Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is predicted under the ledge that forms the lower lobe in the cavern. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Predicted well strains and subsidence are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. These predicted well strains certainly suggest appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-parameter monitoring of a solution mining cavern collapse: first insight of precursors leveling; early warning system; environmental safety; salt cavern; near-surface geophysics. Mots clés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

4

Threat of a sinkhole: A reevaluation of Cavern 4, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavern Lake at Bayou Choctaw salt dome resulted from the failure of Cavern 7 in 1954. Uncontrolled solutioning of this cavern through the thin caprock had set the stage for overburden to collapse into the cavern below. A similar situation developed with nearby Cavern 4, but with less dissolutioning of the caprock. Because pressure loss was already a problem and because another 800 ft diameter lake would have endangered surface operations, solutioning of Cavern 4 was stopped and the cavern abandoned in 1957 in order to protect the already-small site. In 1978 the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) acquired a number of caverns at Bayou Choctaw, including Cavern 4, and the possible repeat of the Cavern 7 failure and formation of another lake thus became an issue. The cavern dimensions were re-sonared in 1980 for comparison with 1963 and 1977 surveys. Annual surface leveling between 1982--1992 showed less subsidence occurring than the site average, and a cavern monitoring system, installed in 1984, has revealed no anomalous motion. Repeat sonar surveys in 1992 showed very little, if any, change occurred since 1980 although a small amount of uncertainty exists as a result of changing sonar techniques. We conclude that significant additional solutioning or erosion of the caprock has not occurred and that there is no increased threat to SPR operations.

Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Linn, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R. [Magorian (Thomas R.), Amherst, NY (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Gas intrusion into SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.; Giles, H.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Strategic Petroleum Reserve

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Manufactured caverns in carbonate rock  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a process for manufacturing underground caverns suitable in one embodiment for storage of large volumes of gaseous or liquid materials. The method is an acid dissolution process that can be utilized to form caverns in carbonate rock formations. The caverns can be used to store large quantities of materials near transportation facilities or destination markets. The caverns can be used for storage of materials including fossil fuels, such as natural gas, refined products formed from fossil fuels, or waste materials, such as hazardous waste materials. The caverns can also be utilized for applications involving human access such as recreation or research. The method can also be utilized to form calcium chloride as a by-product of the cavern formation process.

Bruce, David A.; Falta, Ronald W.; Castle, James W.; Murdoch, Lawrence C.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

7

3-D Cavern Enlargement Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional finite element analyses simulate the mechanical response of enlarging existing caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The caverns are located in Gulf Coast salt domes and are enlarged by leaching during oil drawdowns as fresh water is injected to displace the crude oil from the caverns. The current criteria adopted by the SPR limits cavern usage to 5 drawdowns (leaches). As a base case, 5 leaches were modeled over a 25 year period to roughly double the volume of a 19 cavern field. Thirteen additional leaches where then simulated until caverns approached coalescence. The cavern field approximated the geometries and geologic properties found at the West Hackberry site. This enabled comparisons are data collected over nearly 20 years to analysis predictions. The analyses closely predicted the measured surface subsidence and cavern closure rates as inferred from historic well head pressures. This provided the necessary assurance that the model displacements, strains, and stresses are accurate. However, the cavern field has not yet experienced the large scale drawdowns being simulated. Should they occur in the future, code predictions should be validated with actual field behavior at that time. The simulations were performed using JAS3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasi-static solids. The results examine the impacts of leaching and cavern workovers, where internal cavern pressures are reduced, on surface subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The results suggest that the current limit of 5 oil drawdowns may be extended with some mitigative action required on the wells and later on to surface structure due to subsidence strains. The predicted stress state in the salt shows damage to start occurring after 15 drawdowns with significant failure occurring at the 16th drawdown, well beyond the current limit of 5 drawdowns.

EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SOBOLIK, STEVEN R.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two baseline models are developed for single and multiple caverns, respectively. Different parameters that affect damage propagation and deformation of salt cavern, such as cavern pressure, operating conditions, cavern height/diameter ratio, overburden stiffness and roof thickness are analyzed and the respective results summarized. For multiple horizontal caverns numerical models are developed to determine the cavern interaction and the minimum safe center to center distance. A step by step methodology for operators to assess critical cavern design parameters for thin bedded salt formations is also presented.

Michael S. Bruno

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Can nonhazardous oil field wastes be disposed of in salt caverns?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal -of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

New information on disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution-mined salt caverns have been used for many years for storing hydrocarbon products. This paper summarizes an Argonne National Laboratory report that reviews the legality, technical suitability, and feasibility of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration and production wastes in salt caverns. An analysis of regulations indicated that there are no outright regulatory prohibitions on cavern disposal of oil field wastes at either the federal level or in the 11 oil-producing states that were studied. There is no actual field experience on the long-term impacts that might arise following closure of waste disposal caverns. Although research has found that pressures will build-up in a closed cavern, none has specifically addressed caverns filled with oil field wastes. More field research on pressure build-up in closed caverns is needed. On the basis of preliminary investigations, we believe that disposal of oil field wastes in salt caverns is legal and feasible. The technical suitability of the practice depends on whether the caverns are well-sited and well-designed, carefully operated, properly closed, and routinely monitored.

Veil, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J. A.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

12

Downhole probes evaluate cavern integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Obtaining natural-gas storage caverns` pressures and temperatures with downhole probes has allowed TransGas Ltd., Regina, to monitor and evaluate cavern integrity. TransGas has more than 5 years` experience with the devices. The acquired data have also helped determine gas-in-place inventory and confirm and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes may have resulted from cavern creep (shrinkage or closure) or downhole abnormality such as fluid infill or collapse of the side walls or roof. This first of two articles presents background and many of the details and lessons to date of TransGas` cavern gas-storage probe program; the conclusion describes a specific storage site with some results.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

13

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

14

CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

Kerry L. DeVries; Kirby D. Mellegard; Gary D. Callahan; William M. Goodman

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns Hippolyte Djizanne and Pierre Bérest LMS, Germany,1-2 October 2012 TENSILE EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN HYDROCARBON STORAGE CAVERNS Hippolyte Djizanne1 that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

Elcock, D.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

17

Effects of cavern spacing on the performance and stability of gas-filled storage caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional finite element analyses of gas-filled storage caverns in domal salt were performed to investigate the effects of cavern spacing on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability. The finite element model used for this study models a seven cavern storage field with one center cavern and six hexagonally spaced surrounding caverns. Cavern spacing is described in terms of the P/D ratio which is the pillar thickness (the width between two caverns) divided by the cavern diameter. With the stratigraphy and cavern size held constant, simulations were performed for P/D ratios of 6.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5. Ten year simulations were performed modeling a constant 400 psi gas pressure applied to the cavern lining. The calculations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. For the range of P/D ratios studied, cavern deformation and storage volume were relatively insensitive to P/D ratio, while subsidence volume increased with increasing P/D ratio. A stability criterion which describes stability in terms of a limiting creep strain was used to investigate cavern stability. The stability criterion indicated that through-pillar instability was possible for the cases of P/D = 0.5 and 1.0.

Hoffman, E.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has funded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

19

New public information resources on salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past decade, interest has been growing in using underground salt caverns for disposing of wastes. The Railroad Commission of Texas has permitted a few caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) and one cavern for disposal of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from oil field activities. Several salt caverns in Canada have also been permitted for disposal of NOW. In addition, oil and gas agencies in Louisiana and New Mexico are developing cavern disposal regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded several studies to evaluate the technical feasibility, legality, economic viability, and risk of disposing of NOW and NORM in caverns. The results of these studies have been disseminated to the scientific and regulatory communities. However, as use of caverns for waste disposal increases, more government and industry representatives and members of the public will become aware of this practice and will need adequate information about how disposal caverns operate and the risks they pose. In anticipation of this need, DOE has fi.mded Argonne National Laboratory to develop a salt cavern public outreach program. Key components of this program are an informational brochure designed for nontechnical persons and a website that provides greater detail on cavern operations and allows downloadable access to the reports on the topic funded by DOE. This paper provides an overview of the public outreach program.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

Risk analyses for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed of in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing the contaminants` toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks have been found to be within the US EPA target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CAVERN: A Distributed Architecture for Supporting Scalable Persistence and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN: A Distributed Architecture for Supporting Scalable Persistence and InteroperabilityFanti Electronic Visualization Laboratory University of Illinois at Chicago Abstract: CAVERN, the CAVE Research is the common collaborative software architecture for CAVERN. CAVERNsoft uses light-weight distributed data

Johnson, Andrew

22

Use of laboratory triaxial-creep data and finite-element analysis to predict observed creep behavior of leached salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An increasing interest is being shown worldwide in using leached salt caverns to store oil and natural gas. A critical factor in the use of existing caverns and the design of new ones is the creep behavior of the salt surrounding the caverns. An understanding of this behavior is being gained by using laboratory triaxial creep data as material property input to finite element computer programs designed to calculate displacements and stresses due to creep. An important step in verifying these predictive methods is the comparison of field data from existing caverns with finite element analyses which incorporate the material properties and geometry of each site. This comparison has been made for caverns in the Eminence Dome (Mississippi), West Hackberry Dome (Louisiana), and Bayou Chocktaw Dome (Louisiana) with reasonably good correlation being obtained between measured and predicted volumetric response of the caverns. These comparisons are discussed in this paper.

Preece, D.S.; Stone, C.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Estimate of the risks of disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. Potential human health risks associated with hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) in NOW were assessed under four postclosure cavern release scenarios: inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks or leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. To estimate potential human health risks for these scenarios, contaminant concentrations at the receptor were calculated using a one-dimensional solution to an advection/dispersion equation that included first order degradation. Assuming a single, generic salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, the best-estimate excess cancer risks ranged from 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and hazard indices (referring to noncancer health effects) ranged from 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Under worse-case conditions in which the probability of cavern failure is 1.0, excess cancer risks ranged from 4.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and hazard indices ranged from 7.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} to 0.07. Even under worst-case conditions, the risks are within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure levels. From a human health risk perspective, salt caverns can, therefore, provide an acceptable disposal method for NOW.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Salt Cavern Storage Reservoir...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Salt Cavern Underground Natural Gas Storage Reservoir Configuration Source: PB Energy Storage Services Inc....

25

Natural gas cavern storage regulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Investigation of an incident at an LPG storage facility in Texas by U.S. Department of Transportation resulted in recommendation that state regulation of natural gas cavern storage might be improved. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission has established a subcommittee to analyze the benefits and risks associated with natural gas cavern storage, and to draft a regulation model which will suggest engineering and performance specifications. The resulting analysis and regulatory language will be reviewed by I.O.G.C.C., and if approved, distributed to member states (including New York) for consideration. Should the states desire assistance in modifying the language to reflect local variables, such as policy and geology, I.O.G.C.C. may offer assistance. The proposed presentation will review the I.O.G.C.C. product (if published at that date), and discuss implications of its application in New York.

Heneman, H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Salt caverns for oil field waste disposal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns used for oil field waste disposal are created in salt formations by solution mining. When created, caverns are filled with brine. Wastes are introduced into the cavern by pumping them under low pressure. Each barrel of waste injected to the cavern displaces a barrel of brine to the surface. The brine is either used for drilling mud or is disposed of in an injection well. Figure 8 shows an injection pump used at disposal cavern facilities in west Texas. Several types of oil field waste may be pumped into caverns for disposal. These include drilling muds, drill cuttings, produced sands, tank bottoms, contaminated soil, and completion and stimulation wastes. Waste blending facilities are constructed at the site of cavern disposal to mix the waste into a brine solution prior to injection. Overall advantages of salt cavern disposal include a medium price range for disposal cost, large capacity and availability of salt caverns, limited surface land requirement, increased safety, and ease of establishment of individual state regulations.

Veil, J.; Ford, J.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Environmental Assessment; RMC, Consultants, Inc.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

Hoffman, E.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Pilot Stabilisatie Cavernes Twente Advies over reikwijdte en detailniveau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pilot Stabilisatie Cavernes Twente Advies over reikwijdte en detailniveau van het ondergrondse holtes (cavernes) ontstaan. Van deze cavernes voldoen er 63 niet aan de huidige regels ter voorkoming van daling aan het aardoppervlak.1 In de huidige praktijk worden potentieel instabiele2 cavernes

Hack, Robert

30

Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Gravimeter yields rock density for cavern during operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Designing underground cavities and especially planning for caverns in salt formations for storage require investigations of several questions that are posed in this paper. A downhole gravimeter can determine rock density in a natural gas storage cavern while it is in operation or still being solution mined. Operating conditions or solution mining in progress precludes use of a standard density tool during conventional well-logging procedures. Rock density is one of the principal input parameters for rock mechanical investigations in specifying optimum pressure levels in storage caverns. The advantages and disadvantages of the system, as well as of the technical logging procedures, follow. The gravimeter tool: measures rock densities up to approximately 20 m into the formation; logs through casing (independent of a drilling rig); is unaffected by drilling mud; is unaffected by size and variation of caliber. But it also: does not measure continuously; makes logging time-consuming and requires a certain mobilization time; delivers data whose accuracy depends o the homogeneity of the formation or level of information available on the structure in question.

Folle, S.; Rolfs, O. [Kavernen Bau- and Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1996-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

Interior cavern conditions and salt fall potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relatively large number of salt caverns are used for fluid hydrocarbon storage, including an extensive set of facilities in the Gulf Coast salt domes for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Attention is focused on the SPR caverns because of available histories that detail events involving loss and damage of the hanging string casing. The total number of events is limited, making the database statistically sparse. The occurrence of the events is not evenly distributed, with some facilities, and some caverns, more susceptible than others. While not all of these events could be attributed to impacts from salt falls, many did show the evidence of such impacts. As a result, a study has been completed to analyze the potential for salt falls in the SPR storage caverns. In this process, it was also possible to deduce some of the cavern interior conditions. Storage caverns are very large systems in which many factors could possibly play a part in casing damage. In this study, all of the potentially important factors such as salt dome geology, operational details, and material characteristics were considered, with all being logically evaluated and most being determined as secondary in nature. As a result of the study, it appears that a principal factor in determining a propensity for casing damage from salt falls is the creep and fracture characteristics of salt in individual caverns. In addition the fracture depends strongly upon the concentration of impurity particles in the salt. Although direct observation of cavern conditions is not possible, the average impurity concentration and the accumulation of salt fall material can be determined. When this is done, there is a reasonable correlation between the propensity for a cavern to show casing damage events and accumulation of salt fall material. The accumulation volumes of salt fall material can be extremely large, indicating that only a few of the salt falls are large enough to cause impact damage.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, R.E. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans, LA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

Management of a complex cavern storage facility for natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Epe cavern storage facility operated by Ruhrgas AG has developed into one of the largest gas cavern storage facilities in the world. Currently, there are 32 caverns and 18 more are planned in the future. Working gas volume will increase from approximately 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} to 2 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. The stratified salt deposit containing the caverns has a surface area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} and is 250 m thick at the edge and 400 m thick in the center. Caverns are leached by a company that uses the recovered brine in the chlorine industry. Cavern dimensions are determined before leaching. The behavior of each cavern, as well as the thermodynamic properties of natural gas must be considered in cavern management. The full-length paper presents the components of a complex management system covering the design, construction, and operation of the Epe gas-storage caverns.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 web analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relatively thin web of salt that separates Bayou Choctaw Caverns 15 and 17 was evaluated using the finite-element method. The stability calculations provided insight as to whether or not any operationrestrictions or recommendations are necessary. Because of the uncertainty in the exact dimensions of the salt web, various web thicknesses were examined under different operating scenarios that included individual cavern workovers and drawdowns. Cavern workovers were defined by a sudden drop in the oil side pressure at the wellhead to atmospheric. Workovers represent periods of low cavern pressure. Cavern drawdowns were simulated by enlargening the cavern diameters, thus decreasing the thickness of the web. The calculations predict that Cavern 15 dominates the behavior of the web because of its larger diameter. Thus, giventhe choice of caverns, Cavern 17 should be used for oil withdrawal in order to minimize the adverse impacts on web resulting from pressure drops or cavern enlargement. From a stability point of view, maintaining normal pressures in Cavern 15 was found to be more important than operating the caverns as a gallery where both caverns are maintained at the same pressure. However, during a workover, it may be prudent to operate the caverns under similar pressures to avoid the possibility of a sudden pressure surge at the wellhead should the web fail.

Ehgartner, B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Site tests validate benefits of cavern probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 5 years` experience with downhole probes has allowed TransGas Ltd., Regina, to monitor and evaluate cavern integrity. The devices access natural-gas storage caverns` pressures and temperatures. Acquired data have helped determine gas-in-place inventory volumes, confirm spatial volumes, and assess changes in spatial volumes that may have resulted from cavern creep (shrinkage or closure) or downhole abnormality such as fluid infill or collapse of the side walls or roof areas. This conclusion of two articles presents details and results of a specific storage-site. The first article presented background and many of the details and lessons of TransGas` cavern gas-storage probe program.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

A geologic investigation of Longhorn Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF LONGHORN CAVERN A Thesis by VICTORIA LYNN WALTERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992... Major Subject: Geology A GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF LONGHORN CAVERN A Thesis by VICTORIA LYNN WALTERS Approved as to style and content by: Christ pher C. Mathewson (Chair of Committee) Wy M Ah (Member) J. R. Giardino (Member) John H. Spang...

Walters, Victoria Lynn

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rotational vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H2 16 O and p-H2IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy

Chance, Kelly

39

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

model contains three propane storage caverns, 10 m wide and3.2.9. The loss of propane from storage is not significant,liquefied propane) was placed in the storage caverns, and

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The surface expression of Longhorn Cavern, Burnet County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigates the surface to subsurface relationship at Longhorn Cavern State Park, which can become one part of an interdisciplinary educational program taught at the park. Longhorn Cavern is located on Backbone Ridge; a wedge shaped...

McCaleb, Brenda Denise

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Napoleonville cavern usability in the SPR: a preliminary geotechnical assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One conclusion drawn from this preliminary analysis is that the web between the Georgia-Pacific cavern and Clifton cavern number 1 at Napoleonville should be stable if the pressure integrity of each cavern is maintained and the pillar width is not less than 100', but some spallation may occur if the pressure head cannot be maintained. The second conclusion drawn is that the creep closure of cavern number 6 at Napoleonville is not significantly different from that anticipated in cavern number 6 at West Hackberry. The primary recommendation which results from this evaluation is that prior to site acceptance a thorough program of field and laboratory investigations should be designed and conducted to assure cavern integrity and usability. In addition, the test procedures and results from the recertification tests on West Hackberry cavern number 6 should be carefully reviewed to aid in the evaluation of the Napoleonville caverns.

Tillerson, J.R.; Gubbels, M.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Experience in testing of a solution mined storage cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recertification tests were made of the U.S. Department of Energy/Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage cavern No. 6 in the West Hackberry, LA, salt dome. The cavern has a volume of 8,600,000 bbl. Tests included hydrostatic tests of the brine filled cavern and nitrogen leak tests of the 3 wells entering the cavern. Test procedures are described and test results are discussed.

Goin, K.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

ROGERS, C.A.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

44

Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to hanging string damage. Caverns 1 and 2 have no significant issues regarding leachings due to drawdowns; cavern 5 may require a targeted leaching of the neck region to improve cavern stability and lessen hanging string failure potential. The remaining caverns have no significant issues regarding cavern stability and may be safely enlarged during subsequent oil drawdowns. Well strains are significant and consequently future remedial actions may be necessary. Well strains certainly suggest the need for appropriate monitoring through a well-logging program. Subsidence is currently being monitored; there are no issues identified regarding damage from surface subsidence or horizontal strain to surface facilities.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Analysis of cavern shapes for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents computational analyses to determine the structural integrity of different salt cavern shapes. Three characteristic shapes for increasing cavern volumes are evaluated and compared to the baseline shape of a cylindrical cavern. Caverns with enlarged tops, bottoms, and mid-sections are modeled. The results address pillar to diameter ratios of some existing caverns in the system and will represent the final shape of other caverns if they are repeatedly drawn down. This deliverable is performed in support of the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Several three-dimensional models using a close-packed arrangement of 19 caverns have been built and analyzed using a simplified symmetry involving a 30-degree wedge portion of the model. This approach has been used previously for West Hackberry (Ehgartner and Sobolik, 2002) and Big Hill (Park et al., 2005) analyses. A stratigraphy based on the Big Hill site has been incorporated into the model. The caverns are modeled without wells and casing to simplify the calculations. These calculations have been made using the power law creep model. The four cavern shapes were evaluated at several different cavern radii against four design factors. These factors included the dilatant damage safety factor in salt, the cavern volume closure, axial well strain in the caprock, and surface subsidence. The relative performance of each of the cavern shapes varies for the different design factors, although it is apparent that the enlarged bottom design provides the worst overall performance. The results of the calculations are put in the context of the history of cavern analyses assuming cylindrical caverns, and how these results affect previous understanding of cavern behavior in a salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

3-D Finite Element Analyses of the Egan Cavern Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed for the two gas-filled storage caverns at the Egan field, Jennings dome, Louisiana. The effects of cavern enlargement on surface subsidence, storage loss, and cavern stability were investigated. The finite element model simulated the leaching of caverns to 6 and 8 billion cubic feet (BCF) and examined their performance at various operating conditions. Operating pressures varied from 0.15 psi/ft to 0.9 psi/ft at the bottom of the lowest cemented casing. The analysis also examined the stability of the web or pillar of salt between the caverns under differential pressure loadings. The 50-year simulations were performed using JAC3D, a three dimensional finite element analysis code for nonlinear quasistatic solids. A damage criterion based on onset of dilatancy was used to evaluate cavern instability. Dilation results from the development of microfractures in salt and, hence, potential increases in permeability onset occurs well before large scale failure. The analyses predicted stable caverns throughout the 50-year period for the range of pressures investigated. Some localized salt damage was predicted near the bottom walls of the caverns if the caverns are operated at minimum pressure for long periods of time. Volumetric cavern closures over time due to creep were moderate to excessive depending on the salt creep properties and operating pressures. However, subsidence above the cavern field was small and should pose no problem, to surface facilities.

Klamerus, E.W.; Ehgartner, B.L.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve Cavern Bryan Mound 104. [Salt cavern entry wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the certification test of Cavern Bryan Mound 104 conducted between September 19 and November 9, 1984. The test included pressurization with oil to near maximum test gradient, depressuring to maximum operating gradient, and doing nitrogen leak tests of the three cavern entry wells. Test results indicate nitrogen loss rates from the wells of 35 bbl/y from 104A, 19 bbl/y from 104B, and 0 bbl/y from 104C. These nitrogen loss rates can reasonably be assumed to correspond to a total cavern oil loss rate of 5.4 bbl/y, which is well within the DOE acceptance criterion of 100 bbl/y of oil per cavern. The final phase of the nitrogen leak test was observed by a representative of the Texas Railroad Commission. 7 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Goin, K.L.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Sonar surveys used in gas-storage cavern analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural-gas storage cavern internal configuration, inspection information, and cavern integrity data can be obtained during high-pressure operations with specialized gas-sonar survey logging techniques. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., has successfully performed these operations on several of its deepest and highest pressurized caverns. The data can determine gas-in-place inventory and assess changes in spatial volumes. These changes can result from cavern creep, shrinkage, or closure or from various downhole abnormalities such as fluid infill or collapse of the sidewall or roof. The paper discusses conventional surveys with sonar, running surveys in pressurized caverns, accuracy of the sonar survey, initial development of Cavern 5, a roof fall, Cavern 4 development, and a damaged string.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1998-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

49

A critical concern for embedded sys tems is the need to deliver high levels of per  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 A critical concern for embedded sys­ tems is the need to deliver high levels of per­ formance voltage. Because dynam­ ic energy scales quadratically with supply volt­ age, DVS can significantly reduce energy use. 2 Enabling systems to run at multiple fre­ quency and voltage levels is challenging

Mudge, Trevor

50

Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate.

Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong [Tsing-Hua Univ. (Taiwan, Province of China); Wasiolek, P.T. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Tensile effective stresses in hydrocarbon storage caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The "no-tensile effective stress" criterion is discussed. It is proven that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure. The Etzel K-102 test, performed in Germany more than 20 years ago, is revisited using the notion of effective tensile stresses.

Djizanne, Hippolyte; Brouard, Benot

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK-RESULTS OF FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AT STRIPA, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Storage in Mined CavernsProgram Summary. LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS IN CRYSTALLINE ROCK- BESULTS

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

SWEDISH-AMERICAN COOPERATIVE PROGRAM ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS. PROGRAM SUMMARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS by P. A. Witherspoon LawrenceWASTE STORAGE IN MINED CAVERNS INTRODUCTION Final and safeon the possibility of using mined caverns in salt as waste

Witherspoon, P.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

FEBS J . Author manuscript Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: a complex jigsaw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FEBS J . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: Eva Faurobert Abstract Cerebral cavernous malformations are common-Matrix Junctions ; physiology ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System ; genetics ; metabolism

Boyer, Edmond

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas cavern side Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cavern side Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlas cavern side Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Radiation in the USA15 cavern in ATLAS...

56

Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR): oil-storage cavern, Sulphur Mines 6 certification tests and analysis. [Louisiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well leak tests and a cavern pressure test were conducted in June and July 1981 and indicated that oil leakage from the cavern is unlikely to exceed the DOE criterion if oil is stored at near atmospheric wellhead brine pressures and higher pressures are only used for short periods of oil fill and withdrawal. The data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely and that there was no leakage from cavern 6 to the adjacent cavern 7. Because of the proximity of cavern 6 to cavern 7, it is recommended that a similar type of oil be stored in these two caverns.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Gas-storage calculations yield accurate cavern, inventory data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses how determining gas-storage cavern size and inventory variance is now possible with calculations based on shut-in cavern surveys. The method is the least expensive of three major methods and is quite accurate when recorded over a period of time.

Mason, R.G. (Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp., Houston, TX (US))

1990-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Mining Induced Seismicity -Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mining Induced Seismicity - Monitoring of a Large Scale Salt Cavern Collapse E. Klein* (Ineris), I in the Lorraine salt basin (France). To monitor the cavern collapse, a multi-parameter system featuring high of the roof cavern, with no ground surface movement detected. The high microseismic regime of the cavern has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fire Simulation, Evacuation Analysis and Proposal of Fire Protection Systems Inside an Underground Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fire Simulation, Evacuation Analysis and Proposal of Fire Protection Systems Inside an Underground Cavern

Stella, Carlo

62

Disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns: Feasibility, legality, risk, and costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field wastes, the risks to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne`s research indicates that disposal of oil field wastes into salt caverns is feasible and legal. The risk from cavern disposal of oil field wastes appears to be below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Evaluating the effects of the number of caverns on the performance of underground oil storage facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three dimensional finite element calculations were performed to investigate the effect field size, in terms of the number of caverns, on the performance of SPR oil storage caverns leached in domal salt (interms of surface subsidence, storage losses, and cavern integrity). The calculations were performed for cavern fields containing 1, 7, 19, and an infinite number of caverns. The magnitude and volume of subsidence was significantly affected by increasing the number of caverns (nearly an order of magnitude increase was predicted for each increase in field size), while the extent of subsidence (approximately 2000 m fromthe center of the field) and storage loss were not. Furthermore, the percentage of storage loss volume manifested as surface subsidence increased as the cavern field was enlarged. This was attributed to elasticvolumetric dilatation of overlying strata. The multiple cavern calculations demonstrate that storage losses are greater for caverns farther from the center of the caverns field. Based on an accumulated strain stability criteria, the larger cavern fields are predicted to have a shorter life. This criteria also indicates that caverns on the periphery of a field may show signs of instability before the inner caverns. The West Hackberry site (containing 22 caverns) subsidence data closely agrees with the 19 cavern model subsidence predictions, providing confidence in the calculations. Even a 19 cavern field, substantially large by SPR standards, does not approach the behavior predicted by infinite cavern models (which are frequently used because they are economical). This demonstrates that 3D modeling is required to accurately investigate the performance of a multi-cavern array. Although based on a typical SPR cavern design, the results of this study describe mechanics common to all multi-cavern fields and should, in general, be useful tocavern engineers and architects.

Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

Miller, Holly H. (Bethel Island, CA); Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B. (late of Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Reference value developed for mechanical integrity of storage caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reference value to verify the mechanical integrity of salt-cavern wells used in hydrocarbon storage has been developed. Salt caverns play important roles in large-scale storage of hydrocarbon gases and liquids. Required for safe and economical operation of these storage caverns is verification of the external mechanical integrity of the access (injection and withdrawal) wells. This study had the following goals: Provision of an overview of current practice; and Development of a reference for external well mechanical-integrity testing with respect to performance, data evaluation, and assessment. The storage cavern operators expected to gain the following: Comparability between method and assessments; Aid in influencing the movement towards standardization by regulators; and A firm technical base for use in litigation between the operator and other parties.

Crotogino, F. [Kavernen Bau- and Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1996-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excavated Hard Rock Caverns. Pacific Northwest Laboratory,Lux, K.H. Design of salt caverns for the storage of naturalgas storage in unlined rock caverns. Int J Rock Mech Min Sc

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

70

ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

Munson, Darrell E.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Operating Experience Level 3, Importance of Conduct of Operations and Training for Effective Criticality Safety Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

OE-3 2012-07: Importance of Conduct of Operations and Training for Effective Criticality Safety Programs

73

IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Water vapor Transition wavenumbers Atmospheric physics Energy levels MARVEL Information systemIUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H2 17 O and H2 18 O Jonathan Tennyson a,, Peter F. Bernath b

Chance, Kelly

74

Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil-storage cavern: West Hackberry 6 recertification tests and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final cavern pressure test and well leak test made in June-July 1981 indicated combined oil leakage from the three cavern entry wells will be well within the DOE leak rate criterion of 100 bbls/y per cavern at the most severe design operating conditions of the cavern. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern other than from the wells. However, they did give a positive indication of no leakage to cavern 9, the nearest cavern about 200 feet away. It is believed that serious structural failure of the cavern is unlikely during long term oil storage at normal pressures, or during accidental depressurization to oil head pressures.

Goin, K.L.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A LARGE SCALE CONTINUUM-DISCRETE NUMERICAL MODELLING: APPLICATION TO OVERBURDEN DAMAGE OF A SALT CAVERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN SOULEY Mountaka1 , MERCERAT Diego2 , DRIAD-LEBEAU Lynda1 , BERNARD Pascal2 1 INERIS, Ecole des collapse). KEYWORDS: cavern, numerical modelling, continuum-discrete, overburden, damage. R?SUM?: Dans l

Boyer, Edmond

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas cavern hand-over Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlas cavern hand-over Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Radiation in the USA15 cavern in ATLAS Document...

77

Experience in testing of a solution mined storage cavern. [Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recertification tests were made of the Department of Energy/Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage cavern number 6 in the West Hackberry, Louisiana Salt Dome. The cavern has a volume of 8,600,000 barrels. Tests included hydrostatic tests of the brine filled cavern and nitrogen leak tests of the three wells entering the cavern. Test procedures are described and test results are discussed.

Goin, K.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radiometric Modeling of Cavernous Targets to Assist in the Determination of Absolute Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiometric Modeling of Cavernous Targets to Assist in the Determination of Absolute Temperature108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT Determining the temperature of an internal surface within cavernous of these internal surfaces. The cavernous target has often been assumed to be a blackbody, but in field experiments

Salvaggio, Carl

79

The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern T to the ATLAS cavern by the end of September 2007. To integrate all sub-detectors before the physics run. The first Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern I

Fukunaga, Chikara

80

Recent insights into Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: a complex jigsaw puzzle under construction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent insights into Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: a complex jigsaw puzzle under construction.faurobert@ujf-grenoble.fr Running title: Emerging signaling pathways regulated by CCM proteins Abstract : Cerebral cavernous the etiology of the disease. Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are common vascular malformations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve cavern Bryan Mound 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the cavern integrity test of cavern Bryan Mound 1 conducted between May 23 and June 14, 1985. The test included pressurization with oil to near maximum test gradient, depressuring to maximum operating gradient, and doing nitrogen leak tests of the two cavern entry wells. Test results indicate nitrogen loss rates from the wells of 133 bbl/yr from 1A and 660 bbl/yr from 1. These nitrogen loss rates can reasonably be assumed to correspond to a total cavern oil loss rate of 79 bbl/yr, compared to the DOE goal of 100 bbl/yr of oil per cavern. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Goin, K.L.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Heating in the tropical atmosphere: what level of detail is critical for accurate MJO simulations in GCMs?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating in the tropical atmosphere: what level of detail is critical for accurate MJO simulations processes that affect heating in some facet. In this study, we examine various heating adjustments in Community Atmospheric Model version 4 (CAM4) to determine what the vertical and horizontal heating

83

A critical concern for embedded sys-tems is the need to deliver high levels of per-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10 A critical concern for embedded sys- tems is the need to deliver high levels of per- formance proces- sor utilization and allows a corresponding reduction in supply voltage. Because dynam- ic energy scales quadratically with supply volt- age, DVS can significantly reduce energy use.2 Enabling systems

Mudge, Trevor

84

Disposal of oil field wastes and NORM wastes into salt caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt caverns can be formed through solution mining in the bedded or domal salt formations that are found in many states. Salt caverns have traditionally been used for hydrocarbon storage, but caverns have also been used to dispose of some types of wastes. This paper provides an overview of several years of research by Argonne National Laboratory on the feasibility and legality of using salt caverns for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), the risk to human populations from this disposal method, and the cost of cavern disposal. Costs are compared between the four operating US disposal caverns and other commercial disposal options located in the same geographic area as the caverns. Argonne's research indicates that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and, in most cases, would not be prohibited by state agencies (although those agencies may need to revise their wastes management regulations). A risk analysis of several cavern leakage scenarios suggests that the risk from cavern disposal of NOW and NORM wastes is below accepted safe risk thresholds. Disposal caverns are economically competitive with other disposal options.

Veil, J. A.

1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

85

Converting LPG caverns to natural-gas storage permits fast response to market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deregulation of Canada`s natural-gas industry in the late 1980s led to a very competitive North American natural-gas storage market. TransGas Ltd., Regina, Sask., began looking for method for developing cost-effective storage while at the same time responding to new market-development opportunities and incentives. Conversion of existing LPG-storage salt caverns to natural-gas storage is one method of providing new storage. To supply SaskEnergy Inc., the province`s local distribution company, and Saskatchewan customers, TransGas previously had developed solution-mined salt storage caverns from start to finish. Two Regina North case histories illustrate TransGas` experiences with conversion of LPG salt caverns to gas storage. This paper provides the testing procedures for the various caverns, cross-sectional diagrams of each cavern, and outlines for cavern conversion. It also lists storage capacities of these caverns.

Crossley, N.G. [TransGas Ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1996-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evaluation of hard-rock-cavern construction methods for compressed-air energy storage: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of construction cost and schedule estimates for caverns mined in hard rock for 100-MW and 220-MW compressed air energy storage (CAES) plants with 10 hours storage capacity and using either water-compensated cavern operation with constant turbine-inlet pressure operation on uncompensated cavern operation with sliding turbine-inlet pressure operation. The estimates are made for caverns mined by large-parallel-tunnel methods and by room-and-pillar methods. The results indicate that, for the cavern sizes involved, the room-and-pillar method is cost-competitive with the large-parallel-tunnel methods, but the method requires marginally more construction time. The largest cavern size in the estimates may, however, be approaching the size where the room-and-pillar method may no longer be competitive. The technical feasibility of water curtains for preventing or minimizing leakage of air from CAES hard-rock caverns is evaluated, and construction cost and schedule estimates are made for uncompensated caverns. It is concluded that the performance of water curtains is dependent upon the accuracy of the values of site specific variables and assumptions utilized in the design. A method is presented for assessing if a water curtain may be economical for a compensated CAES cavern. Such an assessment for a water curtain for an uncompensated CAES cavern is more complex and beyond the scope of this study. Also, a program for testing the operation of a water curtain in conjunction with an air-storage cavern operation is proposed. For the specific cavern sizes considered in this report, the estimated water-curtain construction costs and times for the uncompensated room-and-pillar caverns are found to be greater than for the uncompensated large-parallel-tunnel caverns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 19 tabs.

Thrasher, J.E.; Lange, R.B.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recovery periods. This operation mode also is considered for Compressed Air Storage (CAES) facilities1 INTRODUCTION Gas storage caverns were developed mainly for sea- sonal storage, with one or a few are discussed. In Section 4, the energy bal- ance equation is established and some simplifica- tions allow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2) However , in highly heterogeneous media such as fractured rock and fault zones, local flow paths within which the gas containment criterion is not satisfied could be formed. To eliminate such zones, treatments such as pre/post grouting or an additional installment of water-curtain boreholes are essential. (3) Along highly conductive features such as faults, even partially saturated zones possess certain effects that can retard or prevent gas leakage, while a fully unsaturated fault connected to the storage cavern can quickly cause a gas blowout. This possibility strongly suggests that ensuring water saturation of the rock surrounding the cavern is a very important requirement. (4) Even if an accident should suddenly impair the water curtain, the gas plume does not quickly penetrate the ground surface. In these simulations, the plume takes several months to reach the ground surface.

Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable.

Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Long-term sealing analyses for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is inevitable that sealing and abandonment will someday occur in a SPR cavern or caverns. To gain insight into the long-term behavior of a typical SPR cavern following sealing and abandonment, a suite of mechanical finite-element calculations was performed. The initial analyses predict how quickly and to what extent a cavern pressurizes after it is plugged. The analyses also examine the stability of the cavern as it changes shape due to the excessive pressures generated as the salt creeps and the brine in the cavern thermally expands. These large-scale analyses do not include the details of the plug but assume a good seal is established in the cavern wells. In another series of analyses, the potential for forming a leak at the plug is evaluated. A cement plug, emplaced in the casing seat of a cavern well, is loaded using the predicted brine pressures from the cavern analyses. The plugged casing analyses examine the potential for forming a leak path in and along the interfaces of salt, casing, and cement plug. In the last set of analysis, the dimensional scale of the problem is further reduced to examine a preexisting crack along a casing/salt interface. The cracked interface is assumed to be fluid filled and fully pressurized by the cavern fluids. The analyses address the potential for the fluid path to extend upwards along a plugged casing should an open microannulus surround the casing after it is plugged.

Ehgartner, B.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulfur mines 7. Certification tests and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavern 7 at the Sulphur Mines, Louisiana SPR oil storage site was certified for oil storage on December 17, 1977. The Dowell Sonar caliper survey taken November 29, 1977, indicated a total cavern volume of 5.60 x 10/sup 6/ bbls. The surveys taken December 19, 1979, and June 10, 1981, indicated a total cavern volume of 6.33 x 10/sup 6/ and 6.36 x 10/sup 6/ bbls respectively. This volume increase was a result of continued brining, prior to June 10, 1981, to get brine enrichment for PPG. A well leak test in May 1981 indicated some well leakage. Well workover actions to repair well and wellhead leaks were taken by Texas Brine Corp/Dravo Utility Constructors, Inc. (TBC/DUCI). Testing was restarted in June 1981 using test procedures which were developed in conjunction with the procedures and testing of West Hackberry cavern 6. This report includes a general history of the cavern and a description of the certification testing, analyses, conclusions, and recommendations. The data from cavern 7 and 6 indicate no fluid communication between caverns. Cavern 7 is about 160 ft from the dome edge. The pressure data at maximum operating pressure is comparable to the data from both West Hackberry cavern 6 and Sulphur Mines cavern 6. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that there is a leak to the dome edge. The well test data indicates leaks in the well casing seat area are approximately 100 bbls/yr.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. H. Lux, Design of salt caverns for the storage of naturalof CAES in a lined rock cavern. Table 2. :Leakage rate forLeakage rate for different cavern depth. Table 4. Calculated

Kim, H.-M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Test of Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Cavern 102 at Bayou Choctaw  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two brine pressure tests were conducted on the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Cavern 102, at Bayou Choctaw from November 28, 1984, to December 18, 1984. A nitrogen leak test was then conducted from December 18, 1984, to January 9, 1985, on the Cavern 102 entry well. These tests were conducted to provide data for the State of Louisiana Cavern Certification Program. This program is covered by Statewide Order No. 29-M which provides rules and regulations pertaining to the use of salt dome cavities for storage of liquid and/or gaseous hydrocarbons. The test results indicate that the oil leak rate from Cavern 102 is approximately zero bbl/yr. Cavern 102 will be traded to Allied Chemicals' Union Texas Petroleum Division for their Cavern 17 at Bayou Choctaw per Exchange Agreement dated March 1982. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Buchanan, D.K.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Regulatory, technical pressures prompt more U. S. salt-cavern gas storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural-gas storage in US salt caverns is meeting the need for flexible, high delivery and injection storage following implementation Nov. 1, 1993, of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Order 636. This ruling has opened the US underground natural-gas storage market to more participants and created a demand for a variety of storage previously provided by pipelines as part of their bundled sales services. Many of these new services such as no-notice and supply balancing center on use of high-delivery natural gas storage from salt caverns. Unlike reservoir storage, nothing restricts flow in a cavern. The paper discusses the unique properties of salt that make it ideal for gas storage, choosing a location for the storage facility, cavern depth and shape, cavern size, spacing, pressures, construction, conversion or brine or LPG storage caverns to natural gas, and operation.

Barron, T.F. (PB-KBB Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Platon, La Rpublique, trad. Victor Cousin (1833). livre VII : le mythe de la caverne.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Platon, La République, trad. Victor Cousin (1833). livre VII : le mythe de la caverne. [514a, que les ombres qui vont se retracer, à la lueur du feu, sur le côté de la caverne exposé à leurs ? Assurément. Si maintenant on l'arrache de sa caverne malgré lui, et qu'on le traîne, par le sentier rude et

Aubin, David

102

DES NANDERTALIENS DANS LA TROISIME CAVERNE DE GOYET Hlne Rougier, Isabelle Crvecoeur, Patrick Smal & Michel Toussaint  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DES N?ANDERTALIENS DANS LA TROISI?ME CAVERNE DE GOYET Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crèvecoeur, Patrick 1870 à la troisième caverne par le géologue ?douard Dupont. La cinquantaine de vestiges mis au jour à). Il y a donc des restes humains récents dans la troisième caverne de Goyet mais, étant donné la

Boyer, Edmond

103

STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is estimated to be $132,000. The gas processing costs are estimated to be $2.05 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($0.055 per Mcf) of gas injected into and withdrawn from the facility based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost. In Phase II of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine mechanical properties of salt at low temperature. This was followed by thermomechanical finite element simulations to evaluate the structural stability of the cavern during refrigerated storage. The high thermal expansion coefficient of salt is expected to result in tensile stresses leading to tensile failure in the roof, walls, and floor of the cavern as it is cooled. Tensile fracturing of the cavern roof may result in loss of containment of the gas and/or loss of integrity of the casing shoe, deeming the conversion of this facility not technically feasible.

JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Relative Evaluation of the Independent Volume Measures of Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Throughout the construction and operation of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), three types of cavern volume measurements have been maintained. These are: (1) the calculated solution volume determined during initial construction by solution mining and any subsequent solutioning during oil transfers, (2) the calculated sonar volume determined through sonar surveys of the cavern dimensions, and (3) the direct metering of oil to determine the volume of the cavern occupied by the oil. The objective of this study is to compare these measurements to each other and determine, if possible, the uncertainties associated with a given type of measurement. Over time, each type of measurement has acquired a customary, or an industry accepted, stated uncertainty. This uncertainty is not necessarily the result of a technical analysis. Ultimately there is one definitive quantity, the oil volume measure by the oil custody transfer meters, taken by all parties to the transfer as the correct ledger amount and for which the SPR Project is accountable. However, subsequent transfers within a site may not be with meters of the same accuracy. In this study, a very simple theory of the perfect relationship is used to evaluate the correlation (deviation) of the various measures. This theory permits separation of uncertainty and bias. Each of the four SPR sites are examined, first with comparisons between the calculated solution volumes and the sonar volumes determined during construction, then with comparisons of the oil inventories and the sonar volumes obtained either by surveying through brine prior to oil filling or through the oil directly.

MUNSON,DARRELL E.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the excavation and likely timeline to construction, the paper also strongly suggests that there are exciting opportunities for the rock mechanics and engineering community to identify and efficiently integrate research components into the design and construction process.

Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Avoca, New York Salt Cavern Gas Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first salt cavern natural gas storage facility in the northeastern United States designed to serve the interstate gas market is being developed by J Makowski Associates and partners at Avoca in Steuben County, New York. Multiple caverns will be leached at a depth of about 3800 ft from an approximately 100 ft interval of salt within the F unit of the Syracuse Formation of the Upper Silurian Salina Group. The facility is designed to provide 5 Bcf of working gas capacity and 500 MMcfd of deliverability within an operating cavern pressure range between 760 psi and 2850 psi. Fresh water for leaching will be obtained from the Cohocton River aquifer at a maximum rate of 3 million gallons per day and produced brine will be injected into deep permeable Cambrian age sandstones and dolostones. Gas storage service is anticipated to commence in the Fall of 1997 with 2 Bcf of working gas capacity and the full 5 Bcf or storage service is scheduled to be available in the Fall of 1999.

Morrill, D.C. [J. Makowski and Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Abstract-The ALICE trigger system is situated in the experimental cavern and has a centralized layout: the Central  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract- The ALICE trigger system is situated in the experimental cavern and has a centralized. Layout of the ALICE CTP in the experimental cavern The ALICE Central Trigger System D. Evans1 , S. Fedor2

Birmingham, University of

110

RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel?s susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

Hoffman, E.

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

111

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reservoir storage project in Sesta, Italy [1]; as well as two pilot tests in rock caverns associated with abandoned

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a SolidFluid Elastic Rock Salt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dilatational and Compacting Behavior around a Cylindrical Cavern Leached Out in a Solid-filled cylindrical cavern of circular cross section in a homogeneous infinite fluid-saturated polycristalline salt pressure. The fluid in the cavern and in the mixture is treated as ideal and the solid as elastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

113

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early-Warning Signals Prior to Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental monitoring of a solution-mining Cavern in Salt: Identifying and Analyzing Early. This was the context when the opportunity was taken to instrument a large size in use saline cavern, so as to test that initiate and govern the evolution of the cavern up to its collapse. After a stationary period combined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Magnetic Cavern Solenoid R&D A. Bross, V.V Kashikhin and A.V. Zlobin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic Cavern Solenoid R&D A. Bross, V.V Kashikhin and A.V. Zlobin Fermilab (Feb. 16, 2010) #12 Cavern design concept · · · STL is placed inside the external support structure (cylindrical strongback) · Cavern Wall?Solenoid strongback Thermal shield STL cable Invar pipe with SC strands, stabilizer and LHe

McDonald, Kirk

115

EXPOSITION GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumire de la splologie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPOSITION « GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumière de la spéléologie » BIBLIOGRAPHIE - 1 « GROTTES, GROUFFRES ET CAVERNES A la lumière de la spéléologie » BIBLIOGRAPHIE - 2 - · ISBN : 2

Dambrine, Marc

116

Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage caverns, and gas market area storage needs of these regions.

none

1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effects of cavern spacing and pressure on subsidence and storage losses for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of cavern spacing and operating pressure on surface subsidence and cavern storage losses were evaluated using the finite- element method. The base case for the two sensitivity studies was a typical SPR cavern. The predicted responses of the base case and those from the pressurization study compared quite closely to measured surface subsidence and oil pressurization rates. This provided credibility for the analyses and constitutive models used. Subsidence and cavern storage losses were found to be strongly influenced by cavern spacing and pressurization. The relationship between subsidence volume and losses in storage volume varied as cavern spacing and operating pressure deviated from the base case. However, for a typical SPR cavern subsidence volume is proportional to storage loss and when expressed in ft., subsidence is equal to the percentage of storage loss.

Ehgartner, B.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L = 10^28 cm^2s^1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=10^28 cm^2s^1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

Hagoort, J. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Hydrogeologic factors affecting cavern morphology within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cavern development within rocks of Mississippian age in northwestern Arkansas is associated with two Pleistocene erosional features, the Boston Mountains Plateau and the Springfield Plateau. Each plateau is characterized by a distinct stratigraphic sequence with unique lithologies. Cavern morphology (both cross-sectional and planimetric) in each plateau is the result of the complex interaction of numerous hydrogeologic factors. Four of the most dominant factors which affect cavern morphology appear to be: (1) composition and continuity of the confining units; (2) percentage of noncarbonate components in rocks of the cavern-forming interval; (3) nature and distribution of ground-water recharge to the cavern-forming interval; and (4) nature and distribution of fractures within the cavern-forming interval. Network maze patterns typically develop in the Pitkin Limestone, the formation in which most caverns form beneath the Boston Mountains Plateau. The Pitkin, a bioclastic limestone, is confined above by siltstones of the Cane Hill member of the Hale Formation and below by shales of the Fayetteville Formation. The maze pattern indicates that these caverns probably were formed by dissolution of the rock matrix by diffuse recharge moving vertically through leaky confining units. Single rooms are the dominant cavern morphology in the chert-dominated Boone Formation of the Springfield Plateau. Where the concentration of chert is greater than 50 percent, the Boone lacks structural integrity and fails to develop well-integrated conduit networks. Point recharge features in outcrop areas of the Boone Formation are not visible in most of the Springfield Plateau because the insoluble residuum masks the upper bedrock surface. Where the Boone Formation is less than 7 meters thick, surface karst features are more prevalent.

Fanning, B.J. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Geology); Brahana, J.V. (Univ. of Arkansas , Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geological Survey)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals, utilizing salt caverns for storage and the existing comprehensive pipeline system has profound implications for the next generation of LNG terminals. LNG imports are expected to become an increasingly more important part of the U.S. energy supply and the capacities to receive LNG securely, safely, and economically must be expanded. Salt cavern LNG receiving terminals both in onshore and offshore locations can be quickly built and provide additional import capacity into the U.S. exceeding 6-10 Bcf/day in the aggregate.

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

123

Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is considered through computations using the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, suggesting a relative minor, but potentially significant, contribution to the regain process. Apparently, gains in gas content can be generated from the oil itself during storage because the salt dome has been heated by the geothermal gradient of the earth. The heated domal salt transfers heat to the oil stored in the caverns and thereby increases the gas released by the volatile components and raises the boiling point pressure of the oil. The process is essentially a variation on the fractionation of oil, where each of the discrete components of the oil have a discrete temperature range over which that component can be volatized and removed from the remaining components. The most volatile components are methane and ethane, the shortest chain hydrocarbons. Since this fractionation is a fundamental aspect of oil behavior, the volatile component can be removed by degassing, potentially prohibiting the evolution of gas at or below the temperature of the degas process. While this process is well understood, the ability to describe the results of degassing and subsequent regain is not. Trends are not well defined for original gas content, regain, and prescribed effects of degassing. As a result, prediction of cavern response is difficult. As a consequence of this current analysis, it is suggested that solutioning brine of the final fluid exchange of a just completed cavern, immediately prior to the first oil filling, should be analyzed for gas content using existing analysis techniques. This would add important information and clarification to the regain process. It is also proposed that the quantity of volatile components, such as methane, be determined before and after any degasification operation.

Munson, Darrell Eugene

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean ''oil field waste contaminated by NORM''.

Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

125

Spindletop salt-cavern points way for future natural-gas storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spindletop underground natural-gas storage complex began operating in 1993, providing 1.7 bcf of working-gas capacity in its first cavern. The cavern and related facilities exemplify the importance and advantages of natural-gas storage in leached salt caverns. Development of a second cavern, along with continued leaching of the initial cavern, target 5 bcf of available working-gas capacity in both caverns by the end of this year. The facilities that currently make up the Spindletop complex include two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 24,000-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Sabine Gas; two salt dome gas-storage wells and a 15,900-hp compression and dehydration facility owned by Centana; a 7,000-hp leaching plant; and three jointly owned brine-disposal wells. The paper discusses the development of the storage facility, design goals, leaching plant and wells, piping and compressors, dehydration and heaters, control systems, safety and monitoring, construction, first years operation, and customer base.

Shotts, S.A.; Neal, J.R.; Solis, R.J. (Southwestern Gas Pipeline Inc., The Woodlands, TX (United States)); Oldham, C. (Centana Intrastate Pipeline Co., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

126

Desiccant bed on hydrocarbon charged to and removed from underground (salt) cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon fluid storage system is described which consists of in operable conjunction: a cavern formed within an underground salt strata below a ground surface, the cavern comprises a lower liquid volume of saturated sodium chloride storage brine and an upper fluid volume of wet hydrocarbon storage fluid, surface fluid handling means; conduit connecting the lower storage brine and upper storage hydrocarbon fluid with the surface fluid handling means, of fluid transfer means enabling transfer of brine and hydrocarbon fluid from the surface to the cavern and from the cavern to the surface, such that brine can be added to or withdrawn from the lower brine volume and hydrocarbon fluids can be added to or withdrawn from the upper hydrocarbon fluid volume, and at least one desiccant drier means positioned at the surface in operable association with the surface fluid handling means whereby the wet hydrocarbon fluid upon withdrawal from the cavern passes through the desiccant drier means and thereby becomes dry, and dry hydrocarbon fluid intended for storage passes through the desiccant drier prior to entering the storage cavern and thereby becomes wet.

Washer, S.P.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

127

A geochemical assessment of petroleum from underground oil storage caverns in relation to petroleum from natural reservoirs offshore Norway.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The aim of this study is to compare oils from known biodegraded fields offshore Norway to waxes and oils from an artificial cavern storage facility, (more)

stensen, Marie

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

CAVERN: The CAVE Research Network Andrew E. Johnson, Jason Leigh, Thomas A. DeFanti, Maxine D. Brown, and Daniel J. Sandin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CAVERN: The CAVE Research Network Andrew E. Johnson, Jason Leigh, Thomas A. DeFanti, Maxine D CAVERN, the CAVE Research Network, is an alliance of industrial and research institutions equipped, to at least six in 1997 , so now EVL turns its attention to the design and implementation of CAVERN, the CAVE

Johnson, Andrew

129

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report of Metabolites of an Endolichenic Fungus1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heptaketides from Corynespora sp. Inhabiting the Cavern Beard Lichen, Usnea caWernosa: First Report fungal strain, Corynespora sp. BA-10763, occurring in the cavern beard lichen Usnea ca the lichen Usnea caVernosa (cavern beard lichen; Parmeliaceae; Lecanorales), collected in early 2005 from

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

130

A Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and hydrogen storage in salt caverns. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is experiencing a rise in interest-form solutions of the blow-out problem. These solutions are applied to the cases of compressed air storageA Simplified Solution For Gas Flow During a Blow-out in an H2 or Air Storage Cavern Pierre Bérest

Boyer, Edmond

131

Laboratory Evaluation of Damage Criteria and Creep Parameters of Tioga Dolomite and Rock Salt from Cavern Well No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A suite of laboratory triaxial compression and triaxial steady-state creep tests provide quasi-static elastic constants and damage criteria for bedded rock salt and dolomite extracted from Cavern Well No.1 of the Tioga field in northern Pennsylvania. The elastic constants, quasi-static damage criteria, and creep parameters of host rocks provides information for evaluating a proposed cavern field for gas storage near Tioga, Pennsylvania. The Young's modulus of the dolomite was determined to be 6.4 ({+-}1.0) x 10{sup 6} psi, with a Poisson's ratio of 0.26 ({+-}0.04). The elastic Young's modulus was obtained from the slope of the unloading-reloading portion of the stress-strain plots as 7.8 ({+-}0.9) x 10{sup 6} psi. The damage criterion of the dolomite based on the peak load was determined to be J{sub 2}{sup 0.5} (psi) = 3113 + 0.34 I{sub 1} (psi) where I{sub 1} and J{sub 2} are first and second invariants respectively. Using the dilation limit as a threshold level for damage, the damage criterion was conservatively estimated as J{sub 2}{sup 0.5} (psi) = 2614 + 0.30 I{sub 1} (psi). The Young's modulus of the rock salt, which will host the storage cavern, was determined to be 2.4 ({+-}0.65) x 10{sup 6} psi, with a Poisson's ratio of 0.24 ({+-}0.07). The elastic Young's modulus was determined to be 5.0 ({+-}0.46) x 10{sup 6} psi. Unlike the dolomite specimens under triaxial compression, rock salt specimens did not show shear failure with peak axial load. Instead, most specimens showed distinct dilatancy as an indication of internal damage. Based on dilation limit, the damage criterion for the rock salt was estimated as J{sub 2}{sup 0.5} (psi) = 704 + 0.17 I{sub 1} (psi). In order to determine the time dependent deformation of the rock salt, we conducted five triaxial creep tests. The creep deformation of the Tioga rock salt was modeled based on the following three-parameter power law as {var_epsilon}{sub s} = 1.2 x 10{sup -17} {sigma}{sup 4.75} exp(-6161/T), where {var_epsilon}{sub s} is the steady state strain rate in s{sup -1}, {sigma} is the applied axial stress difference in psi, and T is the temperature in Kelvin.

LEE, MOO Y.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Huge cavern touted as partial remedy to demands on the Dixie pipeline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SCANA Hydrocarbons cavern near York, S.C. is expected to play an increasingly important role for the LP-gas industry in the Southeast in the years ahead. Situated in Tirzah, S.C. between York and Rick Hill near the North Carolina border, the site actually consists of a similar 15-million-gal. cavern (the one that is currently unused) as well as a larger one with 65 million gal. of capacity. The two cavities are 200 yards apart at the closest point and encompass 160 acres. A 6-in., 62-mile-long pipeline known as the C and T connects the caverns to the Dixie pipeline at Bethune, S.C.

Prowler, S.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Benjamin Monreal

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

Monreal, Benjamin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Simulation of the passage of muons through the rock overburden into the Soudan 2 cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I have investigated the energy dependence of the transmission of muons from the surface through the rock into the Soudan 2 cavern using the detector simulation package GEANT. I find the simulation of the various contributions to the muon energy loss in good agreement with available data and formulae for muon energies up into the multi-TeV region. The prediction for the transmission rates and mean energies appearing in the cavern agree with simple calculations in most but not all cases. I use the simulation to determine the energy spread apparent in the Soudan 2 cavern for fixed energies at the surface and the survival probabilities for energies at the surface up to 100 TeV. 28 refs., 16 figs.

Trost, H.J.

1991-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

136

Analysis of the Massive Salt Fall in Big Hill Cavern 103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes recent reviews, observations, and analyses believed to be imperative to our understanding of the recent two million cubic feet salt fall event in Big Hill Cavern 103, one of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The fall was the result of one or more stress driven mechanical instabilities, the origins of which are discussed in the report. The work has lead to important conclusions concerning the engineering and operations of the caverns at Big Hill. Specifically, Big Hill, being the youngest SPR site, was subjected to state-of-the-art solutioning methods to develop nominally well-formed, right-circular cylindrical caverns. Examination of the pressure history records indicate that operationally all Big Hill SPR caverns have been treated similarly. Significantly, new three-dimensional (3-D) imaging methods, applied to old (original) and more recent sonar survey data, have provided much more detailed views of cavern walls, roofs, and floors. This has made possible documentation of the presence of localized deviations from ''smooth'' cylindrical cavern walls. These deviations are now recognized as isolated, linear and/or planar features in the original sonar data (circa early 1990s), which persist to the present time. These elements represent either sites of preferential leaching, localized spalling, or a combination of the two. Understanding the precise origin of these phenomena remains a challenge, especially considering, in a historical sense, the domal salt at Big Hill was believed to be well-characterized. However, significant inhomogeneities in the domal salt that may imply abnormalities in leaching were not noted. Indeed, any inhomogeneities were judged inconsequential to the solution-engineering methods at the time, and, by the same token, to the approaches to modeling the rock mass geomechanical response. The rock mass was treated as isotropic and homogeneous, which in retrospect, appears to have been an over simplification. This analysis shows there are possible new opportunities regarding completing an appropriate site characterization for existing operating cavern fields in the SPR, as well as expansion of current sites or development of new sites. Such characterization should first be consistent with needs identified by this report. Secondly, the characterization needs to satisfy the input requirements of the 3-D solutioning calculational methods being developed, together with 3-D geomechanical analyses techniques which address deformation of a salt rock mass that contains inhomogeneities. It seems apparent that focusing on these important areas could preclude occurrence of unexpected events that would adversely impact the operations of SPR.

MUNSON, DARRELL E.; BAUER, STEPHEN J.; RAUTMAN, CHRISTOPHER A.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SATTLER, ALLAN R.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Commissioning of the CMS Cryogenic System After Final Installation in the Underground Cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

After having served for the surface tests of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) magnet, the cold box and ancillaries of the CMS helium refrigerator have been dismantled, moved and re-installed in the USC55 cavern in 2007. The full re-commissioning in the cavern has been followed by several tests of the refrigerator to confirm its nominal performance before it was used for the magnet and detector tests in 2008. During these tests the safety modes of the refrigeration system have been tested and improved. After a nine-year project both, the magnet and the refrigeration system are now ready for the CMS operation.

Dupont, T; Perinic, G; 10.1063/1.3422381

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall.

MUNSON,DARRELL E.

2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

140

Compilation of gas intrusion measurements, variations, and consequence modeling for SPR caverns.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H2S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

Hinkebein, Thomas E.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied in some detail - the Northeast and the Southeast. The investment cost for an LRC facility in the Northeast is approximately $182 million and $343 million for a 2.6-billion cubic foot (bcf) working gas facility and a 5.2-bcf working gas storage facility, respectively. The relatively high investment cost is a strong function of the cost of labor in the Northeast. The labor union-related rules and requirements in the Northeast result in much higher underground construction costs than might result in Sweden, for example. The LRC technology gas storage service is compared to other alternative technologies. The LRC technology gas storage service was found to be competitive with other alternative technologies for a variety of market scenarios.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

Beasley, R.R.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design of a novel Cherenkov detectors system for machine induced background monitoring in the CMS cavern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel detector system has been designed for an efficient online measurement of the machineinduced background in the CMS experimental cavern. The suppression of the CMS cavern background originating from pp collision products and the 25 ns bunch spacing have set the requirements for the detector design. Each detector unit will be a radiation hard, cylindrical Cherenkov radiator optically coupled to an ultra-fast UV-sensitive photomultiplier tube, providing a prompt, directionally sensitive measurement. Simulation and test beam measurements have shown the achievability of the goals that have driven the baseline design. The system will consist of 20 azimuthally distributed detectors per end, installed at a radius of r ~ 180 cm and a distance 20.6 m away from the CMS interaction region. The detector units will enable a measurement of the transverse distribution of the bunchby- bunch machine induced background flux. This will provide important feedback from the CMS on the beam conditions during the LHC machine s...

Orfanelli, Styliani; Giunta, Marina; Stickland, David P; Ambrose, Mitchell J; Rusack, Roger; Finkel, Alexey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Estimated human health risks of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste in salt caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has completed an evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) disposed in domal salt caverns. In this assessment, several steps were used to evaluate potential human health risks: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the contaminants` toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and, finally, calculating human cancer and noncancer risks.

Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Compilation of Gas Intrusion Measurements, Variations, and Consequence Modeling for SPR Caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intrusion of gas into oils stored within the SPR has been examined. When oil is stored in domal salts, gases intrude into the stored oil from the surrounding salt. Aspects of the mechanism of gas intrusion have been examined. In all cases, this gas intrusion results in increases in the oil vapor pressure. Data that have been gathered from 1993 to August 2002 are presented to show the resultant increases in bubble-point pressure on a cavern-by-cavern as well as on a stream basis. The measurement techniques are presented with particular emphasis on the TVP 95. Data analysis methods are presented to show the methods required to obtain recombined cavern oil compositions. Gas-oil ratios are also computed from the data and are presented on a cavern-by-cavern and stream basis. The observed increases in bubble-point pressure and gas-oil ratio are further statistically analyzed to allow data interpretation. Emissions plume modeling is used to determine adherence to state air regulations. Gas intrusion is observed to be variable among the sites and within each dome. Gas intrusions at Bryan Mound and Big Hill have resulted in the largest increases in bubble-point pressure for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The streams at Bayou Choctaw and West Hackberry show minimal bubble-point pressure increases. Emissions plume modeling, using the state mandated ISCST code, of oil storage tanks showed that virtually no gas may be released when H2S standards are considered. DOE plans to scavenge H{sub 2}S to comply with the very tight standards on this gas. With the assumption of scavenging, benzene releases become the next most controlling factor. Model results show that a GOR of 0.6 SCF/BBL may be emissions that are within standards. Employing the benzene gas release standard will significantly improve oil deliverability. New plume modeling using the computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT, is addressing limitations of the state mandated ISCST model.

HINKEBEIN, THOMAS E.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

Taylor, A

1980-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, April 2005 39 Donald A. McFarlane and Joyce Lundberg -The 19th century excavation of Kent's Cavern, England. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p. 39-47.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

th century excavation of Kent's Cavern, England. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 67, no. 1, p conducted a series of excavations in Kent's Cavern, a well known site in Wellswood (now a suburb of Torquay) Chamber of Kent's Cavern had been extensively modified by centuries of use and souvenir hunting, Mac

McFarlane, Donald A.

153

Numerical Modeling of Gas Migration at a Proposed Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Wastes at Oberbauenstock, Switzerland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

repository rate, based on average cavern length of 466m.total length of the storage caverns is approximately 4660 m.With 10 caverns in parallel, average cavern length is 466 m,

Pruess editor, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Risk assessment of converting salt caverns to natural gas storage. Final report, November 1994-July 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper was an assessment of the risks of release of large quantities of natural gas from salt caverns converted from other uses to the storage of compressed natural gas (CNG). A total of 22 potential root causes for large releases of natural gas from converted salt converns were identified and ranked in terms of relative risk. While this project assessed the relative risks of major gas releases, the absolute risk was determined by implication to be extremely low, as indicated by the historical record.

Harrison, M.R.; Ellis, P.F.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (Million  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan Feb2009 2010Cubic Feet) Salt Caverns

156

Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermo-fluidal behavior of the air in a cavern for the CAES-G/T[Compressed Air Energy Storage Gas Turbine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical analysis was performed to gain the detailed features of the thermo-fluidal behavior of the air inside the cavern for the compressed air storage gas turbine (CAES-G/T). The CAES-G/T, a peak shave power plant is now on the installation in Japan, where energy is stored in off peak period by compressed air in an underground cavern at pressure up to 80 atm abs. In the present work, an analytical model based on the two-dimensional laminar flow on the cross-section of the circular cavern was developed to quantify the effect of the transient process occurring in the cavern and wall during injection, storage and release of compressed air in the experimental circular cavern. the air was introduced until the required pressure inside the cavern is reached, then it was released outside after the storage period. It was found that the stratified temperature distribution was maintained in the cavern during compression and expansion periods. The wall temperature varied together with the variation of the air temperature with time, leading to the heat storage in the wall.

Tada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Hideo; Echigo, Ryozo; Oishi, Yasushi

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

An Investigation of the Integrity of Cemented Casing Seals with Application to Salt Cavern Sealing and Abandonment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research project was pursued in three key areas. (1) Salt permeability testing under complex stress states; (2) Hydraulic and mechanical integrity investigations of the well casing shoe through benchscale testing; and (3) Geomechanical modeling of the fluid/salt hydraulic and mechanical interaction of a sealed cavern.

Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Skaug, N.T.; Bruno, M.S.

2001-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

159

Potential for future development of salt cavern storage in the upper Silurian Syracuse Formation of south-central New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although depleted reservoirs remain the dominant structures used for storage fulfilling the demand for base load gas supply during the heating season, the current general surge in storage projects, nationwide, takes advantage of opportunities in Order 636, and makes greater use of salt caverns for gas storage. This reflects the increasing need by gas users, local distribution companies in particular, to quickly cycle a storage facility`s gas supply for services such as peak shaving, emergency supply, and system balancing to meet hourly swings. Occurrence of thick deposits of bedded salt deposits provides New York the capability to develop high deliverability salt cavern storage facilities. Furthermore, New York is uniquely positioned at the gateway to major northeastern markets to provide peak load storage services of natural gas supply. The thickest units of bedded salt in New York occur in the {open_quotes}F{close_quotes} horizon of the Upper Silurian Syracuse Formation. Three bedded salt cavern storage facilities have been recently proposed in New York. Two of these projects is much larger (with 5 Bcfg ultimate capacity), is under construction, and will provide valuable storage service to the Ellisburg-Leidy market center hub in Pennsylvania. Identification of possible sites for future salt cavern storage projects has been achieved chiefly by defining areas of thick beds of salt at sufficient depths close to gas transmission lines, with access to a freshwater supply for leaching, and possessing an acceptable method of brine disposal.

Bass, J.P.; Sarwar, G.; Guo, B. [Brooklyn College of the City Univ. of New York, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were cooled sufficiently that the cavern required about 9 years to return to the temperature prior to degas. Upon reviewing these results, the authors recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy that a broader study of the cooling during degas be pursued in order to examine the potential benefits of cooling on all caverns in the current degasification schedule.

Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

162

Matching field effects at tesla-level magnetic fields in critical current density in high-Tc superconductors containing self-assembled columnar defects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the superconductive transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7 films containing self-assembled columnar arrays of second phase SrZrO3 or BaSnO3 precipitates. A matching condition between columnar pinning sites (aligned at or near the c axis) and external magnetic flux, tilted with respect to them, is identified in the critical current JC.H/ data. The results for the material containing SrZrO3-based pins are analyzed within a simple intuitive model. At matching, the critical current is enhanced above the model prediction. In complementary contact-free investigations of BaSnO3-doped material, matching effects are observed over a wide range of temperatures in the field dependence of JC.H/. The deduced matching fields agree reasonably well with the densities of columnar pins directly observed by scanning electron microscopy.

Sinclair, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL; Varanasi, C. V. [University of Dayton Research Institute; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Critical Materials:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

lighting. 14 (bottom) Criticality ratings of shortlisted raw 76 materials. 15 77 2. Technology Assessment and Potential 78 This section reviews the major trends within...

164

Criticality Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality computational method will be used for evaluating the criticality potential of configurations of fissionable materials (in-package and external to the waste package) within the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for all waste packages/waste forms. The criticality computational method is also applicable to preclosure configurations. The criticality computational method is a component of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). How the criticality computational method fits in the overall disposal criticality analysis methodology is illustrated in Figure 1 (YMP 2003, Figure 3). This calculation will not provide direct input to the total system performance assessment for license application. It is to be used as necessary to determine the criticality potential of configuration classes as determined by the configuration probability analysis of the configuration generator model (BSC 2003a).

A. Alsaed

2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fatal Peritoneal Bleeding Following Embolization of a Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the case of a 25-year-old woman treated for a spontaneous carotid-cavernous fistula in a context of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Embolization with a transvenous approach was achieved without complications; however, the patient died 72 hr later of massive intraperitoneal bleeding. At autopsy, no lesion of the digestive arteries was identified. Possible causes of this bleeding are discussed.

Usinskiene, Jurgita; Mazighi, Mikael; Bisdorff, Annouk; Houdart, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Neuroradiology (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.houdart@lrb.ap-hop-paris.fr

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Preliminary design study of compressed-air energy storage in a salt dome. Volume 3. Design of the air-storage cavern in salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared as a result of a contract between Middle South Services, Inc. and Fenix and Scisson, Inc. The conceptual design was prepared for two sites, Hazlehurst and Prothro as two known possible sites. It was later expanded to include a third site, Carmichael as the first two sites were not then available. This required the design and costing at various depths, 670 m (2200 ft), 488 m (1600 ft) and 1067 m (3500 ft) to the top of the cavern. It also involves variation in the size of the caverns for various weekly cycles of required air pressure to supply the turbine during peak load periods. The air is released from the caverns at 310 Kg/sec for eight hours per day, five days per week and the caverns replenished through compressors eight hours per day seven days per week. The pressure ranges from a maximum of 70 bars at the beginning of the week to 50 bars at the end of the generating period on Friday. The temperature of the input and outlet air is assumed to be 140/sup 0/C. This agrees with the estimated temperature of the cavern at Carmichael which allows for an isothermal operation. During preparation of the report no technical or environmental barriers were found.

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be quickly detected using pressure monitoring outside the concrete lining.

Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

169

Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

Veil, J.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Critical Materials Institute  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

Alex King

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

171

Nuclear criticality safety guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.] [eds.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Anomalous critical fields in quantum critical superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-temperature superconductivity. However, the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As1?xPx)2 is perhaps the clearest example to date of a high temperature quantum critical superconductor, and so it is a... mixing of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, suggesting that a highly unusual vortex state is realised in quantum critical superconductors. Quantum critical points (QCPs) can be associated with a variety of different order-disorder phenomena...

Putzke, C.; Walmsley, P.; Fletcher, J.D.; Malone, L.; Vignolles, D.; Proust, C.; Badoux, S.; See, P.; Beere, H.E.; Ritchie, D.A.; Kasahara, S.; Mizukami, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Carrington, A.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 110{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Critical Materials Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

AMO hosted a public workshop on Tuesday, April 3, 2012 in Arlington, VA to provide background information on critical materials assessment, the current research within DOE related to critical...

175

Nuclear Multifragmentation Critical Exponents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the critical exponents of nuclear multi-fragmentation have not been determined conclusively yet.

Wolfgang Bauer; William Friedman

1994-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

Energy: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

comprehensive risk management framework that defines critical infrastructure protection (CIP) roles and responsibilities for all levels of government, private industry, and other...

177

Reference handbook: Nuclear criticality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose for this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand the basic principles underlying a nuclear criticality.

Not Available

1991-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

178

Critical Materials Hub  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Critical materials, including some rare earth elements that possess unique magnetic, catalytic, and luminescent properties, are key resources needed to manufacture products for the clean energy economy. These materials are so critical to the technologies that enable wind turbines, solar panels, electric vehicles, and energy-efficient lighting that DOE's 2010 and 2011 Critical Materials Strategy reported that supply challenges for five rare earth metalsdysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium, and yttriumcould affect clean energy technology deployment in the coming years.1, 2

179

The Critical Materials Institute | Critical Materials Institute  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest RegionatSearchScheduled System Burst BufferFluoriteSedimentsThe Critical

180

Cavern Protection (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is public policy of the state to provide for the protection of caves on or under Texas lands. For the purposes of this legislation, cave means any naturally occurring subterranean cavity, and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

CRITICAL MATERIALS INSTITUTE PROJECTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INL Recovery of Critical Materials from Consumer Devices 3 3-2 3.2.6 McCall, Scott LLNL Additive Manufacturing of Permanent Magnets 2 2-1 2.1.2 McGuire, Michael ORNL...

182

CRITICAL MATERIALS INSTITUTE PROJECTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INL National Technology Roadmap for Critical Materials 4 4-3 4.3.3 McCall, Scott LLNL Additive Manufacturing of Permanent Magnets 2 2-1 2.1.2 Payne, Steve LLNL New Efficient...

183

Critical eigenvalue in LMFBRs: a physics assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes recent work to put the analysis of past critical eigenvalue measurements from the US critical experiments program on a consistent basis. The integral data base includes 53 configurations built in 11 ZPPR assemblies which simulate mixed oxide LMFBRs. Both conventional and heterogeneous designs representing 350, 700, and 900 MWe sizes and with and without simulated control rods and/or control rod positions have been studied. The review of the integral data base includes quantitative assessment of experimental uncertainties in the measured excess reactivity. Analyses have been done with design level and higher-order methods using ENDF/B-IV data. Comparisons of these analyses with the experiments are used to generate recommended bias factors for criticality predictions. Recommended methods for analysis of LMFBR fast critical assemblies and LMFBR design calculations are presented. Unresolved issues and areas which require additional experimental or analytical study are identified.

McKnight, R.D.; Collins, P.J.; Olsen, D.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Critical Materials Strategy Summary  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2Consolidated Edison UraniumCredit-Based Interest RateCriticalCritical

185

Appendix 3 - iManage Help Desk Priority Level  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Draft Appendix 3- iManage Help Desk Priority Levels Priority Level Definitions Resolution Time Critical Prevents normal operational business and for which there is no known...

186

Applicability of ZPR critical experiment data to criticality safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than a hundred zero power reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR fast critical assembly facilities. To be sure, the original reason for performing these critical experiments was to support fast reactor development. Nevertheless, data from some of the assemblies are well suited to form the basis for valuable, new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the ZPR data that would be of benefit to the criticality safety community and to explain how these data could be developed into practical criticality safety benchmarks.

Schaefer, R.W.; Aumeier, S.E.; McFarlane, H.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Critical QCD in Nuclear Collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A detailed study of correlated scalars, produced in collisions of nuclei and associated with the $\\sigma$-field fluctuations, $(\\delta \\sigma)^2= $, at the QCD critical point (critical fluctuations), is performed on the basis of a critical event generator (Critical Monte-Carlo) developed in our previous work. The aim of this analysis is to reveal suitable observables of critical QCD in the multiparticle environment of simulated events and select appropriate signatures of the critical point, associated with new and strong effects in nuclear collisions.

N. G. Antoniou; Y. F. Contoyiannis; F. K. Diakonos; G. Mavromanolakis

2005-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Criticality & Recovery Preparedness: ePHI Systems Criticality Designation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Criticality & Recovery Preparedness: ePHI Systems 5100 EX.A Criticality Designation 1. Primary source of PHI for pre-research; or secondary source of PHI for research/pre-research; secondary source of PHI for treatment, payment or healthcare operations; or teaching Criticality mapped to Recovery

189

Critical pulse power components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Critically damped quantum search  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although measurement and unitary processes can accomplish any quantum evolution in principle, thinking in terms of dissipation and damping can be powerful. We propose a modification of Grover's algorithm in which the idea of damping plays a natural role. Remarkably, we have found that there is a critical damping value that divides between the quantum $O(\\sqrt{N})$ and classical O(N) search regimes. In addition, by allowing the damping to vary in a fashion we describe, one obtains a fixed-point quantum search algorithm in which ignorance of the number of targets increases the number of oracle queries only by a factor of 1.5.

Ari Mizel

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

Careers | Critical Materials Institute  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy,MUSEUM DISPLAYCareers The Critical Materials Institute

192

Critical Materials Workshop  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebratePartners with Siemens onSite | Department ofServicesCritical

193

Critical gradient for internal erosion in earthen d ams : a comparative analysis of two predictive methodologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimizing the uncertainty in predicting the critical gradient of a dam (i.e. the critical reservoir pool level) is important during the risk analysis of dams. Uncertainty leads to inexact relative risk in portfolio ...

Donohue, Catherine, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas barrel level-1 Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Particle Beam Test Results Summary: with the move of the barrel cryostat to the ATLAS cavern. Since then, integration of the endcap calorimeters... Calorimeter (EMB) The ATLAS...

195

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas level1 endcap Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern Summary: . INTRODUCTION In the ATLAS detector system, Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is used...

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas level-2 trigger Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern Summary: The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas 1st-level muon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern Summary: The First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas high-level muon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pontecorvo, Installation and Commissioning of the ATLAS MUON... recorded in the ATLAS cavern with two muon ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection:...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas level-1 barrel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Particle Beam Test Results Summary: with the move of the barrel cryostat to the ATLAS cavern. Since then, integration of the endcap calorimeters... Calorimeter (EMB) The ATLAS...

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas level-1 calorimeter Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

argon calorimeter is now complete and integration with the ATLAS detector in the cavern... . Integration of the LAr calorimeter with ... Source: Krieger, Peter - Department...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas level-1 muctpi Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Result of Global Commissioning of the ATALS Endcap Muon Trigger System in ATLAS Cavern Summary: . INTRODUCTION In the ATLAS detector system, Thin Gap Chamber (TGC) is used...

202

Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Engineering Nuclear Criticality Safety The Nuclear Engineering Division (NE) of Argonne National Laboratory is experienced in performing criticality safety and shielding evaluations for nuclear, and neutron spectra. The NE nuclear criticality safety (NCS) capabilities are based on a staff with decades

Kemner, Ken

203

Combining Unit-level Symbolic Execution and System-level Concrete Execution for Testing NASA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combining Unit-level Symbolic Execution and System-level Concrete Execution for Testing NASA-level concrete execution for generating test cases that satisfy user-specified testing criteria. We have to testing complex safety critical software that combines unit-level symbolic execution and system

Pasareanu, Corina

204

Sensitivity analysis of coupled criticality calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perturbation theory based sensitivity analysis is a vital part of todays' nuclear reactor design. This paper presents an extension of standard techniques to examine coupled criticality problems with mutual feedback between neutronics and an augmenting system (for example thermal-hydraulics). The proposed procedure uses a neutronic and an augmenting adjoint function to efficiently calculate the first order change in responses of interest due to variations of the parameters describing the coupled problem. The effect of the perturbations is considered in two different ways in our study: either a change is allowed in the power level while maintaining criticality (power perturbation) or a change is allowed in the eigenvalue while the power is constrained (eigenvalue perturbation). The calculated response can be the change in the power level, the reactivity worth of the perturbation, or the change in any functional of the flux, the augmenting dependent variables and the input parameters. To obtain power- and criticality-constrained sensitivities power- and k-reset procedures can be applied yielding identical results. Both the theoretical background and an application to a one dimensional slab problem are presented, along with an iterative procedure to compute the necessary adjoint functions using the neutronics and the augmenting codes separately, thus eliminating the need of developing new programs to solve the coupled adjoint problem. (authors)

Perko, Z.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Lathouwers, D. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics, Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Infusing Critical Thinking Skill Compare and Contrast into Content of Data Structures Course  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infusing Critical Thinking Skill Compare and Contrast into Content of Data Structures Course M of our efforts in infusing the critical thinking skill of comparing and contrasting into a course on data in the course content of computer curricula at tertiary level. It is expected that infusion of critical thinking

Faisal, Kanaan Abed

206

CASE CRITICAL Keystone XL Pipeline  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CASE CRITICAL Keystone XL Pipeline: A Line in the Sand? Case Critical is presented by ASU's Global Professor, ASU's School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning The Keystone XL Pipeline, a large, and environmental pressures of the heated Pipeline controversy. #12;

Hall, Sharon J.

207

The Relationships of Media, Task, Spatial Presence, and Critical Thinking, in an Online Tutorial Designed to Teach Art Criticism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE RELATIONSHIPS OF MEDIA, TASK, SPATIAL PRESENCE, AND CRITICAL THINKING, IN AN ONLINE TUTORIAL DESIGNED TO TEACH ART CRITICISM A Dissertation by NANCY OSTERBERG WOOD Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A... in an online research tutorial. The four conditions comprised two levels of two factors: Media and Task. The two Media were Static, represented by a linked jpeg image of the artwork; and Dynamic Manipulation represented by an interactive Adobe Flash version...

Wood, Nancy O

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Tank farm nuclear criticality review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site.

Bratzel, D.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

209

Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Lecture notes for criticality safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

Fullwood, R.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Feedback Configuration Tools for LHC Low Level RF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LHC Low Level RF System (LLRF) is a complex multi-VME crate system which is used to regulate the superconductive cavity gap voltage as well as to lower the impedance as seen by the beam through low latency feedback. This system contains multiple loops with several parameters to be set before the loops can be closed. In this paper, we present a suite of MATLAB based tools developed to perform the preliminary alignment of the RF stations and the beginnings of a closed loop model based alignment routine. We briefly introduce the RF system and in particular the base band (time domain noise based) network analyzer system built into the LHC LLRF. The main focus of this paper is the methodology of the algorithms used by the routines within the context of the overall system. Measured results are presented that validate the technique. Because the RF systems are located in a cavern 120 m underground in a location which is relatively un-accessible without beam and completely un-accessible with beam present or magnets are energized, these remotely operated tools are a necessity for the CERN LLRF team to maintain and tune their LLRF systems in a similar fashion as to what was done very successfully in PEP-II at SLAC.

Van Winkle, D.; Fox, J.; Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC; Baudrenghien, P.; Butterworth, A.; Molendijk, J.; /CERN

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

212

Derivation of criticality safety benchmarks from ZPR fast critical assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scores of critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9, and ZPPR fast critical assembly facilities. Most of the assemblies were mockups of various liquid-metal fast breeder reactor designs. These tended to be complex, containing, for example, mockups of control rods and control rod positions. Some assemblies, however, were `physics benchmarks`. These relatively `clean` assemblies had uniform compositions and simple geometry and were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods. Assemblies in this last category are well suited to form the basis for new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some of these benchmark candidates and to describe the strategy being used to create the benchmarks.

Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Integrating agile practices into critical software development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrating agile practices into critical software development Katarzyna Lukasiewicz, Janusz Górski. In this text we describe our research towards introducing agile practices into critical software development processes Keywords-- safety-critical software; agile practices; software development; process improvement

Boyer, Edmond

214

Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Criticality Safety Controls Implementation Inspection Criteria...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Criticality Safety Controls Implementation Inspection Criteria, Approach, and Lines of Inquiry, October 23, 2009, (HSS CRAD 64-18, Rev 0 ) Criticality Safety Controls...

216

Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

Schlesser, J.A. [ed.] [comp.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Critical Materials Workshop Plenary Session Videos | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Critical Materials Workshop Plenary Session Videos Critical Materials Workshop Plenary Session Videos Welcome and Overview of Workshop and Energy Innovation Hubs Speakers * Dr. Leo...

218

CRAD, Criticality Safety - Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Criticality Safety - Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project Phase II CRAD, Criticality Safety - Idaho Accelerated Retrieval Project Phase II February 2006 A section of Appendix C to...

219

DOE and Critical Materials Video (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a text version of the "DOE and Critical Materials" video presented at the Critical Materials Workshop, held on April 3, 2012 in Arlington, Virginia.

220

PRECLOSURE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS PROCESS REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a process for performing preclosure criticality analyses for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These analyses will be performed from the time of receipt of fissile material until permanent closure of the repository (preclosure period). The process describes how criticality safety analyses will be performed for various configurations of waste in or out of waste packages that could occur during preclosure as a result of normal operations or event sequences. The criticality safety analysis considers those event sequences resulting in unanticipated moderation, loss of neutron absorber, geometric changes, or administrative errors in waste form placement (loading) of the waste package. The report proposes a criticality analyses process for preclosure to allow a consistent transition from preclosure to postclosure, thereby possibly reducing potential cost increases and delays in licensing of Yucca Mountain. The proposed approach provides the advantage of using a parallel regulatory framework for evaluation of preclosure and postclosure performance and is consistent with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approach of supporting risk-informed, performance-based regulation for fuel cycle facilities, ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'', and 10 CFR Part 63. The criticality-related criteria for ensuring subcriticality are also described as well as which guidance documents will be utilized. Preclosure operations and facilities have significant similarities to existing facilities and operations currently regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; therefore, the design approach for preclosure criticality safety will be dictated by existing regulatory requirements while using a risk-informed approach with burnup credit for in-package operations.

A.E. Danise

2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for the current design of the CHF and may not reflect the ongoing design evolution of the facility. However, it is anticipated that design changes to the facility layout will have little or no impact on the criticality results and/or conclusions presented in this document. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2004 [DIRS 171539]) because the CHF is included in the Q-List (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171190], p. A-3) as an item important to safety. This calculation is prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' [DIRS 168413].

C.E. Sanders

2005-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

222

Managing Critical Management Improvement Initiatives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides requirements and responsibilities for planning, executing and assessing critical management improvement initiatives within DOE. DOE N 251.59, dated 9/27/2004, extends this Notice until 10/01/2005. Archived 11-8-10. Does not cancel other directives.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

High critical current superconducting tapes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improvements in critical current capacity for superconducting film structures are disclosed and include the use of a superconducting RE-BCO layer including a mixture of rare earth metals, e.g., yttrium and europium, where the ratio of yttrium to europium in the RE-BCO layer ranges from about 3 to 1 to from about 1.5 to 1.

Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Degenerate and critical Bloch branes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last few years a number of works reported the appearance of thick branes with internal structure, induced by the parameter which controls the interaction between two scalar fields coupled to gravity in (4,1) dimensions in warped space-time with one extra dimension. Here we show that one can implement the control over the brane thickness without needing to change the potential parameter. On the contrary, this is going to be done by means of the variation of a parameter associated with the domain wall degeneracy. We also report the existence of novel and qualitatively different solutions for a critical value of the degeneracy parameter, which could be called critical Bloch branes.

Souza Dutra, A. de [Abdus Salam ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, I-34100 Italy (Italy); UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Departmento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP Brasil (Brazil); Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.; Hott, M. [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Departmento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Tank farms criticality safety manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document defines the Tank Farms Contractor (TFC) criticality safety program, as required by Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Subpart 830.204(b)(6), ''Documented Safety Analysis'' (10 CFR 830.204 (b)(6)), and US Department of Energy (DOE) 0 420.1A, Facility Safety, Section 4.3, ''Criticality Safety.'' In addition, this document contains certain best management practices, adopted by TFC management based on successful Hanford Site facility practices. Requirements in this manual are based on the contractor requirements document (CRD) found in Attachment 2 of DOE 0 420.1A, Section 4.3, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety,'' and the cited revisions of applicable standards published jointly by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Nuclear Society (ANS) as listed in Appendix A. As an informational device, requirements directly imposed by the CRD or ANSI/ANS Standards are shown in boldface. Requirements developed as best management practices through experience and maintained consistent with Hanford Site practice are shown in italics. Recommendations and explanatory material are provided in plain type.

FORT, L.A.

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

226

Dealloying below the critical potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventionally, the critical potential represents the potential marking the onset of bulk dealloying. The current density below the critical potential is only weakly dependent on potential, and the physical processes responsible for this passive-like behavior are poorly understood. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy was used to study the nature of the surface morphology which develops at potentials less than the critical potential. At fixed potential, the time-dependent evolution of the surface morphology was correlated with the observed current decay. This allowed the authors to identify and model the physical processes which control the current decay. They find two general regimes of power law behavior in the current decay corresponding to exhaustion of an activation-controlled dissolution process (t{sup {minus}1}) and the operation of one of three mechanisms of surface mass-transport control (t{sup {minus}5/8}, t{sup {minus}1/2}, and t{sup {minus}1/4}). Potential-pulsing experiments were performed in order to examine the effect of a blocking noble-metal layer on the nucleation and growth of the porous structure associated with bulk dealloying. These results were analyzed using a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami analysis. The Avrami exponents found were fractional and in the range of 1.25 to 1.8. The fractional exponents were interpreted in terms of the fractal dimension characterizing the initial stages of porosity formation during bulk dealloying.

Wagner, K.; Brankovic, S.R.; Dimitrov, N.; Sieradzki, K. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

High Critical Current Coated Conductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOEs coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Critical Materials Institute List of Projects | Critical Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-GovNaturalInstitute Critical Materials

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - alice high-level trigger Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

< 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Abstract-The ALICE trigger system is situated in the experimental cavern and has a centralized layout: the Central Summary: 1 ALICE Technical Design Report...

230

Method for destroying halocarbon compositions using a critical solvent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for destroying halocarbons. Halocarbon materials are reacted in a dehalogenation process wherein they are combined with a solvent in the presence of a catalyst. A hydrogen-containing solvent is preferred which functions as both a solvating agent and hydrogen donor. To augment the hydrogen donation capacity of the solvent if needed (or when non-hydrogen-containing solvents are used), a supplemental hydrogen donor composition may be employed. In operation, at least one of the temperature and pressure of the solvent is maintained near, at, or above a critical level. For example, the solvent may be in (1) a supercritical state; (2) a state where one of the temperature or pressure thereof is at or above critical; or (3) a state where at least one of the temperature and pressure thereof is near-critical. This system provides numerous benefits including improved reaction rates, efficiency, and versatility.

Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.; Janikowski, Stuart K.

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

231

Criticality Safety | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartmentSmart GridThird Quarterinto PARSCriteria ReviewCriticality

232

A Critical Review of Classical Bouncing Cosmologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Given the proliferation of bouncing models in recent years, we gather and critically assess these proposals in a comprehensive review. The Planck data shows an unmistakably red, quasi scale-invariant, purely adiabatic primordial power spectrum and no primary non-Gaussianities. While these observations are consistent with inflationary predictions, bouncing cosmologies aspire to provide an alternative framework to explain them. Such models face many problems, both of the purely theoretical kind, such as the necessity of violating the NEC and instabilities, and at the cosmological application level, as exemplified by the possible presence of shear. We provide a pedagogical introduction to these problems and also assess the fitness of different proposals with respect to the data. For example, many models predict a slightly blue spectrum and must be fine-tuned to generate a red spectral index; as a side effect, large non-Gaussianities often result. We highlight several promising attempts to violate the NEC without introducing dangerous instabilities at the classical and/or quantum level. If primordial gravitational waves are observed, certain bouncing cosmologies, such as the cyclic scenario, are in trouble, while others remain valid. We conclude that, while most bouncing cosmologies are far from providing an alternative to the inflationary paradigm, a handful of interesting proposals have surfaced, which warrant further research. The constraints and lessons learned as laid out in this review might guide future research.

Diana Battefeld; Patrick Peter

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

233

Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel.

Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Critical Materials Workshop Final Participant List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

List of participants who attended the Critical Materials Workshop held on April 3, 2012 in Arlington, VA

235

Integrated Approach to Documenting Readiness for a Potential Criticality Incident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been 60 highly publicized criticality accidents1 over the last 60 years and the nature of the hazard is unique. Recent studies2 discuss the benefits of knowing what to expect during and immediately following these events. Emergency planning and response standards2 provide an effective tool for establishing an adequate level of readiness to a criticality accident. While these planning requirements cover a broad spectrum of activities to establish readiness, a concise and routinely reviewed criticality accident scenario may be the most valuable tool in developing a cohesive understanding and response to these challenging events. Using a guideline3 for criticality safety evaluations the analytical work and emergency planning to mitigate a criticality accident at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, was developed. Using a single document the analysis that established the accident characteristics, response scenario based on emergency staffing and planning, and anticipated dose consequences were integrated. This single document approach provides a useful platform to integrate the initial planning and guide the review of proposed changes to emergency response plans.

Carlisle, Bruce S.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Jones, Robert A.

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

236

Influence of Rotations on the Critical State of Soil Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of grains to rotate can play a crucial role on the collective behavior of granular media. It has been observed in computer simulations that imposing a torque at the contacts modifies the force chains, making support chains less important. In this work we investigate the effect of a gradual hindering of the grains rotations on the so-called critical state of soil mechanics. The critical state is an asymptotic state independent of the initial solid fraction where deformations occur at a constant shear strength and compactness. We quantify the difficulty to rotate by a friction coefficient at the level of particles, acting like a threshold. We explore the effect of this particle-level friction coefficient on the critical state by means of molecular dynamics simulations of a simple shear test on a poly-disperse sphere packing. We found that the larger the difficulty to rotate, the larger the final shear strength of the sample. Other micro-mechanical variables, like the structural anisotropy and the distribution of forces, are also influenced by the threshold. These results reveal the key role of rotations on the critical behavior of soils and suggest the inclusion of rotational variables into their constitutive equations.

W. F. Oquendo; J. D. Muoz; A. Lizcano

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermal criticality in a repository environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report explores a scenario in which burial containers fail and fissile material is transported through the tuff by water to some location, away from the burial site, where an over-moderated critical mass gradually accumulates. Because of the low solubilities of plutonium and uranium, and the low ground water velocities, the analysis shows that such a scenario with {sup 239}Pu is probably impossible because the time required to accumulate a critical mass is large compared with the half-life of the {sup 239}Pu. In the case of {sup 235}U, the analysis indicates that the accumulation rates are so low that relatively small fission power levels would consume the {sup 235}U as fast as it accumulates, and that the thermal conductivity of the tuff is large enough to prevent a significant increase in temperature. Thus, the conditions for the removal of water by boiling and the associated autocatalytic increase in reactivity are not met in the case of {sup 235}U. An explosive release of energy does not appear to be possible. A simple water voiding model, which allows water removal at about the fastest possible rate, was used to explore a scenario in which the fuel accumulation rate was arbitrarily increased enough to cause water boiling and the associated dryout of the tuff. Calculations for this case indicate that disruption of the tuff, leading to a neutronic shutdown, would probably occur before an explosive energy release could be generated. Additional scenarios, which should be investigated in future work are identified.

Morris, E.E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

CRITICALITY SAFETY TRAINING AT FLUOR HANFORD (FH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fluor Hanford Criticality Safety engineers are extensively trained. The objectives and requirements for training are derived from Department of Energy (DOE) and American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society Standards (ANSI/ANS), and are captured in the Hanford Criticality Safety Program manual, HNF-7098. Qualification cards have been established for the general Criticality Safety Engineer (CSE) analyst, CSEs who support specific facilities, and for the facility Criticality Safety Representatives (CSRs). Refresher training and continuous education in the discipline are emphasized. Weekly Brown Bag Sessions keep the criticality safety engineers informed of the latest developments and historic perspectives.

TOFFER, H.

2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

240

Counterterms, critical gravity and holography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider counterterms for odd dimensional holographic CFTs. These counterterms are derived by demanding cut-off independence of the CFT partition function on $S^d$ and $S^1 \\times S^{d-1}$. The same choice of counterterms leads to a cut-off independent Schwarzschild black hole entropy. When treated as independent actions, these counterterm actions resemble critical theories of gravity, i.e., higher curvature gravity theories where the additional massive spin-2 modes become massless. Equivalently, in the context of AdS/CFT, these are theories where at least one of the central charges associated with the trace anomaly vanishes. Connections between these theories and logarithmic CFTs are discussed. For a specific choice of parameters, the theories arising from counterterms are non-dynamical and resemble a DBI generalization of gravity. For even dimensional CFTs, analogous counterterms cancel log-independent cut-off dependence.

Kallol Sen; Aninda Sinha; Nemani V. Suryanarayana

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Critical heat flux test apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2011 review of the INL Criticality Safety Program has determined that the program is robust and effective. The review was prepared for, and fulfills Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item H.20, 'Annual Criticality Safety Program performance summary that includes the status of assessments, issues, corrective actions, infractions, requirements management, training, and programmatic support.' This performance summary addresses the status of these important elements of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Assessments - Assessments in 2011 were planned and scheduled. The scheduled assessments included a Criticality Safety Program Effectiveness Review, Criticality Control Area Inspections, a Protection of Controlled Unclassified Information Inspection, an Assessment of Criticality Safety SQA, and this management assessment of the Criticality Safety Program. All of the assessments were completed with the exception of the 'Effectiveness Review' for SSPSF, which was delayed due to emerging work. Although minor issues were identified in the assessments, no issues or combination of issues indicated that the INL Criticality Safety Program was ineffective. The identification of issues demonstrates the importance of an assessment program to the overall health and effectiveness of the INL Criticality Safety Program. Issues and Corrective Actions - There are relatively few criticality safety related issues in the Laboratory ICAMS system. Most were identified by Criticality Safety Program assessments. No issues indicate ineffectiveness in the INL Criticality Safety Program. All of the issues are being worked and there are no imminent criticality concerns. Infractions - There was one criticality safety related violation in 2011. On January 18, 2011, it was discovered that a fuel plate bundle in the Nuclear Materials Inspection and Storage (NMIS) facility exceeded the fissionable mass limit, resulting in a technical safety requirement (TSR) violation. The TSR limits fuel plate bundles to 1085 grams U-235, which is the maximum loading of an ATR fuel element. The overloaded fuel plate bundle contained 1097 grams U-235 and was assembled under an 1100 gram U-235 limit in 1982. In 2003, the limit was reduced to 1085 grams citing a new criticality safety evaluation for ATR fuel elements. The fuel plate bundle inventories were not checked for compliance prior to implementing the reduced limit. A subsequent review of the NMIS inventory did not identify further violations. Requirements Management - The INL Criticality Safety program is organized and well documented. The source requirements for the INL Criticality Safety Program are from 10 CFR 830.204, DOE Order 420.1B, Chapter III, 'Nuclear Criticality Safety,' ANSI/ANS 8-series Industry Standards, and DOE Standards. These source requirements are documented in LRD-18001, 'INL Criticality Safety Program Requirements Manual.' The majority of the criticality safety source requirements are contained in DOE Order 420.1B because it invokes all of the ANSI/ANS 8-Series Standards. DOE Order 420.1B also invokes several DOE Standards, including DOE-STD-3007, 'Guidelines for Preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations at Department of Energy Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities.' DOE Order 420.1B contains requirements for DOE 'Heads of Field Elements' to approve the criticality safety program and specific elements of the program, namely, the qualification of criticality staff and the method for preparing criticality safety evaluations. This was accomplished by the approval of SAR-400, 'INL Standardized Nuclear Safety Basis Manual,' Chapter 6, 'Prevention of Inadvertent Criticality.' Chapter 6 of SAR-400 contains sufficient detail and/or reference to the specific DOE and contractor documents that adequately describe the INL Criticality Safety Program per the elements specified in DOE Order 420.1B. The Safety Evaluation Report for SAR-400 specifically recognizes that the approval of SAR-400 approves the INL Criticality Safety Program. No new source requirements were released in 2011. A revision to LRD-18001 is

Andrea Hoffman

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Elements of a nuclear criticality safety program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States are quite successful, as compared with other safety disciplines, at protecting life and property, especially when regarded as a developing safety function with no historical perspective for the cause and effect of process nuclear criticality accidents before 1943. The programs evolved through self-imposed and regulatory-imposed incentives. They are the products of conscientious individuals, supportive corporations, obliged regulators, and intervenors (political, public, and private). The maturing of nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States has been spasmodic, with stability provided by the volunteer standards efforts within the American Nuclear Society. This presentation provides the status, relative to current needs, for nuclear criticality safety program elements that address organization of and assignments for nuclear criticality safety program responsibilities; personnel qualifications; and analytical capabilities for the technical definition of critical, subcritical, safety and operating limits, and program quality assurance.

Hopper, C.M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Critical shear stresses in cohesive soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRITICAL SHEAR STRESSES IN COHESIVE SOILS A Thesis By ROBERT JAMES REKTORIK Approved as to style and content by: (Committee hairm g- c& ( ead of epartm ( mber) (Member) January 1964 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to acknowledge the guidance..., and Dummy Soil Sample 17 Typical Soil Samples after Scour Test, San Saba Clay 25 Typical Soil Samples after Scour Test, Houston Black Clay, K177 Regression of Critical Shearing Force on Per Cent Moisture . 31 10. Regression of Critical Shearing Force...

Rektorik, Robert James

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Criticality Safety Evaluation of a LLNL Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, ''Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification''. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities (or operations) associated with HS-3200, ''Laboratory Class for Criticality Safety''. These activities utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS). The original intent of HS-3200 was to provide LLNL fissile material handlers with a practical hands-on experience as a supplement to the academic training they receive biennially in HS-3100, ''Fundamentals of Criticality Safety'', as required by ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Training''. HS-3200 is to be enhanced to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.

Heinrichs, D P

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

S_ Science Service Feature Released on receipt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cavern has two openings at different levels. In winter the circula- tion is reversed, at the top as from

247

Wireless System Considerations When Implementing NERC Critical...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Standards (CIP-002 through CIP-009). The increased use of wireless technologies and...

248

209-E Critical Mass Laboratory - Hanford Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and controlled. Criticality experiments, where a nuclear chain reaction becomes self-sustaining, were also conducted. In addition, 209-E was a research facility where methods of...

249

Critical Mission Support Through Energy Security  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the critical mission support through energy security and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

250

Guide to Critical Infrastructure Protection Cyber Vulnerability...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Implementing NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Standards New No-Cost ANTFARM Tool Maps Control System Networks to Help Implement Cyber Security Standards "Cybersecurity for...

251

Influence of Rotations on the Critical State of Soil Mechanics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of grains to rotate can play a crucial role on the collective behavior of granular media. It has been observed in computer simulations that imposing a torque at the contacts modifies the force chains, making support chains less important. In this work we investigate the effect of a gradual hindering of the grains rotations on the so-called critical state of soil mechanics. The critical state is an asymptotic state independent of the initial solid fraction where deformations occur at a constant shear strength and compactness. We quantify the difficulty to rotate by a friction coefficient at the level of particles, acting like a threshold. We explore the effect of this particle-level friction coefficient on the critical state by means of molecular dynamics simulations of a simple shear test on a poly-disperse sphere packing. We found that the larger the difficulty to rotate, the larger the final shear strength of the sample. Other micro-mechanical variables, like the structural anisotropy and the di...

Oquendo, W F; Lizcano, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Abrasion Testing of Critical Components of Hydrokinetic Devices (Project) was to test critical components of hydrokinetic devices in waters with high levels of suspended sediment information that is widely applicable to the hydrokinetic industry. Tidal and river sites in Alaska typically have high suspended sediment concentrations. High suspended sediment also occurs in major rivers and estuaries throughout the world and throughout high latitude locations where glacial inputs introduce silt into water bodies. In assessing the vulnerability of technology components to sediment induced abrasion, one of the greatest concerns is the impact that the sediment may have on device components such as bearings and seals, failures of which could lead to both efficiency loss and catastrophic system failures.

Worthington, Monty [ORPC Alaska] [ORPC Alaska; Ali, Muhammad [Ohio University] [Ohio University; Ravens, Tom [University of Alaska Anchorage] [University of Alaska Anchorage

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

253

Method for loading, operating, and unloading a ball-bed nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of operating a ball-bed nuclear reactor with fuel element balls. Some have a fissionable material content different from that of others of the balls. It consists of: initially partly filling a reactor core with fuel balls of sufficient fissionable material content for establishing criticality and a desired level of power production at the completion of the partial filling and then, without any further filling of the reactor cavern, starting reactor operation; thereafter without any removal of fuel balls from the reactor cavern, filling fuel balls continually or in groups at relatively short intervals into the reactor cavern during increasing burning up of the fuel balls already, for compensation of the diminishing fissionable material content of the reactor core constituted by the fuel balls until a final total quantity of filling is reached; after the final filling quantity is reached and burning up has occurred, shutting down the reactor, cooling it off, releasing the pressure in the cavern, and thereafter unloading all the fuel balls from the reactor cavern, unloading being begun when the reactor is shut down and being completed before the reactor is restarted.

Teuchert, E.; Haas, K.A.; Gerwin, H.

1987-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

254

Critical Materials For Sustainable Energy Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical Materials For Sustainable Energy Applications September 2011 Resnick Institute Report C in the generation, storage, transmission, conversion and conservation of energy. + Institute Leadership Harry://resnick.caltech.edu Pasadena, CA. USA + #12;Critical Materials For Sustainable Energy Applications California Institute

255

Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation`s defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE`s capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Critical technologies research: Opportunities for DOE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies have identified a number of critical technologies that are essential to the nation's defense, economic competitiveness, energy independence, and betterment of public health. The National Critical Technologies Panel (NCTP) has identified the following critical technology areas: Aeronautics and Surface Transportation; Biotechnology and Life Sciences; Energy and Environment; Information and Communications; Manufacturing; and Materials. Sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Research (OER), the Critical Technologies Research Workshop was held in May 1992. Approximately 100 scientists, engineers, and managers from the national laboratories, industry, academia, and govemment participated. The objective of the Berkeley Workshop was to advance the role of the DOE multiprogram energy laboratories in critical technologies research by describing, defining, and illustrating research areas, opportunities, resources, and key decisions necessary to achieve national research goals. An agenda was developed that looked at DOE's capabilities and options for research in critical technologies and provided a forum for industry, academia, govemment, and the national laboratories to address: Critical technology research needs; existing research activities and resources; capabilities of the national laboratories; and opportunities for national laboratories, industries, and universities. The Workshop included plenary sessions in which presentations by technology and policy leaders set the context for further inquiry into critical technology issues and research opportunities. Separate sessions then focused on each of the following major areas of technology: Advanced materials; biotechnology and life sciences; energy and environment; information and communication; and manufacturing and transportation.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Critical aspects of hierarchical protein folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We argue that the first order folding transitions of proteins observed at physiological chemical conditions end in a critical point for a given temperature and chemical potential of the surrounding water. We investigate this critical point using a hierarchical Hamiltonian and determine its universality class. This class differs qualitatively from those of other known models.

Alex Hansen; Mogens H. Jensen; Kim Sneppen; Giovanni Zocchi

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Southeastern Colorado Survey of Critical Biological Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Southeastern Colorado Survey of Critical Biological Resources 2007 #12;ii #12;Southeastern Colorado Survey of Critical Biological Resources Prepared for: Colorado Cattleman's Agricultural Land Trust 8833 Ralston Road Arvada, CO 80002 Great Outdoors Colorado 1600 Broadway, Suite 1650 Denver, CO 80202 Colorado

259

Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Critical phenomena in N=2* plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use gauge theory/string theory correspondence to study finite temperature critical behaviour of mass deformed N=4 SU(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling, also known as N=2* gauge theory. For certain range of the mass parameters, N=2* plasma undergoes a second-order phase transition. We compute all the static critical exponents of the model and demonstrate that the transition is of the mean-field theory type. We show that the dynamical critical exponent of the model is z=0, with multiple hydrodynamic relaxation rates at criticality. We point out that the dynamical critical phenomena in N=2* plasma is outside the dynamical universality classes established by Hohenberg and Halperin.

A. Buchel; C. Pagnutti

2010-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

262

Gas storage plays critical role in deregulated U. S. marketplace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil Gas Journal for the first time has compiled a county-by-county list of underground natural-gas storage operating in the US on Sept. 1. Nearly 3.1 tcf of working gas in storage is currently operated. As will be discussed, several projects to add capacity are under way or planned before 2000. To collect the data, OGJ contacted every company reported by the American Gas Association, U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or the US Department of Energy to have operated storage in the past 2 years. The results were combined with other published information to form Table 1 which provides base, working, and total gas capacities for storage fields, types of reservoirs used, and daily design injection and withdrawal rates. The paper also discusses deregulation, what's ahead, and salt cavern storage.

True, W.R.

1994-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

263

Critical Mathematics Pedagogy: Transforming Teachers' Practices David W. Stinson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor-Mathematics Education  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical Mathematics Pedagogy: Transforming Teachers' Practices David W. Stinson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor-Mathematics Education with Carla R. Bidwell, Christopher C. Jett, Ginny C. Powell, Mary M. Thurman of a graduate-level mathematics education course that focused on critical theory and teaching for social justice

Spagnolo, Filippo

264

Major safety and operational concerns for fuel debris criticality control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It can be seen from the criticality control viewpoint that the requirement divides the decommissioning work into two parts. One is the present condition where it is requested to prevent criticality and to monitor subcritical condition while the debris is untouched. The other is future work where the subcritical condition shall be ensured even if the debris condition is changed intentionally by raising water level, debris retrieval, etc. Repair of damages on the containment vessel (CV) walls is one of the most important objectives at present in the site. On completion of this task, it will become possible to raise water levels in the CVs and to shield the extremely high radiation emitted from the debris but there is a dilemma: raising the water level in the CVs implies to bring the debris closer to criticality because of the role of water for slowing down neutrons. This may be solved if the coolant water will start circulating in closed loops, and if a sufficient concentration of soluble neutron poison (borated water for instance) will be introduced in the loop. It should be still noted that this solution has a risk of worsening corrosion of the CV walls. Design of the retrieval operation of debris should be proposed as early as possible, which must include a neutron poison concentration required to ensure that the debris chunk is subcritical. In parallel, the development of the measurement system to monitor subcritical condition of the debris chunk should be conducted in case the borated water cannot be used continuously. The system would be based on a neutron counter with a high sensitivity and an appropriate shield for gamma-rays, and the adequate statistical signal processing.

Tonoike, K.; Sono, H.; Umeda, M.; Yamane, Y.; Kugo, T.; Suyama, K. [Fukushima Project Team, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Critical configurations of planar robot arms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known that a closed polygon P is a critical point of the oriented area function if and only if P is a cyclic polygon, that is, $P$ can be inscribed in a circle. Moreover, there is a short formula for the Morse index. Going further in this direction, we extend these results to the case of open polygonal chains, or robot arms. We introduce the notion of the oriented area for an open polygonal chain, prove that critical points are exactly the cyclic configurations with antipodal endpoints and derive a formula for the Morse index of a critical configuration.

Khimshiashvili, G; Siersma, D; Zhukova, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

DHLW Glass Waste Package Criticality Analysis (SCPB:N/A)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to determine the viability of the Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) Glass waste package concept with respect to criticality regulatory requirements in compliance with the goals of the Waste Package Implementation Plan (Ref. 5.1) for conceptual design. These design calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive comparison base with other design alternatives. The objective of this evaluation is to show to what extent the concept meets the regulatory requirements or indicate additional measures that are required for the intact waste package.

J.W. Davis

1996-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

267

Investigation of downward facing critical heat flux with water-based nanofluids for In-Vessel Retention applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-Vessel Retention ("IVR") is a severe accident management strategy that is power limiting to the Westinghouse AP1000 due to critical heat flux ("CHF") at the outer surface of the reactor vessel. Increasing the CHF level ...

DeWitt, Gregory L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Critical Areas of State Concern (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation designates the Chesapeake Bay, other Atlantic Coastal Bays, and their tributaries and adjacent lands as critical areas of state concern. It is state policy to protect these areas...

269

Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

New enhancements to SCALE for criticality safety analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the speed, available memory, and reliability of computer hardware increases and the cost decreases, the complexity and usability of computer software will increase, taking advantage of the new hardware capabilities. Computer programs today must be more flexible and user friendly than those of the past. Within available resources, the SCALE staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is committed to upgrading its computer codes to keep pace with the current level of technology. This paper examines recent additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis sections of the SCALE code package. These recent additions and enhancements made to SCALE can be divided into nine categories: (1) new analytical computer codes, (2) new cross-section libraries, (3) new criticality search sequences, (4) enhanced graphical capabilities, (5) additional KENO enhancements, (6) enhanced resonance processing capabilities, (7) enhanced material information processing capabilities, (8) portability of the SCALE code package, and (9) other minor enhancements, modifications, and corrections to SCALE. Each of these additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis capabilities of the SCALE code system are discussed below.

Hollenbach, D.F.; Bowman, S.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computational Physics and Engineering Div.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Critical frequency in nuclear chiral rotation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within the cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach the self-consistent solutions have been obtained for planar and chiral rotational bands in 132La. It turns out that the chiral band cannot exist below some critical rotational frequency which in the present case equals omega=0.6MeV. The appearance of the critical frequency is explained in terms of a simple classical model of two gyroscopes coupled to a triaxial rigid body.

P. Olbratowski; J. Dobaczewski; J. Dudek

2002-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Quantum critical benchmark for density functional theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two electrons at the threshold of ionization represent a severe test case for electronic structure theory. A pseudospectral method yields a very accurate density of the two-electron ion with nuclear charge close to the critical value. Highly accurate energy components and potentials of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are given, as well as a useful parametrization of the critical density. The challenges for density functional approximations and the strength of correlation are also discussed.

Paul E. Grabowski; Kieron Burke

2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

CRITICAL MESSAGE INTEGRITY OVER A SHARED NETWORK 1 1 INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the simplest way to assure system safety is to isolate critical and non-critical components to prevent defects often contain a mixture of critical and non-critical software processes that need to communicate with each other. Critical software is "software whose failure could have an impact on safety, or could cause

Koopman, Philip

274

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant completes critical system design for High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9 Hanford Traffic Safety144&

275

Hanford Waste Treatment Plant completes critical system design for High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9 Hanford Traffic Safety144&8, 2010

276

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

Rothe, Robert E

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

WIPP-016, Rev. 0 Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WIPP-016, Rev. 0 Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste/2008 Guidance (if applicable): _______________________ #12;NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATION FOR CONTACT, directors, employees, agents, consultants or personal services contractors. #12;NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY

280

Critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Mach number flight requires that the scramjet propulsion system operate at a relatively low static inlet pressure and a high inlet temperature. These two constraints can lead to extremely high temperatures in the combustor, yielding high densities of radical species and correspondingly poor chemical combustion efficiency. As the temperature drops in the nozzle expansion, recombination of these excess radicals can produce more product species, higher heat yield, and potentially more thrust. The extent to which the chemical efficiency can be enhanced in the nozzle expansion depends directly on the rate of the radical recombination reactions. A comprehensive assessment of the important chemical processes and an experimental validation of the critical rate parameters is therefore required if accurate predictions of scramjet performance are to be obtained. This report covers the identification of critical reactions, and the critical reaction rates in hypersonic combustion chemistry. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Oldenborg, R.C.; Harradine, D.M.; Loge, G.W.; Lyman, J.L.; Schott, G.L.; Winn, K.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

On the Critical Coupling for Kuramoto Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The celebrated Kuramoto model captures various synchronization phenomena in biological and man-made dynamical systems of coupled oscillators. It is well-known that there exists a critical coupling strength among the oscillators at which a phase transition from incoherency to synchronization occurs. This paper features three contributions. First, we characterize and distinguish the different notions of synchronization used throughout the literature and formally introduce the concept of phase cohesiveness as an analysis tool and performance index for synchronization. Second, we review the vast literature providing necessary, sufficient, implicit, and explicit estimates of the critical coupling strength in the finite and infinite-dimensional case. Finally, we present the first explicit necessary and sufficient condition on the critical coupling strength to achieve synchronization in the finite-dimensional Kuramoto model for an arbitrary distribution of the natural frequencies. The multiplicative gap in the synch...

Dorfler, Florian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Critical Materials Research in DOE Video (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a text version of the "Critical Materials Research in DOE" video presented at the Critical Materials Workshop, held on April 3, 2012 in Arlington, Virginia.

284

EV Everywhere Workshop: Electric Motors and Critical Materials...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electric Motors and Critical Materials Breakout Group Report EV Everywhere Workshop: Electric Motors and Critical Materials Breakout Group Report Presentation given at the EV...

285

Advanced Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training and Credentialing - 2014 BTO Peer Review Advanced Critical Advanced Energy Retrofit Education and Training and...

286

National Academies Criticality Methodology and Assessment Video (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a text version of the "National Academies Criticality Methodology and Assessment" video presented at the Critical Materials Workshop, held on April 3, 2012 in Arlington, Virginia.

287

Steel Success Story - Ironmaking: Quality and Supply Critical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Steel Success Story - Ironmaking: Quality and Supply Critical to Steel Industry Steel Success Story - Ironmaking: Quality and Supply Critical to Steel Industry This factsheet...

288

V-004: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory- October 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

October 2012 Critical Patch Update, security vulnerability fixes for proprietary components of Oracle Linux will be announced in Oracle Critical Patch Updates.

289

SciTech Connect: Relationship between critical tensile stress...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Relationship between critical tensile stress and fracture toughness in mild steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Relationship between critical tensile stress and...

290

CHP: Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

policies designed to promote CHP in critical infrastructure applications. Combined Heat and Power: Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities (March...

291

Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy Video (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is a text version of the "Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy" video presented at the Critical Materials Workshop, held on April 3, 2012 in Arlington, Virginia.

292

antiferromagnetic quantum critical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

quasiparticles are strongly coupled and acquire spectral functions with a common dynamic critical exponent. We obtain results for critical exponents and for the variation in...

293

U-019: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory- October 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

October 2011 Critical Patch Update, security vulnerability fixes for proprietary components of Oracle Linux will be announced in Oracle Critical Patch Updates.

294

Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know ).

INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

Valerie L. Putman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Lessons learned from early criticality accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned.

Malenfant, R.E.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

QCD Critical Point: The Race is On  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A critical point in the phase diagram of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), if established either theoretically or experimentally, would be as profound a discovery as the good-old gas-liquid critical point. Unlike the latter, however, first-principles based approaches are being employed to locate it theoretically. Due to the short lived nature of the concerned phases, novel experimental techniques are needed to search for it. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in USA has an experimental program to do so. This short review is an attempt to provide a glimpse of the race between the theorists and the experimentalists as well as that of the synergy between them.

Rajiv V. Gavai

2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

297

CRITICALITY HAZOP EFFICIENTLY EVALUATING HAZARDS OF NEW OR REVISED CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 'Criticality HazOp' technique, as developed at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), has allowed for efficiencies enabling shortening of the time necessary to complete new or revised criticality safety evaluation reports (CSERs). For example, in the last half of 2007 at PFP, CSER revisions undergoing the 'Criticality HazOp' process were completed at a higher rate than previously achievable. The efficiencies gained through use of the 'Criticality HazOp' process come from the preliminary narrowing of potential scenarios for the Criticality analyst to fully evaluate in preparation of the new or revised CSER, and from the use of a systematized 'Criticality HazOp' group assessment of the relevant conditions to show which few parameter/condition/deviation combinations actually require analytical effort. The 'Criticality HazOp' has not only provided efficiencies of time, but has brought to criticality safety evaluation revisions the benefits of a structured hazard evaluation method and the enhanced insight that may be gained from direct involvement of a team in the process. In addition, involved personnel have gained a higher degree of confidence and understanding of the resulting CSER product.

CARSON DM

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Designing A Critical LinkDesigning A Critical Link PSU Transportation Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing A Critical LinkDesigning A Critical Link PSU Transportation Seminar May 19, 2006 #12;2PSU Transportation Seminar ­ May 19, 2006 Presentation Outline · Project History · Function and Role of the I-5 · Process and Schedule #12;Project HistoryProject History #12;4PSU Transportation Seminar ­ May 19, 2006 I-5

Bertini, Robert L.

299

Tiltmeter leveling mechanism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Farris, Alvis (late of Byron, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A Critical Review of Electric and Electromagnetic Flow Control Research Applied to Aerodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Critical Review of Electric and Electromagnetic Flow Control Research Applied to Aerodynamics control (EMFC) to improve aerodynamic performance. This led to an era of research that focused on coupling control concepts applied to control surface aerodynamics have not seen the same level of advancement

Texas at Arlington, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Critical assessment: friction stir welding of H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical assessment: friction stir welding of steels H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia*1 and T. DebRoy2 The level of activity in research on the friction stir welding of steels is dwarfed when compared of Welding and Joining is to assess the state of the art, focusing on the knowledge base in the open

Cambridge, University of

302

COMMISSIONING OF ATLAS AND EARLY MEASUREMENTS WITH LEPTONS IN ATLAS AND CMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at start-up The endwall muon chambers are the last components to be installed in the cavern (June 2008 performed. Once in the cavern, the noise levels were the same as those measured on the surface. The global went down into the cavern beginning in 2006 and have been operating under stable conditions for a long

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

303

Criticality Calculations for Step-2 GPHS Modules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.

Lipinski, Ronald J. [Advanced Nuclear Concepts Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hensen, Danielle L. [Risk and Reliability Department Sandia National Laboratories, P.O Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Criticality calculations for Step-2 GPHS modules.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) will use an improved version of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) module as its source of thermal power. This new version, referred to as the Step-2 GPHS Module, has additional and thicker layers of carbon fiber material (Fine Weaved Pierced Fabric) for increased strength over the original GPHS module. The GPHS uses alpha decay of {sup 238}Pu in the oxide form as the primary source of heat, and small amounts of other actinides are also present in the oxide fuel. Criticality calculations have been performed by previous researchers on the original version of the GPHS module (Step 0). This paper presents criticality calculations for the present Step-2 version. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) was used for these calculations. Numerous configurations of GPHS module arrays surrounded by wet sand and other materials (to reflect the neutrons back into the stack with minimal absorption) were modeled. For geometries with eight GPHS modules (from a single MMRTG) surrounded by wet sand, the configuration is extremely sub-critical; k{sub eff} is about 0.3. It requires about 1000 GPHS modules (from 125 MMRTGs) in a close-spaced stack to approach criticality (k{sub eff} = 1.0) when surrounded by wet sand. The effect of beryllium in the MMRTG was found to be relatively small.

Hensen, Danielle Lynn; Lipinski, Ronald J.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Reliability Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reliability Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis Addendum 1; HFE ~ ATM501 PAGE I I. Hiebert Reliability Engineer HFE · B-1 f #12;~~.~-~ -_ ~ ~ Reliability Failure Mode, Effects were slight adjustment in the linearizing resistors. The reliability is effected upward by the deletion

Rathbun, Julie A.

306

Determination of Critical Exponents in Nuclear Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of critical behaviour in nuclear fragmentation are often based on arguments from percolation theory. We demonstrate with general thermodynamic considerations and studies of the Ising model that the reliance on percolation as a reference model bears the risk of missing parts of the essential physics.

W. F. J. Mueller; ALADIN collaboration

1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

307

Robust Critical Node Selection by Benders Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

critical node selection problem, we define the following decision variables ..... method to generate Pareto-optimal cuts thus achieving very good speed-ups compared to ... Barabsi-Albert graphs generated using the Barabsi graph generator (Dreier, 2006). ...... Computers & Operations Research, 38(12):1766 1774, 2011.

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

Critical Electric Power Issues in Pennsylvania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical Electric Power Issues in Pennsylvania: Transmission, Distributed Generation and Continuing Services when the Grid Fails Produced by the Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center for the Pa-268-3003, apt@cmu.edu. Executive Director of the Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center at Carnegie Mellon

309

Intrusion-Tolerant Protection for Critical Infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an organization in the face of accidents and attacks. How- ever, they are not simple firewalls but distributed]. In recent years these systems evolved in several aspects that greatly increased their exposure to cyber-attacks, a critical information infrastructure is formed by facilities, like power transformation substations or cor

Neves, Nuno

310

Arthur Fine Bohrs Response to EPR: Criticism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arthur Fine Bohrs Response to EPR: Criticism and Defense If a specific question has meaning of focus that Niels Bohr makes in responding to EPR.1 EPR appeal to measurement as sometimes sufficient ("elements of reality"). In his response, Bohr, while paraphrasing thewordsofEPR

Fine, Arthur

311

Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

312

VLA HYBRID CONFIGURATIONS A Critical Look  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VLA HYBRID CONFIGURATIONS A Critical Look Barry Clark EVLA Memo 180 July 2014 The VLA hybrid weeks (plus the two week hybrid), whereas going directly from one main configuration to another could 4.5%. 2. The time requests in the hybrid configuration are heavily weighted to the galactic center

Groppi, Christopher

313

Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity Version 1.0 National Institute of Standards and Technology February 12, 2014 #12;February 12, 2014 Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.0 Table............................................................................................................. 20 ii #12;February 12, 2014 Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.0 Executive Summary The national

314

Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues Ray Purdy and Richard Macrory January 2004 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 45 #12;1 Geological carbon sequestration an integrated assessment of geological carbon sequestration (Project ID code T2.21). #12;2 1 Introduction

Watson, Andrew

315

Review of Yucca Mountain Disposal Criticality Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, submitted a license application for construction authorization of a deep geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in June of 2008. The license application is currently under review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. However,on March 3, 2010 the DOE filed a motion requesting withdrawal of the license application. With the withdrawal request and the development of the Blue Ribbon Commission to seek alternative strategies for disposing of spent fuel, the status of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is uncertain. What is certain is that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will continue to be generated and some long-lived components of the SNF will eventually need a disposition path(s). Strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle will continue to be developed and need to include the insights from the experience gained during the development of the Yucca Mountain license application. Detailed studies were performed and considerable progress was made in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues regarding geologic disposal of SNF. This paper reviews selected technical studies performed in support of the disposal criticality analysis licensing basis and the use of burnup credit. Topics include assembly misload analysis, isotopic and criticality validation, commercial reactor critical analyses, loading curves, alternative waste package and criticality control studies, radial burnup data and effects, and implementation of a conservative application model in the criticality probabilistic evaluation as well as other information that is applicable to operations regarding spent fuel outside the reactor. This paper summarizes the work and significant accomplishments in these areas and provides a resource for future, related activities.

Scaglione, John M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms ALEXEI V. SERGEEV, SABRE KAIS Department of Chemistry, which is treated as a continuous parameter, approaches its critical value. The critical nuclear charge: critical nuclear charges; N-electron atoms; stability of atomic dianions Introduction he question

Kais, Sabre

317

Electrical resistivity investigations over limestone caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

necessary to supplement the geo- electrical measurements with geologicsl structural information in orqer to carry out useful analyses, but the resistivi ty data did con- tr&bute significantly to the fine I interpretation. A new approach. to resistivity..., ) radial distance from electrode or image (m) radius of cavity (m) mutual resistance given by V/I (ohms) electric resistance between opposite faces of test specimen (ohms) current source and sink terms (volt. m/2'n ) electric potential (volts...

Porter, Charles Osgood

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009230,456 271,785 312,003 351,017

319

Natural Gas Salt Caverns Storage Capacity  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Marthrough Monthly2. Average Annual31,941341,213

320

Gaines Cavern Wind Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6TheoreticalFuelCell Energy IncFOR EGSGWPSCavern Wind Project

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Zeus Copper/Uranium Critical Experiment at NCERC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical experiment was performed to provide nuclear data in a non-thermal neutron spectrum and to reestablish experimental capability relevant to Stockpile Stewardship and Technical Nuclear Forensic programs. Irradiation foils were placed at specific locations in the Zeus all oralloy critical experiment to obtain fission ratios. These ratios were compared with others from other critical assemblies to assess the degree of softness in the neutron spectrum. This critical experiment was performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in Nevada.

Sanchez, Rene G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hayes, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goda, Joetta M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Performance assessment methodology and preliminary results for low-level radioactive waste disposal in Taiwan.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Taiwan's Institute for Nuclear Energy Research (INER) have teamed together to evaluate several candidate sites for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Taiwan currently has three nuclear power plants, with another under construction. Taiwan also has a research reactor, as well as medical and industrial wastes to contend with. Eventually the reactors will be decomissioned. Operational and decommissioning wastes will need to be disposed in a licensed disposal facility starting in 2014. Taiwan has adopted regulations similar to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) low-level radioactive waste rules (10 CFR 61) to govern the disposal of LLW. Taiwan has proposed several potential sites for the final disposal of LLW that is now in temporary storage on Lanyu Island and on-site at operating nuclear power plants, and for waste generated in the future through 2045. The planned final disposal facility will have a capacity of approximately 966,000 55-gallon drums. Taiwan is in the process of evaluating the best candidate site to pursue for licensing. Among these proposed sites there are basically two disposal concepts: shallow land burial and cavern disposal. A representative potential site for shallow land burial is located on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock and interbedded sedimentary rocks. An engineered cover system would be constructed to limit infiltration for shallow land burial. A representative potential site for cavern disposal is located along the southeastern coast of Taiwan in a tunnel system that would be about 500 to 800 m below the surface. Bedrock at this site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. Performance assessment analyses will be performed to evaluate future performance of the facility and the potential dose/risk to exposed populations. Preliminary performance assessment analyses will be used in the site-selection process and to aid in design of the disposal system. Final performance assessment analyses will be used in the regulatory process of licensing a site. The SNL/INER team has developed a performance assessment methodology that is used to simulate processes associated with the potential release of radionuclides to evaluate these sites. The following software codes are utilized in the performance assessment methodology: GoldSim (to implement a probabilistic analysis that will explicitly address uncertainties); the NRC's Breach, Leach, and Transport - Multiple Species (BLT-MS) code (to simulate waste-container degradation, waste-form leaching, and transport through the host rock); the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer code (FEHM) (to simulate groundwater flow and estimate flow velocities); the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill performance Model (HELP) code (to evaluate infiltration through the disposal cover); the AMBER code (to evaluate human health exposures); and the NRC's Disposal Unit Source Term -- Multiple Species (DUST-MS) code (to screen applicable radionuclides). Preliminary results of the evaluations of the two disposal concept sites are presented.

Arnold, Bill Walter; Chang, Fu-lin (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Mattie, Patrick D.; Knowlton, Robert G.; Chuang, W-S (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Chi, L-M (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Jow, Hong-Nian; Tien, Norman C. (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan); Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Energy level alignment of polythiophene/ZnO hybrid solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy level alignment of polythiophene/ZnO hybrid solar cells W. Feng,a S. Rangan,b Y. Cao,c E between energy level alignment and photovoltaic properties of a model bilayer hybrid solar cell. Galoppini,c R. A. Bartynskib and E. Garfunkel*ab Energy level alignment at interfaces is critical

Garfunkel, Eric

324

Meteorologically driven trends in sea level rise Alexander S. Kolker1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Meteorologically driven trends in sea level rise Alexander S. Kolker1 and Sultan Hameed2 Received] Determining the rate of global sea level rise (GSLR) during the past century is critical to understanding a suite of coastal oceanographic processes. These findings reduce variability in regional sea level rise

Hameed, Sultan

325

Improved freezing level retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRMM Microwave Imager(TMI)-based passive microwave retrieval techniques result in biased estimates of the freezing level and rainfall over the east Pacific in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Passive microwave rainfall estimates...

Hong, Sungwook

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Refined Critical Balance in Strong Alfvnic Turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present numerical evidence that in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, the critical balance principle---equality of the nonlinear decorrelation and linear propagation times---is scale invariant, in the sense that the probability distribution of the ratio of these times is independent of scale. This result only holds if the local alignment of the Elsasser fields is taken into account in calculating the nonlinear time. At any given scale, the degree of alignment is found to increase with fluctuation amplitude, supporting the idea that the cause of alignment is mutual dynamical shearing of Elsasser fields. The scale-invariance of critical balance (while all other quantities of interest are strongly intermittent, i.e., have scale-dependent distributions) suggests that it is the most robust of the scaling principles used to describe Alfv\\'enic turbulence.

A. Mallet; A. A. Schekochihin; B. D. G. Chandran

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Bekenstein-Hawking entropy from Criticality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacuum Einstein equations when projected on to a black hole horizon is analogous to the dynamics of fluids. In this work we address the question, whether certain properties of semi-classical black holes could be holographically mapped into properties of (2 + 1)-dimensional fluid living on the horizon. In particular, we focus on the statistical mechanical description of the horizon-fluid that leads to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Within the paradigm of Landau mean field theory and existence of a condensate at a critical temperature, we explicitly show that Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and other features of black hole thermodynamics can be recovered from the statistical modelling of the fluid. We also show that a negative cosmological constant acts like an external magnetic field that induces order in the system leading to the appearance of a tri-critical point in the phase diagram.

Swastik Bhattacharya; S. Shankaranarayanan

2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Environmental Concerns High nutrient, bacterial and salinity levels--along  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of best management practices are critical to implementing these efforts. Through more than 130Environmental Concerns High nutrient, bacterial and salinity levels--along with low dissolved and participation vital to developing and implementing watershed-protection plans. Economic and Environmental

329

EPR and Bell's theorem: A critical review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The argument of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is reviewed with attention to logical structure and character of assumptions. Bohr's reply is discussed. Bell's contribution is formulated without use of hidden variables, and efforts to equate hidden variables to realism are critically examined. An alternative derivation of nonlocality that makes no use of hidden variables, microrealism, counterfactual definiteness, or any other assumption alien to orthodox quantum thinking is described in detail, with particular attention to the quartet or broken-square question.

Stapp, H.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Architecture for high critical current superconducting tapes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improvements in critical current capacity for superconducting film structures are disclosed and include the use of, e.g., multilayer YBCO structures where individual YBCO layers are separated by a layer of an insulating material such as CeO.sub.2 and the like, a layer of a conducting material such as strontium ruthenium oxide and the like or by a second superconducting material such as SmBCO and the like.

Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Results from 2010 Caliban Criticality Dosimetry Intercomparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The external dosimetry program participated in a criticality dosimetry intercomparison conducted at the Caliban facility in Valduc, France in 2010. Representatives from the dosimetry and instrumentation groups were present during testing which included irradiations of whole-body beta/gamma (HBGT) and neutron thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), a fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD), electronic alarming dosimeters, and a humanoid phantom filled with reference man concentrations of sodium. This report reviews the testing procedures, preparations, irradiations, and presents results of the tests.

Veinot, K. G.

2011-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

IReliability Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the system FMECA for the PSE included in A TM 501 B. The component level FMEA is given in a Teledyne ~ocument

Rathbun, Julie A.

333

Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre-Assessment Phase brings together infrastructure owners and operators to identify critical assets and help the team create a structured information request. During this phase, we gain information about the critical assets from those who are most familiar with operations and interdependencies, making the time we spend on the ground conducting the assessment much more productive and enabling the team to make actionable recommendations. The Assessment Phase analyzes 10 areas: Threat environment, cyber architecture, cyber penetration, physical security, physical penetration, operations security, policies and procedures, interdependencies, consequence analysis, and risk characterization. Each of these individual tasks uses direct and indirect data collection, site inspections, and structured and facilitated workshops to gather data. Because of the importance of understanding the cyber threat, LLNL has built both fixed and mobile cyber penetration, wireless penetration and supporting tools that can be tailored to fit customer needs. The Post-Assessment Phase brings vulnerability and risk assessments to the customer in a format that facilitates implementation of mitigation options. Often the assessment findings and recommendations are briefed and discussed with several levels of management and, if appropriate, across jurisdictional boundaries. The end result is enhanced awareness and informed protective measures. Over the last 15 years, we have continued to refine our methodology and capture lessons learned and best practices. The resulting risk and decision framework thus takes into consideration real-world constraints, including regulatory, operational, and economic realities. In addition to 'on the ground' assessments focused on mitigating vulnerabilities, we have integrated our computational and atmospheric dispersion capability with easy-to-use geo-referenced visualization tools to support emergency planning and response operations. LLNL is home to the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) and the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC). NA

Suski, N; Wuest, C

2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ultrasonic liquid level detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

ENRAF gauge reference level calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

On the Critical Coupling for Kuramoto Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Kuramoto model captures various synchronization phenomena in biological and man-made systems of coupled oscillators. It is well-known that there exists a critical coupling strength among the oscillators at which a phase transition from incoherency to synchronization occurs. This paper features four contributions. First, we characterize and distinguish the different notions of synchronization used throughout the literature and formally introduce the concept of phase cohesiveness as an analysis tool and performance index for synchronization. Second, we review the vast literature providing necessary, sufficient, implicit, and explicit estimates of the critical coupling strength for finite and infinite-dimensional, and for first and second-order Kuramoto models. Third, we present the first explicit necessary and sufficient condition on the critical coupling to achieve synchronization in the finite-dimensional Kuramoto model for an arbitrary distribution of the natural frequencies. The multiplicative gap in the synchronization condition yields a practical stability result determining the admissible initial and the guaranteed ultimate phase cohesiveness as well as the guaranteed asymptotic magnitude of the order parameter. Fourth and finally, we extend our analysis to multi-rate Kuramoto models consisting of second-order Kuramoto oscillators with inertia and viscous damping together with first-order Kuramoto oscillators with multiple time constants. We prove that the multi-rate Kuramoto model is locally topologically conjugate to a first-order Kuramoto model with scaled natural frequencies, and we present necessary and sufficient conditions for almost global phase synchronization and local frequency synchronization. Interestingly, these conditions do not depend on the inertiae which contradicts prior observations on the role of inertiae in synchronization of second-order Kuramoto models.

Florian Dorfler; Francesco Bullo

2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

337

REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-Es REACT Project, short for Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Fuel Cells for Critical Communications Backup Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014 2014for Critical

339

Nuclear Criticality Safety | More Science | ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos April 7,Criticality

340

Critical phenomena in N=4 SYM plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma at finite temperature and chemical potential for an R-symmetry charge undergoes a second order phase transition. We demonstrate that this phase transition is of the mean field theory type. We explicitly show that the model is in the dynamical universality class of 'model B' according to the classification of Hohenberg and Halperine, with dynamical critical exponent z=4. We study bulk viscosity in the mass deformed version of this theory in the vicinity of the phase transition. We point out that all available models of bulk viscosity at continuous phase transition are in conflict with our explicit holographic computations.

Alex Buchel

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Critical Materials Hub | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2Consolidated Edison UraniumCredit-Based Interest RateCritical

342

Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

Documentation Integrity for Safety-Critical Applications: The COHERE Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Keywords Authoring interface, documentation integrity, consistency 1. INTRODUCTION This paper reportsDocumentation Integrity for Safety-Critical Applications: The COHERE Project David G. Novick-critical systems. Following a set of documentation integrity maxims, the project developed two generations

Novick, David G.

344

NIST Roadmap for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity February 12, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NIST Roadmap for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity February 12, 2014 1. Introduction This companion Roadmap to the Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity ("the Framework, which has been moved to this document. 2. Evolution of the Cybersecurity Framework Since

345

Hydrogen Fuel Cells Providing Critical Backup Power | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Cells Providing Critical Backup Power Hydrogen Fuel Cells Providing Critical Backup Power April 9, 2010 - 3:43pm Addthis Customers of AT&T Wireless and Pacific Gas & Electric...

346

Critical length limiting super-low friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the demonstration of super-low friction (superlubricity) in graphite at nanoscale, one of the main challenges in the field of nano- and micro-mechanics was to scale this phenomenon up. A key question to be addressed is to what extent superlubricity could persist, and what mechanisms could lead to its failure. Here, using an edge-driven Frenkel-Kontorova model, we establish a connection between the critical length above which superlubricity disappears and both intrinsic material properties and experimental parameters. A striking boost in dissipated energy with chain length emerges abruptly due to a high-friction stick-slip mechanism caused by deformation of the slider leading to a local commensuration with the substrate lattice. We derived a parameter-free analytical model for the critical length that is in excellent agreement with our numerical simulations. Our results provide a new perspective on friction and nano-manipulation and can serve as a theoretical basis for designing nano-devices with super-low friction, such as carbon nanotubes.

Ming Ma; Andrea Benassi; Andrea Vanossi; Michael Urbakh

2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

COMMENTARIES ON CRITICISMS OF MAGNETIC FUSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-level-radioactive waste for disposal by shallow land burial, or even for recycling. Projected costs of electricity from in controlling the internal configuration of the plasma have led to the achievement of substantially improved

348

Teaching Against Tradition: Historical Preludes to Critical Pedagogy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page IV DISSENT FROM DIDACTICISM: CRITICAL PEDAGOGIES IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLISH DISSENTING ACADEMIES ............................................................................. 119 A History...

Thomas, Brad 1974-

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

349

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety Lifecycle for Developing Safety Critical Artificial Neural Networks Zeshan Kurd, Tim Kelly. There are many techniques that aim to improve the performance of neural networks for safety-critical systems. Consequently, their role in safety-critical applications, if any, is typically restricted to advisory systems

Kelly, Tim

350

FSC has 'failed the world's forests' say critics FSC has 'failed the world's forests' say critics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a variety of environmental organizations. The FSC is an international not-for-profit organization for slipping standards The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) has come under increasingly harsh criticisms from environmental organizations like World Rainforest Movement and Ecological Internet are putting the organization

351

Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor Yaakov Engel yakiengel@gmail.com Editor: Abstract Policy gradient methods are reinforcement learning algorithms that adapt a param- eterized policy by following a performance gradient estimate. Many

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Sensitive Chemical Compass Assisted by Quantum Criticality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radical-pair-based chemical reaction could be used by birds for the navigation via the geomagnetic direction. An inherent physical mechanism is that the quantum coherent transition from a singlet state to triplet states of the radical pair could response to the weak magnetic field and be sensitive to the direction of such a field and then results in different photopigments in the avian eyes to be sensed. Here, we propose a quantum bionic setup for the ultra-sensitive probe of a weak magnetic field based on the quantum phase transition of the environments of the two electrons in the radical pair. We prove that the yield of the chemical products via the recombination from the singlet state is determined by the Loschmidt echo of the environments with interacting nuclear spins. Thus quantum criticality of environments could enhance the sensitivity of the detection of the weak magnetic field.

C. Y. Cai; Qing Ai; H. T. Quan; C. P. Sun

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

353

Electron stars for holographic metallic criticality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We refer to the ground state of a gravitating, charged ideal fluid of fermions held at a finite chemical potential as an ''electron star.'' In a holographic setting, electron stars are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting finite fermion density systems. We show how electron stars develop an emergent Lifshitz scaling at low energies. This IR scaling region is a consequence of the two-way interaction between emergent quantum critical bosonic modes and the finite density of fermions. By integrating from the IR region to an asymptotically AdS{sub 4} spacetime, we compute basic properties of the electron stars, including their electrical conductivity. We emphasize the challenge of connecting UV and IR physics in strongly interacting finite density systems.

Hartnoll, Sean A.; Tavanfar, Alireza [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Geometrically induced magnetic catalysis and critical dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the combined effect of magnetic fields and geometry in interacting fermionic systems. At leading order in the heat-kernel expansion, the infrared singularity (that in flat space leads to the magnetic catalysis) is regulated by the chiral gap effect and the catalysis is deactivated by effect of the curvature. We discover that an infrared singularity may reappear from higher-order terms in the heat kernel expansion leading to a novel form of geometrically induced magnetic catalysis (absent in flat space). The dynamical mass squared is then modified not only due to the chiral gap effect by an amount proportional to the curvature, but also by a magnetic shift $\\propto (4-D)eB$ where $D$ represents the number of space-time dimensions. We argue that $D=4$ is a critical dimension across which the behaviour of the magnetic shift changes qualitatively.

Antonino Flachi; Kenji Fukushima; Vincenzo Vitagliano

2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

355

Geometrically induced magnetic catalysis and critical dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the combined effect of magnetic fields and geometry in interacting fermionic systems. At leading order in the heat-kernel expansion, the infrared singularity (that in flat space leads to the magnetic catalysis) is regulated by the chiral gap effect and the catalysis is deactivated by effect of the curvature. We discover that an infrared singularity may reappear from higher-order terms in the heat kernel expansion leading to a novel form of geometrically induced magnetic catalysis (absent in flat space). The dynamical mass squared is then modified not only due to the chiral gap effect by an amount proportional to the curvature, but also by a magnetic shift $\\propto (4-D)eB$ where $D$ represents the number of space-time dimensions. We argue that $D=4$ is a critical dimension across which the behaviour of the magnetic shift changes qualitatively.

Flachi, Antonino; Vitagliano, Vincenzo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Electron stars for holographic metallic criticality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We refer to the ground state of a gravitating, charged ideal fluid of fermions held at a finite chemical potential as an `electron star'. In a holographic setting, electron stars are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting finite fermion density systems. We show how electron stars develop an emergent Lifshitz scaling at low energies. This IR scaling region is a consequence of the two way interaction between emergent quantum critical bosonic modes and the finite density of fermions. By integrating from the IR region to an asymptotically AdS_4 spacetime, we compute basic properties of the electron stars, including their electrical conductivity. We emphasize the challenge of connecting UV and IR physics in strongly interacting finite density systems.

Sean A. Hartnoll; Alireza Tavanfar

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

357

Critical review of naphthenic acid corrosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naphthenic acid corrosion continues to be a reliability issue in refinery distillation units. A review of the subject is presented herein with special focus on field and laboratory data and on areas where research is needed. The review shows that several parameters are known to affect the corrosion process and their individual effect on crude corrosivity are somewhat understood. However, their combined effect is still subject to much controversy. The determination of a critical factor--naphthenic acid content--is still not standardized. It is shown herein that, by arranging the literature findings into three groups (1) furnace tubes and transfer lines, (2) vacuum column and (3) side cut piping, a better agreement of the literature data is achieved.

Tebbal, S. [SET Labs., Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A Review of Criticality Accidents 2000 Revision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Sixty accidental power excursions are reviewed. Sufficient detail is provided to enable the reader to understand the physical situation, the chemistry and material flow, and when available the administrative setting leading up to the time of the accident. Information on the power history, energy release, consequences, and causes are also included when available. For those accidents that occurred in process plants, two new sections have been included in this revision. The first is an analysis and summary of the physical and neutronic features of the chain reacting systems. The second is a compilation of observations and lessons learned. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this report.

Thomas P. McLaughlin; Shean P. Monahan; Norman L. Pruvost; Vladimir V. Frolov; Boris G. Ryazanov; Victor I. Sviridov

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

National Criticality Experiments Research Center: Capability and Status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After seven years, the former Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF), or Pajarito Site, has reopened for business as the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Four critical assembly machines (Comet, Planet, Flat-Top, and Godiva-IV) made the journey from Los Alamos to the NNSS. All four machines received safety system upgrades along with new digital control systems. Between these machines, systems ranging from the thermal through the intermediate to the fast spectrum may be assembled. Steady-State, transient, and super-prompt critical conditions may be explored. NCERC is the sole remaining facility in the United States capable of conducting general-purpose nuclear materials handling including the construction and operation of high-multiplication assemblies, delayed critical assemblies, and prompt critical assemblies. Reconstitution of the unique capabilities at NCERC ensures the viability of (1) The Nuclear Renaissance, (2) Stockpile Stewardship, and (3) and the next generation of criticality experimentalists.

Hayes, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

360

Self-organizing criticality among Chinese cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels, the Chinese cities present the characteristics of SOC. Given a stable condition of power law, shifts occur in the inside dynamics of China's urban system and Shenzhen city. This study is one of the few empirical urban studies based on SOC...

Li, Shujuan

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A RE-INTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur.

PUIGH RJ

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

362

Proper Sequencing and Level-Bridging Scaffolding in Learning a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proper Sequencing and Level-Bridging Scaffolding in Learning a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations Na Li (nl2284@tc.columbia.edu) Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 W. 120 th street New difficulties in learning complex systems with hierarchical levels. Scaffolding is very critical in teaching

363

Improved dose estimates for nuclear criticality accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Slide rules are improved for estimating doses and dose rates resulting from nuclear criticality accidents. The original slide rules were created for highly enriched uranium solutions and metals using hand calculations along with the decades old Way-Wigner radioactive decay relationship and the inverse square law. This work uses state-of-the-art methods and better data to improve the original slide rules and also to extend the slide rule concept to three additional systems; i.e., highly enriched (93.2 wt%) uranium damp (H/{sup 235}U = 10) powder (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) and low-enriched (5 wt%) uranium mixtures (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) with a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 200 and 500. Although the improved slide rules differ only slightly from the original slide rules, the improved slide rules and also the new slide rules can be used with greater confidence since they are based on more rigorous methods and better nuclear data.

Wilkinson, A.D.; Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.L.; Dunn, M.E.; Plaster, M.J.; Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Haught, C.F. [Martin Marietta Utility Systems, Piketon, OH (United States); Yamamoto, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hopper, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Critical assemblies of precisely known materials and reproducible and easily calculated geometries have been constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory since the 1940s. Initially, these assemblies were built to provide information necessary for the nuclear weapons development effort. Subsequently, intensive studies of the assemblies themselves were undertaken to provide a better understanding of the physics of the fission process and other nuclear reactions in the nuclear materials from which these machine were constructed and in other materials irradiated in these assemblies. Some of these assemblies (notably Jezebel, Flattop, Big Ten, and Godiva) have been used as benchmark assemblies to compare the results of experimental measurements and computations of certain nuclear reaction parameters. These comparisons are used to validate both the input nuclear data and the computational methods. In addition to these normally fueled benchmark assemblies, other assembly machines are fueled periodically to provide specific and detailed results for parameter sensitivity studies for a large number of applications. Some of these machines and their applications are described.

Dowdy, E.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Generalized mutual informations of quantum critical chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the R\\'enyi mutual information $\\tilde{I}_n$ of the ground state of different critical quantum chains. The R\\'enyi mutual information definition that we use is based on the well established concept of the R\\'enyi divergence. We calculate this quantity numerically for several distinct quantum chains having either discrete $Z(Q)$ symmetries (Q-state Potts model with $Q=2,3,4$ and $Z(Q)$ parafermionic models with $Q=5,6,7,8$ and also Ashkin-Teller model with different anisotropies) or the $U(1)$ continuous symmetries(Klein-Gordon field theory, XXZ and spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum chains with different anisotropies). For the spin chains these calculations were done by expressing the ground-state wavefunctions in two special basis. Our results indicate some general behavior for particular ranges of values of the parameter $n$ that defines $\\tilde{I}_n$. For a system, with total size $L$ and subsystem sizes $\\ell$ and $L-\\ell$, the$\\tilde{I}_n$ has a logarithmic leading behavior given by $\\frac{\\til...

Alcaraz, F C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Critical Dynamics in the Early Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods and concepts for the study of phase transitions mediated by a time-dependent order-parameter field in curved spacetimes are discussed. A practical example is the derivation of an effective (quasi-)potential for the description of `slow-roll' inflation in the early universe. We first summarize our early results on viewing the symmetry behavior of constant background fields in curved but static spacetimes as finite size effect, and the use of derivative expansions for constructing effective actions for slowly-varying background fields. We then introduce the notion of dynamical finite size effect to explain how an exponential expansion of the scale factor imparts a finite size to the system and how the symmetry behavior in de Sitter space can be understood qualitatively in this light. We reason why the exponential inflation can be described equivalently by a scale transformation, thus rendering this special class of dynamics as effectively static. Finally we show how, in this view, one can treat the class of `slow-roll' inflation as a dynamic perturbation off the effectively static class of exponential inflation and understand it as a dynamical critical phenomenon in cosmology.

B. L. Hu

1993-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional critical experiments Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in design process 15 additional CEF critical... Experiments - Critical and Subcritical Experiments at the Critical Experiments Facility (CEF) Now Being ... Source: Danon,...

369

Systemic trade-risk of critical resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis the role of strongly interconnected markets in fostering systemic instability has been increasingly acknowledged. Trade networks of commodities are susceptible to deleterious cascades of supply shocks that increase systemic trade-risks and pose a threat to geopolitical stability. On a global and a regional level we show that supply risk, scarcity, and price volatility of non-fuel mineral resources are intricately connected with the structure of the world-trade network of or spanned by these resources. On the global level we demonstrate that the scarcity of a resource, as measured by its trade volume compared to extractable reserves, is closely related to the susceptibility of the trade network with respect to cascading shocks. On the regional level we find that to some extent the region-specific price volatility and supply risk can be understood by centrality measures that capture systemic trade-risk. The resources associated with the highest systemic trade-risk indica...

Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Geometric Critical Exponents in Classical and Quantum Phase Transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We define geometric critical exponents for systems that undergo continuous second order classical and quantum phase transitions. These relate scalar quantities on the information theoretic parameter manifolds of such systems, near criticality. We calculate these exponents by approximating the metric and thereby solving geodesic equations analytically, near curvature singularities of two dimensional parameter manifolds. The critical exponents are seen to be the same for both classical and quantum systems that we consider, and we provide evidence about the possible universality of our results.

Prashant Kumar; Tapobrata Sarkar

2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

372

Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

Kitano, A.; Nishi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1 1, Shiraki, Tsuruga-shi, Fukui-ken, 919-1279 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S. [Univ. of Aizu, Tsuruga, Ikki-machi, Aizu-Wakamatsu-shi, Fukushima-ken, 965-8580 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

T-605: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory - April 2011 | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Critical Patch Update Advisory - April 19 2011. PLATFORM: Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, Oracle E-Business Suite...

374

T-672: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory - July 2011 | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Critical Patch Updates and Security Alerts Security Alerts reference LINKS: Oracle Fusion Middleware Risk Matrix Oracle Database Server Risk Matrix Oracle Enterprise Manager...

375

T-537: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory - January 2011 ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Critical Patch Update Advisory - January 2011. PLATFORM: Oracle Database, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, Oracle E-Business Suite...

376

Annular Core Research Reactor - Critical to Science-Based Weapons...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Annular Core Research Reactor - Critical to Science-Based Weapons Design, Certification | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People...

377

Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Durability Parameters of an Integrated Aftertreatment System used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated...

378

Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

Rene G. Sanchez

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Review of Nevada Site Office Criticality Safety Assessments at the Criticality Experiments Facility and Training Assembly for Criticality Safety and Appraisal of the Criticality Experiments Facility Startup Plan, October 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report provides the results of an independent oversight review of criticality safety assessment activities conducted by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Site Office

380

Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L.R. Modeling alternative residential peak-load electricitydemand response to residential critical peak pricing (CPP)analysis of California residential customer response to

Herter, Karen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NNSA Completes its Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test for...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

its Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test for the W88 ALT 370 | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

382

Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

383

Mines Welcomes Middle School Students | Critical Materials Institute  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Science and Technology. The students spent the day at Mines to learn about Earth, energy, the environment, critical materials and mining. The students enjoyed a chemistry show...

384

Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste.

WEISS, E.V.

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Reducing Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure: NIST Framework...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the President under Executive Order (EO) 13636 "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity" of February 2013 directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology...

386

The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look at the Impact of Building, Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP) and Innovation, June 2000 The Future of Absorption...

387

Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Subcritical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel, a single recycle in a LWR of the plutonium as mixed-oxide fuel, and the repeated recycle of the transuranics in critical and subcritical fast reactors are compared with the focus on the waste management performance of these systems. Other considerations such as cost and technological challenges were beyond the scope of this study. The overall conclusion of the studies is that repeated recycling of the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel would significantly increase the capacity of high-level waste repositories per unit of nuclear energy produced, significantly increase the nuclear energy production per unit mass of uranium ore mined, significantly reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste streams per unit of nuclear energy produced, and significantly enhance the proliferation resistance of the material stored in high-level waste repositories.

Hoffman, Edward A.; Stacey, Weston M. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Enrico Fermi Fast Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Criticality Calculations: Degraded Mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this calculation is to characterize the nuclear criticality safety concerns associated with the codisposal of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Enrico Fermi (EF) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in a 5-Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP) and placed in a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to the determination of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal WP. The results of this calculation and those of Ref. 8 will be used to evaluate criticality issues and support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the Monitored Geologic Repository.

D.R. Moscalu; L. Angers; J. Monroe-Rammsey; H.R. Radulesca

2000-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Fetch Halting on Critical Load Misses Nikil Mehta,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fetch Halting on Critical Load Misses Nikil Mehta, Brian Singer, R. Iris Bahar Division, such as loads that miss to main memory and floating point arithmetic operations, are primarily responsible to characterize critical instructions, our approach com- bines software profiling and hardware monitoring

DeHon, André

390

Critical phenomena of asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Critical phenomena of asymmetric nuclear matter in the extended Zimanyi-Moszkowski model K nuclear matter produced by heavy-ion reactions is isospin asymmetric. Although the critical exponents. Miyazaki Abstract We have studied the liquid-gas phase transition of warm asymmetric nuclear matter

391

COG - Special Features of Interest to Criticality Safety Practitioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COG is a modern, general-purpose, high fidelity, multi-particle transport code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory specifically for use in deep penetration (shielding) and criticality safety calculations. This paper describes some features in COG of special interest to criticality safety practitioners.

Buck, R M; Heinrichs, D P; Krass, A W; Lent, E M

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

Homogenization of the criticality spectral equation in neutron transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the neutron transport equation in a periodic heterogeneous domain, modeling the criticality study of nuclearHomogenization of the criticality spectral equation in neutron transport Gr'egoire Allaire \\Lambda problem. This result justifies and improves the engineering procedure used in practice for nuclear reactor

Bal, Guillaume

393

The brain: What is critical about it? Dante R. Chialvo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The brain: What is critical about it? Dante R. Chialvo , Pablo Balenzuela and Daniel Fraiman the recent proposal that the most fascinating brain properties are related to the fact that it always stays results, as well as further implications of this view of the functioning brain. Keywords: Brain, critical

Chialvo, Dante R.

394

Attack Containment Framework for Large-Scale Critical Infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attack Containment Framework for Large-Scale Critical Infrastructures Hoang Nguyen Department-- We present an attack containment framework against value-changing attacks in large-scale critical structure, called attack container, which captures the trust behavior of a group of nodes and assists

Nahrstedt, Klara

395

Cryptanalysing the Critical Group: Efficiently Solving Biggs's Discrete Logarithm Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cryptanalysing the Critical Group: Efficiently Solving Biggs's Discrete Logarithm Problem Simon R Kingdom s.blackburn@rhul.ac.uk November 7, 2008 Abstract Biggs has recently proposed the critical group that the discrete log problem can be efficiently solved in Biggs's groups. Thus this class of groups is not suitable

396

Statistical Model Criticism using Kernel Two Sample Tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Model Criticism using Kernel Two Sample Tests James Robert Lloyd Department Abstract We propose an exploratory approach to statistical model criticism using maximum mean discrepancy a statistic by which to measure discrepancies between data and a statistical model. MMD two sample tests

Ghahramani, Zoubin

397

1998 technology roadmap for integrated circuits used in critical applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integrated Circuits (ICs) are being extensively used in commercial and government applications that have extreme consequences of failure. The rapid evolution of the commercial microelectronics industry presents serious technical and supplier challenges to this niche critical IC marketplace. This Roadmap was developed in conjunction with the Using ICs in Critical Applications Workshop which was held in Albuquerque, NM, November 11--12, 1997.

Dellin, T.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

SPECTRA OF CRITICAL EXPONENTS IN NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH ABSORPTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPECTRA OF CRITICAL EXPONENTS IN NONLINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH ABSORPTION V.A. GALAKTIONOV AND P of the classical porous medium equation with absorption u t = #1;u m u p in R N #2; R+ change their large-time behaviour at the critical absorption exponent p 0 = m+2=N . We show that, actually, there exists an in#12

Bath, University of

399

Ideas for Security Assurance in Security Critical Software using Modelica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ideas for Security Assurance in Security Critical Software using Modelica David Broman, Peter critical software. Modelica is a modern, strongly typed, de- clarative, and object-oriented language assurance, by expanding the scope of Modelica into also becoming a declarative modeling language for other

Zhao, Yuxiao

400

CRITICAL FEATURES IN HUMAN MOTION SIMULATION FOR ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRITICAL FEATURES IN HUMAN MOTION SIMULATION FOR ERGONOMIC ANALYSIS Matthew P. Reed, Don B. Chaffin of choice for assessments of the physical ergonomics of products and workplaces. Software representations important for ergonomic analysis. This paper identifies and justifies a set of these critical features

Faraway, Julian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

Salvatores, Massimo [CEA-Cadarache, DEN-Dir, Bat. 101, St-Paul-Lez-Durance 13108 (France)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

402

WIPP-025, Rev. 0 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant #12;SUMMARY OF NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY EVALUATION FOR SHIELDED CONTAINERS PLANT WIPP-025, REV. 0 AUGUST 2009 Summary of Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation for Shielded ISOLATION PILOT PLANT WIPP-025, REV. 0 AUGUST 2009 ES-1 Executive Summary This report summarizes the nuclear

403

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P o l i c y m a k e r G u i d e #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

404

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas and the Environment: Critical Need for a Government­University­Industry Research Initiative P O L I C Y M A K E R G U I D E #12;Shale gas production is increasing at a rapid rate initiative is needed to fill critical gaps in knowledge at the interface of shale gas development

McGaughey, Alan

405

Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

Sanchez, R.G. [comp.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Inspection Procedures for Critical Programs that Model Physical Phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is software critical? The software that controls a nuclear plant, chemical plant, automobile, or airplane-of-life and/or environmental damage. Software that controls systems in "real-time" has long been a concern used in many critical analyses, such as · to predict the effect of explosions, · to estimate

Qiao, Sanzheng

407

Survey of Critical Wetlands and Riparian Areas in Mesa County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Critical Wetlands and Riparian Areas in Mesa County Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado 80523 #12;Survey of Critical Wetlands and Riparian Areas in Mesa County Prepared for: Colorado Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife, Wetlands Program 6060 Broadway Denver, Colorado 80203

408

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South Park, Park County, Colorado 2003 Delivery Colorado State University #12;Survey of Critical Wetlands Bureau of Land Management Lands South place from unique wetlands to high quality grasslands to the bristlecone pine forests to its alpine

409

Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

410

The effective delayed neutron fraction for bare-metal criticals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given sufficient material, a large number of actinides could be used to form bare-metal criticals. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical comprised of a fissile material is comparable with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical composed of a fissionable material is reduced by factors of 2 to 10 when compared with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. When the effective delayed neutron fraction is small, the difference between delayed and prompt criticality is small, and extreme caution must be used in critical assemblies of these materials. This study uses an approximate but realistic model to survey the actinide region to compare effective delayed neutron fractions with absolute delayed neutron fractions.

Pearlstein, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Self limiting features of accidental criticality in a solution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience with the SHEBA solution critical assembly during validation testing of accidental criticality alarm detectors provided several insights into the character of potential accidental excursions. Two observations were of particular interest. First, it is nearly impossible to maintain a solution system, particularly one employing low-enrichment material, in a constant state. If super-critical, the system will heat up, expand (or form bubbles), return to a sub-critical state, and shut down of its own accord without going into short period oscillations. Second, a very slow change in the system could produce a long ''pulse'' resulting in lengthy exposures, a high dose, but a low dose rate. The experiments dramatically contradicted the popular contention that accidental criticality is characterized by a blue flash, a clap of thunder, and violet expulsion of material. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Malenfant, R.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Information-Entropic Signature of the Critical Point  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the critical behavior of continuous phase transitions in the context of Ginzburg Landau models with a double well effective potential. In particular, we show that the recently proposed configurational entropy, a measure of spatial complexity of the order parameter based on its Fourier mode decomposition, can be used to identify the critical point. We compute the CE for different temperatures and show that large spatial fluctuations near the critical point lead to a sharp decrease in the CE. We further show that the CE density has a marked scaling behavior near criticality, with the same power law as Kolmogorov turbulence. We reproduce the behavior of the CE at criticality with a percolating many bubble model.

Sowinski, Damian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Application of Diagnostic/Prognostic Methods to Critical Equipment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Cleanup Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The management of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project at the Hanford K-Basin in the 100 N Area has successfully restructured the preventive maintenance, spare parts inventory requirements, and the operator rounds data requirements. In this investigation, they continue to examine the different facets of the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the K-Basin cleanup project in search of additional reliability and cost savings. This report focuses on the initial findings of a team of PNNL engineers engaged to identify potential opportunities for reducing the cost of O&M through the application of advanced diagnostics (fault determination) and prognostics (residual life/reliability determination). The objective is to introduce predictive technologies to eliminate or reduce high impact equipment failures. The PNNL team in conjunction with the SNF engineers found the following major opportunities for cost reduction and/or enhancing reliability: (1) Provide data routing and automated analysis from existing detection systems to a display center that will engage the operations and engineering team. This display will be operator intuitive with system alarms and integrated diagnostic capability. (2) Change operating methods to reduce major transients induced in critical equipment. This would reduce stress levels on critical equipment. (3) Install a limited sensor set on failure prone critical equipment to allow degradation or stressor levels to be monitored and alarmed. This would provide operators and engineers with advance guidance and warning of failure events. Specific methods for implementation of the above improvement opportunities are provided in the recommendations. They include an Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) decision support system, introduction of variable frequency drives on certain pump motors, and the addition of limited diagnostic instrumentation on specified critical equipment.

Casazza, Lawrence O.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Meador, Richard J.; Wallace, Dale E.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Sea Level Rise Media Release  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sea Level Rise Media Release Coverage Report 07/06/2009 Melting Ice Could Lead to Massive Waves 06/11/2009 Rising sea levels could see U.S. Atlantic coast cities make hard choices; Where to let Baltimore Chronicle & Sentinel, The 06/08/2009 Rapid rise in sea levels on East Coast predicted Pittsburgh

Hu, Aixue

415

Specified assurance level sampling procedure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

Willner, O.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Critical temperature of antikaon condensation in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of $K^-$ mesons in neutron star matter. This is studied within the framework of relativistic field theoretical models at finite temperature where nucleon-nucleon and (anti)kaon-nucleon interactions are mediated by the exchange of mesons. The melting of the antikaon condensate is studied for different values of antikaon optical potential depths. We find that the critical temperature of antikaon condensation increases with baryon number density. Further it is noted that the critical temperature is lowered as antikaon optical potential becomes less attractive. We also construct the phase diagram of neutron star matter with $K^-$ condensate.

Sarmistha Banik; Walter Greiner; Debades Bandyopadhyay

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gluon condensation and deconfinement critical density in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An upper limit to the critical density for the transition to the deconfined phase, at zero temperature, has been evaluated by analyzing the behavior of the gluon condensate in nuclear matter. Due to the non linear baryon density effects, the upper limit to the critical density, \\rho_c turns out about nine times the saturation density, rho_0 for the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum =0.012 GeV^4. For neutron matter \\rho_c \\simeq 8.5 \\rho_0. The dependence of the critical density on the value of the gluon condensate in vacuum is studied.

M. Baldo; P. Castorina; D. Zappala'

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evidence of critical balance in kinetic Alfven wave turbulence simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical simulation of kinetic plasma turbulence is performed to assess the applicability of critical balance to kinetic, dissipation scale turbulence. The analysis is performed in the frequency domain to obviate complications inherent in performing a local analysis of turbulence. A theoretical model of dissipation scale critical balance is constructed and compared to simulation results, and excellent agreement is found. This result constitutes the first evidence of critical balance in a kinetic turbulence simulation and provides evidence of an anisotropic turbulence cascade extending into the dissipation range. We also perform an Eulerian frequency analysis of the simulation data and compare it to the results of a previous study of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence simulations.

TenBarge, J. M.; Howes, G. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Universality of critical magnetic field in holographic superconductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter we study aspects of the holographic superconductors analytically in the presence of a constant external magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature and critical magnetic field can be calculated at nonzero temperature. We detect the Meissner effect in such superconductors. A universal relation between black hole mass $ M$ and critical magnetic field $H_c$ is proposed as $\\frac{H_c}{M^{2/3}}\\leq 0.687365$. We discuss some aspects of phase transition in terms of black hole entropy and the Bekenstein's entropy to energy upper bound.

D. Momeni; R. Myrzakulov

2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

422

Criticality Safety Basics for INL FMHs and CSOs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power is a valuable and efficient energy alternative in our energy-intensive society. However, material that can generate nuclear power has properties that require this material be handled with caution. If improperly handled, a criticality accident could result, which could severely harm workers. This document is a modular self-study guide about Criticality Safety Principles. This guide's purpose it to help you work safely in areas where fissionable nuclear materials may be present, avoiding the severe radiological and programmatic impacts of a criticality accident. It is designed to stress the fundamental physical concepts behind criticality controls and the importance of criticality safety when handling fissionable materials outside nuclear reactors. This study guide was developed for fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates to use with related web-based course 00INL189, BEA Criticality Safety Principles, and to help prepare for the course exams. These individuals must understand basic information presented here. This guide may also be useful to other Idaho National Laboratory personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. This guide also includes additional information that will not be included in 00INL189 tests. The additional information is in appendices and paragraphs with headings that begin with 'Did you know,' or with, 'Been there Done that'. Fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates may review additional information at their own discretion. This guide is revised as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Issued in 2006, Revision 0 established the basic text and integrated various programs from former contractors. Revision 1 incorporates operation and program changes implemented since 2006. It also incorporates suggestions, clarifications, and additional information from readers and from personnel who took course 00INL189. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that fissionable material handlers and criticality safety officers must understand. The reorganization is based on and consistent with changes made to course 00INL189 due to a review of course exam results and to discussions with personnel who conduct area-specific training.

V. L. Putman

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

ACCELERATED TESTING OF NEUTRON-ABSORBING ALLOYS FOR NUCLEAR CRITICALITY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy requires nuclear criticality control materials be used for storage of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel used in government programs and the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel at the proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Geological Repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Two different metallic alloys (Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd and borated stainless steel) have been chosen for this service. An accelerated corrosion test program to validate these materials for this application is described and a performance comparison is made.

Ronald E. Mizia

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Atomic Entanglement vs Photonic Visibility for Quantum Criticality of Hybrid System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To characterize the novel quantum phase transition for a hybrid system consisting of an array of coupled cavities and two-level atoms doped in each cavity, we study the atomic entanglement and photonic visibility in comparison with the quantum fluctuation of total excitations. Analytical and numerical simulation results show the happen of quantum critical phenomenon similar to the Mott insulator to superfluid transition. Here, the contour lines respectively representing the atomic entanglement, photonic visibility and excitation variance in the phase diagram are consistent in the vicinity of the non-analytic locus of atomic concurrences.

M. X. Huo; Ying Li; Z. Song; C. P. Sun

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

425

Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

ALIGNMENT, LEVELING AND DEPLOYMENT CONSTRAINTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Crew Deployment Description Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE) Crew Deployment and Alignment Central Station Antenna Crew Deployment Description Leveling, Alignment, and Pointing Radioisotope

Rathbun, Julie A.

427

Stress levels of volunteer personnel working with terminally or critically ill patients in hospice, hospital, or nursing home settings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to maintain the ability to cope N reSiSt the state of exhaustion the capability to adapt has to be renewed or recharged (Cannon, 1939; Selye, 1980). Considering mankind's ability to make choices in life, Lazarus (1966) incorported a cognitive dimension...

Aiken, Cheryl Lynn

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Rocky Flats CAAS System Recalibrated, Retested, and Analyzed to Install in the Criticality Experiments Facility at the Nevada Test Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sponsorship of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program.Improved Criticality Alarm System, Proceedings of Nuclear

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident in a waste supercompactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hypothetical nuclear criticality accident in a waste supercompactor is evaluated. The waste consists of a homogenous mixture of plutonium 49, beryllium, and air contained in a 35 gallon carbon steel drum. Possible consequences are investigated.

Plaster, M.J.; Basoglu, B.; Bentley, C.L.; Dunn, M.E.; Ruggles, A.E.; Wilkinson, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Quantum superconducting criticality in graphene and topological insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The field theory of the semimetal-superconductor quantum phase transition for graphene and surface states of topological insulators is presented. The Lagrangian possesses the global U(1) symmetry, with the self-interacting complex bosonic order-parameter and the massless Dirac fermions coupled through a Yukawa term. The same theory also governs the quantum critical behavior of graphene near the transition towards the bond-density-wave (Kekule) insulator. The local U(1) gauged version of the theory which describes the quantum semimetal-superconductor transition in the ultimate critical regime is also considered. Due to the Yukawa coupling the transitions are found to be always continuous, both with and without the fluctuating gauge field. The critical behavior is addressed within the dimensional regularization near four space-time dimensions, and the calculation of various universal quantities, including critical exponents and the universal mass-ratio, is reported.

Bitan Roy; Vladimir Juricic; Igor F. Herbut

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

3 LANSCE: Mission-Critical for National Security  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. LANSCE is a mission-critical facility for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). In 2011, the NNSA renewed the memorandum of understanding that affirms

433

Criticality Safety Controls Implementation, May 31, 2013 (HSS...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Implementation, May 31, 2013 (HSS CRAD 45-18, Rev. 1) More Documents & Publications CRAD, Criticality Safety Controls Implementation - May 31, 2013 DOE-STD-1158-2010 Application of...

434

NSS 18.1 Criticality Safety 5/26/95  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The objective of this surveillance is to ensure that effective programs have been developed and implemented to protect the public and DOE's workers from unplanned criticality. The programs should...

435

Effective critical electric field for runaway electron generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter we investigate factors that influence the effective critical electric field for runaway electron generation in plasmas. We present numerical solutions of the kinetic equation, and discuss the implications for the threshold electric field. We show that the effective electric field necessary for significant runaway formation often is higher than previously calculated due to both (1) extremely strong dependence of primary generation on temperature, and (2) synchrotron radiation losses. We also address the effective critical field in the context of a transition from runaway growth to decay. We find agreement with recent experiments, but show that the observation of an elevated effective critical field can mainly be attributed to changes in the momentum-space distribution of runaways, and only to a lesser extent to a de facto change in the critical field.

Stahl, Adam; Decker, Joan; Embrus, Ola; Flp, Tnde

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

albicans critical role: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

240 kilograms of plutonium oxide 5 Standards for Quality and the Coordinating Role of Wine Critics CiteSeer Summary: When product quality matters but is not observable before...

437

Determination of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux enhancement in nanofluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanofluids are engineered colloids composed of nano-size particles dispersed in common fluids such as water or refrigerants. Using an electrically controlled wire heater, pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of Alumina ...

Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Experimental bond critical point and local energy density properties...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mn-O, Fe-O and Co-O bonded interactions for Abstract: Bond critical point, bcp, and local energy density properties for the electron density, ED, distributions, calculated with...

439

Criticality experiments with fast flux test facility fuel pins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A United States Department of Energy program was initiated during the early seventies at the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory to obtain experimental criticality data in support of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. The criticality experiments program was to provide basic physics data for clean well defined conditions expected to be encountered in the handling of plutonium-uranium fuel mixtures outside reactors. One task of this criticality experiments program was concerned with obtaining data on PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel rods containing 20--30 wt % plutonium. To obtain this data a series of experiments were performed over a period of about twelve years. The experimental data obtained during this time are summarized and the associated experimental assemblies are described. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Bierman, S.R.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

U-215: Oracle Critical Patch Update Advisory- July 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Critical Patch Updates are the primary means of releasing security fixes for Oracle products to customers with valid support contracts. They are released on the Tuesday closest to the 17th day of January, April, July and October.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Globalization and the sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein: A critical appraisal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Globalization and the Postcolonial World: The New Political Economyglobalization, including rampant financial speculation in the world-economy,economy, and assess these con- tributions from what I have termed a critical globalization

Robinson, William I.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Jefferson Lab News - Jefferson Lab Achieves Critical Milestone...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Achieves Critical Milestone Toward Construction of 310-Million Upgrade Project Pion This architectural rendering shows the Hall D complex to be built as part of the CEBAF 12 GeV...

443

Critical Writing Assessment Rubric (Blind Review) Revised 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

W Critical Writing Assessment Rubric (Blind Review) Revised 2010 Paper Code: ___________ Date Reviewed: ___________ Reader: ___________ (Initials) 1. Thesis The essay contains a clear and relevant thesis. 0 ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 2. Organization The paragraphs are logically ordered within

Wilson, Mark A.

444

Towards verifiable adaptive control for safety critical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be implementable in safety critical applications, adaptive controllers must be shown to behave strictly according to predetermined specifications. This thesis presents two tools for verifying specifications relevant to ...

Schwager, Mac

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Critically Evaluated Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Spain James S. Chickos Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One with sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpies, are critically evaluated. Whenever possible, recommended. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.2. Sublimation enthalpies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1867 3.3. Fusion Enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

446

Terra-Gen Powers Coso Geothermal Facility Obtains Critical Federal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Obtains Critical Federal Permit to Increase Its Renewable Energy Generation Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Terra-Gen Powers Coso...

447

Thermodynamic and transport property modeling in super critical water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a thermally-based, remediation and waste-treatment process that relies on unique property changes of water when water is heated and pressurized above its critical point. Above its ...

Kutney, Michael C. (Michael Charles)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Bazaar [+] : addressing critical adjacencies in Mumbai's urban farm  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on the city of Mumbai, and evolves the notion of how "critical adjacency" has been instrumental in guiding the city's urban transformations into modernity. Presently, Mumbai experiences some of the ...

Bhat, Arjun (Arjun Devadas)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Model of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical phenomenon occurring before and at the critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling has been investigated. The first phase of this study established the basic nature of the flow structure at CHF. A ...

Fiori, Mario P.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Burst wait time simulation of CALIBAN reactor at delayed super-critical state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past, the super prompt critical wait time probability distribution was measured on CALIBAN fast burst reactor [4]. Afterwards, these experiments were simulated with a very good agreement by solving the non-extinction probability equation [5]. Recently, the burst wait time probability distribution has been measured at CEA-Valduc on CALIBAN at different delayed super-critical states [6]. However, in the delayed super-critical case the non-extinction probability does not give access to the wait time distribution. In this case it is necessary to compute the time dependent evolution of the full neutron count number probability distribution. In this paper we present the point model deterministic method used to calculate the probability distribution of the wait time before a prescribed count level taking into account prompt neutrons and delayed neutron precursors. This method is based on the solution of the time dependent adjoint Kolmogorov master equations for the number of detections using the generating function methodology [8,9,10] and inverse discrete Fourier transforms. The obtained results are then compared to the measurements and Monte-Carlo calculations based on the algorithm presented in [7]. (authors)

Humbert, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91297 Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Richard, B.; Grivot, P.; Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

Six, D E

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Effect of topology on the critical charge in graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the critical charge for the Dirac excitations in gapless graphene depends on the spatial topology of the sample. In particular, for graphene cones, the effective value of the critical charge can tend towards zero for a suitable angle of the conical sample. We discuss the nature of the scattering phase shifts, quasi-bound state energies and local density of states for a gapless graphene cone and determine the dependence of these physical quantities on the sample topology.

Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

An evaluation of the critical mechanical properties of filled elastomers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EVALUATION OF THE CRITICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED ELASTOMERS A Thesis By PATRICK ARTHUR GIBSON Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... possible. ABSTRACT An Evaluation of the Critical Mechanical Properties of Filled Elastomers Patrick A. Gibson, B. S. , Texas ASM University Directed by: Dr. William B. Ledbetter A test procedure is developed for the uniaxial tensile testing...

Gibson, Patrick Arthur

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Salmonella detection and critical control point determination during poultry processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SALMONELLA DETECTION AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT DETERMINATION DURING POULTRY PROCESSING A Thesis by SUZANNE D. Y O U N G Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of M A S T E R OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Poultry Science SALMONELLA DETECTION AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT DETERMINATION DURING POULTRY PROCESSING A Thesis by SUZANNE D. Y O U N G Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

Young, Suzanne D.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nuclear criticality safety bounding analysis for the in-tank-precipitation (ITP) process, impacted by fissile isotopic weight fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The In-Tank Precipitation process (ITP) receives High Level Waste (HLW) supernatant liquid containing radionuclides in waste processing tank 48H. Sodium tetraphenylborate, NaTPB, and monosodium titanate (MST), NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}H, are added for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr, respectively. In addition to removal of radio-strontium, MST will also remove plutonium and uranium. The majority of the feed solutions to ITP will come from the dissolution of supernate that had been concentrated by evaporation to a crystallized salt form, commonly referred to as saltcake. The concern for criticality safety arises from the adsorption of U and Pt onto MST. If sufficient mass and optimum conditions are achieved then criticality is credible. The concentration of u and Pt from solution into the smaller volume of precipitate represents a concern for criticality. This report supplements WSRC-TR-93-171, Nuclear Criticality Safety Bounding Analysis For The In-Tank-Precipitation (ITP) Process. Criticality safety in ITP can be analyzed by two bounding conditions: (1) the minimum safe ratio of MST to fissionable material and (2) the maximum fissionable material adsorption capacity of the MST. Calculations have provided the first bounding condition and experimental analysis has established the second. This report combines these conditions with canyon facility data to evaluate the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to the adsorption of the fissionable material from solution. In addition, this report analyzes the potential impact of increased U loading onto MST. Results of this analysis demonstrate a greater safety margin for ITP operations than the previous analysis. This report further demonstrates that the potential for criticality in the ITP process due to adsorption of fissionable material by MST is not credible.

Bess, C.E.

1994-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

Criticality safety analysis on fissile materials in Fukushima reactor cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study focuses on the criticality analysis for geological disposal of damaged fuels from Fukushima reactor cores. Starting from the basic understanding of behaviors of plutonium and uranium, a scenario sequence for criticality event is considered. Due to the different mobility of plutonium and uranium in geological formations, the criticality safety is considered in two parts: (1) near-field plutonium system and (2) far-field low enriched uranium (LEU) system. For the near-field plutonium system, a mathematical analysis for pure-solute transport was given, assuming a particular buffer material and waste form configuration. With the transport and decay of plutonium accounted, the critical mass of plutonium was compared with the initial load of a single canister. Our calculation leads us to the conclusion that our system with the initial loading being the average mass of plutonium in an assembly just before the accident is very unlikely to become critical over time. For the far-field LEU system, due to the uncertainties in the geological and geochemical conditions, calculations were made in a parametric space that covers the variation of material compositions and different geometries. Results show that the LEU system could not remain sub-critical within the entire parameter space assumed, although in the iron-rich rock, the neutron multiplicity is significantly reduced.

Liu, Xudong; Lemaitre-Xavier, E.; Ahn, Joonhong [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hirano, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Criticality Safety Code Validation with LWBRs SB Cores  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first set of critical experiments from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Program included eight, simple geometry critical cores built with 233UO2-ZrO2, 235UO2-ZrO2, ThO2, and ThO2-233UO2 nuclear materials. These cores are evaluated, described, and modeled to provide benchmarks and validation information for INEEL criticality safety calculation methodology. In addition to consistency with INEEL methodology, benchmark development and nuclear data are consistent with International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project methodology.Section 1 of this report introduces the experiments and the reason they are useful for validating some INEEL criticality safety calculations. Section 2 provides detailed experiment descriptions based on currently available experiment reports. Section 3 identifies criticality safety validation requirement sources and summarizes requirements that most affect this report. Section 4 identifies relevant hand calculation and computer code calculation methodologies used in the experiment evaluation, benchmark development, and validation calculations. Section 5 provides a detailed experiment evaluation. This section identifies resolutions for currently unavailable and discrepant information. Section 5 also reports calculated experiment uncertainty effects. Section 6 describes the developed benchmarks. Section 6 includes calculated sensitivities to various benchmark features and parameters. Section 7 summarizes validation results. Appendices describe various assumptions and their bases, list experimenter calculations results for items that were independently calculated for this validation work, report other information gathered and developed by SCIENTEC personnel while evaluating these same experiments, and list benchmark sample input and miscellaneous supplementary data.

Putman, Valerie Lee

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Mission-Critical Platform for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) SQL Server 2008 Mission-Critical Platform for OLTP Data Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mission-Critical Platform for Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) SQL Server 2008 Mission Data Collector to troubleshoot and tune SQL Server 2008 instances. Help ensure compliance 2008 high- performance query processing engine for industry leading performance and scalability. Define

Bernstein, Phil

460

Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance.With many authors, creating a document with a single voice is a difficult task. Louise Maffitt, Senior Research Associate, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications at New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology (on contract to Sandia National Laboratories) served a vital role in the development of this document by taking the unedited material (in structured format) and refining the basic language so as to make the flow of the document as close to a single voice as one could hope for. Louise's work made the job of reducing the content to a readable length an easier process. Additional editorial suggestions from the authors themselves, particularly from Sam Flaim, Steve Folga, and Doug Gotham, expedited this process.

Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "level critical cavern" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized damage repair and polishing of silica-based optics using mid- and far-IR CO{sub 2} lasers has been shown to be an effective method for increasing optical damage threshold in the UV. However, it is known that CO{sub 2} laser heating of silicate surfaces can lead to a level of residual stress capable of causing critical fracture either during or after laser treatment. Sufficient control of the surface temperature as a function of time and position is therefore required to limit this residual stress to an acceptable level to avoid critical fracture. In this work they present the results of 351 nm, 3 ns Gaussian damage growth experiments within regions of varying residual stress caused by prior CO{sub 2} laser exposures. Thermally stressed regions were non-destructively characterized using polarimetry and confocal Raman microscopy to measure the stress induced birefringence and fictive temperature respectively. For 1 {approx} 40s square pulse CO{sub 2} laser exposures created over 0.5-1.25 kW/cm{sup 2} with a 1-3 mm 1/e{sup 2} diameter beam (T{sub max} {approx} 1500-3000 K), the critical damage site size leading to fracture increases weakly with peak temperature, but shows a stronger dependence on cooling rate, as predicted by finite element hydrodynamics simulations. Confocal micro-Raman was used to probe structural changes to the glass over different thermal histories and indicated a maximum fictive temperature of 1900K for T{sub max} {ge} 2000 K. The effect of cooling rate on fictive temperature caused by CO{sub 2} laser heating are consistent with finite element calculations based on a Tool-Narayanaswamy relaxation model.

Matthews, M; Stolken, J; Vignes, R; Norton, M

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

462

Levelling of microprofiles in electrodeposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation addresses current distribution phenomena in the smoothing of advancing and receding microprofiles during electrodeposition in the following areas: levelling in the presence of inhibitors, levelling in the presence of corrosive agents, and levelling caused by periodic current reversal. These phenomena are relevant to many commercial electrodeposition processes. Theoretical analysis of moving boundaries in electrodeposition is addressed, focusing on the levelling of microscopic surface contours. The literature relevant to the solution of current distribution problems is reviewed. Convection of inhibitors to the depth of trenches is evaluated using the finite element method, and characterized as a function of Reynolds number, notch angle, and depth. Secondary flows are shown to noticeably enhance transport into microscopic trenches only at high Peclet numbers, i.e. at very high flow velocities. The boundary element method (BEM) is used to analyze levelling caused by inhibitors consumed at the transport limiting rate during electrodeposition. It is predicted that (1) better levelling performance can be obtained if the microscopic surface waviness is oriented perpendicular to the convective flow, and (2) for surface roughness oriented parallel to the flow, there is an optimum boundary layer thickness, or flux of additive, which results in superior levelling performance. Profilometry and photomicrography is applied to obtain the current distribution, current efficiency and levelling performance on novel microprofiled electrodes for two orientations with respect to the fluid flow during nickel electrodeposition in the presence of coumarin. Slightly better levelling occurs in flows transverse to grooves, and the deposit thickness increases in the flow direction. It is concluded that coumarin acts by simultaneously lowering the current efficiency, and blocking metal deposition. 331 refs., 86 figs., 8 tabs.

Jordan, K.G.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Characterization of anisotropy and quantum thermometry in Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick critical systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model describes critical systems with interaction beyond the first-neighbor approximation. Here we address the characterization of LMG systems, i.e. the estimation of anisotropy, and show how criticality may be exploited to improve precision. In particular, we provide exact results for the Quantum Fisher Information of small-size LMG chains made of $N=2, 3$ and $4$ lattice sites and analyze the same quantity in the thermodynamical limit by means of a zero-th order approximation of the system Hamiltonian. We then show that the ultimate bounds to precision may be achieved by tuning the external field and by measuring the total magnetization of the system. We also address the use of LMG systems as quantum thermometers and show that: i) precision is governed by the gap between the lowest energy levels of the systems, ii) field-dependent level crossing provides a resource to extend the operating range of the quantum thermometer.

Giulio Salvatori; Antonio Mandarino; Matteo G. A. Paris

2014-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

464

Nuclear Criticality Safety Application Guide: Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. Many of the facilities requiring a SAR process fissionable material creating the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. MMES has long had a nuclear criticality safety program that provides the technical support to fissionable material operations to ensure the safe processing and storage of fissionable materials. The guiding philosophy of the program has always been the application of the double-contingency principle, which states: {open_quotes}process designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible.{close_quotes} At Energy Systems analyses have generally been maintained to document that no single normal or abnormal operating conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur can cause a nuclear criticality accident. This application guide provides a summary description of the MMES Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the MMES Criticality Accident Alarm System requirements for inclusion in facility SARs. The guide also suggests a way to incorporate the analyses conducted pursuant to the double-contingency principle into the SAR. The prime objective is to minimize duplicative effort between the NCSA process and the SAR process and yet adequately describe the methodology utilized to prevent a nuclear criticality accident.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Wafer-Level Thermocompression Bonds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermocompression bonding of gold is a promising technique for achieving low temperature, wafer-level bonding without the application of an electric field or complicated pre-bond cleaning procedure. The presence of a ductile ...

Tsau, Christine H.

466

High-Level Waste Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

467

Low-Level Waste Requirements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The guide provides criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as low-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV.

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

468

Low Level Heat Recovery Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

level heat recovery technology. This paper discusses heat distribution systems, latest developments in absorption refrigeration and organic Rankine cycles, and pressure, minimization possibilities. The relative merits and economics of the various...

O'Brien, W. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Analytical Computation of Critical Exponents in Several Holographic Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is very interesting that all holographic superconductors, such as s-wave, p-wave and d-wave holographic superconductors, show the universal mean-field critical exponent 1/2 at the critical temperature, just like Gindzburg-Landau (G-L) theory for second order phase transitions. Now it is believed that the universal critical exponents appear because the dual gravity theory is classic in the large $N$ limit. However, even in the large $N$ limit there is an exception called "non-mean-field theory": an extension of the s-wave model with a cubic term of the charged scalar field shows a different critical exponent 1. In this paper, we try to use analytical methods to obtain the critical exponents for these models to see how the properties of the gravity action decides the appearance of the mean-field behaviors. It will be seen that just like the G-L theory, it is the fundamental symmetries rather than the detailed parameters of the bulk theory that lead to the universal properties of the holographic superconducting phase transition. The feasibility of the called "non-mean-field theory" is also discussed.

Hua-Bi Zeng; Xin Gao; Yu Jiang; Hong-Shi Zong

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

470

Critical behaviour in the elastic response of hydrogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly responsive, or 'smart' materials are abundant in Nature; individual cells, for instance, can adapt their mechanical properties to the local surroundings through small changes in their internal structure. An effective method to enhance the responsiveness of synthetic materials is to operate near a critical point, where small variations lead to large changes in material properties. Recent theories have suggested that fibre/polymer networks can show critical behaviour near and below the point of marginal connectivity that separates rigid and floppy states [1-4]. To date, however, experimental evidence for criticality in such networks has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate critical behaviour in the stress response of synthetic hydrogels at low concentrations of order 0.1% volume fraction. We show, using computer simulations, that the observed response to stress can be understood by considering the influence of a zero-temperature critical point, i.e. the Maxwell isostatic point [5], together with the intrinsically nonlinear stretch response of semi-flexible polymer strands in the gel.

M. Dennison; M. Jaspers; P. H. J. Kouwer; C. Storm; A. E. Rowan; F. C. MacKintosh

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

ITL BULLETIN FOR MARCH 2013 NIST TO DEVELOP A CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK TO PROTECT CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ITL BULLETIN FOR MARCH 2013 NIST TO DEVELOP A CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK TO PROTECT CRITICAL, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity," the President has directed NIST to develop a voluntary framework for reducing cyber risks to our nation's critical infrastructure. The Cybersecurity Framework

472

An implicit level set method for modeling hydraulically driven fractures Anthony Peirce a,*, Emmanuel Detournay b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An implicit level set method for modeling hydraulically driven fractures Anthony Peirce a the relevant tip asymptotics in hydraulic fracture simulators is critical for the accuracy and stability for a propagating hydraulic fracture. A number of char- acteristics of the governing equations for hydraulic

Peirce, Anthony

473

Computational Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in the sensitivity methods that were developed and widely used in the 1970s (the FORSS methodology at ORNL among others) has increased recently as a result of potential use in the area of criticality safety data validation procedures to define computational bias, uncertainties and area(s) of applicability. Functional forms of the resulting sensitivity coefficients can be used as formal parameters in the determination of applicability of benchmark experiments to their corresponding industrial application areas. In order for these techniques to be generally useful to the criticality safety practitioner, the procedures governing their use had to be updated and simplified. This paper will describe the resulting sensitivity analysis tools that have been generated for potential use by the criticality safety community.

Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Rearden, B.T.

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

474

Critical interfaces and duality in the Ashkin-Teller model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the numerical measures on different spin interfaces and Fortuin-Kasteleyn (FK) cluster boundaries in the Askhin-Teller (AT) model. For a general point on the AT critical line, we find that the fractal dimension of a generic spin cluster interface can take one of four different possible values. In particular we found spin interfaces whose fractal dimension is d{sub f}=3/2 all along the critical line. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the boundaries of FK clusters was found to satisfy all along the AT critical line a duality relation with the fractal dimension of their outer boundaries. This result provides clear numerical evidence that such duality, which is well known in the case of the O(n) model, exists in an extended conformal field theory.

Picco, Marco [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7589, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Santachiara, Raoul [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS, Batiment 100, Universite Paris-Sud, UMR 8626, F-91405 Orsay (France)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Sharp critical behavior for pinning model in random correlated environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article investigates the effect for random pinning models of long range power-law decaying correlations in the environment. For a particular type of environment based on a renewal construction, we are able to sharply describe the phase transition from the delocalized phase to the localized one, giving the critical exponent for the (quenched) free-energy, and proving that at the critical point the trajectories are fully delocalized. These results contrast with what happens both for the pure model (i.e. without disorder) and for the widely studied case of i.i.d. disorder, where the relevance or irrelevance of disorder on the critical properties is decided via the so-called Harris Criterion.

Quentin Berger; Hubert Lacoin

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

476

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

Cohen, Simon J. (Pleasanton, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

478

Evaluation of Cask Drop Criticality Issues at K Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of ability of Multi-canister Overpack (MCO) to withstand drops at K Basin without exceeding the criticality design requirements. Report concludes the MCO will function acceptably. The spent fuel currently residing in the 105 KE and 105 KW storage basins will be placed in fuel storage baskets which will be loaded into the MCO cask assembly. During the basket loading operations the MCO cask assembly will be positioned near the bottom of the south load out pit (SLOP). The loaded MCO cask will be lifted from the SLOP transferred to the transport trailer and delivered to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). In the wet condition there is a potential for criticality problems if significant changes in the designed fuel configurations occur. The purpose of this report is to address structural issues associated with criticality design features for MCO cask drop accidents in the 105 KE and 105 KW facilities.

GOLDMANN, L.H.

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

479