design and cost projections for specific conversion concepts....

  13. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    campus, which includes 750 buildings. Photo courtesy of Texas A&M University Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University Recovery Act...

  14. Section L Attachment G - Management Team Cost Sheet.xlsx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    G Management Team Cost Sheet Definitions of items to be included in the worksheet Name Title Reimbursable* Annual Base Salary Reimbursable* Incentive Pay and bonuses Reimbursable*...

  15. Secretary Moniz Announces New Biofuels Projects to Drive Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of commercial-scale production. The projects include: * Hawaii Bioenergy (5 million DOE investment): Based in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii Bioenergy will develop a cost-effective...

  16. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink...

  17. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

  18. Integrated Cost and Schedule using Monte Carlo Simulation of a CPM Model - 12419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulett, David T.; Nosbisch, Michael R.

    2012-07-01

    This discussion of the recommended practice (RP) 57R-09 of AACE International defines the integrated analysis of schedule and cost risk to estimate the appropriate level of cost and schedule contingency reserve on projects. The main contribution of this RP is to include the impact of schedule risk on cost risk and hence on the need for cost contingency reserves. Additional benefits include the prioritizing of the risks to cost, some of which are risks to schedule, so that risk mitigation may be conducted in a cost-effective way, scatter diagrams of time-cost pairs for developing joint targets of time and cost, and probabilistic cash flow which shows cash flow at different levels of certainty. Integrating cost and schedule risk into one analysis based on the project schedule loaded with costed resources from the cost estimate provides both: (1) more accurate cost estimates than if the schedule risk were ignored or incorporated only partially, and (2) illustrates the importance of schedule risk to cost risk when the durations of activities using labor-type (time-dependent) resources are risky. Many activities such as detailed engineering, construction or software development are mainly conducted by people who need to be paid even if their work takes longer than scheduled. Level-of-effort resources, such as the project management team, are extreme examples of time-dependent resources, since if the project duration exceeds its planned duration the cost of these resources will increase over their budgeted amount. The integrated cost-schedule risk analysis is based on: - A high quality CPM schedule with logic tight enough so that it will provide the correct dates and critical paths during simulation automatically without manual intervention. - A contingency-free estimate of project costs that is loaded on the activities of the schedule. - Resolves inconsistencies between cost estimate and schedule that often creep into those documents as project execution proceeds. - Good-quality risk data that are usually collected in risk interviews of the project team, management and others knowledgeable in the risk of the project. The risks from the risk register are used as the basis of the risk data in the risk driver method. The risk driver method is based in the fundamental principle that identifiable risks drive overall cost and schedule risk. - A Monte Carlo simulation software program that can simulate schedule risk, burn WM2012 rate risk and time-independent resource risk. The results include the standard histograms and cumulative distributions of possible cost and time results for the project. However, by simulating both cost and time simultaneously we can collect the cost-time pairs of results and hence show the scatter diagram ('football chart') that indicates the joint probability of finishing on time and on budget. Also, we can derive the probabilistic cash flow for comparison with the time-phased project budget. Finally the risks to schedule completion and to cost can be prioritized, say at the P-80 level of confidence, to help focus the risk mitigation efforts. If the cost and schedule estimates including contingency reserves are not acceptable to the project stakeholders the project team should conduct risk mitigation workshops and studies, deciding which risk mitigation actions to take, and re-run the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the possible improvement to the project's objectives. Finally, it is recommended that the contingency reserves of cost and of time, calculated at a level that represents an acceptable degree of certainty and uncertainty for the project stakeholders, be added as a resource-loaded activity to the project schedule for strategic planning purposes. The risk analysis described in this paper is correct only for the current plan, represented by the schedule. The project contingency reserve of time and cost that are the main results of this analysis apply if that plan is to be followed. Of course project managers have the option of re-planning and re-scheduling in the face of new facts, in part by m

  19. What History Can Teach Us about the Future Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Viewpointt What History Can Teach Us about the Future Costs of U.S. NUCLEAR POWER Past experience suggests that high-cost surprises should be included in the planning process. NATHAN E. HULTMAN GEORGETOWN total cost, and incur financial risks no greater than those for other energy technologies. In this ar

  20. Electricity Plant Cost Uncertainties (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Construction costs for new power plants have increased at an extraordinary rate over the past several years. One study, published in mid-2008, reported that construction costs had more than doubled since 2000, with most of the increase occurring since 2005. Construction costs have increased for plants of all types, including coal, nuclear, natural gas, and wind.

  1. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  2. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2007 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2007 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  3. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2009 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2009 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  4. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2008 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2008 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  5. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  6. Improvement to low-level radioactive-waste vitrification processes. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W.S.

    1986-05-01

    Low-level radioactive waste vitrification (LLWV) is a technically feasible and cost-competitive alternative to the traditional immobilization options, i.e., cementation or bituminization. This thesis analyzes cementation, bituminization and vitrification, reviews the impact of the low-level Waste-stream composition on the vitrification process, then proposes and discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV). The techniques that control the volatile radionuclides include chemical precipitation, electrodialysis, and ion exchange. Ion exchange is preferred. A comparison of the technical specifications, of the regulatory compliance, and of the cost considerations shows the PILLWV to be the superior LLW immobilization option.

  7. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    station and equipment costs Capital equipment costs Non-a function of capital cost and is therefore represented intechnology and therefore capital cost and maintenance cost

  8. Solution to time-energy costs of quantum channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi-Hang Fred Fung; H. F. Chau; Chi-Kwong Li; Nung-Sing Sze

    2014-12-16

    We derive a formula for the time-energy costs of general quantum channels proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012307 (2013)]. This formula allows us to numerically find the time-energy cost of any quantum channel using positive semidefinite programming. We also derive a lower bound to the time-energy cost for any channels and the exact the time-energy cost for a class of channels which includes the qudit depolarizing channels and projector channels as special cases.

  9. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  10. Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Transfer Procedures How And When To Make Cost Transfers Effective February 9, 2003, cost elsewhere. Federal regulations require additional documentation to support cost transfers to sponsored program indexes. Costs may not be shifted to other research projects or from one budget period to the next

  11. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  12. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  13. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  14. U.S. Geographic Analysis of the Cost of Hydrogen from Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Ainscough, C.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes U.S. geographic analysis of the cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. Wind-based water electrolysis represents a viable path to renewably-produced hydrogen production. It might be used for hydrogen-based transportation fuels, energy storage to augment electricity grid services, or as a supplement for other industrial hydrogen uses. This analysis focuses on the levelized production, costs of producing green hydrogen, rather than market prices which would require more extensive knowledge of an hourly or daily hydrogen market. However, the costs of hydrogen presented here do include a small profit from an internal rate of return on the system. The cost of renewable wind-based hydrogen production is very sensitive to the cost of the wind electricity. Using differently priced grid electricity to supplement the system had only a small effect on the cost of hydrogen; because wind electricity was always used either directly or indirectly to fully generate the hydrogen. Wind classes 3-6 across the U.S. were examined and the costs of hydrogen ranged from $3.74kg to $5.86/kg. These costs do not quite meet the 2015 DOE targets for central or distributed hydrogen production ($3.10/kg and $3.70/kg, respectively), so more work is needed on reducing the cost of wind electricity and the electrolyzers. If the PTC and ITC are claimed, however, many of the sites will meet both targets. For a subset of distributed refueling stations where there is also inexpensive, open space nearby this could be an alternative to central hydrogen production and distribution.

  15. Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Task Assignment in a Heterogeneous Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost costs include energy related switching and processing costs, as well as general performance. Therefore, in this paper we assume that the general cost structure includes energy consumption related costs

  16. Writing Motor Specifications - How to Include Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartermaine, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    The escalating cost of electric power coupled with the rapid depletion of our non-renewable resources makes consideration of motor efficiency good sense both from economic and conservation viewpoints. The efficiency of an electric motor can...

  17. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  18. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20)...

  19. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  20. cost.f

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBROUTINE COST (N,X,WSAVE) IMPLICIT DOUBLE PRECISION (A-H, O-Z) DIMENSION X(1) ,WSAVE(1) NM1 = N-1 NP1 = N+1 NS2 = N/2 IF (N-2) ...

  1. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View NewTransparent Cost

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0.88 million, the annual maintenance and surveillance cost is estimated to be about $0.095 million, and deferred decontamination is estimated to cost about $6.50 million. Therefore, passive SAFSTOR for 10 years is estimated to cost $8.33 million in nondiscounted 1981 dollars. DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to cost about $4.59 million, with an annual cost of $0.011 million for long-term care. All of these estimates include a 25% contingency. Waste management costs for DECON, including the net cost of disposal of the solvent extraction lagoon wastes by shipping those wastes to a uranium mill for recovery of residual uranium, comprise about 38% of the total decommissioning cost. Disposal of lagoon waste at a commercial low-level waste burial ground is estimated to add $10.01 million to decommissioning costs. Safety analyses indicate that radiological and nonradiological safety impacts from decommissioning activities should be small. The 50-year committed dose equivalent to members of the public from airborne releases during normal decommissioning activities is estimated to 'Je about 4.0 man-rem. Radiation doses to the public from accidents are found to be very low for all phases of decommissioning. Occupational radiation doses from normal decommissioning operations (excluding transport operations) are estimated to be about 79 man-rem for DECON and about 80 man-rem for passive SAFSTOR with 10 years of safe storage. Doses from DECON with lagoon waste stabilization are about the same as for DECON except there is less dose resulting from transportation of radioactive waste. The number of fatalities and serious lost-time injuries not related to radiation is found to be very small for all decommissioning alternatives. Comparison of the cost estimates shows that DECON with lagoon waste stabilization is the least expensive method. However, this alternative does not allow unrestricted release of the site. The cumulative cost of maintenance and surveillance and the higher cost of deferred decontamination makes passive SAFSTOR more expensive than DECON. Seve

  3. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  4. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  6. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  7. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  8. Costing Workshop Summary Chris Rogers, RAL, 30 Mar 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    registrants, mostly work package managers etc (But all projects have more managers than workers it seems supplies #12;More on Project Costing Need to enumerate risks Expensive, high-risk items are bad Include cheapest solution as baseline If risk mitigation is needed, include it as a (costed) alternative Cite

  9. FIRE Vacuum Vessel Cost estimate and R&D needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    primary shell and port cost est. Includes: Torus shell · Internal shielding · Active coils · Passive for: - Octant - Midplane port - Aux port - Vertical port - Active coil segment - IB passive plate Does not include: · Internal hdwe supports cost category hours $k hours $k In-house design 24680 2468 7380 738 R

  10. Cost-effective ecological restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    whether the cost-effectiveness index in the all seed mixesRestoration cost-effectiveness (index calculated as percentwith the highest cost-effectiveness index values were drill

  11. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  12. NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name:NREL's RenewableOpen

  13. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervarLeeds, United Kingdom: Energy ResourcesEnergyCoAfrica

  14. Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site:ERDACarlo-integrated

  15. OpenEI Community - levelized cost of energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst,/0 enBigWater Power

  16. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 20082008707

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  18. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  19. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  20. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  1. Cost Analysis of Mobility Management Entities of Md. Shohrab Hossain, Mohammed Atiquzzaman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    Cost Analysis of Mobility Management Entities of SINEMO Md. Shohrab Hossain, Mohammed Atiquzzaman results in higher level of signalling cost on the mobility agents in a mobility protocol. Previous cost analysis on mobility protocols have not considered all possible costs for mobility management, resulting

  2. Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimum-Cost Tolerance Allocation ADCATS Report No. 99-5 Kenneth W. Chase Department of Mechanical-all cost of production, while meeting target levels for quality. Using allocation tools, a designer may re and loosening tolerances on costly processes, for a net reduction in cost. Several algorithms are described

  3. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  4. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  5. Policy on Cost Sharing Policy on Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Sharing 12/26/2014 Policy on Cost Sharing I. Purpose and Scope Northeastern University does not encourage cost sharing commitments in sponsored research, and generally will not commit for approval for cost sharing arrangements, and explains the requirements for how any such arrangements

  6. Policy on Cost Transfer Policy on Cost Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Cost Transfer 12/22/2014 Policy on Cost Transfer I. Purpose and Scope The University has posting of a cost to the general ledger, initiated by payroll charges, purchase orders or check requests (and the purchasing card). Cost Transfer means any subsequent transfer of the original charge

  7. Cost Sharing -1 -Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Sharing - 1 - Approved: 01/07/2013 Cost Sharing Policy Type: Administrative Responsible Office and Purpose The purpose of this policy is to define VCU's cost-sharing policy for sponsored programs. The university will make a cost-sharing commitment only when required by the sponsor or by the competitive nature

  8. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  9. Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen

  10. Photovoltaic-system costing-methodology development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study to expand the use of standardized costing methodologies in the National Photovoltaics Program. The costing standards, which include SAMIS for manufacturing costs and M and D for marketing and distribution costs, have been applied to concentrator collectors and power-conditioning units. The M and D model was also computerized. Finally, a uniform construction cost-accounting structure was developed for use in photovoltaic test and application projects. The appendices contain example cases which demonstrate the use of the models.

  11. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  12. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  13. Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

    1958-01-01

    ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings in hauling - 20 cents Annual production..., 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE STATION...

  14. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  15. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  16. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  17. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  18. MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Lucia

    MEMO OF UNDERSTANDING Service Cost July 2013 1/4 Thera Kalmijn Chief Operating Officer 1608 Fourth] [Division Name] Re: CSS Service Cost for Fiscal Year 2013 - 2015 Please find the service cost for [Division [Division Name] implements into CSS. The service cost for [Division Name] will remain fixed throughout

  19. Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halldórsson, Magnús M.

    Robust Cost Colorings Takuro Fukunaga Magn´us M. Halld´orsson Hiroshi Nagamochi Abstract We consider graph coloring problems where the cost of a coloring is the sum of the costs of the colors, and the cost of a color is a monotone concave function of the total weight of the class. This models resource

  20. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  1. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  2. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  3. Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

    Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

  4. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    CSE DOE DSM EIA EERS HVAC LCOE MUSH WACC American Councillevelized cost of energy (LCOE), which represents the per-the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), often is applied to

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Costly plastic morphological responses to predator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    ORIGINAL PAPER Costly plastic morphological responses to predator specific odour cues in three fixed anti-predator morphologies are favoured when predation level is consistently high, plastic plasticity. However, little is known about sticklebacks' plastic ability to react morpho- logically

  6. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    E. (2011). Development in LCOE for Wind Turbines in Denmark.to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations.the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore wind energy

  7. Understanding Wind Power Costs: The Value of a Comprehensive Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    The evolution and maturity of the wind industry have often been assessed by considering changes in key metrics including capital costs, capacity factor, turbine pricing, and in some cases electricity sales data. However, wind turbines and plants represent a complex system optimization problem and each of these metrics, in isolation, fails to tell the complete story of technological progress and industry advancement. By contrast, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) provides a more comprehensive and nuanced perspective on industry trends. LCOE can be used to analyze the effect of individual changes (by holding other variables constant) or to understand the complex interactions that might occur for example between turbine costs and productivity. Moreover, LCOE offers a reflection of the total production costs and required revenue for wind plants. This presentation provides examples of how a narrow focus on individual industry metrics can provide inaccurate representations of industry trends while also demonstrating how LCOE captures the array of critical industry variables to provide a greater level of insight.

  8. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  9. Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice-President (Research and International)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Policy Name: Indirect Costs of Research Originating/Responsible Department: Vice: Associate Vice-President (Research Planning and Operations Policy: Indirect costs of research are real costs that benefit and support research. These costs must be included in budget requests to external sponsors

  10. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2014 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2014 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Busi- ness Association record summaries, production and costs data from, and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These cost

  11. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2012 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2012 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs

  12. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2013 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2013 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn. They include the annual Iowa Farm Busi- ness Association record summaries, production and costs data from and a survey of selected agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These cost

  13. Indirect Costs of Research Background Information Prepared by the Research Services Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao "Howard"

    Indirect Costs of Research Background Information Prepared by the Research Services Office of indirect costs at the University of Alberta (moving to 85% to the Faculty (ie, Dean) and 15% to Central the importance of including indirect costs in research funding applications. The costs of doing research may

  14. Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J.

    1993-06-14

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

  15. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  16. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  17. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  18. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  19. Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasel, M.

    1982-01-01

    analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...

  20. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  1. Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes Lodging $700.00 Three hotels: 1. $195, $154.00 was used for unintended transportations (taxi, train, bus, etc.) and lodging costs Meal Plan $1.70 10. Bus $1.70 11. Bus $2.83 12. Bus $4.53 13. Tram$3.28 = $96.11 These costs were paid

  2. The Outlook for CO2 Capture Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Common Measures of CCS Cost · Capital cost · Increased cost of electricity · Cost of CO2 avoided · Cost of CO2 captured E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Elements of Capital Cost Note: · Nomenclature and cost items construction Total Capital Requirement (TCR) E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Cost of Electricity (COE) COE ($/MWh

  3. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    AS CAISO CCGT CSP CT DA EUE LCOE LOLP LOLE NERC NREL O&M PHSthe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost of a power

  4. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  5. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  6. Machine Learning with Operational Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudin, Cynthia

    This work proposes a way to align statistical modeling with decision making. We provide a method that propagates the uncertainty in predictive modeling to the uncertainty in operational cost, where operational cost is the ...

  7. "Renewing" UBC Renew Building Full Cost Assessment into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cycle Assessment Tools and Methods for Buildings 18 4.2.1 Life Cycle Costing 21 4.2.2 Life Cycle include life cycle costing and life cycle environmental impact assessment, in addition to cultural value the auspices of `life cycle thinking' in the construction industry. The methods embedded within the framework

  8. Cogeneration of electricity: Cost-effective over long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barger, R.L.; Barham, J. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the determination of the cost-effectiveness of a cogeneration project five years after it became operational in 1984. The cogeneration project uses digester sludge gas from a wastewater treatment plant. The topics covered include the history of electrical cogeneration at the site, cogeneration economics in the short term and the long term, and the factors in cost-effectiveness.

  9. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-28

    When someone mentions integration costs, thoughts of the costs of integrating renewable generation into an existing system come to mind. We think about how variability and uncertainty can increase power system cycling costs as increasing amounts of wind or solar generation are incorporated into the generation mix. However, seldom do we think about what happens to system costs when new baseload generation is added to an existing system or when generation self-schedules. What happens when a highly flexible combined-cycle plant is added? Do system costs go up, or do they go down? Are other, non-cycling, maintenance costs impacted? In this paper we investigate six technologies and operating practices--including VG, baseload generation, generation mix, gas prices, self-scheduling, and fast-start generation--and how changes in these areas can impact a system's operating costs. This paper provides a working definition of integration costs and four components of variable costs. It describes the study approach and how a production cost modeling-based method was used to determine the cost effects, and, as a part of the study approach section, it describes the test system and data used for the comparisons. Finally, it presents the research findings, and, in closing, suggests three areas for future work.

  10. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  11. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  12. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  13. Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context · Inconsistent consistent understanding and application of how cost effectiveness is calculated and when and how to apply Action Plan for Energy Efficiency published a comprehensive guide on cost effectiveness: best practices

  14. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  15. Overlay Costs National Concrete Consortium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overlay Costs National Concrete Consortium TTCC April 6, 2010 Savannah, Georgia Gary Fick Representing The National Concrete Pavement Technology Center #12;Overlay Cost Tech Brief · Developed to address common questions we have received during our implementation efforts #12;Overlay Cost Tech Brief

  16. A Low Cost Energy Management Program at Engelhard Industries Division 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, T. S.; Michalek, R.; Reiter, S.

    1982-01-01

    in technology related to precious metals and nonmetallic minerals. It manufactures high-performance chemical and precious metals products, including catalysts for the petroleum and automotive industries. Engelhard's energy costs have risen dramatically over...

  17. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Mesquite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    1999-04-15

    This publication includes simple directions for determining the density of mesquite and then estimating the cost of controlling these plants with either the leaf spray or stem spray method.

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory's low cost solar technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-09-01

    The problems identified in early study - cost, architectural compatibility, and reliability - were not likely to be solved with conventional practices in the solar industry. BNL then embarked upon an iterative development process towards a solution founded on the methodology which establish a set of key guidelines for the research. With the derivation of cost goals ($5 to $6 per square foot, installed) and performance targets (consistent with conventional technology) it was considered important to use sophisticated industrial product development technologies to achieve the desired results. The normal industrial practice to reduce cost, for example, is to reduce material intensity, strive for simplicity in design and apply as much mass production as possible. This approach revealed the potential of polymer films as a basic construction material for solar collectors. Further refinements to reduce cost were developed, including the perfection of a non-pressurized absorber/heat exchanger and the adaptability of a printable optical selective surface. Additional significant advantages were acquired through application of a monocoque construction technique borrowed from the aircraft industry. The procedures used, including important support from industry to help identify materials and guide fabrication techniques, eventually resulted in construction and successful testing of a thin polymer film solar collector. To achieve the overall objectives of viable solar economics some system concepts have been explored by BNL. Consistent with the cost goals mentioned, it is believed that the low pressure designs pursued will be successful. Designs for the storage tank and distribution system that have been pursued include the use of polymer film lined sheet metal for the storage tanks and plastic pipe.

  19. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Total Cost (CPUC) Module Cost Index (CEC, CPUC) CEC CPUC *an external index of worldwide module costs from Strategies

  20. American Bee Journal516 ment, productivity, and stress levels (including pest, parasite, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarpy, David R.

    .A. Delaneyff - META- ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC RELATEDNESS AMONG HONEY BEE DRONES, QUEENS, AND THEIR MATES. Queen bees are highly polyandrous, each mating with an average of approxi- mately 12 drones from other the relatedness of all drones mated to each queen (mate-mate), all queens within each population (queen

  1. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 15504 End Uses of1

  2. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 15504 End Uses of12

  3. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 1550473 Number

  4. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 1550473 Number Next

  5. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 1550473 Number Next5

  6. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential Consumers (Number of33 2,297 809 245 1550473 Number Next56

  7. Electrochemical system including lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as will as in other elecrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  8. Lower Cost Energy Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    , wh1ch means g01ng from 13.000 volts up to 39.000 volts and buy1ng the transformers, we can save nearly $180,000. The other th1ng I p01nted out before was the power factor penalty. By addIng capac1tors and ra1s1ng our power factor from 84% to 95...'s not as wIdely used, but revlta11zatlon rates are avaIlable. The last area 1s cogeneratIon. ThIs can be one of two thIngs. It can be an attractIve buy-back rate or av01ded cost rate, for cogenerated electrIcIty or 1t can be a r1der or rate where they w...

  9. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  10. Course may include: Research in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Course may include: Research in Education Statistics in Education Theories of Educational Admin Policy Analysis Sociological Aspects of Education Approaches to Literacy Development Information and Communication Technologies Issues in Education Final Project Seminar Master of Education Educational

  11. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  12. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  13. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The variable O&M cost of wind and solar is assumed to bethe relative levelized cost of wind and solar supply. OneJ. Swider and C. Weber. The costs of wind’s intermittency in

  14. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    CEMS CSP CT DA EIA EPA EUE LCOE LOLP LOLE NERC NREL O&M PHSlevelized cost of energy (LCOE)). A missing part of simplethe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost of a power

  15. Cost-Constrained Selection of Strand Wire and Number in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-Constrained Selection of Strand Wire and Number in a Litz-Wire Transformer Winding C. R. Design of litz-wire windings subject to cost constraints is analyzed. An approximation of nor- malized winding, in terms of a cost function. At the second level, results that are less general but are more

  16. Investigation to Discover Most Effective Method of Teaching Target Costing to Construction-Minded Individuals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hullum, Joshua James

    2012-07-16

    and an increased level of detail, while keeping costs lower than ever. Therefore, to meet such demands contractors must turn to an alternative approach of improving product and process with target costing. However, the adoption of target costing by the construction...

  17. Lyra: Password-Based Key Derivation with Tunable Memory and Processing Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Lyra: Password-Based Key Derivation with Tunable Memory and Processing Costs Leonardo C. Almeida memory and processing costs according to the desired level of security against brute force pass- word that if we fix Lyra's total processing time t in a legitimate platform, the cost of a memory-free attack

  18. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  19. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01

    Kingdom; 2004. [8] Amos W. Costs of storing and transportingcon- nections). Capital costs for this equipment must bein an analysis of station costs. Total station construction

  20. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  1. Cost-effective temporary microirrigation system for grass establishment on environmentally sensitive steep slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y. [University of Central Queensland, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). James Goldston Faculty of Engineering & Physical Systems

    2004-05-15

    An advanced technology cost-effective drip irrigation system design and setup on environmentally sensitive elevated steep slopes (batters) of a coal train derailment site in Central Queensland, Australia, are presented. The final profile of the coal burial site consists of six batters and associated berms with a drop in elevation of about 35 m. A small dam constructed downstream of the confluence of the two main drainage channels at the site supplied water for irrigation of the batters to aid the establishment of grass to control erosion. Water was periodically pumped from the small dam to three storage tanks using a petrol (gas) pump. Three solar pumps drew water from the storage tanks and dam to irrigate the top four batters. Contactors, pressure switches and irrigation control valves in turn shared a single solar power source between the solar pumps. Level balls (floating switches) placed in the storage tanks cut the solar power supply to the pumps when the storage tanks were nearly empty. On the whole, the irrigation system worked very well and excellent grass cover was established within 12 weeks. Given the environmental risks associated with the on-site burying of coal, and the estimated cost of about AU$11.73/m{sup 2} (every 10 years) in maintenance if the railway batters are not treated, the estimated total cost of AU$4.61/m{sup 2} of batter area treated with irrigation, including AU$3.08/m{sup 2} in irrigation cost, is justified.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TXDOT CNG fleet conversion. Volume 2. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  3. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power facility based on the Subtask 3.2 design. The air-blown case was chosen since it was less costly and had a better return on investment than the oxygen-blown gasifier case. Under appropriate conditions, this study showed a combined heat and power air-blown gasification facility could be an attractive option for upgrading or expanding the utilities area of industrial facilities. Subtask 3.4 developed a base case design for a large lignite-fueled IGCC power plant that uses the advanced GE 7FB combustion turbine to be located at a generic North Dakota site. This plant uses low-level waste heat to dry the lignite that otherwise would be rejected to the atmosphere. Although this base case plant design is economically attractive, further enhancements should be investigated. Furthermore, since this is an oxygen-blown facility, it has the potential for capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The third objective for Task 3 was accomplished by having NETL personnel working closely with Nexant and Gas Technology Institute personnel during execution of this project. Technology development will be the key to the long-term commercialization of gasification technologies. This will be important to the integration of this environmentally superior solid fuel technology into the existing mix of power plants and industrial facilities. As a result of this study, several areas have been identified in which research and development will further advance gasification technology. Such areas include improved system availability, development of warm-gas clean up technologies, and improved subsystem designs.

  4. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

  5. MOTIVATION INCLUDED OR EXCLUDED FROM Mihaela Cocea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocea, Mihaela

    MOTIVATION ­ INCLUDED OR EXCLUDED FROM E-LEARNING Mihaela Cocea National College of Ireland Mayor, Dublin 1, Ireland sweibelzahl@ncirl.ie ABSTRACT The learners' motivation has an impact on the quality-Learning, motivation has been mainly considered in terms of instructional design. Research in this direction suggests

  6. Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    processing unit (CPU) processing power and capacity of mass storage devices doubles every 18 months. Such growth in both processing and storage capabilities fuels the production of ever more powerful portableEnergy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1

  7. Course may include: Research in Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development Information and Communication Technologies Issues in Education Final Project Seminar Master, the Final Project Seminar. This graduate program will allow you to develop your skills and knowledgeCourse may include: Research in Education Qualitative Methods in Educational Research Fundamentals

  8. Communication in automation, including networking and wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use

  9. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  10. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  11. Stochastic Optimisation Methods for Cost-E ective Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fouskakis, Dimitris

    is traditionally measured by using logistic regression of mortality within 30 days of admission on O(100) sickness are sharply better than SA in this problem for all values of p studied; and (iii) optimal subsets of variables that compromise between data collection costs and predictive accuracy have the potential to generate large cost

  12. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    in animal house facility standard charge-out rates (excluding building depreciation) which we will pay, delivery and freight. Animal research costs Animal purchase and transportation costs. Animal maintenance employed on the grant. Training on specific skills relevant to the research project (e.g. animal handling

  13. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  14. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  15. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  16. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  17. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  18. An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects are categorized in two ways: direct costs or indirect costs. The federal government refers officially to indirect costs as facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, sometimes simply called "overhead" costs. Direct

  19. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  20. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  1. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A. (Del Mar, CA); Simnad, Massoud T. (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  2. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities...

  3. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  4. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  5. Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2 3 J at the local (site) level. This paper questions whether12 CBA is relevant for evaluating groundwater management the cost of groundwater14 protection and remediation measures at the regional (water body) level. It also

  6. New Berkeley Lab Report Tracks a Decade of PV Installed Cost Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-04-15

    Installations of PV systems have been expanding at a rapid pace in recent years. In the United States, the market for PV is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including upfront cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy and by the positive attributes of PV - e.g., modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. A new Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report, 'Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007', helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost (i.e., the cost paid by the system owner) of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The report is based on an analysis of project-level cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems completed from 1998-2007 and installed on the utility-customer-side of the meter. These systems total 363 MW, equal to 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007, representing the most comprehensive data source available on the installed cost of PV in the United States. The data were obtained from administrators of PV incentive programs around the country, who typically collect installed cost data for systems receiving incentives. A total of 16 programs, spanning 12 states, ultimately provided data for the study. Reflecting the broader geographical trends in the U.S. PV market, the vast majority of the systems in the data sample are located in California (83%, by capacity) and New Jersey (12%), The remaining systems are located in Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. The PV systems in the dataset range in size from 100 W to 1.3 MW, almost 90% of which are smaller than 10 kW. This article briefly summarizes some of the key findings from the Berkeley Lab study (the full report can be downloaded at http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/emp/re-pubs.html). The article begins by summarizing trends related to the installed cost of PV systems prior to receipt of any financial incentives, and then discusses how changes in incentive levels over time and variation across states have impacted the net installed cost of PV to the customer, after receipt of incentives. Note that all cost and incentive data are presented in real 2007 dollars (2007$), and all capacity and dollars-perwatt ($/W) data are presented in terms of rated module power output under Standard Test Conditions (DC-STC).

  7. Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Cost Principles Policy Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013 Last-21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions and the Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB)) identify cost accounting policies that must be followed to receive federal awards. These regulations

  8. Production Costing Models 1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    at each hour, The load is specified; A unit commitment decision is made; A dispatch decision is made. An important characterizing feature of PCMs is how it makes the unit commitment (UC) and dispatch decisions) such that units with lowest average cost are committed first. Startup costs are added when a unit #12;5 is started

  9. Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

    1964-01-01

    LAW FOR VARIOUS M-AINTENANCE ITEMS BASED ON O\\!'\\'S. ERSHIP AND TYPE OF GRASS WITHIN EACH REGION Maintenance items TY PC Percent Lot size, Region of oz;r- of lawns square Com~osty Fertilizer Chemicals Water Average grass in region feet cost cost...

  10. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  11. The Cost of Employment and Housing Discrimination against Transgender Residents of New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Housing and Urban Development (HUD) provides cost estimateswas $2,101. 25 The HUD study, which draws heavily uponincarceration. Third, the HUD estimate includes individuals

  12. Benefits to BPA will equal or exceed costs for the Extended Block...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to BPA associated with the DSI Service. Tangible benefits include avoided transmission costs to BPA's power marketing function that would otherwise be incurred absent the sales to...

  13. Plug-in Hybrid Modeling and Application: Cost/Benefit Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-08-24

    Presents data from a simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle efficiency and cost, including baseline vehicle assumptions, powertrain technology scenarios, and component modeling.

  14. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables

  15. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the years the industry has shown a good deal of ingenuity and, as a result, has developed several cost effective methods of processing and handling wood. SMB systems usually cannot afford to perform much onsite processing and therefore usually purchase fuels processed to specification. Owners of larger systems try to minimize onsite processing to minimize processing costs. Whole truck dumpers are expensive, but allow for faster and easier unloading, which reduces labor costs and charges by the haulers. Storage costs are a major factor in overall costs, thus the amount of fuel reserve is an important consideration. Silos and bins are relatively expensive compared to open piles used for larger facilities, but may be required depending on space available, wood characteristics, and amount of wood to be stored. For larger systems, a front-end loader has a lot of flexibility in use and is an essential piece of equipment for moving material. Few opportunities appear to exist for improving the cost effectiveness of these systems.

  16. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF A WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT FOR MONTEVIDEO; AND WASTE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    period of 23 years, the cost of capital for this plant should #12;3 be lower than 3.1% including revenues from carbon credits. If the cost of capital for the government is 6%, then, in order to recover owned, the cost of capital will most likely be higher than for the government. The financial analysis

  17. Cost Accounting Standards As part of Virginia Commonwealth University's research mission, the University accepts grants and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Cost Accounting Standards As part of Virginia Commonwealth University's research mission in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-21, which includes the Cost Accounting Standards. For questions related to OMB Circular A-21 or the Cost Accounting Standards, please contact the Office of Grants

  18. High Level Waste Disposal System Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; M. Connolly; J. Roach; W. Holtzscheiter

    2005-02-01

    The high level waste (HLW) disposal system consists of the Yucca Mountain Facility (YMF) and waste product (e.g. glass) generation facilities. Responsibility for management is shared between the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) and Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The DOE-RW license application and the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), as well as the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) govern the overall performance of the system. This basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider waste form and process technology research and development (R&D), which have been conducted by DOE-EM, international agencies (i.e. ANSTO, CEA), and the private sector; as well as the technical bases for including additional waste forms in the final license application. This will yield a more optimized HLW disposal system to accelerate HLW disposition, more efficient utilization of the YMF, and overall system cost reduction.

  19. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  20. Service Levels and Associated Cleaning Areas Service Level 0 -No Service will be provided.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Level 0 ­ Includes all rooms/areas categorized as: Hazardous Material, mechanical, storage, issue, stockService Levels and Associated Cleaning Areas Service Level 0 - No Service will be provided. Service Level 1- Includes all rooms/areas categorized as: offices, copy, file, mail, hallways, vestibules

  1. Health Care Costs Associated with Violence in Pennsylvania 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Songer, Thomas J.

    and amongst institutions in Pennsylvania. Perhaps the category of violence most poorly understood is domestic health care costs. Data sources used to identify information specific to Pennsylvania include major categories of violence; inter-personal violence including, homicide, aggravated assault, rape

  2. Analysis of Cycling Costs in Western Wind and Solar Integration Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) examined the impact of up to 30% penetration of variable renewable generation on the Western Electricity Coordinating Council system. Although start-up costs and higher operating costs because of part-load operation of thermal generators were included in the analysis, further investigation of additional costs associated with thermal unit cycling was deemed worthwhile. These additional cycling costs can be attributed to increases in capital as well as operations and maintenance costs because of wear and tear associated with increased unit cycling. This analysis examines the additional cycling costs of the thermal fleet by leveraging the results of WWSIS Phase 1 study.

  3. Handbook for quick cost estimates. A method for developing quick approximate estimates of costs for generic actions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This document is a supplement to a ''Handbook for Cost Estimating'' (NUREG/CR-3971) and provides specific guidance for developing ''quick'' approximate estimates of the cost of implementing generic regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants. A method is presented for relating the known construction costs for new nuclear power plants (as contained in the Energy Economic Data Base) to the cost of performing similar work, on a back-fit basis, at existing plants. Cost factors are presented to account for variations in such important cost areas as construction labor productivity, engineering and quality assurance, replacement energy, reworking of existing features, and regional variations in the cost of materials and labor. Other cost categories addressed in this handbook include those for changes in plant operating personnel and plant documents, licensee costs, NRC costs, and costs for other government agencies. Data sheets, worksheets, and appropriate cost algorithms are included to guide the user through preparation of rough estimates. A sample estimate is prepared using the method and the estimating tools provided.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TXDOT CNG fleet conversion. Volume 1. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Euritt, M.A.; Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower-priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9

  5. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  6. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  7. Simple Model of Membrane Proteins Including Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Pagan; A. Shiryayev; T. P. Connor; J. D. Gunton

    2006-03-04

    We report a numerical simulation for the phase diagram of a simple two dimensional model, similar to one proposed by Noro and Frenkel [J. Chem. Phys. \\textbf{114}, 2477 (2001)] for membrane proteins, but one that includes the role of the solvent. We first use Gibbs ensemble Monte Caro simulations to determine the phase behavior of particles interacting via a square-well potential in two dimensions for various values of the interaction range. A phenomenological model for the solute-solvent interactions is then studied to understand how the fluid-fluid coexistence curve is modified by solute-solvent interactions. It is shown that such a model can yield systems with liquid-liquid phase separation curves that have both upper and lower critical points, as well as closed loop phase diagrams, as is the case with the corresponding three dimensional model.

  8. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  9. Cost | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumer ConnectionCoralCorvalenceCosoCostCostCost

  10. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  11. Postmortem Cost and Schedule Analysis - Lessons Learned On NCSX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Strykowsky, T. Brown, J. Chrzanowski, M. Cole, P. Heitzenroeder, G.H. Neilson, Donald Rej, and M. Viola

    2012-03-08

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative fusion energy confinement device developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract from the US Department of Energy. The project was technically very challenging, primarily due to the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. As the project matured these challenges manifested themselves in significant cost overruns through all phases of the project (i.e. design, R&D, fabrication and assembly). The project was subsequently cancelled by the DOE in 2008. Although the project was not completed, several major work packages, comprising about 65% of the total estimated cost (excluding management and contingency), were completed, providing a data base of actual costs that can be analyzed to understand cost drivers. Technical factors that drove costs included the complex geometry, tight tolerances, material requirements, and performance requirements. Management factors included imposed annual funding constraints that throttled project cash flow, staff availability, and inadequate R&D. Understanding how requirements and design decisions drove cost through this top-down forensic cost analysis could provide valuable insight into the configuration and design of future state-of-the art machines and other devices.

  12. The Direct Costs and Benefits of US Electric Utility Divestitures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triebs, Thomas P.; Pollitt, Michael G.; Kwoka, John E.

     output variables. The two inputs are the sum of  distribution  O&M,  customer  service  expenses,  and  sales  expenses  (Opex)  and  capital  expenses  (Capex).  Both  include  shares  of  general  and  administrative  expense  and  general plant expense. We...  of own generation plus the cost of purchased power.  The total cost of own generation is measured as the sum of O&M and capital expenses.  For  generation  we  measure  Capex  differently  to  make  costs  of  own  generation  and  purchased power more comparable. Similar  to Farsi and Filippini  (2005...

  13. Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adelmann; J. R. Alonso; W. Barletta; R. Barlow; L. Bartoszek; A. Bungau; L. Calabretta; A. Calanna; D. Campo; J. M. Conrad; Z. Djurcic; Y. Kamyshkov; H. Owen; M. H. Shaevitz; I. Shimizu; T. Smidt; J. Spitz; M. Toups; M. Wascko; L. A. Winslow; J. J. Yang

    2012-10-16

    This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

  14. Primal-Dual Interior Point Method Applied to the Short Term Hydroelectric Scheduling Including a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Aurélio R. L.

    Primal-Dual Interior Point Method Applied to the Short Term Hydroelectric Scheduling Including that minimizes losses in the transmission and costs in the generation of a hydroelectric power system, formulated such perturbing parameter. Keywords-- Hydroelectric power system, Network flow, Predispatch, Primal-dual interior

  15. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  16. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  17. Memory cost of quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Bisio; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

    2011-12-16

    In this paper we consider the problem of minimizing the ancillary systems required to realize an arbitrary strategy of a quantum protocol, with the assistance of classical memory. For this purpose we introduce the notion of memory cost of a strategy, which measures the resources required in terms of ancillary dimension. We provide a condition for the cost to be equal to a given value, and we use this result to evaluate the cost in some special cases. As an example we show that any covariant protocol for the cloning of a unitary transformation requires at most one ancillary qubit. We also prove that the memory cost has to be determined globally, and cannot be calculated by optimizing the resources independently at each step of the strategy.

  18. Maximum output at minimum cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Gamesa G90-2.0 MW #12;Maximum output at minimum cost per kWh for low wind sites ®® Class IIIA mast and the electrical substation. This innovative modular design based on TCP/IP architecture has

  19. Cost Comparison for the Transfer of Select Calcined Waste Canisters to the Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael B. Heiser; Clark B. Millet

    2005-10-01

    This report performs a life-cycle cost comparison of three proposed canister designs for the shipment and disposition of Idaho National Laboratory high-level calcined waste currently in storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center to the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concept A (2 × 10-ft) and Concept B (2 × 15-ft) canisters are comparable in design, but they differ in size and waste loading options and vary proportionally in weight. The Concept C (5.5 × 17.5-ft) canister (also called the “super canister”), while similar in design to the other canisters, is considerably larger and heavier than Concept A and B canisters and has a greater wall thickness. This report includes estimating the unique life-cycle costs for the three canister designs. Unique life-cycle costs include elements such as canister purchase and filling at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, cask preparation and roundtrip consignment costs, final disposition in the monitored geologic repository (including canister off-loading and placement in the final waste disposal package for disposition), and cask purchase. Packaging of the calcine "as-is" would save $2.9 to $3.9 billion over direct vitrification disposal in the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Using the larger Concept C canisters would use 0.75 mi less of tunnel space, cost $1.3 billion less than 10-ft canisters of Concept A, and would be complete in 6.2 years.

  20. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  1. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    THE SUN SHINE ON SOLAR COSTS: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OFWe find that: (1) solar costs have declined substantially2004 $/W AC . 4. SOLAR COSTS HAVE DECLINED SUBSTANTIALLY In

  2. Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

    2006-01-01

    infrastructure. Though PV cost reductions in California areworldwide. Data on PV capacity and costs are expresseddepth statistical analysis of PV system costs in California.

  3. Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.

    1966-01-01

    share of the total. If one auction diverts volume from another, the total ;~uction volume will be unchanged, and volume- intl11ced gains in efficiency at the first market will ~eritl to be offset by losses at the second. Given the present structure... Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size from just over 5,000 animal units...

  4. Planning a cost-effective gate rehab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, R.M.; Gundry, J.A. [American Society of Civil Engineers, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hydropower project owners are devoting increasing attention to the condition and safety of spillway gates and related equipment. With careful inspection and planning, owners can develop a rehabilitation program that improves gate performance and minimizes cost. The July 1995 failure of a spillway gate at Folsom Dam has spurred increased attention on inspection and rehabilitation of gates. This article explains an approach taken by Northern States Power Company in rehabilitating aged gates at its Wisota Dam project. An update on measures being taken in response to the Folsom Dam incident is also included.

  5. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index · Consumer Prices Index · Year Index = average of the monthly values of the year )( )( )()( yyearIndexCost xyearIndexCost yyearCostxyearCostUpdated ×= #12;Slow SandCosting Summaries for Selected Water Treatment Processes Alix Montel Ecole Centrale de Nantes M

  6. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfagrass hay

  7. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfa-grass hay

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  9. Optimal control of a large dam, taking into account the water costs [New Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Vyacheslav M

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies large dam models where the difference between lower and upper levels $L$ is assumed to be large. Passage across the levels leads to damage, and the damage costs of crossing the lower or upper level are proportional to the large parameter $L$. Input stream of water is described by compound Poisson process, and the water cost depends upon current level of water in the dam. The aim of the paper is to choose the parameters of output stream (specifically defined in the paper) minimizing the long-run expenses. The particular problem, where input stream is Poisson and water costs are not taken into account has been studied in [Abramov, \\emph{J. Appl. Prob.}, 44 (2007), 249-258]. The present paper partially answers the question \\textit{How does the structure of water costs affect the optimal solution?} In particular the case of linear costs is studied.

  10. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed.

  11. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  12. Power plant capital investment cost estimates: current trends and sensitivity to economic parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes power plant capital investment cost studies that were carried out as part of the activities of the Plans and Analysis Division, Office of Nuclear Energy Programs, US Department of Energy. The activities include investment cost studies prepared by an architect-engineer, including trends, effects of environmental and safety requirements, and construction schedules. A computer code used to prepare capital investment cost estimates under varying economic conditions is described, and application of this code is demonstrated by sensitivity studies.

  13. Climate change and health costs of air emissions from biofuels and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    production and combustion, including feedstock production (crude oil ex, driven by a variety of concerns including volatile oil prices, increased global demand, reliance relative to U.S. population shows regional shifts in health costs dependent on fuel production systems

  14. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  15. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  16. Controlling O&M Costs of Advanced SMRs using Prognostics and Enhanced Risk Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Wood, Richard T.

    2014-02-25

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) can contribute to safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy production. The economics of small reactors (including AdvSMRs) will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional light water reactors. The most significant controllable element of the day-to-day costs involves operations and maintenance (O&M). Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs through technologies that help control O&M costs will be critical to ensuring their practicality for wider deployment.A significant component of O&M costs is the management and mitigation of degradation of components due to their impact on planning maintenance activities and staffing levels. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk of failure of key components are important in this context. Given the possibility of frequently changing AdvSMR plant configurations, approaches are needed to integrate three elements – advanced plant configuration information, equipment condition information, and risk monitors – to provide a measure of risk that is customized for each AdvSMR unit and support real-time decisions on O&M. This article describes an overview of ongoing research into diagnostics/prognostics and enhanced predictive risk monitors (ERM) for this purpose.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  18. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  19. Information, Diversification, and Cost of Capital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, John S; Liu, Jing; Liu, Jun

    2005-01-01

    insider trading and cost of capital. ” Working paper, UCLA,Information and the cost of capital. ” Journal of Finance,in Determining Cost of Equity Capital,” Review of Accounting

  20. Total cost model for making sourcing decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morita, Mark, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops a total cost model based on the work done during a six month internship with ABB. In order to help ABB better focus on low cost country sourcing, a total cost model was developed for sourcing decisions. ...

  1. Arbitration Costs and Contingent Fee Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2005-08-03

    A common criticism of arbitration is that its upfront costs (arbitrators' fees and administrative costs) may preclude consumers and employees from asserting their claims. Some commentators have argued further that arbitration costs undercut...

  2. Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

  3. USA oilgas production cost : recent changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1991-01-01

    During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

  4. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATIONCann Please use the following citation for this report: Klein, Joel. 2009. Comparative Costs of California............................................................................................................................1 Changes in the Cost of Generation Model

  5. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION and Anitha Rednam, Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1: Summary of Technology Costs

  6. Maintenance cost studies of present aircraft subsystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearlman, Chaim Herman Shalom

    1966-01-01

    This report describes two detailed studies of actual maintenance costs for present transport aircraft. The first part describes maintenance costs for jet transport aircraft broken down into subsystem costs according to an ...

  7. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  8. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  9. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  10. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-21

    Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

  11. Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date: November 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    1 Cost Principles Directives & Procedures Responsible Office: Cost Analysis Effective Date....................................................................................................................... 2 2. Guiding Principles to Determine the Charge of a Cost to a Sponosred Agreement ................................................................................................. 5 5.1. Personnel Costs

  12. Statistical Inference for Costs and Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios with Censored Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuai

    2012-07-16

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is widely conducted in the economic evaluation of new treatment options. In many clinical and observational studies of costs, data are often censored. Censoring brings challenges to both medical cost estimation and cost...

  13. Cost objective PLM and CE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26

    Concurrent engineering taking into account product life-cycle factors seems to be one of the industrial challenges of the next years. Cost estimation and management are two main strategic tasks that imply the possibility of managing costs at the earliest stages of product development. This is why it is indispensable to let people from economics and from industrial engineering collaborates in order to find the best solution for enterprise progress for economical factors mastering. The objective of this paper is to present who we try to adapt costing methods in a PLM and CE point of view to the new industrial context and configuration in order to give pertinent decision aid for product and process choices. A very important factor is related to cost management problems when developing new products. A case study is introduced that presents how product development actors have referenced elements to product life-cycle costs and impacts, how they have an idea bout economical indicators when taking decisions during the progression of the project of product development.

  14. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

  15. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  16. Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Eric; Masur, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    and Eric A. Posner, Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-effects of environmental regulations for other industries.Paper Collection.   Regulation, Unemployment, and Cost-

  17. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  18. Multiperiod Portfolio Optimization with General Transaction Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-07-17

    assets in the presence of general transaction costs such as proportional, market impact ... For proportional transaction costs, we find that a buy-and-hold policy is

  19. Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-02-14

    Feb 14, 2013 ... procurement/shipment) and inventory holding costs, the aim of the ... is to propose a minimum cost production plan to satisfy the demand (see, ...

  20. Driltac (Drilling Time and Cost Evaluation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1986-08-01

    The users manual for the drill tech model for estimating the costs of geothermal wells. The report indicates lots of technical and cost detail. [DJE-2005

  1. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  2. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  3. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a networkmore »of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  4. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  5. To: Research Cost Fund Fieldwork Cost Fund Both Graduate Program in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To: Research Cost Fund Fieldwork Cost Fund Both From: Graduate Program in: Date: Subject: Research Cost Fund/Fieldwork Cost Fund I am submitting the applications for the students listed on the attached spreadsheet for the Research Cost Fund/Fieldwork Cost Fund Competition I confirm that all applications meet

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janssen, Michel

    Frequently Asked Questions about Patient Care Costs And a Quick Guide to Patient Care Costs questions regarding human research patient care costs. Human research patient care costs are the costs. The costs of these services normally are assigned to specific research projects through the development

  7. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  8. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  9. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  10. Entanglement cost in practical scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

    2011-03-03

    We quantify the one-shot entanglement cost of an arbitrary bipartite state, that is the minimum number of singlets needed by two distant parties to create a single copy of the state up to a finite accuracy, using local operations and classical communication only. This analysis, in contrast to the traditional one, pertains to scenarios of practical relevance, in which resources are finite and transformations can only be achieved approximately. Moreover, it unveils a fundamental relation between two well-known entanglement measures, namely, the Schmidt number and the entanglement of formation. Using this relation, we are able to recover the usual expression of the entanglement cost as a special case.

  11. Quantum cost for sending entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Streltsov; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

    2012-03-07

    Establishing quantum entanglement between two distant parties is an essential step of many protocols in quantum information processing. One possibility for providing long-distance entanglement is to create an entangled composite state within a lab and then physically send one subsystem to a distant lab. However, is this the "cheapest" way? Here, we investigate the minimal "cost" that is necessary for establishing a certain amount of entanglement between two distant parties. We prove that this cost is intrinsically quantum, and is specified by quantum correlations. Our results provide an optimal protocol for entanglement distribution and show that quantum correlations are the essential resource for this task.

  12. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft Costs Soft Costs An

  13. Modeling Photovoltaic and Concentrating Solar Power Trough Performance, Cost, and Financing with the Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Cameron, C.

    2008-05-01

    A comprehensive solar technology systems analysis model, the Solar Advisor Model (SAM), has been developed to support the federal R&D community and the solar industry by staff at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratory. This model is able to model the finances, incentives, and performance of flat-plate photovoltaic (PV), concentrating PV, and concentrating solar power (specifically, parabolic troughs). The primary function of the model is to allow users to investigate the impact of variations in performance, cost, and financial parameters to better understand their impact on key figures of merit. Figures of merit related to the cost and performance of these systems include, but aren't limited to, system output, system efficiencies, levelized cost of energy, return on investment, and system capital and O&M costs. There are several models within SAM to model the performance of photovoltaic modules and inverters. This paper presents an overview of each PV and inverter model, introduces a new generic model, and briefly discusses the concentrating solar power (CSP) parabolic trough model. A comparison of results using the different PV and inverter models is also presented.

  14. Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

    2011-04-15

    Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

  15. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  16. Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Smog Check II Evaluation Part IV: Smog Check Costs and Cost Effectiveness Are the Overall Costs of Smog Check? __________________ 2 2.1. Vehicle Testing Costs____________________________________________ 3 2.2. Repair Costs ___________________________________________________ 5 2.3. Administrative Costs

  17. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  18. AMO Issues Request for Information on Clean Energy Manufacturing Topics, Including Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AMO seeks information on mid-Technology Readiness Level R&D needs, market challenges, supply chain challenges, and shared facility needs addressing clean energy manufacturing topics, including the fuel cell and hydrogen sectors.

  19. Reduction in Fabrication Costs of Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Morgan; Donald Connors; Michael Hickner

    2012-07-10

    Ballard Material Products (BMP) performed a pre-design technical and cost analysis of state of the art production technologies feasible for high volume GDL manufacturing. Based upon criteria that also included environmental health and safety, customer quality requirements, and future needs, BMP selected technologies that can be integrated into its current manufacturing process. These selections included Many-At-A-Time (MAAT) coating and continuous mixing technologies, as well as various on-line process control tools. These processes have allowed BMP to produce high performance GDLs at lower cost for near-term markets, as well as to define the inputs needed to develop a conceptual Greenfield facility to meet the cost targets for automotive volumes of 500,000 vehicles per year.

  20. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles