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1

CO2 Emissions - Guyana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guyana Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guyana Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guyana image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guyana...

2

Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund (GRIF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund (GRIF) Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund (GRIF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund (GRIF) Agency/Company /Organization Government of Norway, Government of Guyana Partner World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Finance, Background analysis Website http://opnew.op.gov.gy/index.p Program Start 2010 Country Guyana, Norway South America, Northern Europe References Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund (GRIF)[1] Overview "Norway will be the first contributor to the GRIF, and will pay US$30 million into the fund when it is established, planned at the end of this month. The payment is in recognition of Guyana's efforts to protect its 16 million hectare rainforest, and follows the memorandum of understanding signed by the two countries in November last year. Norway intends to pay up

3

MEMORANDUM GY  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GY GY DATE--- -- __-______-__ II II s7 /L SITE NAME: CITY:--~~~&L%J _________ ------STATE:-&!=- "";::;:'KA;~+ jqjuM..wti current: ~~~--_~---___-~~~----~~--- Owner contacted q yes if yes, date contacted-- TYPE OF OPERATION ----------------- fl&search & Development 0 Production scale testing 0 Pilot Scale q Bench Scale Process 0 Theoretical Studies 0 s ample & Analysis IX Cny t;-.e i)r&&.h 0 Production 0 Disposal/Storage 0 Prime 0 Subcantractbr Cl Purchase Order 0 Facility Type 0 Manufacturing 0 University 0 Research Organization a Government Sponsored Facility q Other ~~~~~~~~~---~~------~ 0 Other information (i.e., coat + fixed fee, unit price, time 88 material, gtc) ------_ Contract/Purchase Order # ---------------------------------

4

Preparing Guyana's REDD+ Participation: Developing Capacities for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana's REDD+ Participation: Developing Capacities for Guyana's REDD+ Participation: Developing Capacities for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Jump to: navigation, search Name Preparing Guyana's REDD+ Participation: Developing Capacities for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification Agency/Company /Organization Guyana Forestry Commission, The Government of Norway Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Workshop, Guide/manual Website http://unfccc.int/files/method Country Guyana UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References Preparing Guyana's REDD+ Participation[1] Overview "In this context, the overall goal of the activities reported here are to develop a road map for the establishment of a MRV system for REDD+

5

Lesotho: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lesotho: Energy Resources Lesotho: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"390px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-29.5,"lon":28.25,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

6

Guyana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana: Energy Resources Guyana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"390px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":5,"lon":-59,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

7

Guyana-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Guyana-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Agency/Company /Organization Inter-American Development Bank, World Watch Institute (WWI) Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Finance, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -Roadmap, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Program Start 2012 Program End 2012 Country Guyana South America

8

Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Agency/Company /Organization: Guyana Office of Climate Change Topics: Low emission development planning, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Country: Guyana South America Coordinates: 4.860416°, -58.93018° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":4.860416,"lon":-58.93018,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

9

Passive solar rondavel in the mountains of Lesotho  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, construction and performance of a passie solar rondavel in Lesotho, a country in Southern Africa is described. A rondavel is a round building with stone walls and thatching grass for the roof. The one door is usually the major source of natural light and non-combusted heat energy in these houses which average about four meters in diameter. This new design is one possible response to addressing the problem of heating, without relying on the open fire combustion of dung and wood, two widely used fuels which are in short supply.

Klein, G.; Wyatt, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Guyana-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Guyana-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Agency/Company /Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Department for International Development, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) Partner Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Caribbean Community Heads of State (CARICOM) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Adaptation, Background analysis, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways analysis Website http://cdkn.org/project/planni Program Start 2009 Program End 2015 Country Guyana South America References CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework[1]

11

RenGyS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RenGyS RenGyS Jump to: navigation, search Name RenGyS Place Shanghai, China Sector Renewable Energy Product RenGyS is an independent renewable energy developer focused on the Chinese energy market. Coordinates 31.247709°, 121.472618° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.247709,"lon":121.472618,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

12

Guyana-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Guyana-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Guyana-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Agency/Company /Organization ClimateWorks, Project Catalyst, McKinsey and Company Sector Energy, Land Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Country Guyana South America References LCGP support[1] Low Carbon Growth Plans Advancing Good Practice, August 2009[2] Overview "Achieving development goals depends on enabling poorer countries to accelerate or maintain robust economic growth despite the disproportionate impacts of climate change which they face. The central challenge is to enable all countries to strengthen delivery of their own development visions and goals through low-carbon, climate-resilient, or 'climate

13

20 Gy Versus 44 Gy of Supplemental External Beam Radiotherapy With Palladium-103 for Patients With Greater Risk Disease: Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The necessity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as a supplement to prostate brachytherapy remains unknown. We report brachytherapy outcomes for patients with higher risk features randomized to substantially different supplemental EBRT regimens. Methods and Materials: Between December 1999 and June 2004, 247 patients were randomized to 20 Gy vs. 44 Gy EBRT followed by a palladium-103 boost (115 Gy vs. 90 Gy). The eligibility criteria included clinically organ-confined disease with Gleason score 7-10 and/or pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 10-20 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.0 years. Biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) was defined as a PSA level of {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. The median day 0 prescribed dose covering 90% of the target volume was 125.7%; 80 men received androgen deprivation therapy (median, 4 months). Multiple parameters were evaluated for their effect on bPFS. Results: For the entire cohort, the cause-specific survival, bPFS, and overall survival rates were 97.7%, 93.2%, and 80.8% at 8 years and 96.9%, 93.2%, and 75.4% at 10 years, respectively. The bPFS rate was 93.1% and 93.4% for the 20-Gy and 44-Gy arms, respectively (p = .994). However, no statistically significant differences were found in cause-specific survival or overall survival were identified. When stratified by PSA level of {<=}10 ng/mL vs. >10 ng/mL, Gleason score, or androgen deprivation therapy, no statistically significant differences in bPFS were discerned between the two EBRT regimens. On multivariate analysis, bPFS was most closely related to the preimplant PSA and clinical stage. For patients with biochemically controlled disease, the median PSA level was <0.02 ng/mL. Conclusion: The results of the present trial strongly suggest that two markedly different supplemental EBRT regimens result in equivalent cause-specific survival, bPFS, and overall survival. It is probable that the lack of benefit for a higher supplemental EBRT dose is the result of the high-quality brachytherapy dose distributions.

Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W. [Schiffler Cancer Center/Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology Inc, Mountain View, CA (United States); Orio, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adamovich, Edward [Department of Pathology, Wheeling Hospital, Wheeling, WV (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Figure 1:Energy Consumption in USg gy p 1E Roberts, Energy in US  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: High Voltage DC Charging of fa Nissan Leaf. E Roberts, Energy in US 53 NPC Future Transportation FuelsFigure 1:Energy Consumption in USg gy p 2008 1E Roberts, Energy in US Source: www.eia.gov #12;Figure 2: US Liquid Demand by Sector and Fuel 2E Roberts, Energy in US Source: EIA: Annual Energy Outlook

Sutton, Michael

15

Isotope GeoloGy1 Unlike physics or chemistry, teaching isotope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotope GeoloGy1 Unlike physics or chemistry, teaching isotope geochemistry is difficult because. Writing an effective book on geochemistry is thus even more difficult. Claude Allègre's Isotope Geology geochemistry book, given how effective the texts by Faure and Dickin are. However, Allègre's Isotope Geology

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

16

L NATJDNAL BNII?GY TiEHMOLOGY LIBOCAYOlY V.0. DEPARTMENT OF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NATJDNAL BNII?GY TiEHMOLOGY LIBOCAYOlY NATJDNAL BNII?GY TiEHMOLOGY LIBOCAYOlY V.0. DEPARTMENT OF Albany, OR .Morgantown, WV s Plllsburgh, PA @ENERGY Januaty 27,201 1 MEMORANDUM FOR MAXI( J. MATARRESE DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENT, SECURITY, SAFETY AND HEALTH l c ? FROM: \ DIVISION SUBJECT: Amual Natioilal Enviro~l~neiltal Policy Act (NEPA) Planning Summary for 2011 The attached documents conlprise the 201 1 Allnual NEPA Planning Summary for the National Enexgy TechnologyLaboratory. The infoimation is presented according to the guidance and fonnats provided by DOE'SNEPA office. As required by the Order 451.1B, the Annual NEPA Pla~lning Siimmary will be made available to the public. Please contact nte for any additional info~.mation regarding r\lETL,'s NEPA plans. Distribution: A. Chlgini

17

GyPSuM: A Detailed Tomographic Model of Mantle Density and Seismic Wave Speeds  

SciTech Connect

GyPSuM is a tomographic model fo mantle seismic shear wave (S) speeds, compressional wave (P) speeds and detailed density anomalies that drive mantle flow. the model is developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times (P and S) and geodynamic observations while considering realistic mineral physics parameters linking the relative behavior of mantle properties (wave speeds and density). Geodynamic observations include the (up to degree 16) global free-air gravity field, divergence of the tectonic plates, dynamic topography of the free surface, and the flow-induced excess ellipticity of the core-mantle boundary. GyPSuM is built with the philosophy that heterogeneity that most closely resembles thermal variations is the simplest possible solution. Models of the density field from Earth's free oscillations have provided great insight into the density configuration of the mantle; but are limited to very long-wavelength solutions. Alternatively, simply scaling higher resolution seismic images to density anomalies generates density fields that do not satisfy geodynamic observations. The current study provides detailed density structures in the mantle while directly satisfying geodynamic observations through a joint seismic-geodynamic inversion process. Notable density field observations include high-density piles at the base of the superplume structures, supporting the fundamental results of past normal mode studies. However, these features are more localized and lower amplitude than past studies would suggest. When we consider all seismic anomalies in GyPSuM, we find that P and S-wave speeds are strongly correlated throughout the mantle. However, correlations between the high-velocity S zones in the deep mantle ({approx} 2000 km depth) and corresponding P-wave anomalies are very low suggesting a systematic divergence from simplified thermal effects in ancient subducted slab anomalies. Nevertheless, they argue that temperature variations are the primary cause of P-wave, S-wave, and density anomalies in the mantle.

Simmons, N A; Forte, A M; Boschi, L; Grand, S P

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT:County of Escambia. FL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, , ... ~. u.s. DEPAR n-IENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT:County of Escambia. FL PROJECT TITLE: Road Prison Geothermal Earth Coupled HVAC Upgrade Page 1 of2 STATE: FL Funding Opportunity Announcement Numbtr Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-OOOOO13 DE-EEOOOO764.oo1 0 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action. as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination; ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering (including, but not limited to, literature surveys, inventories, audits), data analysis (including computer modeling), document preparation (such as conceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply

19

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENER ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION Page 1 of2 RECIPI[NT:Oklahoma Municipal Powwer Authority STATE: OK PROJECT TITLE: OKLAHOMA SEP ARRA· OMPA Large Systems Request AI Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Proc:urtmtnt Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CIO Number DE-FOA-OOOOO52 DE·EE0133 GF0-000133-062 Based on my review orlbe information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authoriHd UDder DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: B5.19 Ground source heat pumps The installation, mocMcabon, operation and removal of commercially available smallscale ground source heat pumps to support operatloos In single facilities (suCh as a school Of community center) or contiguous facilities

20

DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT M~~AGEMENT CE"lTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENER ENER GY EERE PROJECT M~~AGEMENT CE"lTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT: Youngstown State University PROJECT TITLE: Center for Efficiency in Sustainable Energy Systems Page 1 of2 STATE : OH Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number em Number DE-EEOOOO366 GFQ-10-143 0 Based on my review arlhe information concerning tbe proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Offictr (authorized under DOE O rder 4SI.lA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Infonnation galhenng (including, but oot limited to, literature surveys, inventones, audits), data analYSIs (induding computer modeling), document preparation (such as cooceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlIIINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

.0I0J. .0I0J. u .s . DEPARnvIEN T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlIIINATION RECIPIENT:Town of Irmo PROJECT TITLE: Irma Charing Cross Sidewalk Project ARRA·EECBG Page I of2 STATE: SC Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procur ement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number EEOOOO950/000 DE-EEOO00950 0 Based OD my review ortbe information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 45I.1A), I have made the following determination : ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 8 5.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

22

U.S. DEPARTI\IENT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EMENT CENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENER ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EMENT CENT ER NEPA DETERl\lINATION RECIPIENT:AA Solar Products PROJECT TITLE: AA Solar Tracking System Factory Page 1 of2 STATE: IL Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number em Number DE-FOA-OOOOOS2 EEOOOO119 GFO-1O-331 EE119 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Omen (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I ban made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description : 81 .31 Relocation of machinery and equipment, such as analytical laboratory apparatus, electronic hardware, maintenance equipment, and health and safety equipment, including minor construction necessary for removal and installation, where uses of the relocated items will be similar to their former uses and consistent with the general missions of the

23

T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MAN Au EMENT CENTER NEPA DE TERl\IINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IEN IEN T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MAN Au EMENT CENTER NEPA DE TERl\IINATION RECIPIENT:$acramenio Municipal Utility District PROJECT TITLE : CRED - SMUD: Van Warmerdam Dairy Page 1 of2 STATE: CA Funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-OOOO122 Procurement Instrument Number DE-EE0003070 NEPA Control Number CID Number o Based on my review of the info r mation concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized undu DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering (including , but not limited to, literature surveys, inventories, audits), data analysis (including computer modeling). document preparation (such as conceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply

24

RECIPIENT:Louisvilie Metro u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Louisvilie Metro Louisvilie Metro u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EM ENT CENTER NEPA DETERl\lINATION PROJECT TITLE: Green Jobs Revolving Loan Fund Page 1 01'2 STATE: KY Funding Opportunity Announcement Number 09EE003966 Procurement Instrument Number DE-EEOOOO729.001 NEPA Control Number em Number o Based on my review orthe information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase tI1e indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

25

U.S. DEPARTI'vIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARTI'vIENT OF ENER DEPARTI'vIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DEIER1\IINATION RECIPIENT:City of Fort Wayne Page 1 of2 STATE: IN PROJECf TITLE: EECBG Fort Wayne , Indiana ARRA-EECBG (S) (SOW for Revised Activity #1 and Activity #3) Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-OOOOO13 DE-EEOO00825 0 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: B5.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

26

u.s. DEPARUvlllNT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EM ENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARUvlllNT OF ENER DEPARUvlllNT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EM ENT CENTER NEPA DETERl\IlNATION RECIPIENT:MI Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth PROJECT TITL E : SEP - Green Chemistry - CEAM Phase 3 - KTM Industries Page 1 oI2 STATE: Ml Funding Opportunity Announcement Number DE-FOA-OOOOO52 Procurement Instrument Number DE-EEOOOO166 NEPA Control Number em Num ber GFO-OOOO166-032 GOO Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed ac tion, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination : ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

27

GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlvIINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

n-IENT OF ENER n-IENT OF ENER GY EE RE PROJECT MANAG EMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlvIINATION Page 1 01'2 RECIPIENT:COUNTY OF MONTEREY, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS STATE: CO PROJECf TITLE: RECOVERY ACT: COUNTY OF MONTEREY, CA ENERGY EFFICI ENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT Funding Opportunity Announcement Numi>t'r Procurement Instrumcnt Number NEPA Control Number em Number DE-FOA-OOOOO 13 OE-EEOOOO897.001 0 Based on my review of the inronnation concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the (ollowing determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: B5.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financia

28

RECIPIENT:MRC Polymers U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMDIT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

MRC Polymers MRC Polymers U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMDIT CENTER NEPA DETERMrNATION PROJECf TITLE: MRC PET Recycling Facility Page 1 of2 STATE: IL Funding Opportunity Announcement Numbu Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number elD Number DE-FOA-OCX)()()52 EEOOOO119 EE119 Based on my review of the inronnation conenning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Offker (authorized undu DOE Order 45I.1A), I have made the rollowing determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical assistance to individuals (such as builders, owners

29

U.S. DEPARTU E NT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEM ENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARTU DEPARTU E NT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEM ENT CENTER NEPA DETERl\lINATION RECIPIENT:lllinois Department of Commerce & Economic Opportunity PROJECT TITLE: Joliet Junior College; Joliet Junior College Facilities Building Page 1 of2 STATE: IL Funding Opportunity Announcement Numbtr Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-OOOOOS2 EE119 Based on my review orlbe information concerning tbe proposed action, 8S NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following detennination: ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description : 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

30

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Peoria Peoria u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION PROJECT TITLE: Storage Tanks and Dispensers for E85 and Biodiesel (IL) Page 1 of2 STATE: Il Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE·EE

31

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U)~) U)~) u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT:Arizona Governor's Office of Energy Policy PROJECT TITLE : Arizona Rooftop Challenge (ARC) Page 1 of2 STATE: AZ Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number cm Number DE-FOA-Q000549 DE-EEOOO5693 GFO-OOOO5693-001 0 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 45 1.1A),1 have made the following determination: CX, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBE R: Description: A 11 Technical advice and assistance to organizations Technica! advice and planning assistance to international , national, state, and local organizations. A9 Information gathering, analysis, and dissemination

32

U.S. DEPARTlVIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT M ANAGEM ENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0I.0 ~ \ 0I.0 ~ \ U.S. DEPARTlVIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT M ANAGEM ENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT:ldaho Office of Energy Resources - City of Nampa PROJECT TITLE: SEP ARRA REEZ Nampa Wastewater Treatment Plant Biogas Boiler Project Page 1 of2 STATE: 10 Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number elD Number DE-FOA-OOOOOS2 DE-EEOO0141 GFO-09-156-007 0 Based on my review orlhe information concerning tbe proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (author ized under DOE Order 4SI. IA), I have made the (ollowing determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do nol increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical

33

U.S. DEPARTIlIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENER ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT: Hi-Q Geophysical Inc Page I of2 STATE: NV PROJECT TITLE: Phase 3 - Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems .' unding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-PS36-08G09800B DE-FG36-08G018191 GFO-G018191-003 G018191 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEP A Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the following determination: ex. EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering (including, but not limited to, literature surveys, inventories, audits), data analysis (including computer modeling), document preparation (such as conceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply

34

P,OU)JI U.S. DEPARTIIIEN T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OU)JI OU)JI U.S. DEPARTIIIEN T OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DE TERlVlINATION RECIPIENT:City of St Petersburg PROJECT TITLE: EECBG Gir( of St. Petersburg· Commercial Energy Efficiency Audit Program Page 1 0[2 STATE: FL Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-0000013 DE-EE00007BO 0 Based on my review or the infonnation concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 45t.IA), I have made th l~ (ollowing determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A9 Information gathering (including, but not limited 10, literature surveys, inventories, audits), data analysis (including computer modeling), document preparation (such as conceptual design or feasibility studies, analytical energy supply

35

RECIPIENT:NREL U.S. DEPARTUENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT M ANAGEMENT CENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DEPARTUENT OF ENER DEPARTUENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT M ANAGEMENT CENT ER NEPA DETERl\IINATION PROJECT TITLE: NREL Bus Service to Off-Site Parking lot; NREL Tracking No. 10-016 Page 1 of2 STATE: CO FUnding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurcmtntlnstrumtnt Number NEPA Control Number CIO Number NREl-10-016 G01 0337 Based on my review orlhe information concerning the proposed action, as N[PA Compliance Offi<:er (authoriud under DOE Order 4Sl.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: DOE/EA· 1440-5·1 .7 Final Supplement to Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) South Table Mountain Complex (May 2008) Transfer, lease, disposition , or acquisition of interests in personal property (e.g., equipment and materials) or

36

eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly as a means to an end, such as the development of an indigenous capability in science and technology for national development. The expectation is that informed opinion from the scientific community at the institutional, national, and international levels can be used to influence the decision makers and donors who are in a position to deliver better Internet capabilities.

Barton, C.E.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; /Lab.Phys.Plasmas, Saint Maur des Fosses; Barry, B.; /Assoc.African Univ., Accra; Chukwuma; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC; Kalim, U.; /Pakistan Natl. U.; Mebrahtu, A.; /Mekelle U.; Petitdidier, M.; /Lab. d'Atmos., Velizy; Rabiu, B.; /Federal Tech. U., Akure; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffer some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly as a means to an end, such as the development of an indigenous capability in science and technology for national development. The expectation is that informed opinion from the scientific community at the institutional, national, and international levels can be used to influence the decision makers and donors who are in a position to deliver better Internet capabilities.

Barton, C. E.

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

38

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

39

RECIPI ENT;Kitsap County u.s. DEPARTlvIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENT;Kitsap County ENT;Kitsap County u.s. DEPARTlvIENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENT ER NEPA DETERlVITNATION PROJECT TITLE: EECBG * Energy Service Corps (SOW) Page 1 01'2 STATE: WA Funding Opportunity Announcem ent Number DE-FOA..QOOOO13 Procurement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-EEOOOO853 '1t;..o -6ObC>g5~- 0(.::)\ EE81128 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.1A), I have made the foUowing determination: CX, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 85.1 Aclions 10 conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase Ihe indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances, These actions may involve financial and technical

40

QUARTER SH OR T-T ER M EN ER GY OU TL OO K QUAR TERL Y PROJ  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2 QUARTER SH OR T-T ER M EN ER GY OU TL OO K QUAR TERL Y PROJ ECTIO NS ENERGY INFORMA TION ADMINIST RATION May 1991 This publication may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. Purchasing in formation for this or other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications may be obtained from the Government Printing Office or ElA's National Energy Information Center. Questions on energy statistics should be directed to the Center by mail, telephone, or telecommunications device for the hearing impaired. Addresses, telephone numbers, and hours are as follows: National Energy Information Center, El-231 Energy Information Administration Forrestal Building, Room 1F-048 Washington, DC 20585 (202) 586-8800 Telecommunications Device for the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Radiotherapy Doses of 80 Gy and Higher Are Associated With Lower Mortality in Men With Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 prostate cancer (PCa) are assumed to have a high risk of micrometastatic disease at presentation. However, local failure is also a major problem. We sought to establish the importance of more aggressive local radiotherapy (RT) to {>=}80 Gy. Methods and Materials: There were 226 men treated consecutively with RT {+-} ADT from 1988 to 2002 for GS 8-10 PCa. Conventional, three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated (IM) RT was used. Radiation dose was divided into three groups: (1) <75 Gy (n = 50); (2) 75-79.9 Gy (n = 60); or (3) {>=}80 Gy (n = 116). The endpoints examined included biochemical failure (BF; nadir + 2 definition), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality (OM). Results: Median follow-up was 66, 71, and 58 months for Groups 1, 2, and 3. On Fine and Gray's competing risk regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced BF were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.011) and androgen deprivation therapy duration {>=}24 months (p = 0.033). In a similar model of DM, only RT dose {>=}80 Gy was significant (p = 0.007). On Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced OM were RT dose {>=}80 Gy (p = 0.035) and T category (T3/4 vs. T1, p = 0.041). Dose was not a significant determinant of cause-specific mortality. Results for RT dose were similar in a model with RT dose and ADT duration as continuous variables. Conclusion: The results indicate that RT dose escalation to {>=}80 Gy is associated with lower risks of BF, DM, and OM in men with GS 8-10 PCa, independently of androgen deprivation therapy.

Pahlajani, Niraj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (United States); Ruth, Karen J. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chen, David Y.T. [Department of Urology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Price, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan, E-mail: apollack@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

SN 2006gy: Discovery of the most luminous supernova ever recorded, powered by the death of an extremely massive star like Eta Carinae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) We report our discovery and observations of the peculiar Type IIn supernova SN2006gy in NGC1260, revealing that it reached a peak magnitude of -22, making it the most luminous supernova ever recorded. It is not yet clear what powers the total radiated energy of 1e51 erg, but we argue that any mechanism -- thermal emission, circumstellar interaction, or 56Ni decay -- requires a very massive progenitor star. The circumstellar interaction hypothesis would require truly exceptional conditions around the star probably experienced an LBV eruption like the 19th century eruption of eta Carinae. Alternatively, radioactive decay of 56Ni may be a less objectionable hypothesis. That power source would imply a large Ni mass of 22 Msun, requiring that SN2006gy was a pair-instability supernova where the star's core was obliterated. SN2006gy is the first supernova for which we have good reason to suspect a pair-instability explosion. Based on a number of lines of evidence, we rule out the hypothesis that SN 2006gy was a ``Type IIa'' event. Instead, we propose that the progenitor may have been a very massive evolved object like eta Carinae that, contrary to expectations, failed to completely shed its massive hydrogen envelope before it died. Our interpretation of SN2006gy implies that the most massive stars can explode earlier than expected, during the LBV phase, preventing them from ever becoming Wolf-Rayet stars. SN2006gy also suggests that the most massive stars can create brilliant supernovae instead of dying ignominious deaths through direct collapse to a black hole.

Nathan Smith; Weidong Li; Ryan J. Foley; J. Craig Wheeler; Dave Pooley; Ryan Chornock; Alexei V. Filippenko; Jeffrey M. Silverman; Robert Quimby; Joshua S. Bloom; Charles Hansen

2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

43

Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

26, 2011 26, 2011 Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy J. Tyson McDonald, Julia Fox, Heather Szelag, Annie Kang, Heiko Enderling, Peter Nowd, Douglas Scheinder, Giannoula Lakka Klement, Ingolf Tuerk, and Lynn Hlatky Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Steward St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, 736 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02135. Primary tissue represents a better model for studies than immortalized cell lines that are adapted

44

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

45

Slide23 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Slide23 Slide23 Slide23 Developing Country Access Afghanistan Guatemala Nigeria Albania Guinea Pakistan Algeria Guinea-Bissau Palestinian Territories (West Bank/ Gaza) Angola Guyana Papua New Guinea Armenia Haiti Paraguay Azerbaijan Honduras Peru Bangladesh Indonesia Philippines Belize Iraq Rwanda Benin Jordan Samoa Bhutan Kenya Sao Tome and Principe Bolivia Kiribati Senegal Burkina Faso Kyrgyzstan Sierra Leone Burundi Lao People's Democratic Republic Solomon Islands Cambodia Lesotho Somalia Cameroon Liberia Sri Lanka Cape Verde Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Swaziland Central African Republic Madagascar Tajikistan Chad Malawi Tanzania, United Republic of Colombia Maldives Thailand Comoros Mali Timor-Leste Congo Marshall Islands Togo Congo, The Democratic Republic of Mauritania Tonga

46

Guyana - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

US EIA provides data, forecasts, country analysis brief and other analyses, focusing on the energy industry including oil, natural gas and electricity.

47

Guyana Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil exports are ...

48

Guyana-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy,...

49

Reply to comment | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Reply to comment Reply to comment Slide23 Submitted by gibsone on Fri, 2013-08-30 06:22 FY2011-hitson Slide23 Developing Country Access Afghanistan Guatemala Nigeria Albania Guinea Pakistan Algeria Guinea-Bissau Palestinian Territories (West Bank/ Gaza) Angola Guyana Papua New Guinea Armenia Haiti Paraguay Azerbaijan Honduras Peru Bangladesh Indonesia Philippines Belize Iraq Rwanda Benin Jordan Samoa Bhutan Kenya Sao Tome and Principe Bolivia Kiribati Senegal Burkina Faso Kyrgyzstan Sierra Leone Burundi Lao People's Democratic Republic Solomon Islands Cambodia Lesotho Somalia Cameroon Liberia Sri Lanka Cape Verde Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Swaziland Central African Republic Madagascar Tajikistan Chad Malawi Tanzania, United Republic of Colombia Maldives Thailand Comoros Mali Timor-Leste

50

Loanwords in Kali'na, a Cariban language of French Guyana Odile Renault-Lescure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[p]'-nen `teacher' school make-NMLZ.AGT (d) sopo `soap' sopo sopo t-yana-le-n `bar of soap' soap ADV

51

Guyana Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel : 0 : 2011-2011: Special Naphthas: 0: 0 : 0: 0: 0: 2004-2012: Residual Fuel Oil : 0: 0: 0: 0: 0: 2004-2012: Waxes: 0: 0 : 0: 0: 2004-2012 ...

52

Incorporating technology into the Lesotho science curriculum: investigating the gap between the intended and the implemented curriculum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The inclusion of technology in the school curriculum has been a concern in many countries following the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for (more)

Ntoi, Litšabako

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Energy Balance and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Conventional and No-Till Maize Fields in Lesotho, Southern Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The capacity of soils to sequester carbon is currently of scientific interest because soil management impacts carbon dioxide flux and can mitigate the effects (more)

Bruns, Wendy Anne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Page 1 of2 Page 1 of2 RECIPIENT:Hudson Valley Community College sub: Mohaw k Valley Community College STATE: NY PROJECT TITLE: Northeast Photovaltaic Regional Training Provider Funding Opportunity Announc~mtnl Number Procu~mtnt Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DE-EE-O:Xl2087 OE-EEOOO2087 GF().{)()()2087-OO7 Based on my review orthe inform ation concerning the proPOSH action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the (oUowinli': determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A91nfonnation Information gathering (indudlng, but not limited to, literature surveys, Inventones, site Visits, and audits), gathering, analysis, data analysis (including, but not limited to, computer modeling), document preparation (induding, but

55

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

REClPIENT:Optony Inc. REClPIENT:Optony Inc. PROJECf Southwest Solar Transformation Initiative TITLE: Page 1 of2 STATE: CA Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procuremrnt Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number DOE·FQA.Q()()()549 DE-EEOOO5682 GF0-0005682-OO1 0 Based on my review of the information concerning the proposw action, as NEPA Compliance Offic:er (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA),1 have made the follOwing determination : ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Ocscription : A11 Technical advice a nd as s istance to organizations Technical advice and planning assistance to international, national, state, and local organizabons A91nf ormation gathering. analysis, and dissemination Informabon gathenng (indudlng, but not limited 10, literature surveys, inventories, site VISits, and audits), data analysis

56

Tl\\lENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

building codes. The City has developed an Owner's Project Requirements document for LEED Fundamental Commissioning and would be incorporating LEED standards with the goal of...

57

Scientific and Engineering Challenges and New Strategy for Development of gy p  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspector General*) *www.ig.energy.gov/documents/CalendarYear2003/ig-0632.pdf CANDU Reactors: 27 kg from over 40 years, $30M/kg (current) CANDU Supply w/o Fusion Tritium decays at 5.47% per year

California at Los Angeles, University of

58

Energy Efficiency Services Sector:gy y Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

& greenhouse gas reduction goals Are there adequately trained people to design, manage, and install and training organizations (n=33) ­ Other subject-area experts (n~50) · Literature review; analysis workers? ­ What training will be required? ­ What bottlenecks to expanding theWhat bottlenecks

59

Analysis of AGS E880 polarimeter data at Gy = 12.5.  

SciTech Connect

Data were collected with the AGS internal (E880) polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5 during the FY04 polarized proton run. Measurements were made with forward scintillation counters in coincidence with recoil counter telescopes, permitting an absolute calibration of the polarimeter for both nylon and carbon targets. The results are summarized and they will also be useful for an absolute calibration of the AGS CNI polarimeter at G{gamma} = 12.5.

Cadman, R.; Huang, H.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D. (High Energy Physics); (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENER GY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RECIPIENT: RECIPIENT: Govemor's Office of Energy Independence and Security PROJECT TITL.E: State Energy Program Year 2012 Fonnula Grant Page 1 of2 STATE: ME Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement Instrument Number N[PA Control Number CID Number DE-FOA-0000643 R130272 GF0-0130272-OO1 Based on my ~view oftht information concerning the proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 451.IA), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, tiS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: A11 Technical advice and assistance to organizations A9 Information gathering, analysis, and dissemination Rational for determination: Technical adVice and planning assistance to International. nabonal state and local organtzatlons InfOOTlaboo gathenng (indudlng. but not limited to, literature surveys InventOrieS. Site visits and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Emergency Medicine in Guyana: Lessons from Developing the Countrys First Degree-conferring Residency Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emergency medicine training program at the University ofterm emergency medicine training programs in low and middle-medicine residency training program. Residency development

Forget, Nicolas Pierre; Rohde, John Paul; Rambaran, Navindranauth; Rambaran, Madan; Wright, Seth Warren

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

LAC Regional Platform Workshop Insurance & Visas | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya Kirguizistn Kosovo Kuwait Lesotho Liberia * Lybia Lebanon Madagascar Malaysia Malawi Mali Morocco Mauritania Moldavia Mongolia Mozambique Namibia Nepal Nicaragua...

63

California Reach StandardsCalifornia Reach Standards for Building Energy Efficiencyfor Building Energy Efficiencyo u d g e gy c e cyo u d g e gy c e cy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

td Li hti· High Efficacy Outdoor Lighting · Service Water Heating in Large Restaurants ­ 15% Solar Fraction or 95% water heater efficiencyor 95% water heater efficiency Tier I · 95% of Energy Budget ­ Tier, Part 11 - Residential Changes since May 2012 Proposal · Removal of Maximum Hot Water Pipe Volume from

64

Set To Save *and* AB 811Set To Save and AB 811 Energy Independence Program (EIP)gy p g ( )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Office of Energy ManagementPatrick Conlon, Director, Office of Energy Management 73-710 Fred Waring Drive

Kammen, Daniel M.

65

u.s. DEPARThIENT OF F NER GY EERE PROJECT MAN AGEM EN T CEN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

govemments. Covered actions include, but are not limited to: programmed lowering of thermostat settings, placement of timers on hot water heaters, installation of solar hot water...

66

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering GE O RGIA IN S TITU TE O F TE CHN O LO GY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

varying concentrations of by-products of bio-fuel energy generation #12;CEE @ GT TSE TRANSPORTATION environment. This diverse and dynamic field impacts society by advancing civilization and quality of life. #12 Fluid Mechanics and Water Resources + Geosystems Engineering + Structural Engineering, Mechanics

Wang, Yuhang

67

Gases to gases n Scanning the horizon n Hunting the last ice sheet n Bugs, bogs and gravity www.planetearth.nerc.ac.uk Summer2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Rewa Head Anacondas and giant otters ­ experiencing Guyana's biodiversity up close! 15 Scanning

68

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Reunion Rwanda Saint Helena Sao Tome and Principe ...

69

Reply to comment | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

FY2008-icsti Slide08 Current Information Partners in WorldWideScience.org (cont.) Kenya Korea Lesotho Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Malawi Mauritius The Netherlands New Zealand...

70

Slide23 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

states of the UN Commission on Science and Technology for development: Brazil Chile China Democratic Republic of Congo Cuba Finland France Ghana India Latvia Lesotho Mauritius...

71

Slide08 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Current Information Partners in WorldWideScience.org (cont.) Kenya Korea Lesotho Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Malawi Mauritius The Netherlands New Zealand Nigeria Portugal Senegal South...

72

About TMS Membership: e-Memberships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indonesia Iran, Islamic Rep. Iraq Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem Rep. Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Lesotho Liberia. Macedonia, FYR

73

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase p72, Mol Cell Biol. A.O.asp-glu-ala-asp/his) RNA helicase that may alter protein-RNA

Wyrobek, A. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Considerations for Conversion or Replacement of Medium-Voltage Air-Magnetic Circuit Breakers Using Vacuum or SF6 Technolo gy: Revision to TR-106761  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obsolescence and aging of medium-voltage circuit breakers in nuclear power plants are realities. Plants that are pursuing plant life extension must decide whether to continue to maintain their existing obsolete circuit breakers or to convert or replace them with newer technology. This document provides relevant and useful information regarding conversions and replacement circuit breakers.

2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.B. Mikkelsen, Ionizing radiation-induced, mitochondria-W.K. Rorrer, P.B. Chen, Radiation-induced proliferation ofresponse genes to ionizing radiation in human lymphoblastoid

Wyrobek, A. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Newsletter Signup Form  

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EETD NEWSLETTER - MANAGE SUBSCRIPTIONS EETD NEWSLETTER - MANAGE SUBSCRIPTIONS (red fields are required) Manage subscriptions: Subscribe Unsubscribe Name E-Mail Affiliation Address Address (line 2) City State/Province Zip/Postal Code Country (please select a country) none Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegowina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia (Hrvatska) Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France France, Metropolitan French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard and Mc Donald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran (Islamic Republic of) Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pakistan Palau Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint LUCIA Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia (Slovak Republic) Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Sri Lanka St. Helena St. Pierre and Miquelon Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan, Province of China Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Viet Nam Virgin Islands (British) Virgin Islands (U.S.) Wallis and Futuna Islands Western Sahara Yemen Yugoslavia Zambia Zimbabwe

77

ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea South America, Eastern Asia, Middle Africa,...

78

High Definition Dynamic Reservoir Characterization for CO2 Management, Delhi Field, Louisiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guyana Europe, Asia and Pacific Crude petroleum Azerbaijan, Papua New Guinea, Brunei Darussalam, Norway & coconut oil Kiribati Cotton Pakistan, Uzbekistan Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan Source: Cashin

79

Questionnaire | BNL Guest, User and Visitor Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard...

80

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gambia Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Great Britain andNorthern Ireland Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong...

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81

Register as a New User  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland Northern, Ireland Republic of, Israel, Italy...

82

Registration Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holland, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland Northern, Ireland Republic of, Israel, Italy...

83

Export.gov - Trade Leads  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea...

84

Export.gov - Trade Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea...

85

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

PU Kenya KE Lesotho LT Liberia LI Libya LY Madagascar MA Malawi MI Mali ML Mauritania MR Mauritius MP Morocco MO Mozambique MZ Namibia WA Niger NG Nigeria NI Reunion ...

86

E F F I C I E N CY A N D R E N E W A B L E E N E R GY D IV I S I O N CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

," is a one-piece integral unit containing a power supply, transformer, heat sink, and LED circuit board COMMISSION Nonresidential Lighting Because power input per square foot is calculated in nonresidential(s), and the parts which connect the lamp(s) to a power supply. · An LED trim, commonly referred to as a "module

87

APPENDIX C1 Foreign Per Diem Rates -Effective October 1, 2010 Country Location  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fishmeal Peru #12;7 Rice Guyana Europe and Asia and the Pacific Crude petroleum Azerbaijan, Papua New Zealand Copra & coconut oil Kiribati Cotton Pakistan Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Uzbekistan Turkmenistan Source

88

EARTH-SCIENCES CONTEMPORARY ART  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Age of the Batoka basalts, northern Zimbabwe, and the duration of Karoo Large Igneous Province.98N, 260.68E, A95 = 14.98. In South Africa, Lesotho, and Namibia the vast majority of Karoo basalts difference is real and hence confirms the estimate of $5 Myr for the duration of emplacement of the Karoo

Polteau, Stephane

89

CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

Duke, J.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

GEOL 102: Historical Geology Exam 1 Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cape Town Maseru Johannesburg International boundary Post-Karoo cover Karooand later lavas Karoo sediments Cape Fold Belt Other pre-Karoo rocks Windhoek 27°E 29°E 29°S 30°S 31°S 29°S 30°S 27°E 28°E 29°E 0 100Km Bloemfontein Umtata Lesotho Basalt Karoo sediments International boundary Sampled sites Bushme n

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

91

Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 90, 2, pp. 312323, April 2000 Earthquake Prediction by Animals: Evolution and Sensory Perception  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cape Town Maseru Johannesburg International boundary Post-Karoo cover Karooand later lavas Karoo sediments Cape Fold Belt Other pre-Karoo rocks Windhoek 27°E 29°E 29°S 30°S 31°S 29°S 30°S 27°E 28°E 29°E 0 100Km Bloemfontein Umtata Lesotho Basalt Karoo sediments International boundary Sampled sites Bushme n

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

92

02/27/2006 08:36 AMPrint Story: Japan to reward to S.Korea for support on ITER reactor on Yahoo! News Page 1 of 1http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20060227/sc_afp/japanskoreafranceit...AtjBk7obeO7F5QH10gY08IbQOrgF;_ylu=X3oDMTA3MXN1bHE0BHNlYwN0bWE-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

02/27/2006 08:36 AMPrint Story: Japan to reward to S.Korea for support on ITER reactor on Yahoo on ITER reactor Mon Feb 27, 5:32 AM ET Japan is looking to reward South Korea with construction orders in a multibillion-dollar experimental nuclear project to reward Seoul for backing Tokyo's failed bid. After years

93

Isotope Biogeochemistry of Diagenesis caused by a Black  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotope Biogeochemistry of Diagenesis caused by a Black Shale-fueled Deep Marine Biosphere (ODP Leg Forschungsgemeinschaft and Max Planck Society #12;Black shales and Diagenesis: Processes and Proxies - Authigenic sulfur the coasts of Surinam and French Guyana #12;µ Black shales in Leg 207 sediments and pore water response depth

94

CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

Duke, J.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The Amplification of the ENSO Forcing over Equatorial Amazon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remote influence of the El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) strongly manifests over the equatorial Amazon (EA)including parts of southern Venezuela, Guyana, French Guiana, and Surinamewhen there is a large-scale anomalous upper-level ...

Vasubandhu Misra

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programmes on Desertification Programmes on Desertification Jump to: navigation, search Name National Action Programmes on Desertification Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification Sector Land Focus Area Forestry, Agriculture Topics Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.unccd.int/actionpro Country Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

97

ORGANIZATIONAL, INTERFACE AND FINANCIAL BARRIERS TO THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY ENERGY SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy Evaluation Criteria. Organizational Barriers to MSW Ener.gy Organizational Barriers to Wind Energy

Schladale, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Tenure in REDD | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in REDD in REDD Jump to: navigation, search Name Tenure in REDD Agency/Company /Organization International Institute for Environment and Development Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Presentation Website http://www.cbd.int/doc/meeting Country Brazil, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guyana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea South America, Middle Africa, Middle Africa, South America, South-Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Melanesia References Tenure in REDD[1] Tenure in REDD Screenshot Background "This report aims to take the debate forward by identifying: a typology of tenure regimes in rainforest countries and some of the challenges they

99

Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Agency/Company /Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Department for International Development, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) Partner Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Caribbean Community Heads of State (CARICOM) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Pathways analysis Website http://cdkn.org/project/planni Program Start 2009 Program End 2015 Country Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Kitts and Nevis, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago

100

REDD Country Activity Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

REDD Country Activity Database REDD Country Activity Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: REDD Country Activity Database Agency/Company /Organization: Global Canopy Programme, Forum on Readiness for REDD Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Case studies/examples User Interface: Website Website: www.theredddesk.org/countries Country: Brazil, Cameroon, Vietnam, Guyana, Tanzania, Indonesia Cost: Free UN Region: Southern Africa, South America, South-Eastern Asia REDD Country Activity Database Screenshot References: REDD Country Activity Database[1] Logo: REDD Country Activity Database The REDD Countries Database is a centralised and collaborative database of the diverse and rapidly evolving range of ongoing REDD activities in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Name Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Agency/Company /Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Finance Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials Website http://www.forestcarbonpartner Country Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of Congo, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam

102

ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Name Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Agency/Company /Organization ClimateWorks, Project Catalyst, McKinsey and Company Sector Energy, Land Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Country Brazil, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea South America, Eastern Asia, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, South America, Southern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Africa, South-Eastern Asia, Central America, Melanesia References LCGP support[1] Low Carbon Growth Plans Advancing Good Practice, August 2009[2] Overview "Achieving development goals depends on enabling poorer countries to

103

SAFARI 2000 Data Set Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Set Released Set Released The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "SAFARI 2000 MISR Level 2 Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000". This data set is a product of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative containing 240 HDF-EOS formatted MISR Level 2 Top-of-Atmosphere/Cloud and Aerosol/Surface Products focused in a southern African study area which includes: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The MISR Level 2 Products are geophysical measurements derived from the Level 1B2 data which consists of parameters that have been geometrically corrected and projected to a standard map grid. The products are in swaths, each derived from a single MISR orbit, where the imagery is 360 km wide and

104

Organic light-emitting diodes with carbon nanotube cathode ...  

parent indium-tin-oxide !IT O " anode in combination with ... Ofce of Ener gy Efciency and Renewable Ener gy , under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH1 1231. 1C. W .

105

Data integration reveals key adaptive mechanisms in human 3D...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

phenomenon. Our data indicate that IL-8 is secreted in response to 10cGy irradiation, but not significantly at 200cGy, and that somatostatin transcription is...

106

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mechanisms of Tissue Response...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

whole body exposure to doses of 0.1 Gy to 5 Gy 60Co-g radiation in liver and mammary gland, which indicate that remodeling is a general and rapid consequence of irradiation but...

107

#2 MWG NIST 09  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Concept Engineering Processes & Practices Technolo gy Requirements Decommissioning Prototype Page 3. Real Space Virtual Space VS 1 VS 2 ...

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

108

IMPROVED TECHNIQUE OF HYDROGEN CONTENT ANALYSIS BY SLOW NEUTRON SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

A slow-neutron-transmission method fro dertermining the hydrogen content of fluorcarbons is described (G.Y.).

Rainwater, L.J.; Havens, W.W. Jr.

1945-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sustainable Communities: What's Going on Here? [Commentary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and public transit, ener gy conservation through buildingand public transit, energy conserva tion through building codes, water conservation and

Pease, Mike

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Improved Technique of Hydrogen Content Analysis by Slow Neutron Scattering  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

A slow-neutron-transmission method fro determining the H content of fluorcarbons is described (G.Y.)

Rainwater, L. J.; Havens, W. W. Jr.

1945-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

Short-Course Accelerated Radiotherapy in Palliative Treatment of Advanced Pelvic Malignancies: A Phase I Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose of a conformal short-course accelerated radiotherapy in patients with symptomatic advanced pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: A phase I trial in 3 dose-escalation steps was designed: 14 Gy (3.5-Gy fractions), 16 Gy (4-Gy fractions), and 18 Gy (4.5-Gy fractions). The eligibility criteria included locally advanced and/or metastatic pelvic cancer and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of {30% visual analog scale reduction. The overall response rate for pain was 91.67% (95% confidence interval 52.4%-99.9%). Conclusions: Conformal short course radiotherapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days was well tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase II study is ongoing to confirm the efficacy on symptom control and quality of life indexes.

Caravatta, Luciana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Ferrandina, Gabriella [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Bonomo, Pierluigi; Deodato, Francesco; Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care, and Pain Medicine, Fondazione di Ricercae Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano ['Madre Teresa di Calcutta' Hospice, Larino (Italy)] ['Madre Teresa di Calcutta' Hospice, Larino (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); and others

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Agency/Company /Organization Inter-American Development Bank, World Watch Institute (WWI) Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Grid Assessment and Integration, Industry, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Finance, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -Roadmap, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Program Start 2012 Program End 2012 Country Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Kitts and Nevis, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago

113

Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) Database Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.olade.org/sieeEn.html Country: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Dominican Republic Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean

114

OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar Agency/Company /Organization: Latin America Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Implementation, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Presentation, Webinar, Workshop, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.olade.org/eficiencia/indexEn.html Country: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Dominican Republic Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean

115

REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual Website: www.wri.org/publication/getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America, South-Eastern Asia, Eastern Africa, Central America, South America, Central America

116

Category:LEDS Example | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Example Example Jump to: navigation, search This page displays examples of country-scale low emission development strategies Pages in category "LEDS Example" The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. B Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan Brazil National Plan on Climate Change (PNMC) C China's National Climate Change Programme E ESMAP-South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy G Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy I India National Action Plan on Climate Change Indonesia National Action Plan Addressing Climate Change J Japan-Action Plan for Achieving a Low-Carbon Society M Mexico's Special Program on Climate Change S Singapore National Climate Change Strategy T Thailand-National Energy Policy and Development Plan U United Kingdom Low Carbon Transition Plan

117

Climate Change and the Macroeconomy in the Caribbean Basin: Analysis and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Macroeconomy in the Caribbean Basin: Analysis and Macroeconomy in the Caribbean Basin: Analysis and Projections to 2099 Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and the Macroeconomy in the Caribbean Basin: Analysis and Projections to 2099 Agency/Company /Organization United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Sector Energy, Land, Climate Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, - Macroeconomic, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.eclac.org/publicaci Country Aruba, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, South America, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean References Climate Change and the Macroeconomy in the Caribbean Basin: Analysis and Projections to 2099[1]

118

OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics: Implementation, Background analysis Website: www.olade.org/proyectoPlanificacionEnergetica.html Country: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Dominican Republic Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean

119

Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.olade.org/sielEn.html Country: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, Dominican Republic Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, Central America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, South America, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean, Caribbean

120

Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Redirected from CDKN-CARICOM-Trinidad and Tobago-A Regional Implementation (Redirected from CDKN-CARICOM-Trinidad and Tobago-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework) Jump to: navigation, search Name Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Agency/Company /Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Department for International Development, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) Partner Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Caribbean Community Heads of State (CARICOM) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Background analysis, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Pathways analysis Website http://cdkn.org/project/planni Program Start 2009 Program End 2015 Country Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Kitts and Nevis, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Office of Educational Programs | FaST Professor Profiles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sharon Lall-Ramnarine Sharon Lall-Ramnarine Assistant Professor Queensborough Community College, CUNY Chemistry Department Contact Information: 222-05 56th Avenue Bayside, NY 11364 (718) 281-5572 slallramnarine@qcc.cuny.edu Education University of Guyana B.Sc. Chemistry 1995 Chemistry w/ minor in Biology Queens College, CUNY M.A. 1998 Chemistry The Graduate Center, City University of NY M. Phil 2003 Chemistry The Graduate Center, City University of NY Ph.D. 2003 Analytical Chemistry Positions & Employment 2004 - Present Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Queensborough Community College, CUNY 2001 - Present Research Collaborator / Guest in Chemistry, Brookhaven Nat. Lab 2/2003 - 5/2003 Adjunct Lecturer in Chemistry, Queens College, CUNY 8/2001 - 5/2002 Graduate Assistant in Chemistry, Queens College, CUNY

122

CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework Jump to: navigation, search Name CDKN-CARICOM-A Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Regional Climate Change Resilience Framework Agency/Company /Organization Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Department for International Development Partner Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC), Caribbean Community Heads of State (CARICOM) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Topics Background analysis, Market analysis, Pathways analysis Website http://cdkn.org/project/planni Program Start 2010 Country Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago

123

Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs  

SciTech Connect

Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

124

Southern Colombia's Putumayo basin deserves renewed attention  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Putumayo basin lies in southern Colombia between the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes and the Guyana-Brazilian shield. It covers about 50,000 sq km between 0--3[degree]N. Lat. and 74--77[degree]W. Long. and extends southward into Ecuador and Peru as the productive Oriente basin. About 3,500 sq km of acreage in the basin is being offered for licensing in the first licensing round by competitive tender. A recent review of the available data from this area by Intera and Ecopetrol suggests that low risk prospects and leads remain to be tested. The paper describes the tectonic setting, stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon geology, reservoirs, and trap types.

Matthews, A.J. (Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley (United Kingdom)); Portilla, O. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

1994-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

125

February Highlights  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and allow communication of prices, energy usage, and ... CollaborativeEner gyStatus, along with information on the ... currently on the market, which use ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gy-efficiency-rebate-program Rebate Local Government Energy Loan Program Through a public-private partnership with PowerSouth, Alabama's Local Government Energy Loan Program offers...

127

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al uiv q t igh e Cost of oil, $/barrel Cost of Cellulosice gy t ener len quiva E Cost of oil, $/barrel Key Processing

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

View / Download  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ready's work on cost-effective, ener- gy-efficient photovoltaic cells made of lightweight carbon nanotubes. Ready's experiment will make use of the NanoRacks...

129

Integrating Suburban Schools: How to Benefit from Growing Diversity and Avoid Segregation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Safety in Urban Middle Schools, (17) 393-400, Journal ofs Strategy to Maintain School Diversity. UCLA: The Civilstrate- gy-to-maintain-school-diversity/ Frankenberg, E. &

Tefera, Adai; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Chirichigno, Gina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Ny historia?; A new history?.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This essay aims to examine how three active history teachers in the upper secondary school interprets the new course plan for history in gy11. (more)

Axelsson, Christofer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/water_Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting (EEDAL 06).http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ buildings/appliance_standards/

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cogeneration Development and Market Potential in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

China's Power Industry," Cogeneration Technolo- gy, V o l .tion Development," Cogeneration Technol- ogy, V o l . 41, NE Y NATIONAL LABORATORY Cogeneration Development and Market

Yang, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Page 1 of 35 Department's 2003 milestones on page  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Supply Crude Oil Natural Gas B sugar Hard coal lignite fossil Conversion Gasification gy ­ Cement industry ­ Fermentation industry (Medicine, food, and bioethanol production

134

THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY A non-technical review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Supply Crude Oil Natural Gas B sugar Hard coal lignite fossil Conversion Gasification gy ­ Cement industry ­ Fermentation industry (Medicine, food, and bioethanol production

135

REGIONAL AND COMMUNITY IMPACTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PILOT PROGRAM IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

small grants for alternative energy projects through theirraging small scale alternative energy develop ment. Loco.lalternative ener- gy interest is in ocean thermal energy

Case, Charles W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gy-efficient-appliance-manufacturing-tax-credit Rebate Renewable Development Fund (RDF) Xcel Energy's Renewable Development Fund (RDF) was created in 1999 pursuant to the 1994...

137

Microsoft PowerPoint - Francfort PEVs n EV Project CC Webinar...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Provide benchmark data to DOE, technology modelers, gy research and development programs, vehicle manufacturers (via VSATT), and target and goal setters - Assist fleet managers,...

138

Microsoft PowerPoint - Final CLWR SEIS PUBLIC SCOPING PRESENTATION...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Light Water Reactor Public Scoping Meeting October 20 2011 October 20, 2011 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Department of Energy (DOE) 1 p gy ( ) Background *...

139

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gene Expression Profile...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

human cDNA clones, we focused on differential gene expression for a low-dose x-ray irradiation at 2cGy and its comparison with high-dose at 4Gy. Four time points were studied at...

140

AFRRI Form 331 (12/2007) Page 1 of 6Patient's service number: Biodosimetry Worksheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of presenting injury (conventional and/or radiation): History of previous radiation exposure: Past medical contamination: Yes No Internal contamination: Yes No Contaminated wound: Yes No If wound(s) are radiation) Estimated time post-exposure (h) Dose (Gy) Reference radiation quality and dose rate (Gy/min) Time onset

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141

Gene Expression Analysis of Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Mouse Brain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Mouse Brain Analysis of Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in Mouse Brain After Low-dose and Acute Radiation Exposure Daila Gridley Loma Linda University & Medical Center Abstract Purpose: 1) To examine the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis-associated gene expression profiles in brain after whole-body irradiation with low-dose/low-dose-rate (LDR) photons and acute exposure to photons 2) to compare these radiation-induced effects with those produced by LDR and acute exposure to protons. Material and Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2 Gy of photons or protons at 0.8 Gy/min and 0.9 Gy/min, respectively, both with and without pre-exposure to 0.01 Gy LDR γ-rays (57Co) at 0.03 cGy/h. Brain tissues were harvested and quick-frozen for analyses by quantitative RTPCR at 56

142

Shorter-Course Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases in Elderly Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Many patients with brain metastases receive whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone. Using 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy in 2 weeks is the standard regimen in most centers. Regarding the extraordinarily poor survival prognosis of elderly patients with multiple brain metastases, a shorter WBRT regimen would be preferable. This study compared 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy in elderly patients ({>=}65 years). Methods and Materials: Data from 455 elderly patients who received WBRT alone for brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Survival and local (= intracerebral) control of 293 patients receiving 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy were compared with 162 patients receiving 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy. Eight additional potential prognostic factors were investigated including age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), primary tumor, number of brain metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to WBRT, extracerebral metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class. Results: The 6-month overall survival rates were 29% after 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy and 21% after 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy (p = 0.020). The 6-month local control rates were 12% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.32). On multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), only one to three brain metastases (p = 0.029), no extracerebral metastasis (p = 0.012), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Improved local control was associated with KPS {>=} 70 (p < 0.001), breast cancer (p = 0.029), and lower RPA class (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Shorter-course WBRT with 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy was not inferior to 10 Multiplication-Sign 3 Gy with respect to overall survival or local control in elderly patients. 5 Multiplication-Sign 4 Gy appears preferable for the majority of these patients.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: rades.dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Evers, Jasmin N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lubeck (Germany); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiotherapy, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lohynska, Radka [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Integration of Functional MRI and White Matter Tractography in Stereotactic Radiosurgery Clinical Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To study the efficacy of the integration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging tractography data into stereotactic radiosurgery clinical practice. Methods and Materials: fMRI and tractography data sets were acquired and fused with corresponding anatomical MR and computed tomography images of patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), astrocytoma, brain metastasis, or hemangioma and referred for stereotactic radiosurgery. The acquired data sets were imported into a CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery system and used to delineate the target, organs at risk, and nearby functional structures and fiber tracts. Treatment plans with and without the incorporation of the functional structures and the fiber tracts into the optimization process were developed and compared. Results: The nearby functional structures and fiber tracts could receive doses of >50% of the maximum dose if they were excluded from the planning process. In the AVM case, the doses received by the Broadmann-17 structure and the optic tract were reduced to 700 cGy from 1,400 cGy and to 1,200 cGy from 2,000 cGy, respectively, upon inclusion into the optimization process. In the metastasis case, the motor cortex received 850 cGy instead of 1,400 cGy; and in the hemangioma case, the pyramidal tracts received 780 cGy instead of 990 cGy. In the astrocytoma case, the dose to the motor cortex bordering the lesion was reduced to 1,900 cGy from 2,100 cGy, and therefore, the biologically equivalent dose in three fractions was delivered instead. Conclusions: Functional structures and fiber tracts could receive high doses if they were not considered during treatment planning. With the aid of fMRI and tractography images, they can be delineated and spared.

Pantelis, Evaggelos, E-mail: vpantelis@phys.uoa.g [CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Athens (Greece); Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Papadakis, Nikolaos; Verigos, Kosmas; Stathochristopoulou, Irene [CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Athens (Greece); Antypas, Christos [CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Athens (Greece); First Department of Radiology, Aretaieion Hospital, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Lekas, Leonidas; Tzouras, Argyrios [CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Athens (Greece); Georgiou, Evangelos [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Salvaras, Nikolaos [CyberKnife Center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Athens (Greece)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Effect of electron beam irradiation on quality and shelf-life of Tommy Atkins mango (Mangifera indica l.) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbsum l.)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to determine the feasibility of using electron beam irradiation as an alternative disinfestation technology while preserving the overall quality of mangoes, and to verify its suitability for the preservation shelf life of blueberries. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits were evaluated. Mangoes were irradiated at 1.0, 1.5 and 3.1 kGy using a 10MeV (10 kW) linear accelerator (LINAC) with double beam fixture. Samples were stored at 12?ºC and 62.7% RH for 21 days. Blueberries packed in plastic clamshell containers were irradiated at 1.1, 1.6 and 3.2 kGy doses using the same linear accelerator with a single beam. The shelf life of the berries stored at 5?ºC and 70.4% RH was evaluated for 14 days. The firmness of mangoes irradiated at 1.5 and 3.1 kGy significantly (p > 0.05) decreased during storage. There was a reduction of total sugars (8.1% and 14.1%) in samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy and 1.5 kGy, respectively. All irradiated mangoes had significantly lower (50- 70 %) ascorbic acid content throughout storage. The phenolic compounds increased in samples irradiated at 1.5 kGy (27.4%) and 3.1 kGy) (18.3%). Sensory evaluation of the fruits irradiated with 3.1 kGy showed significantly less acceptability for overall quality, color, texture and aroma. Irradiation of blueberries at 1.1 kGy had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the fruits' physicochemical characteristics with the exception of ascorbic acid which decreased by 17% after 14 days. A significant decrease in texture (firmness) of irradiated berries was observed during storage time. Total sugars decreased in all irradiated fruits while total phenolics and tannins increased (10 -20%). Sensory attributes of samples irradiated with 1.1 kGy and 1.6 kGy were found acceptable by the panelists. The high dose-treated fruits were considered unacceptable. The results from this research suggest that a 1.5 kGy is the best treatment to maintain the quality attributes of mangoes and increase the shelf life by three days. The electron beam irradiation of packed blueberries at doses of 1.1 and 1.6 kGy ensures and enhances the quality and the shelf life of blueberries up to 14 days.

Moreno Tinjaca, Maria Alexandra

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Activation of nuclear factor kB in human lymphoblastoid cells by low-dose ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is involved in the transcriptional regulation of several specific genes. Recent reports demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the dose range of 2-50 Gy results in expression of NF-kB in human KG-1 myeloid leukemia cells and human B-lymphocyte precursor cells; the precise mechanism involved and the significance are not yet known. The present report demonstrates that even lower doses of ionizing radiation, 0.25-2.0 Gy, are capable of inducing expression of NF-kB in EBV-transformed 244B human lymphoblastoid cells. These results are in a dose range where the viability of the cells remains very high. After exposure to {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays at a dose rate of 1.17 Gy/min, a maximum in expression of NF-kB was seen at 8 h after a 0.5-Gy exposure. Time-course studies revealed a biphasic time-dependent expression after 0.5-, 1- and 2-Gy exposures. However, for each time examined, the expression of NF-kB was maximum after the 0.5-Gy exposure. The expression of the p50 and p65 NF-kB subunits was also shown to be regulated differentially after exposures to 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Prasad, A.V.; Mohan, N.; Meltz, M.L.; Chandrasekar, B. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Dosimetry and preliminary acute toxicity in the first 100 men treated for prostate cancer on a randomized hypofractionation dose escalation trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The {alpha}/{beta} ratio for prostate cancer is postulated to be between 1 and 3, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. The dosimetry and acute toxicity are described in the first 100 men enrolled in a randomized trial. Patients and Methods: The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (Arm I) to 70.2 Gy in 26 fractions (Arm II) using intensity modulated radiotherapy. The planning target volume (PTV) margins in Arms I and II were 5 mm and 3 mm posteriorly and 8 mm and 7 mm in all other dimensions. The PTV D95% was at least the prescription dose. Results: The mean PTV doses for Arms I and II were 81.1 and 73.8 Gy. There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity acutely. However, there was a slight but significant increase in Arm II GI toxicity during Weeks 2, 3, and 4. In multivariate analyses, only the combined rectal DVH parameter of V65 Gy/V50 Gy was significant for GI toxicity and the bladder volume for GU toxicity. Conclusion: Hypofractionation at 2.7 Gy per fraction to 70.2 Gy was well tolerated acutely using the planning conditions described.

Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: Alan.Pollack@FCCC.edu; Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Urology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Uzzo, Robert G. [Department of Urology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ma, C.-M. Charlie [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McNeeley, Shawn W. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Price, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Lung Density Changes After Stereotactic Radiotherapy: A Quantitative Analysis in 50 Patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiologic lung density changes are observed in more than 50% of patients after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. We studied the relationship between SBRT dose and posttreatment computed tomography (CT) density changes, a surrogate for lung injury. Methods and Materials: The SBRT fractionation schemes used to treat Stage I lung cancer with RapidArc were three fractions of 18 Gy, five fractions of 11 Gy, or eight fractions of 7.5 Gy, prescribed at the 80% isodose. Follow-up CT scans performed at less than 6 months (n = 50) and between 6 and 9 months (n = 30) after SBRT were reviewed. Posttreatment scans were coregistered with baseline scans using a B-spline deformable registration algorithm. Voxel-Hounsfield unit histograms were created for doses between 0.5 and 50 Gy. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess the effects of SBRT dose on CT density, and the influence of possible confounders was tested. Results: Increased CT density was associated with higher dose, increasing planning target volume size, and increasing time after SBRT (all p 6 Gy, were most prominent in areas receiving >20 Gy, and seemed to plateau above 40 Gy. In regions receiving >36 Gy, the reduction in air-filled fraction of lung after treatment was up to 18%. No increase in CT density was observed in the contralateral lung receiving {>=}3 Gy. Conclusions: A dose-response relationship exists for quantitative CT density changes after SBRT. A threshold of effect is seen at low doses, and a plateau at highest doses.

Palma, David A., E-mail: david.palma@uwo.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soernsen de Koste, John van; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vincent, Andrew [Department of Biometrics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro  

SciTech Connect

This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

John Leslie Redpath

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A simple geometric algorithm to predict optimal starting gantry angles using equiangular-spaced beams for intensity modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast, geometric beam angle optimization (BAO) algorithm for clinical intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was implemented on ten localized prostate cancer patients on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0126 protocol. The BAO algorithm computed the beam intersection volume (BIV) within the rectum and bladder using five and seven equiangular-spaced beams as a function of starting gantry angle for comparison to the V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy. A mathematical theory was presented to explain the correlation of BIV with dose and dose-volume metrics. The class solution 'W' pattern in the rectal V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy as a function of starting gantry angle using five equiangular-spaced beams (with two separate minima centered near 20 deg. and 50 deg. ) was reproduced by the 5 BIV within the rectum. A strong correlation was found between the rectal 5 BIV and the rectal V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy as a function of starting gantry angle. The BAO algorithm predicted the location of the two dosimetric minima in rectal V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy (optimal starting gantry angles) to within 5 deg. . It was demonstrated that the BIV geometric variations for seven equiangular-spaced beams were too small to translate into a strong dosimetric effect in the rectal V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy. The relatively flat distribution with starting gantry angle of the bladder V 75 Gy and V 70 Gy was reproduced by the bladder five and seven BIV for each patient. A geometric BAO method based on BIV has the advantage over dosimetric BAO methods of simplicity and rapid computation time. This algorithm can be used as a standalone optimization method or act as a rapid calculation filter to reduce the search space for a dosimetric BAO method. Given the clinically infeasible computation times of many dosimetric beam orientation optimization algorithms, this robust geometric BIV algorithm has the potential to facilitate beam angle selection for prostate IMRT in clinical practice.

Potrebko, Peter S.; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.; Butler, James B.; El-Gubtan, Adel S.; Nugent, Zoann [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada); Department of Epidemiology, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low  

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Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Protects against DNA Damage in Low Dose γ-Irradiated Cells Edouard Azzam New Jersey Medical School Cancer Center Abstract We have previously shown that exposure to low dose/low dose rate γ-rays can protect normal human and rodent cells against oxidative/clastogenic damages induced spontaneously or by a subsequent challenge dose of ionizing radiation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying these effects, we used amine-specific isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based approach to identify induced proteolytic events. Intriguingly, the Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) was significantly up-regulated after 10cGy (0.2cGy/h) but not after 4 Gy (1 Gy/min) in several strains of normal human fibroblasts maintained in 2- or

151

Parimutuel Betting on Permutations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

||?g(Y )||2 ? ng(Y ) ?. ? n||?g(Y )||2. Proof. See the appendix. Now, we can obtain an approximate separat- ing oracle for the ellipsoid method. Lemma 5.6.

152

Environmental Factors Contributing to Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow environment associated with tropical cyclone genesis (TCG) over the western North Pacific was assessed via categorization into five flow patterns: monsoon shear line (SL), monsoon confluence region (CR), monsoon gyre (GY), easterly wave (...

Ryuji Yoshida; Hirohiko Ishikawa

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

California Energy Commission California Energy Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology Systems Integrationgy gy y g · Industry storage, combined heat and power (CHP), smart gridContractor Status Form · Darfur Contracting Act Form · Small Business Preference Certification (if li bl ) (O N S ll

154

Field Survey of Parabolic Conference Paper  

evacuated tubes at 100C took 6 years and tubes at 400C took ... Evacuated Solar Energy Collectors, Solar Ener gy Materials 5 (1981), pp. 141-147, ...

155

Microsoft PowerPoint - BNLSolar Research Overview and NSERC Plans...  

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Plans gy March 8, 2011 , Outline O i f th LISF S l PV P j t t BNL Overview of the LISF Solar PV Project at BNL Challenges for Deployment of Utility Scale Solar PV Challenges for...

156

Uncertainties in alanine dosimetry in the therapeutic dose ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... dose (Gy) Replicate dosimeter # Radiation signal amplitudes Orient 1 Orient 2 Orient 3 Mean orient 13 RSD orient 13 (%) Mean repl 14 RSD ...

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

157

G I A. J. Brcslill, Director halt:: Protection Ci&ieerirG Divisio...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

axd NY. F. Msce of the &scac..zetts Institute of Teci:;iolozy, Occupational Medical Service, Mr. R. Hoxell, Massac::usetIs Insti.t.ule of Tec:fioloGy, Btlilding...

158

E/ii/e/is;o,40(2):170-1 78, 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkina, Inc., Philadelphia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-PET-Glucose-Ener gy . The energy requirements of interictal spike discharges remain incompletely understood and reprint requests to Dr. D. C. Reutens at Department of Neurology, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

Dumoulin, Serge O.

159

Analysis of low dose radiation induced epigenetic modifications...  

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levels ofbiological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses (<0.1Gy) of irradiation.Recent work in determining the exact effects of low dose radiation have shown that...

160

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION-INDUCED GENE  

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with 0, 50 or 200 cGy gamma-rays and the cells harvested for RNA 48 hours post irradiation. The RNA was hybridized to RAE 230A Affymetrix microarrays and differences in gene...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A role for proline and acid-rich (PAR) bZIP transcription factors...  

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association with acquisition of anchorage-independent growth properties induced by X-irradiation, TPA and bFGF. HLF and DBP mRNA expression is also increased by 3-10 cGy...

162

A Systems Genetics Approach to Analyze the Biological Response...  

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measuring changes in serum cytokines and metabolites in a time course after 10 cGy irradiation. Our goal is to use these phenotypes to predict the risk of radiation-induced...

163

Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Act Via TGFβ...  

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effect that mediates microenvironment composition. TGF is activated in mouse mammary gland following whole body exposure to doses of as low as 0.1 Gy and persists in the stroma...

164

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Cytogenetic tests of Radiobiologi...  

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relevant low-dose range (less than 0.1 Gy). Relate chromosome damage to radiation-induced cancer. Research Approach By studying molecular mechanisms relevant to low doses and low...

165

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors...  

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following paternal F0 137Cs gamma irradiation with doses of 1.0 Gy in CD1 mice. Pilot studies demonstrate effects in at least the F1 generation following paternal F0...

166

Proceedings of UK e-Science All Hands Meeting 2-4 September 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and outputs detector counts and estimated noise. The image-processing module performs the dualGy. The absorbed doses to the stomach, liver and thyroid in the KTMAN-2 exceed those within the stylized model

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

167

TABLEOFCONTENTS Sign up for an online subscription at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and outputs detector counts and estimated noise. The image-processing module performs the dualGy. The absorbed doses to the stomach, liver and thyroid in the KTMAN-2 exceed those within the stylized model

Weston, Ken

168

Comparative Study of the Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber/HDPE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The composite samples obtained by extrusion and injection molding processes were irradiated at 50 and 90 kGy using either a 1.5 MeV electron beam...

169

Microsoft PowerPoint - Powerpoint_WEBBystander.ppt [Compatibility...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the 800 when other cells in the lung tissue were irradiated, indicating some type of Khan et al 1998 Lower half of lungs irradiated with 10 Gy Exposed Cells yp communication...

170

The effects of X irradiation on the metamorphosis and budding of Aurelia aurita  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aid of the Aurelia metamorphosis test system, the acute and subtle developmental and behavioral effects of X irradiation in the presence and absence of thyroxine on the Norfolk Aurelia aurita were described. Radiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 Gy. Morphology of the ephyrae, and statolith and rhopalia numbers were recorded using the light microscope. Developmental abnormalities of the polyps and ephyrae were recorded with the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Major findings from this investigation were the absence of rhopalia and statoliths in ephyrae at 150 and 200 Gy, a reduction in pulses per minute in the ephyrae at 100, 150, and 200 Gy, a reduction in ephyrae released at 150, 200, and 400 Gy, and the development of polyp monsters. There was a significantly higher frequency of polyp monsters in the group exposed to thyroxine prior to radiation than in the thyroxine-free group prior to radiation.

Prokopchak, M.J.; Spangenberg, D.B.; Shaeffer, J. (Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Effects of Electricity Tariff Structure on Distributed Generation Adoption in New York State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and in natural gas and electricity delivery rates. http://under the standby tariff. gy Electricity-only (kW) (kW) ($/a) Utility Electricity Bill Uitlity Natural Gas Bill

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

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Medical Center Abstract Background: Humans have evolved and thrived amidst constant low-dose (0-10 cGy) background radiation exposure from natural sources. Currently, however, the...

173

Mitochondrial Protein Influx in Low-dose Radiation-mediated Radioprote...  

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radioprotection via activation of the prosurvival network of factor NF-kappa B (NF-kB). We have reported that blocking NF-kB activation is able to inhibit 10cGy x-ray-...

174

{sup 222}Rn dosimetry in the dog lung  

SciTech Connect

The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to {sup 222}Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1}. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM{sub {minus}1} and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM{sup {minus}1} The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

[sup 222]Rn dosimetry in the dog lung  

SciTech Connect

The alpha dose to cells in bronchial airways in the beagle dog during historical exposures to [sup 222]Rn decay products is calculated using updated information on airway morphometry, call nucleus depth, mucus thickness, physical dosimetry and atmospheric characteristics. The alpha dose per unit exposure to basal call nuclei in the upper airways ranges from 2 to 7 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] (excluding the trachea) depending upon the exposure protocol used. The dose to alveolar tissue is 3 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1]. In the human lung, the dose factor for the bronchial airways is 9 mGy WLM[sub [minus]1] and for the pulmonary parenchyma 0.5 mGy WLM[sup [minus]1] The human tumors appear primarily in the first few branching airway generations while the only tumors observed in the animals were in the bronchioloalveolar region suggesting a difference in cell sensitivity to alpha radiation.

Harley, N.H.; Meyers, O.A.; Robbins, E.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The Effects of Electricity Tariff Structure on Distributed Generation Adoption in New York State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

York State gy Utility Electricity Bill ($/a) no inv. inv.kW) (kW) ($/a) Utility Electricity Bill Uitlity Natural Gasdown into utility electricity bills, utility natural gas

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

ALPHA-DECAY STUDIES IN THE HEAVY-ELEMENT REGION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mihelich. , Enet:gy Levels of Plutonium-239 Populated by thethe Nuclear Chemistry of Plutonium, Ame ricium, and CuriumThe mass analysis of the plutonium sample was made by Dr. M,

Hummel, John Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Bulk Metallic Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

W.H. Jiang, G.J. Fan, F.X. Liu, G.Y. Wang,. H. Choo, and P.K. Liaw. Mechanical Behaviors. Mechanical Properties and Devitrification Behavior of Cu-Zr-Ti-NM.

179

PROJECTS FROM FEDERAL REGION IX DOE APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PILOT PROGRAM - PART I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ol8GY PILOT PROGRAM- PART I DOE APPROPRIATE ENERG c. w. , F.the Department of Energy- DOE), responding to the 1977 ERDAto a company or product name does not imply approval or

Case, C.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

TO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

t Reactor Materialo Bran&, ieu York DATE: Auguet 28, 1950 PROM 1 Ft. S. Pearson, L&f, Admlnlot.rativi Semioar. Branch, Pittsburgh gy .< SUBJEn: HAlERIAL YlMSFEll CRRYDICAT' B...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lesotho gy guyana" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Characterization of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

acts as a tag for identification of the gene, by cloning the fusion mRNA and using RT-PCR techniques. We have conducted such a screen using moderate dose radiation (2 to 4 Gy,...

182

doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2004.01.014  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mGy d 1 ). Irradiated fish produced fewer eggs per day p 0:03; had a lower percentage of viable eggs p 0:04, and produced a lower percentage of hatchlings p ...

183

Individualized 3D Reconstruction of Normal Tissue Dose for Patients With Long-term Follow-up: A Step Toward Understanding Dose Risk for Late Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Understanding the relationship between normal tissue dose and delayed radiation toxicity is an important component of developing more effective radiation therapy. Late outcome data are generally available only for patients who have undergone 2-dimensional (2D) treatment plans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 3D normal tissue dosimetry derived from reconstructed 2D treatment plans in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods and Materials: Three-dimensional lung, heart, and breast volumes were reconstructed from 2D planning radiographs for HL patients who received mediastinal radiation therapy. For each organ, a reference 3D organ was modified with patient-specific structural information, using deformable image processing software. Radiation therapy plans were reconstructed by applying treatment parameters obtained from patient records to the reconstructed 3D volumes. For each reconstructed organ mean dose (D{sub mean}) and volumes covered by at least 5 Gy (V{sub 5}) and 20Gy (V{sub 20}) were calculated. This process was performed for 15 patients who had both 2D and 3D planning data available to compare the reconstructed normal tissue doses with those derived from the primary CT planning data and also for 10 historically treated patients with only 2D imaging available. Results: For patients with 3D planning data, the normal tissue doses could be reconstructed accurately using 2D planning data. Median differences in D{sub mean} between reconstructed and actual plans were 0.18 Gy (lungs), -0.15 Gy (heart), and 0.30 Gy (breasts). Median difference in V{sub 5} and V{sub 20} were less than 2% for each organ. Reconstructed 3D dosimetry was substantially higher in historical mantle-field treatments than contemporary involved-field mediastinal treatments: average D{sub mean} values were 15.2 Gy vs 10.6 Gy (lungs), 27.0 Gy vs 14.3 Gy (heart), and 8.0 Gy vs 3.2 Gy (breasts). Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction of absorbed dose to organs at risk can be estimated accurately many years after exposure by using limited 2D data. Compared to contemporary involved-field treatments, normal tissue doses were significantly higher in historical mantle-field treatments. These methods build capacity to quantify the relationship between 3D normal tissue dose and observed late effects.

Ng, Angela [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K.; Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moseley, Joanne L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hodgson, David C., E-mail: David.Hodgson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Has the Pattern of Practice in the Prescription of Radiotherapy for the Palliation of Thoracic Symptoms Changed Between 1999 and 2006 at the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing various radiotherapy (RT) schedules for locally advanced lung cancer published since 1991 found no difference in palliation of intrathoracic symptoms. The most commonly prescribed schedule by Canadian Radiation Oncologists (RO) (20 Gy in five fractions [20 Gy/5]), when first evaluated versus 10 Gy/1 in a 2002 RCT, showed a significant survival benefit. A subsequent RCT assessing 20 Gy/5 found worse survival versus 16 Gy/2. This study examines whether the RT prescription for lung cancer palliation in the Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program (RRRP) has changed over time. Methods and Materials: Chart review was conducted for patients treated with palliative thoracic RT across three periods (1999-2006). Patient demographics, tumor, treatment, and organizational factors were analyzed descriptively. Chi-square test was used to detect differences in proportions between unordered categorical variables. Continuous variables were tested using analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of RT schedule prescribed. Results: A total of 117 patients received 121 courses of palliative thoracic RT. The most common dose (20 Gy/5) comprised 65% of courses in 1999, 68% in 2003, and 60% in 2005-2006 (p = 0.76). The next most common dose was 30 Gy/10 (13%). Overall, the median survival was 14.9 months, independent of RT schedule (p = 0.68). Multivariate analysis indicated palliative chemotherapy and certification year of RO were significant predictors of prescription of 20 Gy/5. Conclusion: RT schedule for palliation of intrathoracic symptoms did not mirror the results of sequential, conflicting RCTs, suggesting that factors other than the literature influenced practice patterns in palliative thoracic RT.

Fairchild, Alysa [Rapid Access Palliative Radiotherapy Program, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Goh, Philiz; Sinclair, Emily; Barnes, Elizabeth A. [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ghosh, Sunita [Department of Experimental Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril; Barbera, Lisa; Tsao, May [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hippocampal-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: A 'How-To' Technique Using Helical Tomotherapy and Linear Accelerator-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Sparing the hippocampus during cranial irradiation poses important technical challenges with respect to contouring and treatment planning. Herein we report our preliminary experience with whole-brain radiotherapy using hippocampal sparing for patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Five anonymous patients previously treated with whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing were reviewed. The hippocampus was contoured, and hippocampal avoidance regions were created using a 5-mm volumetric expansion around the hippocampus. Helical tomotherapy and linear accelerator (LINAC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plans were generated for a prescription dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: On average, the hippocampal avoidance volume was 3.3 cm{sup 3}, occupying 2.1% of the whole-brain planned target volume. Helical tomotherapy spared the hippocampus, with a median dose of 5.5 Gy and maximum dose of 12.8 Gy. LINAC-based IMRT spared the hippocampus, with a median dose of 7.8 Gy and maximum dose of 15.3 Gy. On a per-fraction basis, mean dose to the hippocampus (normalized to 2-Gy fractions) was reduced by 87% to 0.49 Gy{sub 2} using helical tomotherapy and by 81% to 0.73 Gy{sub 2} using LINAC-based IMRT. Target coverage and homogeneity was acceptable with both IMRT modalities, with differences largely attributed to more rapid dose fall-off with helical tomotherapy. Conclusion: Modern IMRT techniques allow for sparing of the hippocampus with acceptable target coverage and homogeneity. Based on compelling preclinical evidence, a Phase II cooperative group trial has been developed to test the postulated neurocognitive benefit.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Tolakanahalli, Ranjini [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Tewatia, Dinesh [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Rowley, Howard [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Kuo, John S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Khuntia, Deepak [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.ed [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Dose Escalation for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Relatively Radioresistant Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Radiotherapy alone is the most common treatment for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) from relatively radioresistant tumors such as renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and malignant melanoma. However, the results of the 'standard' regimen 30 Gy/10 fractions need to be improved with respect to functional outcome. This study investigated whether a dose escalation beyond 30 Gy can improve treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: A total of 91 patients receiving 30 Gy/10 fractions were retrospectively compared to 115 patients receiving higher doses (37.5 Gy/15 fractions, 40 Gy/20 fractions) for motor function and local control of MSCC. Ten further potential prognostic factors were evaluated: age, gender, tumor type, performance status, number of involved vertebrae, visceral or other bone metastases, interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy, pretreatment ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits before radiotherapy. Results: Motor function improved in 18% of patients after 30 Gy and in 22% after higher doses (p = 0.81). On multivariate analysis, functional outcome was associated with visceral metastases (p = 0.030), interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy (p = 0.010), and time developing motor deficits (p < 0.001). The 1-year local control rates were 76% after 30 Gy and 80% after higher doses, respectively (p = 0.64). On multivariate analysis, local control was significantly associated with visceral metastases (p = 0.029) and number of involved vertebrae (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Given the limitations of a retrospective study, escalation of the radiation dose beyond 30 Gy/10 fractions did not significantly improve motor function and local control of MSCC in patients with relatively radioresistant tumors.

Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Freundt, Katja; Meyners, Thekla [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany); Bajrovic, Amira [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Hamburg (Germany); Basic, Hiba [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Karstens, Johann H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Wildfang, Ingeborg [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siloah Hospital Hannover (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lubeck (Germany)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

Trani, Daniela [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Moon, Bo-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)] [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Datta, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fornace, Albert J., E-mail: af294@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Emetic mechanism in acute radiation sickness. Technical report, 1 December 1982-30 November 1986  

SciTech Connect

A dose-response relationship was established in normal cats for the evocation of vomiting within 24 h after whole-body exposure to /sup 60/Co radiation with doses ranging from 7.5 to 60 Gy delivered at 1.0 Gy/min. Vomiting was recorded oscillographically. Radiation-induced vomiting was elicited unabatedly at the optimal dose of 45 Gy in chronically postremectomized cats. Radioemetic susceptibility was evaluated in normal cats after each of two doses of radiation, from 7.5 to 60 Gy, given on successive days. Occurrence of radioemetic protection against the second irradiation was manifested in direct relation to the magnitude of the first exposure, and complete protection for 24 h resulted after second radiation exposure at the highest dose level. Postremectomized cats were also fully protected against the radioemetic effect of a second exposure at 45 Gy. All normal cats vomited in response to an emetic drug injection during the state of radioemetic refractoriness after the second irradiation at 45 Gy. A neural origin of emetic signal generated by first radiation exposure was examined in postrema-intact cats.

Borison, H.L.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

189

Experience With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for WHO Grade 2 Diffuse Astrocytomas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy for diffuse astrocytomas in adults. Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 14 patients with diffuse astrocytoma, identified as eligible for carbon ion radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Carbon ion radiotherapy was administered in 24 fractions over 6 weeks. The normal tissue morbidity was monitored carefully, and the carbon ion dose was escalated from 50.4 Gy equivalent (GyE) to 55.2 GyE. Patients were divided into two groups according to their carbon ion doses: a low-dose group in which 2 patients were irradiated with 46.2 GyE and 7 patients were irradiated with 50.4 GyE, and a high-dose group in which 5 patients were irradiated with 55.2 GyE. Results: Toxicities were within acceptable limits, and none of the patients developed Grade 3 or higher acute or late reactions. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 18 months for the low-dose group and 91 months for the high-dose group (p = 0.0030). The median overall survival (OS) time was 28 months for the low-dose group and not reached for the high-dose group (p = 0.0208). Conclusion: High-dose group patients showed significant improvement in PFS and OS rates compared to those in the low-dose group, and both dose groups showed acceptable toxicity.

Hasegawa, Azusa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu, E-mail: junetsumizoe@gmail.com [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nakazato, Youichi [Department of Human Pathology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsutani, Masao [Department of Neurological Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Takakura, Kintomo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Policies for Low Carbon Growth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Policies for Low Carbon Growth Policies for Low Carbon Growth Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Policies for Low Carbon Growth Agency/Company /Organization: Overseas Development Institute Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/4542-full-report.pdf Country: Brazil, Ethiopia, Guyana, Nigeria, China, Germany, Mexico, United Kingdom, Bangladesh South America, Eastern Africa, South America, Western Africa, Eastern Asia, Western Europe, Central America, Northern Europe, Southern Asia Coordinates: 27.5996962°, -98.4107943° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":27.5996962,"lon":-98.4107943,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

191

Radiotherapy for Early Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma According to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): The Roles of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Involved-Node Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR). Methods and Materials: Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR. Results: Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm{sup 3} and 1015 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique. Conclusions: Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.

Koeck, Julia, E-mail: Julia_Koeck@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Abo-Madyan, Yasser [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Lohr, Frank; Stieler, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Kriz, Jan; Mueller, Rolf-Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effect of jaw size in megavoltage CT on image quality and dose  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Recently, the jaw size for the TomoTherapy Hi-Art II{sup Registered-Sign} (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI) was reduced from 4 mm (J4) to 1 mm (J1) to improve the longitudinal (IEC-Y) resolution in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images. This study evaluated the effect of jaw size on the image quality and dose, as well as the dose delivered to the lens of the eye, which is a highly radiosensitive tissue. Methods: MVCT image quality (image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, high-contrast resolution, and full width at half-maximum) and multiple scan average dose (MSAD) were measured at different jaw sizes. A head phantom and photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs) were used to measure the exposed lens dose (cGy). Different MVCT scan modes (pitch = 1, 2, and 3) and scan lengths (108 mm, 156 mm, and 204 mm) were applied in the MSAD and PLDs measurements. Results: The change in jaw size from J4 to J1 produced no change or only a slight improvement in image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, and high-contrast resolution. However, the full-width at half-maximum reduced from approximately 7.2 at J4 to 4.5 mm at J1, which represents an enhancement in the longitudinal resolution. The MSAD at the center point changed from approximately 0.69-2.32 cGy (peripheral: 0.83-2.49 cGy) at J4 to 0.85-2.81 cGy (peripheral: 1.05-2.86 cGy) at J1. The measured lens dose increased from 0.92-3.36 cGy at J4 to 1.06-3.91 cGy at J1. Conclusions: The change in jaw size improved longitudinal resolution. The MVCT imaging dose of approximately 3.86 cGy, 1.92 cGy, and 1.22 cGy was delivered at a pitch of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, per fraction in the head and neck treatment plans. Therefore, allowance for an approximately 15% increase in lens dose over that with J4 should be provided with J1.

Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Moon, Seong Kwon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Seog; Chang, Ah Ram; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Huh, Hyun Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174, Korea and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan 23-20 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul 657 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Inha University of Korea, Incheon 7-206 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Proposal of human spinal cord reirradiation dose based on collection of data from 40 patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Driven by numerous reports on recovery of occult radiation injury, reirradiation of the spinal cord today is considered a realistic option. In rodents, long-term recovery was observed to start at approximately 8 weeks. However, prospective clinical studies are lacking. Therefore, a combined analysis of all published clinical data might provide a valuable basis for future trials. Methods and materials: We collected data from 40 individual patients published in eight different reports after a comprehensive MEDLINE search. These represent all patients with data available for dose per fraction and total dose of each of both treatment courses. We recalculated the biologically effective dose (BED) according to the linear-quadratic model using an {alpha}/{beta} value of 2 Gy for the cervical and thoracic cord and 4 Gy for the lumbar cord. In this model, a dose of 50 Gy given in single daily fractions of 2 Gy is equivalent to a BED of 100 Gy{sub 2} or 75 Gy{sub 4}. For treatment with two daily fractions, a correction term was introduced to take incomplete repair of sublethal damage into account. Results: The cumulative doses ranged from 108 to 205 Gy{sub 2} (median dose, 135 Gy{sub 2}). The median interval between both series was 20 months. Three patients were treated to the lumbar segments only. The median follow-up was 17 months for patients without myelopathy. Eleven patients developed myelopathy after 4-25 months (median, 11 months). Myelopathy was seen only in patients who had received one course to a dose of {>=}102 Gy{sub 2} (n = 9) or were retreated after 2 months (n = 2). In the absence of these two risk factors, no myelopathy developed in 19 patients treated with {<=}135.5 Gy{sub 2} or 7 patients treated with 136-150 Gy{sub 2}. A risk score based on the cumulative BED, the greatest BED for all treatment series in a particular individual, and interval was developed. Low-risk patients remained free of myelopathy and 33% of intermediate-risk patients and 90% of high-risk patients developed myelopathy. Conclusion: On the basis of these literature data (and with due caution), the risk of myelopathy appears small after {<=}135.5 Gy{sub 2} when the interval is not shorter than 6 months and the dose of each course is {<=}98 Gy{sub 2}. We would recommend limiting the dose to this level, whenever technically feasible. However, it appears prudent to propose the collection of prospective data from a greater number of patients receiving doses in the range of 136-150 Gy{sub 2} to assess the safety of higher retreatment doses for those patients in whom limited doses might compromise tumor control.

Nieder, Carsten [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: cnied@hotmail.com; Grosu, Anca L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Andratschke, Nicolaus H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Molls, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Modified total body irradiation as a planned second high-dose therapy with stem cell infusion for patients with bone-based malignancies  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the maximum tolerated dose of hyperfractionated total marrow irradiation (TMI) as a second consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or syngeneic blood stem cell transfusion for patients with bone/bone marrow-based malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Fifty-seven patients aged 3-65 years (median, 45 years), including 21 with multiple myeloma, 24 with breast cancer, 10 with sarcoma, and 2 with lymphoma, were treated with 1.5 Gy administered twice daily to a total dose of 12 Gy (n = 27), 13.5 Gy (n = 12), and 15 Gy (n = 18). Median time between the 2 transplants was 105 days (range, 63-162 days). Results: All patients engrafted neutrophils (median, Day 11; range, Day 9-23) and became platelet independent (median, Day 9; range, Day 7-36). There were 5 cases of Grade 3-4 regimen-related pulmonary toxicity, 1 at 12 Gy, and 4 at 15 Gy. Complete responses, partial responses, and stabilizations were achieved in 33%, 26%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival for 56 evaluable patients are 24% and 36%, respectively. Median time of follow-up among survivors was 96 months (range, 77-136 months). Conclusion: Total marrow irradiation as a second myeloablative therapy is feasible. The estimated maximum tolerated dose for TMI in a tandem transplant setting was 13.5 Gy. Because 20% of patients are surviving at 8 years free of disease, further studies of TMI are warranted.

Zaucha, Renata E. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Buckner, Dean C. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Barnett, Todd [The Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States); Holmberg, Leona A. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Gooley, Ted [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Hooper, Heather A. P.A.-C. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Maloney, David G. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Appelbaum, Frederick [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States); Bensinger, William I. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: wbensing@fhcrc.org

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Projected Second Tumor Risk and Dose to Neurocognitive Structures After Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Benign Meningioma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To calculated projected second tumor rates and dose to organs at risk (OAR) in patients with benign intracranial meningioma (BM), according to dosimetric comparisons between proton radiotherapy (PRT) and photon radiotherapy (XRT) treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with BM treated at Massachusetts General Hospital during 2006-2010 with PRT were replanned with XRT (intensity-modulated or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy), optimizing dose to the tumor while sparing OAR. Total dose was 54 Gy in 1.8 Gy per fraction for all plans. We calculated equivalent uniform doses, normal tissue complication probabilities, and whole brain-based estimates of excess risk of radiation-associated intracranial second tumors. Results: Excess risk of second tumors was significantly lower among PRT compared with XRT plans (1.3 vs. 2.8 per 10,000 patients per year, p gland (29.2 vs. 37.0 Gy, p = 0.047), optic nerves (left, 28.5 vs. 33.8 Gy, p = 0.04; right, 25.1 vs. 31.1 Gy, p = 0.07), and cochleas (left, 12.2 vs. 15.8 Gy, p = 0.39; right,1.5 vs. 8.8 Gy, p = 0.01). Mean normal tissue complication probability was <1% for all structures and not significantly different between PRT and XRT plans. Conclusions: Compared with XRT, PRT for BM decreases the risk of RT-associated second tumors by half and delivers significantly lower doses to neurocognitive and critical structures of vision and hearing.

Arvold, Nils D. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej; Broussard, George P.; Adams, Judith; Fullerton, Barbara; Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Correlation of Osteoradionecrosis and Dental Events With Dosimetric Parameters in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a known complication of radiation therapy to the head and neck. However, the incidence of this complication with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dental sequelae with this technique have not been fully elucidated. Methods and Materials: From December 2000 to July 2007, 168 patients from our institution have been previously reported for IMRT of the oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx/hypopharynx, sinus, and oropharynx. All patients underwent pretreatment dental evaluation, including panoramic radiographs, an aggressive fluoride regimen, and a mouthguard when indicated. The median maximum mandibular dose was 6,798 cGy, and the median mean mandibular dose was 3,845 cGy. Patient visits were retrospectively reviewed for the incidence of ORN, and dental records were reviewed for the development of dental events. Univariate analysis was then used to assess the effect of mandibular and parotid gland dosimetric parameters on dental endpoints. Results: With a median clinic follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 0.8-89.6 months), 2 patients, both with oral cavity primaries, experienced ORN. Neither patient had preradiation dental extractions. The maximum mandibular dose and mean mandibular dose of the 2 patients were 7,183 and 6,828 cGy and 5812 and 5335 cGy, respectively. In all, 17% of the patients (n = 29) experienced a dental event. A mean parotid dose of >26 Gy was predictive of a subsequent dental caries, whereas a maximum mandibular dose >70 Gy and a mean mandibular dose >40 Gy were correlated with dental extractions after IMRT. Conclusions: ORN is rare after head-and-neck IMRT, but is more common with oral cavity primaries. Our results suggest different mechanisms for radiation-induced caries versus extractions.

Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Estilo, Cherry L. [Dental Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Kraus, Dennis H.; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Shah, Jatin P. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Mechalakos, James G.; Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Validating the RTOG-Endorsed Brachial Plexus Contouring Atlas: An Evaluation of Reproducibility Among Patients Treated by Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate interobserver variability for contouring the brachial plexus as an organ-at-risk (OAR) and to analyze its potential dosimetric consequences in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed brachial plexus contouring atlas, three radiation oncologists independently delineated the OAR on treatment planning computed-tomography (CT) axial scans from 5 representative patients undergoing IMRT to a prescribed dose of 70 Gy for head-and-neck cancer. Dose-volume histograms for the brachial plexus were calculated, and interobserver differences were quantified by comparing various dosimetric statistics. Qualitative analysis was performed by visually assessing the overlapping contours on a single beam's eye view. Results: Brachial plexus volumes for the 5 patients across observers were 26 cc (18-35 cc), 25 cc (21-30 cc), 29 cc (28-32 cc), 29 cc (23-38 cc), and 29 cc (23-34 cc). On qualitative analysis, minimal variability existed except at the inferolateral portion of the OAR, where slight discrepancies were noted among the physicians. Maximum doses to the brachial plexus ranged from 71.6 to 72.6 Gy, 75.2 to 75.8 Gy, 69.1 to 71.0 Gy, 76.4 to 76.9 Gy, and 70.6 to 71.4 Gy. Respective volumes receiving doses greater than 60 Gy (V60) were 8.6 to 10.9 cc, 6.2 to 8.1 cc, 8.2 to 11.6 cc, 8.3 to 10.5 cc, and 5.6 to 9.8 cc. Conclusion: The RTOG-endorsed brachial plexus atlas provides a consistent set of guidelines for contouring this OAR with essentially no learning curve. Adoption of these contouring guidelines in the clinical setting is encouraged.

Yi, Sun K.; Hall, William H.; Mathai, Mathew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Dublin, Arthur B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Gupta, Vishal; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

A Phase I Study of Chemoradiotherapy With Use of Involved-Field Conformal Radiotherapy and Accelerated Hyperfractionation for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: WJTOG 3305  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: A Phase I study to determine a recommended dose of thoracic radiotherapy using accelerated hyperfractionation for unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer was conducted. Methods and Materials: Patients with unresectable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer were treated intravenously with carboplatin (area under the concentration curve 2) and paclitaxel (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22 with concurrent twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy (1.5 Gy per fraction) beginning on Day 1 followed by two cycles of consolidation chemotherapy using carboplatin (area under the concentration curve 5) and paclitaxel (200 mg/m{sup 2}). Total doses were 54 Gy in 36 fractions, 60 Gy in 40 fractions, 66 Gy in 44 fractions, and 72 Gy in 48 fractions at Levels 1 to 4. The dose-limiting toxicity, defined as Grade {>=}4 esophagitis and neutropenic fever and Grade {>=}3 other nonhematologic toxicities, was monitored for 90 days. Results: Of 26 patients enrolled, 22 patients were assessable for response and toxicity. When 4 patients entered Level 4, enrollment was closed to avoid severe late toxicities. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 3 patients. They were Grade 3 neuropathy at Level 1 and Level 3 and Grade 3 infection at Level 1. However, the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The median survival time was 28.6 months for all patients. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, although the dose of radiation was escalated to 72 Gy in 48 fractions. However, a dose of 66 Gy in 44 fractions was adopted for this study because late toxicity data were insufficient.

Tada, Takuhito, E-mail: tada@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Izumi Municipal Hospital, Izumi (Japan); Chiba, Yasutaka [Department of Environmental Medicine and Behavioural Science, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-sayama (Japan); Tsujino, Kayoko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Fukuda, Haruyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Habikino (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-sayama (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Negoro, Shunichi [Department of Medical Oncology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Kudoh, Shinzoh [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fukuoka, Masahiro [Department of Medical Oncology, Izumi Municipal Hospital, Izumi (Japan); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-sayama (Japan); Nakanishi, Yoichi [Research Institute for Disease of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Medical x-ray exposure doses as contaminants of atomic bomb doses  

SciTech Connect

Since 1967 at the times of their biennial ABCC/RERF radiological examinations, all Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects have been interviewed to determine the exposures to medical x-rays they experienced in institutions other than RERF in order to estimate the numbers of examinations and corresponding doses which they received. These data have been stored on computer tapes together with the doses these subjects received during their radiological examinations in the ABCC/RERF Department of Radiology. Thus, their medical x-ray doses are available along with their atomic bomb doses (tentative 1965 doses revised, T65DR) for assessment of the role of ionizing radiation in the development of diseases. The medical x-ray doses incurred at RERF were assessed by means of phantom dosimetry. Those at other institutions were determined using phantom dosimetry data and results of surveys for trends in radiological examinations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. By the end of 1982, the average medical x-ray doses to the active bone marrow were 12.04 mGy for A-bomb exposed groups and 8.92 mGy for control groups (not-in-cities); to the male gonads, 2.26 mGy and 1.89 mGy, respectively; and to the female gonads, 17.45 mGy and 12.58 mGy, respectively. Results for Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar. The main impact of medical x-ray doses was in the lowest T65DR group. Medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.05-500% (mean, 35%) of A-bomb doses in the 10-99 mGy T65DR group. In the 100-999 mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray active bone marrow doses ranged from 0.005-50% (mean, 5%) of their T65DR. In the greater than 1000-mGy T65DR group, medical x-ray exposures were proportionally less. Medical x-ray exposures produced smaller doses to the gonads of males than to those of the females.

Yamamoto, O.; Antoku, S.; Russell, W.J.; Fujita, S.; Sawada, S.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

International Brachytherapy Practice Patterns: A Survey of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine current practice patterns with regard to gynecologic high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy among international members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) in Japan/Korea (Asia), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Europe (E), and North America (NAm). Methods and Materials: A 32-item survey was developed requesting information on brachytherapy practice patterns and standard management for Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer. The chair of each GCIG member cooperative group selected radiation oncology members to receive the survey. Results: A total of 72 responses were analyzed; 61 respondents (85%) used HDR. The three most common HDR brachytherapy fractionation regimens for Stage IB-IIA patients were 6 Gy for five fractions (18%), 6 Gy for four fractions (15%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (11%); for Stage IIB-IVA patients they were 6 Gy for five fractions (19%), 7 Gy for four fractions (8%), and 7 Gy for three fractions (8%). Overall, the mean combined external-beam and brachytherapy equivalent dose (EQD2) was 81.1 (standard deviation [SD] 10.16). The mean EQD2 recommended for Stage IB-IIA patients was 78.9 Gy (SD 10.7) and for Stage IIB-IVA was 83.3 Gy (SD 11.2) (p = 0.02). By region, the mean combined EQD2 was as follows: Asia, 71.2 Gy (SD 12.65); ANZ, 81.18 (SD 4.96); E, 83.24 (SD 10.75); and NAm, 81.66 (SD, 6.05; p = 0.02 for Asia vs. other regions).The ratio of brachytherapy to total prescribed dose was significantly higher for Japan (p = 0.0002). Conclusion: Although fractionation patterns may vary, the overall mean doses administered for cervical cancer are similar in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and North America, with practitioners in Japan administering a significantly lower external-beam dose but higher brachytherapy dose to the cervix. Given common goals, standardization should be possible in future clinical trials.

Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Creutzberg, Carien L. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Craighead, Peter [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); McCormack, Mary [Department of Oncology, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Narayan, Kailash [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Reed, Nicholas [Beatson Oncology Centre, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Long, Harry [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Kim, Hak-Jae [Department of Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Marth, Christian [Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria); Lindegaard, Jacob C. [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Cerrotta, Annmarie [Department of Radiation Therapy, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy); Small, William [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Trimble, Edward [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Phase I Study of Short-Course Accelerated Whole Brain Radiation Therapy for Multiple Brain Metastases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of a SHort-course Accelerated whole brain RadiatiON therapy (SHARON) in the treatment of patients with multiple brain metastases. Methods and Materials: A phase 1 trial in 4 dose-escalation steps was designed: 12 Gy (3 Gy per fraction), 14 Gy (3.5 Gy per fraction), 16 Gy (4 Gy per fraction), and 18 Gy (4.5 Gy per fraction). Eligibility criteria included patients with unfavorable recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class > or =2 with at least 3 brain metastases or metastatic disease in more than 3 organ systems, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status {<=}3. Treatment was delivered in 2 days with twice-daily fractionation. Patients were treated in cohorts of 6-12 to define the MTD. The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as any acute toxicity {>=}grade 3, according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Information on the status of the main neurologic symptoms and quality of life were recorded. Results: Characteristics of the 49 enrolled patients were as follows: male/female, 30/19; median age, 66 years (range, 23-83 years). ECOG performance status was <3 in 46 patients (94%). Fourteen patients (29%) were considered to be in recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class 3. Grade 1-2 acute neurologic (26.4%) and skin (18.3%) toxicities were recorded. Only 1 patient experienced DLT (neurologic grade 3 acute toxicity). With a median follow-up time of 5 months (range, 1-23 months), no late toxicities have been observed. Three weeks after treatment, 16 of 21 symptomatic patients showed an improvement or resolution of presenting symptoms (overall symptom response rate, 76.2%; confidence interval 0.95: 60.3-95.9%). Conclusions: Short-course accelerated radiation therapy in twice-daily fractions for 2 consecutive days is tolerated up to a total dose of 18 Gy. A phase 2 study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy on overall survival, symptom control, and quality of life indices.

Caravatta, Luciana; Deodato, Francesco; Ferro, Marica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Massaccesi, Mariangela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II,' Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Padula, Gilbert D.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Lacks Cancer Center Saint Mary's Health Care, Grand Rapids, Michigan (United States); Mignogna, Samantha; Tambaro, Rosa [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Palliative Therapies, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura 'Giovanni Paolo II', Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Carrozza, Francesco [Department of Oncology, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Campobasso (Italy)] [Department of Oncology, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Campobasso (Italy); Flocco, Mariano [Madre Teresa di Calcutta Hospice, Larino (Italy)] [Madre Teresa di Calcutta Hospice, Larino (Italy); Cantore, Giampaolo [Department of Neurological Sciences, Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Pozzilli (Italy)] [Department of Neurological Sciences, Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Pozzilli (Italy); Scapati, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'San Francesco' Hospital, Nuoro (Italy); Buwenge, Milly [Department of Radiotherapy, Mulago Hospital, Kampala (Uganda)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Mulago Hospital, Kampala (Uganda); and others

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Inhibiting the Aurora B Kinase Potently Suppresses Repopulation During Fractionated Irradiation of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The use of molecular-targeted agents during radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a promising strategy to inhibit repopulation, thereby improving therapeutic outcome. We assessed the combined effectiveness of inhibiting Aurora B kinase and irradiation on human NSCLC cell lines in vitro. Methods and Materials: NSCLC cell lines were exposed to concentrations of AZD1152-hydroxyquinazoline pyrazol anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) inhibiting colony formation by 50% (IC50{sub clone}) in combination with single dose irradiation or different fractionation schedules using multiple 2-Gy fractions per day up to total doses of 4-40 Gy. The total irradiation dose required to control growth of 50% of the plaque monolayers (TCD50) was determined. Apoptosis, G2/M progression, and polyploidization were also analyzed. Results: TCD50 values after single dose irradiation were similar for the H460 and H661 cell lines with 11.4 {+-} 0.2 Gy and 10.7 {+-} 0.3 Gy, respectively. Fractionated irradiation using 3 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, and 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day schedules significantly increased TCD50 values for both cell lines grown as plaque monolayers with increasing radiation treatment time. This could be explained by a repopulation effect per day that counteracts 75 {+-} 8% and 27 {+-} 6% of the effect of a 2-Gy fraction in H460 and H661 cells, respectively. AZD1152-HQPA treatment concomitant to radiotherapy significantly decreased the daily repopulation effect (H460: 28 {+-} 5%, H661: 10 {+-} 4% of a 2-Gy fraction per day). Treatment with IC50{sub clone} AZD1152-HPQA did not induce apoptosis, prolong radiation-induced G2 arrest, or delay cell cycle progression before the spindle check point. However, polyploidization was detected, especially in cell lines without functional p53. Conclusions: Inhibition of Aurora B kinase with low AZD1152-HQPA concentrations during irradiation of NSCLC cell lines affects repopulation during radiotherapy. Thus, concomitant Aurora B kinase inhibition and irradiation may be a promising strategy for fast repopulating tumors, which are difficult to cure by dose escalation based on conventional fractionation.

Sak, Ali, E-mail: ali.sak@uni-due.de [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Stuschke, Martin; Groneberg, Michael; Kuebler, Dennis; Poettgen, Christoph [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Eberhardt, Wilfried E.E. [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7-333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0-172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 3Gy}(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D{sub 15cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D{sub 15cm}{sup 3}/D{sub 50%} (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 2Gy} (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D{sub 0.5cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub 50%}(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non-RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small percentage of organ volumes (heart or ventricle) receiving high dose levels, supporting the notion that the heart behaves as a serial organ.

D'Errico, Maria P., E-mail: patderrico@libero.it [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Grimaldi, Luca [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Petruzzelli, Maria F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Gianicolo, Emilio A.L. [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Monetti, Antonio; Placella, Roberto [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Comparison of secondary neutron dose in proton therapy resulting from the use of a tungsten alloy MLC or a brass collimator system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To apply the dual ionization chamber method for mixed radiation fields to an accurate comparison of the secondary neutron dose arising from the use of a tungsten alloy multileaf collimator (MLC) as opposed to a brass collimator system for defining the shape of a therapeutic proton field. Methods: Hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous ionization chambers were constructed with large volumes to enable measurements of absorbed doses below 10{sup -4} Gy in mixed radiation fields using the dual ionization chamber method for mixed-field dosimetry. Neutron dose measurements were made with a nominal 230 MeV proton beam incident on a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a solid brass block. The chambers were cross-calibrated against a {sup 60}Co-calibrated Farmer chamber in water using a 6 MV x-ray beam and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for variations in ionization chamber response due to differences in secondary neutron energy spectra. Results: The neutron and combined proton plus {gamma}-ray absorbed doses are shown to be nearly equivalent downstream from either a closed tungsten alloy MLC or a solid brass block. At 10 cm downstream from the distal edge of the collimating material the neutron dose from the closed MLC was (5.3 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. The neutron dose with brass was (6.4 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -5} Gy/Gy. Further from the secondary neutron source, at 50 cm, the neutron doses remain close for both the MLC and brass block at (6.9 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy and (6.3 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup -6} Gy/Gy, respectively. Conclusions: The dual ionization chamber method is suitable for measuring secondary neutron doses resulting from proton irradiation. The results of measurements downstream from a closed tungsten alloy MLC and a brass block indicate that, even in an overly pessimistic worst-case scenario, secondary neutron production in a tungsten alloy MLC leads to absorbed doses that are nearly equivalent to those seen from brass collimators. Therefore, the choice of tungsten alloy in constructing the leaves of a proton MLC is appropriate, and does not lead to a substantial increase in the secondary neutron dose to the patient compared to that generated in a brass collimator.

Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Ainsley, Christopher G.; Kirk, Maura L.; McDonough, James E.; Maughan, Richard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

SciTech Connect

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

[F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for targeting radiation dose escalation for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brain tumors has been shown to identify areas of active disease. Radiation dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme may lead to improved disease control. Based on these premises, we initiated a prospective study of FDG-PET for the treatment planning of radiation dose escalation for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Forty patients were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard conformal fractionated radiotherapy with volumes defined by MRI imaging. When patients reached a dose of 45-50.4 Gy, they underwent FDG-PET imaging for boost target delineation, for an additional 20 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) to a total dose of 79.4 Gy (n = 30). Results: The estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 70% and 17%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 70 weeks. The estimated 1-year and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18% and 3%, respectively, with a median of 24 weeks. No significant improvements in OS or PFS were observed for the study group in comparison to institutional historical controls. Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation to 79.4 Gy based on FDG-PET imaging demonstrated no improvement in OS or PFS. This study establishes the feasibility of integrating PET metabolic imaging into radiotherapy treatment planning.

Douglas, James G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States) and Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]. E-mail: drjay@u.washington.edu; Stelzer, Keith J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Celilo Radiation Therapy, Mid-Columbia Medical Center, The Dalles, OR (United States); Mankoff, David A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Tralins, Kevin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Krohn, Kenneth A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Muzi, Mark [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Silbergeld, Daniel L. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Rostomily, Robert C. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Scharnhorst, Jeffrey B.S. [Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Spence, Alexander M. [Department of Neurology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD{sub 50} (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD{sub 50}. Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen [Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, University School of Dental Medicine, Martin- Luther- University, Halle (Germany); Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiotherapy, University Clinic, Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany); Gernhardt, Christian R. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University School of Dental Medicine, Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany); Kuhnt, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kuhnt@medizin.uni-halle.d [Department of Radiotherapy, University Clinic, Martin-Luther-University, Halle (Germany)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Bath and Shower Effects in the Rat Parotid Gland Explain Increased Relative Risk of Parotid Gland Dysfunction After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess in a rat model whether adding a subtolerance dose in a region adjacent to a high-dose irradiated subvolume of the parotid gland influences its response (bath-and-shower effect). Methods and Materials: Irradiation of the whole, cranial 50%, and/or the caudal 50% of the parotid glands of Wistar rats was performed using 150-MeV protons. To determine suitable (i.e., subtolerance) dose levels for a bath-dose, both whole parotid glands were irradiated with 5 to 25 Gy. Subsequently groups of Wistar rats received 30 Gy to the caudal 50% (shower) and 0 to 10 Gy to the cranial 50% (bath) of both parotid glands. Stimulated saliva flow rate (function) was measured before and up to 240 days after irradiation. Results: Irradiation of both glands up to a dose of 10 Gy did not result in late loss of function and is thus regarded subtolerance. Addition of a dose bath of 1 to 10 Gy to a high-dose in the caudal 50% of the glands resulted in enhanced function loss. Conclusion: Similar to the spinal cord, the parotid gland demonstrates a bath and shower effect, which may explain the less-than-expected sparing of function after IMRT.

Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.van.luijk@rt.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schippers, Jacobus M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Accelerator Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Meertens, Harm [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following {gamma}-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of {beta}-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following {gamma}-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not {gamma}-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to {gamma} rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following [gamma]-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of [beta]-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following [gamma]-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not [gamma]-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to [gamma] rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure.

Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

A Systems Genetics Approach to Evaluate Serum Cytokine Expression Profiles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluate Serum Cytokine Expression Profiles Evaluate Serum Cytokine Expression Profiles in 10 cGy-Irradiated Mice: Possible Connection to Susceptibility/Resistance to Cancer E.A. Blakely Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: To use a systems-genetics approach to evaluate serum cytokine expression profiles in 10 cGy-whole-body-irradiated mice (BALB/c and Spret/EiJ parental strains, and their F1 offspring backcrossed (F1Bx) to female BALB/c). Background and Significance: Even low doses of ionizing radiation (∼10 cGy) can alter the composition of the tissue microenvironment by rapidly affecting cytokine production and activities, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and the expression of receptors that mediate cell-to-cell interactions (1). The stroma in mammary glands is constantly changing

213

C AIR O EN ROC CHICA RPORT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

AIR AIR O EN ROC CHICA RPORT Office o NVIRON CKFO AGO RO T, WIN U.S f Energ D NMEN ORD S PRO OCKFO NNEBA . Depar gy Efficie Golden SEPT DRAFT NTAL A FOR SOLA OJEC ORD IN AGO C tment o ency and Field O TEMBER 20 ASSESS AR EN CT NTERN OUNT of Energ d Renew Office 011 SMENT NERG NATIO TY, ILL gy wable E DOE/EA- T GY ONAL LINOIS Energy -1823 S DOE/EA-1823 DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR ROCKFORD SOLAR ENERGY PROJECT CHICAGO ROCKFORD INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, WINNEBAGO COUNTY, ILLINOIS U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office SEPTEMBER 2011 DOE/EA-1823 (DRAFT) iii September 2011 COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy TITLE: Draft Environmental Assessment: Rockford Solar Energy Project, Chicago-Rockford Airport,

214

Low-dose Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar Photons Modify CD4+ T Cell Signaling Response to Simulated Solar Particle Event Protons Daila Gridley Loma Linda University and Medical Center Abstract Purpose: Astronauts on missions are exposed to low-dose/low-dose (LDR) radiation and could receive high doses during solar particle events (SPE). This study investigated T cell function in response to LDR radiation and simulated SPE (sSPE) protons, alone and in combination. Materials and methods: C57BL/6 mice received LDR γ-radiation (57Co) to a total dose of 0.01 Gray (Gy) at 0.0179 cGy/h, either with or without subsequent exposure to 1.7 Gy simulated SPE (sSPE) protons delivered over 36 h. On days 4 and 21 post-exposure, three functional pathways were studied using negatively isolated/anti-CD3 activated splenic CD4+ T cells:

215

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes. Approach: Our approach is to develop a novel computational method that

216

Reply to comment by J. Ganguly on Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites'  

SciTech Connect

In the authors' 1984 and subsequent papers (Finnerty and Boyd, 1987; Finnerty, 1989) they evaluated more than 650 combinations of thermometers and barometers. Where possible they have used thermodynamic or mathematic formulations that authors have derived from their data. In cases where such formulations were either not provided or were incomplete, they have fitted data by the simplest possible procedures. Equation 9a of Lane and Ganguly (1980) requires calculation of the term X{sub Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}}{sup Opx} from analytical data in the form of weight-percent oxides. No procedure was given in their paper for calculation of this quantity. Different methods are required depending upon site occupancy models and upon whether the effects of components other than Mg, Al, and Si (MAS) are considered. Limiting their consideration to the MAS system, the authors tested alternate definitions of X{sub Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}}{sup Opx} by calculating P-T values for garnet peridotite xenoliths from northern Lesotho and comparing the estimates to those presented by Lane and Ganguly (1980, Fig. 5 LG80). When X{sub Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}}{sup Opx} was calculated as Al/(Al + 2Si), where the chemical symbols refer to the numbers of the respective cations calculated from the chemical analysis on a 6-oxygen basis, their estimates agreed with those in the Lane and Ganguly (1980) paper, insofar as could be determined by comparison with their Fig. 5. This formula was transferred into Program TEMPEST, and a plot generated with it was used as the basis for remarks in the text of the authors' paper. These remarks are correct, but an error was made in assembling the accompanying figures. A preliminary estimate calculated with the formula Al/(Al + Si) was inadvertently substituted for the correct figure and was included in their published paper (Fig. 4F). Pressure estimates in the invalid figure are low by about 10 kbar. The correct version of the original Fig. 4F is presented herein as Fig. 1.

Finnerty, A.A. (Balance Hydrologics, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Boyd, F.R. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Hypofractionation vs Conventional Radiation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Matched-Cohort Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Despite conventional radiation therapy, 54 Gy in single doses of 1.8 Gy (54/1.8 Gy) over 6 weeks, most children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) will die within 1 year after diagnosis. To reduce patient burden, we investigated the role of hypofractionation radiation therapy given over 3 to 4 weeks. A 1:1 matched-cohort analysis with conventional radiation therapy was performed to assess response and survival. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven children, aged 3 to 14, were treated according to 1 of 2 hypofractionation regimens over 3 to 4 weeks (39/3 Gy, n=16 or 44.8/2.8 Gy, n=11). All patients had symptoms for {<=}3 months, {>=}2 signs of the neurologic triad (cranial nerve deficit, ataxia, long tract signs), and characteristic features of DIPG on magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-seven patients fulfilling the same diagnostic criteria and receiving at least 50/1.8 to 2.0 Gy were eligible for the matched-cohort analysis. Results: With hypofractionation radiation therapy, the overall survival at 6, 9, and 12 months was 74%, 44%, and 22%, respectively. Progression-free survival at 3, 6, and 9 months was 77%, 43%, and 12%, respectively. Temporary discontinuation of steroids was observed in 21 of 27 (78%) patients. No significant difference in median overall survival (9.0 vs 9.4 months; P=.84) and time to progression (5.0 vs 7.6 months; P=.24) was observed between hypofractionation vs conventional radiation therapy, respectively. Conclusions: For patients with newly diagnosed DIPG, a hypofractionation regimen, given over 3 to 4 weeks, offers equal overall survival with less treatment burden compared with a conventional regimen of 6 weeks.

Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jansen, Marc H. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lauwers, Selmer J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nowak, Peter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bouffet, Eric [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Saran, Frank [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton (United Kingdom); Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schieving, Jolanda H. [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Neurology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Span, Paul N.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gidding, Corrie E. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hargrave, Darren [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)] [Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Studies were designed to identify genes induced in fibroblasts after exposure to low-dose neutron radiation but not after {gamma} rays. Our past work had shown similar modulation of transcripts for {alpha}-tubulin, {beta}- and {gamma}-actins, ornithine decarboxylase and interleukin 1 after exposure to either neutrons or {gamma} rays. However, differences in the expression of {beta}-protein kinase C and c-fos genes were observed, with both being induced after exposure to {gamma} rays but not neutrons. Recently, we have identified two genes that are induced after exposure to neutrons but not {gamma} rays: Rp-8 (a gene associated with apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Induction of Rp-8 mRNA was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.005 Gy/min) and high dose rate (0.12 Gy/min). No induction of other genes associated with apoptosis such as Rp-2, bcl-2 and Tcl-30 was observed. The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measurements of CAT activity and CAT transcripts after irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to {gamma} rays over a broad range of doses (0.1-3 Gy). Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected after exposure to neutrons (0.48 Gy) administered at low (0.05 Gy/min) but not high (0.12 Gy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction, however, was inhibited by exposure to low-dose-rate neutron irradiation. These results are interesting in light of reports that Rp-8 is induced during apoptosis and that HIV causes apoptosis. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. of Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Paclitaxel and Nedaplatin Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Preliminary Results of a Phase II Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with LASCC (FIGO Stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy for Stage IIB and 50 Gy for Stage III) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (50 Gy for Stage IIB and 35 Gy for Stage III). The cumulative dose at point A was 50 Gy for Stage IIB and 65 Gy for Stage III. Concurrent chemotherapy with paclitaxel (35 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}) was given every week for 6 weeks. Consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Results: All patients completed CCRT, and 28 of 34 patients completed consolidation chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 88% (95% CI, 73-96%). The most common Grade 3 or higher toxicities were leukopenia/neutropenia (10.9% of the cycles). During a median follow up of 23 months (range, 14-30 months), 5 patients had locoregional failure and 1 patient had distant metastasis. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 82% (95% CI, 68-95%) and 93% (95% CI, 83-100%), respectively. Grade 3 late complications occurred in 3 patients (9%). Conclusions: CCRT with paclitaxel and nedaplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Further randomized trials of comparing this regimen with the standard treatment are worth while.

Zhang Meiqin, E-mail: pianozmq@hotmail.co [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Liu Suping; Wang, Xiang-E. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Parotid Gland Dose in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer: Is What You Plan What You Get?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To quantify the differences between planned and delivered parotid gland and target doses, and to assess the benefits of daily bone alignment for head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Eleven head and neck cancer patients received two CT scans per week with an in-room CT scanner over the course of their radiotherapy. The clinical IMRT plans, designed with 3-mm to 4-mm planning margins, were recalculated on the repeat CT images. The plans were aligned using the actual treatment isocenter marked with radiopaque markers (BB) and bone alignment to the cervical vertebrae to simulate image-guided setup. In-house deformable image registration software was used to map daily dose distributions to the original treatment plan and to calculate a cumulative delivered dose distribution for each patient. Results: Using conventional BB alignment led to increases in the parotid gland mean dose above the planned dose by 5 to 7 Gy in 45% of the patients (median, 3.0 Gy ipsilateral, p = 0.026; median, 1.0 Gy contralateral, p = 0.016). Use of bone alignment led to reductions relative to BB alignment in 91% of patients (median, 2 Gy; range, 0.3-8.3 Gy; 15 of 22 parotids improved). However, the parotid dose from bone alignment was still greater than planned (median, 1.0 Gy, p = 0.007). Neither approach affected tumor dose coverage. Conclusions: With conventional BB alignment, the parotid gland mean dose was significantly increased above the planned mean dose. Using daily bone alignment reduced the parotid dose compared with BB alignment in almost all patients. A 3- to 4-mm planning margin was adequate for tumor dose coverage.

O'Daniel, Jennifer C. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Schwartz, David L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang He [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, Kian K.; Ahamad, Anesa; Rosenthal, David I.; Morrison, William H.; Asper, Joshua A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang Lifei; Tung Shihming; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)], E-mail: ldong@mdanderson.org

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Using a Reduced Spot Size for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Potentially Improves Salivary Gland-Sparing in Oropharyngeal Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate whether intensity-modulated proton therapy with a reduced spot size (rsIMPT) could further reduce the parotid and submandibular gland dose compared with previously calculated IMPT plans with a larger spot size. In addition, it was investigated whether the obtained dose reductions would theoretically translate into a reduction of normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). Methods: Ten patients with N0 oropharyngeal cancer were included in a comparative treatment planning study. Both IMPT plans delivered simultaneously 70 Gy to the boost planning target volume (PTV) and 54 Gy to the elective nodal PTV. IMPT and rsIMPT used identical three-field beam arrangements. In the IMPT plans, the parotid and submandibular salivary glands were spared as much as possible. rsIMPT plans used identical dose-volume objectives for the parotid glands as those used by the IMPT plans, whereas the objectives for the submandibular glands were tightened further. NTCPs were calculated for salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. Results: Target coverage was similar for both IMPT techniques, whereas rsIMPT clearly improved target conformity. The mean doses in the parotid glands and submandibular glands were significantly lower for three-field rsIMPT (14.7 Gy and 46.9 Gy, respectively) than for three-field IMPT (16.8 Gy and 54.6 Gy, respectively). Hence, rsIMPT significantly reduced the NTCP of patient-rated xerostomia and parotid and contralateral submandibular salivary flow dysfunction (27%, 17%, and 43% respectively) compared with IMPT (39%, 20%, and 79%, respectively). In addition, mean dose values in the sublingual glands, the soft palate and oral cavity were also decreased. Obtained dose and NTCP reductions varied per patient. Conclusions: rsIMPT improved sparing of the salivary glands and reduced NTCP for xerostomia and parotid and submandibular salivary dysfunction, while maintaining similar target coverage results. It is expected that rsIMPT improves quality of life during and after radiotherapy treatment.

Water, Tara A. van de, E-mail: t.a.van.de.water@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Bijl, Hendrik P.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hug, Eugen B. [Centre for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Severe Dry Eye Syndrome After Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the incidence of severe dry eye syndrome (DES) after external beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer and its dependence on the parameters relevant to external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study included 78 patients treated for primary extracranial head-and-neck tumors between 1965 and 2000, whose lacrimal apparatus/entire globe was exposed to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The dose received by the major lacrimal gland was used for analysis. The end point of the present study was the ophthalmologic diagnosis of severe DES leading to vision compromise. Results: Of the 78 patients, 40 developed severe DES leading to visual compromise. The incidence of DES increased steadily from 6% at 35-39.99 Gy to 50% at 45-49.99 Gy and 90% at 60-64.99 Gy. With a mean of 0.9 years (range, 1 month to 3 years), the latency of DES was observed to be a function of the total dose and the dose per fraction. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the total dose (p =}60 Gy. A logistic normal tissue complication probability model fit to our data obtained a dose of 34 and 38 Gy corresponding to a 5% and 10% incidence of DES. Conclusion: With a dose of 34 Gy corresponding to a 5% incidence of DES, the risk of severe DES increased, and the latency decreased with an increase in the total dose and dose per fraction to the lacrimal gland. The effect of chemoradiotherapy and hyperfractionation on the risk of DES needs additional investigation.

Bhandare, Niranjan, E-mail: bhandn@shands.ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Song, William Y. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bhatti, M. Tariq [Department of Ophthalmology and Medicine (Division of Neurology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mendenhall, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to dose-limiting toxicities. Future efforts will focus on whether further dose escalation with CY/VP16 is safe, with the goal of improving disease control in this high-risk population.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States) [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)] [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Pacific Islands Gabon Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordon Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, South Korea, North Kyrgyzstan Kutubu Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Liberia Libya Lithuania Macau S.A.R. Macedonia Madagascar Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands Netherlands/Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papau New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russia St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Soloman Islands South Africa Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Tonga Togo Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands (British) Virgin Islands (U.S.) Yemen Yugoslavia Zambia Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

225

Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djbouti Dominica Dominican Republic Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Eritrea Estonia Fiji Finland France French Pacific Islands French Guiana Gabon Georgia, Republic of Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guinea Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, South Kutubu Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Liberia Lithuania Macau S.A.R. Macedonia Madagascar Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Marshall Islands Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papau New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Romania Russia St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Pierre and Miquelon St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia South Africa Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Uganda Ukraine United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam Virgin Islands (British) Virgin Islands (U.S.) Yemen Yugoslavia Other Non OPEC Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

226

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 METHODS DERIVATION MODULE 3: METHODS DERIVATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M3-1 1 Introduction and Basis for the Approach The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose limit of 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for the protection of aquatic organisms (DOE Order 5400.5), and has proposed dose limits for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These limits are: 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for aquatic animals; 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for terrestrial plants; and 0.1 rad/d (1 mGy/d) for terrestrial animals. Because the biota protection limits are dose-based, a calculational method is needed to demonstrate compliance. In theory, derived radionuclide concentration limits for environmental media (e.g., Biota Concentration Guides, BCGs, for water, sediment, or soil) provide a relatively straightforward and simple means to do so. However, because of the

227

HyMotion GEN 2 Fact Sheet - backup.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1.6 seconds 1.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 19.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 78.9 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 106.5 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 19.8 seconds Maximum Speed: 76.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 107.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed gy gy (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed gy gy (kWh) 7 10 157.8 2.03 10 92.0 1.57 20 164.4 4.03 20 102.3 3.10 40 119.0 4.95 40 91.3 4.66 60 97.6 4.98 60 79.0 4.66 80 87.0 4.98 80 73.0 4.66 100 80.7 4.98 100 69.5 4.66 200 68.0 4.98 200 62.4 4.66 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 155.2 MPG A AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.204 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

228

Upscaling Reaction Rate Laws In Geochemical Reactive Transport Using Pore-Scale Network Models Dmitri Kavetski1,2,#, Catherine A. Peters1,$, Michael A. Celia1 and Brent Lindquist3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Rutile, Pyrite GY BR Q Pore space Chemical Reactions and Kinetic Rate Laws Primary interest: acid geosequestration studies *aquifer remediation *nuclear waste disposal *other applications Reactive processes occur and examines whether reaction rates applicable at the pore-scale, O(10-100m), are realistic at larger continuum

Peters, Catherine A.

229

Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985  

SciTech Connect

To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension {le}1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Etoh, Ryozo [Fukuyama Hospital, Kagoshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Toshio [Kawaishi Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Akiba, Suminori [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on the DS86 dosimetry system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1983 (93.4%) of the 2124 atomic bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. The DS86 kerma neutron component for Hiroshima survivors is much smaller than its comparable T65DR component, but still 4.2-fold higher (0.38 Gy at 6 Gy) than that in Nagasaki (0.09 Gy at 6 Gy). Thus, if the eye is especially sensitive to neutrons, there may yet be some useful information on their effects, particularly in Hiroshima. The dose-response relationship has been evaluated as a function of the separately estimated gamma-ray and neutron doses. Among several different dose-response models without and with two thresholds, we have selected as the best model the one with the smallest x2 or the largest log likelihood value associated with the goodness of fit. The best fit is a linear gamma-linear neutron relationship which assumes different thresholds for the two types of radiation. Both gamma and neutron regression coefficients for the best fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated DS86 eye organ dose.

Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

ExPLORATiON YGS Activities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Placer Mining Oil and Gas Yukon Mining incentives Program 2009 #12;Yukon Exploration and GEoloGY 2009 185YukON ExPLORATiON & GEOLOGY OVERViEW YGS Activities Hardrock Mining, development & Exploration composition of platinum group minerals and their inclusions from several Yukon placers. In: Yukon Exploration

Bodnar, Robert J.

232

Assessment of NGCC Vice President  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and emissions data from public sources: EPA, eGRID, EIA-923 operations reports, Energy Commission siting://energy.ca.gov/sitingcases. ­ The Database of California Power Plants provides a comprehensive list in spreadsheet form. EPA eGRID and DOE://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/ener gy-resources/egrid/index.html http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf.html #12;

233

Assessment of Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) Plants with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Did Assembled design, capacity factor, and emissions data from public sources: EPA, eGRID, EIA-923 list in spreadsheet form. EPA eGRID and DOE EIA databases provide unit-by-unit data on rated capacity, fuel consumption, CO2 production, etc. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/ener gy-resources/egrid

234

Adaptive and reverse adaptive responses for chromosomal inversions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a response which can protect from inversion induction within four hours of high dose irradiation. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0.01 1 1000 1000+0.01 1000+1 Dose (mGy) M e a n in v e r s io n fr...

235

Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

Hakim, Samer George, E-mail: samer.hakim@mkg-chir.mu-luebeck.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Benedek, Geza Attila [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Su Yuxiong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guanghua (China); Jacobsen, Hans Christian [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Klinger, Matthias [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Dendorfer, Andreas [Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Hemmelmann, Claudia [Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Meller, Birgit [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Sieg, Peter [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Subsurface mass transport affects the radioxenon signatures that are used to identify clandestine nuclear tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

detail. In nuclear accidents such as that in Fukushima, a high radiation dose of a few Gy can be absorbed reconstruction for the Fukushima event carried out by Garnier-Laplace et al.,1 the maxi- mum dose rates for 131 I-Seiller, K.; Hinton, T. G. Fukushima wildlife dose reconstruction signals ecological consequen- ces. Environ

Deinert, Mark

237

Laying a Foundation for Global Leadership  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadcasting. The two prizes carry monetary awards of $15,000 and $5,000, respectively. Sarah Vaden (aerospace class,Vaden used compressed gases to change the tone of a drum on the fly, while the drummer was playingGia institute of technoloGy InVenture Prize winners were Patrick Whaley (left) and Sarah Vaden (center). return

Wang, Yuhang

238

DOE-1 USERS GUIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IlCVRElJ ENEIlGY (G8TUJ WASTED RCVRA8L ENERGY CG8TUJ HEAT ENENERGY (G8TU! WASTED RCYRASL ENERGY (G8TUI HEAT EN INPUTI GBTIJ I IGSTUI WASTED RCVREO ENERGY IGBrUI RCVRA~L ENERGY

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

Janke, Christopher J. (Powell, TN); Lopata, Vincent J. (Manitoba, CA); Havens, Stephen J. (Knoxville, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); Moulton, Richard J. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Rationale for and Preliminary Results of Proton Beam Therapy for Mediastinal Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the potential of three-dimensional proton beam therapy (3D-PBT) for reducing doses to normal structures in patients with mediastinal lymphomas compared with conventional photon radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We treated 10 consecutive patients with mediastinal masses from lymphomas with 3D-PBT between July 2007 and February 2009 to 30.6-50.4 cobalt-Gray equivalents (CGE). Of those patients, 7 had primary refractory or recurrent disease, and 8 had Hodgkin lymphoma. Dosimetric endpoints were compared with those from conventional RT plans. Results: PBT delivered lower mean doses to the lung (6.2 vs. 9.5 Gy), esophagus (9.5 vs. 22.3 Gy), and heart (8.8 vs. 17.7 Gy) but not the breasts (5.9 vs. 6.1 Gy) than did conventional RT. Percentages of lung, esophagus, heart, and coronary artery (particularly the left anterior descending artery) volumes receiving radiation were consistently lower in the 3D-PBT plans over a wide range of radiation doses. Of the 7 patients who had residual disease on positron emission tomography before PBT, 6 (86%) showed a complete metabolic response. Conclusions: In patients with mediastinal lymphomas, 3D-PBT produced significantly lower doses to the lung, esophagus, heart, and coronary arteries than did the current conventional RT. These lower doses would be expected to reduce the risk of late toxicities in these major organs.

Li Jing; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Reed, Valerie; Allen, Pamela K.; Cai, Haihong; Amin, Mayankkumar V.; Garcia, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cox, James D., E-mail: jcox@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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241

420 W. 118th Street, New York, New York 10027 | energypolicy.columbia.edu | @ColumbiaUEnergy Center on Global Energy Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Global Energy Policy #12;About thE CEntEr on GlobAl EnErGy PoliCy The Center on Global Energy Policy be matched by changes in our energy policy. Decision makers will be required, increasingly, to consider new are implementing energy policies, no matter what country they hail from, must balance the economic and security

Qian, Ning

242

FY 2013 Budget Request to Congress for DOE's Office of Sciencefor DOE's Office of Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Biosystems by design targeting the development of synthetic biologyy y g g g p y gy tools and technologies biofuels and bioproducts. Modeling and simulation using SC's Leadership Computing Facilities for sustainable production of biofuels and Iterative engineering Design engineering Genomics and analysisp

243

Radiation inhibition of intimal hyperplasia after arterial injury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To demonstrate the effect of {gamma} radiation on proliferating smooth muscle cells in vivo, a standardized bilateral carotid balloon catheter arterial injury was produced in 45 rats and doses from 0-20 Gy were delivered to the right carotid artery at 24 h after injury. At 20 days after injury, cross-sectional area of intima was determined from axial histological sections. Compared to contralateral, nonirradiated balloon-injured arteries, radiation produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in intimal cross-sectional area, with a 50% decrease at 5-7.5 Gy. To determine the effect of timing of irradiation on intimal hyperplasia, 30 rats with bilateral carotid injury received unilateral cervical irradiation at doses of 1,5 or 10 Gy administered at either 1,3 or 5 days after injury. The radiation dose, timing of irradiation and an interaction between timing and dose were significantly associated with reduction in neointimal cross-sectional area. To determine the effects of radiation on intimal hyperplasia at later intervals, rats irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy were euthanized at 3 months after injury. A significant persistent reduction in intimal cross-sectional area for irradiated arteries at 3 months was associated with minimal apparent radiation effects upon adjacent tissue. These data suggest that external {gamma} irradiation at the single doses used effectively inhibits smooth muscle proliferation and intimal hyperlasia in the rat balloon catheter injury model in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Mayberg, M.R.; Luo, Z.; London, S.; Gajdusek, C.; Rasey, J.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Functional Proteomic Pattern Identification under Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this study is to explore and to understand the dynamic responses of signaling pathways to low dose ionizing radiation (IR). Low dose radiation (10 cGy or lower) affects several signaling pathways including DNA repair, survival, cell cycle, ... Keywords: low dose radiation, functional proteomics

Young Bun Kim; Jean Gao; Ying Dong; Chin-Rang Yang

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Postimplant Dosimetry Using a Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Engine: A New Clinical Standard  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To use the Monte Carlo (MC) method as a dose calculation engine for postimplant dosimetry. To compare the results with clinically approved data for a sample of 28 patients. Two effects not taken into account by the clinical calculation, interseed attenuation and tissue composition, are being specifically investigated. Methods and Materials: An automated MC program was developed. The dose distributions were calculated for the target volume and organs at risk (OAR) for 28 patients. Additional MC techniques were developed to focus specifically on the interseed attenuation and tissue effects. Results: For the clinical target volume (CTV) D{sub 90} parameter, the mean difference between the clinical technique and the complete MC method is 10.7 Gy, with cases reaching up to 17 Gy. For all cases, the clinical technique overestimates the deposited dose in the CTV. This overestimation is mainly from a combination of two effects: the interseed attenuation (average, 6.8 Gy) and tissue composition (average, 4.1 Gy). The deposited dose in the OARs is also overestimated in the clinical calculation. Conclusions: The clinical technique systematically overestimates the deposited dose in the prostate and in the OARs. To reduce this systematic inaccuracy, the MC method should be considered in establishing a new standard for clinical postimplant dosimetry and dose-outcome studies in a near future.

Carrier, Jean-Francois [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, et Centre de Recherche du CHUM, Hopital Notre-Dame du CHUM, Montreal, Quebec (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: jean-francois.carrier.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; D' Amours, Michel [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Reniers, Brigitte [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Network of Centers for Very Small Entities (VSEs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the experience of the traveler with friends. · Used the Basic software engineering Profile · Roles have been completed in Canada · Large Engineering Company - 1 · Offers a range of services in the production of hydro-electric, wind, geothermal, solar or biomass-related energy.g gy · Company established 10 years ago, · Over 260

Québec, Université du

247

Effects of radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata  

SciTech Connect

Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects of low levels of radioactivity because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation exposure regimes. Groups of 100 larvae were exposed to either x rays delivered at high dose rates (0.7 Gy min/sup -1/) or to /sup 60/Co gamma rays delivered at low dose rates (4.8 X 10/sup -5/ to 1.2 X 10/sup -1/ Gy h/sup -1/). After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 X 10/sup -5/M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (/sup 60/Co-irradiated larvae). Slides of larval cells were prepared for observation of CAs and SCEs. Frequencies of CAs were determined in first division cells; frequencies of SCEs were determined in second division cells. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but an x-ray dose greater than or equal to 2 Gy was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving /sup 60/Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies; a significant increase in SCE frequency was observed at 0.6 Gy. 49 references, 2 figures.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.; Varela, M.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.Hebbeker Radiation Exposure of Humans Natural sources: ~ 1 m Sv / year ~ 1 m Gy / year ~ 0,1 J / year Technical sources: ~ 1 m Sv / Jahr ~ natural exposure Air (Radon) internal radioactivity (K-40) cosmics Increased of Cosmic Radiation Nobel 1936 1912 Viktor Hess 1912 #12;T.Hebbeker Electrometer Measurements V. Hess

Hebbeker, Thomas

249

OAK FMSXSE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

d x-' . J ' T* ,I, fJ&w h5z8 - ornl r* OAK FMSXSE A,OA L tABORblTORY r c LI I C L * I CII II c I -hw LV tlilAm@ ENEROY 8YwEMs, lr4c. TT W EkUD%GY I uauws79fm ORNL...

250

JOM January 201148 www.tms.org/jom.html OverviewOverviewNanomaterials for Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JOM · January 201148 www.tms.org/jom.html OverviewOverviewNanomaterials for Renewable Energy Global to fundamental advances in direct renewable energy and ener- gy storage and conversion which are needed to enable renewable energy and meet the general energy challenges and associated environmental effects. This paper

251

Computing and Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Faculty of Computing and Information Science Faculty of Computing and Information Science The concepts, modes of thought, and technology of computing and information science have fundamentally extended- versities respond? Cornell hit upon a unique strate- gy: create a college-level Faculty of Computing

Keinan, Alon

252

Entrance surface dose in cerebral interventional radiology procedures  

SciTech Connect

At the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures of interventional radiology are carried out. Since the procedures can last from some minutes to several hours, the absorbed dose for the patient could increase dangerously. An investigation had begun in order to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD) using 25 thermoluminiscent dosimeters TLD-100 and 8 strips of 15 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} of Gafchromic XR-QA2 film bound in a holder of 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 cm{sup 2} in the posteroanterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) positions during all the procedure. The results show that maximum ESD could be from 0.9 to 2.9 Gy for the PA position and between 1.6 and 2.5 Gy for the lateral position. The average ESD was between 0.7 and 1.3 Gy for the PA position, and from 0.44 to 1.1 Gy for the lateral position in a therapeutic procedure.

Barrera-Rico, M.; Lopez-Rendon, X.; Rivera-Ordonez, C. E.; Gamboa-deBuen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez, 14269 DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 DF (Mexico)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

253

West Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia UniversityWest Virginia University 1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergraduate Catalog1995-97 Undergradu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part technique used to simulate borehole nuclear measurements.Although recent advances in computer technolo- gy have considerably reduced the computer time required by Monte Carlo simulations of borehole nuclear

Mohaghegh, Shahab

254

SNS Target Systems Operational  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scheduling conflict with other remote handling work planned for the next shutdown. · The target and PBW integrated monolith and hot cell structures #12;32 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy based on testing at Riken to 1.8 x 105 Gy · Improved neutronic performance and reduced remote handling

McDonald, Kirk

255

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Painting for Localized Prostate Cancer Using {sup 11}C-choline Positron Emission Tomography Scans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose painting using {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography PET scans in patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was an RT planning study of 8 patients with prostate cancer who had {sup 11}C-choline PET scans prior to radical prostatectomy. Two contours were semiautomatically generated on the basis of the PET scans for each patient: 60% and 70% of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub 60%} and SUV{sub 70%}). Three IMRT plans were generated for each patient: PLAN{sub 78}, which consisted of whole-prostate radiation therapy to 78 Gy; PLAN{sub 78-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 78 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy; and PLAN{sub 72-90}, which consisted of whole-prostate RT to 72 Gy, a boost to the SUV{sub 60%} to 84 Gy, and a further boost to the SUV{sub 70%} to 90 Gy. The feasibility of these plans was judged by their ability to reach prescription doses while adhering to published dose constraints. Tumor control probabilities based on PET scan-defined volumes (TCP{sub PET}) and on prostatectomy-defined volumes (TCP{sub path}), and rectal normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were compared between the plans. Results: All plans for all patients reached prescription doses while adhering to dose constraints. TCP{sub PET} values for PLAN{sub 78}, PLAN{sub 78-90}, and PLAN{sub 72-90} were 65%, 97%, and 96%, respectively. TCP{sub path} values were 71%, 97%, and 89%, respectively. Both PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} had significantly higher TCP{sub PET} (P=.002 and .001) and TCP{sub path} (P<.001 and .014) values than PLAN{sub 78}. PLAN{sub 78-90} and PLAN{sub 72-90} were not significantly different in terms of TCP{sub PET} or TCP{sub path}. There were no significant differences in rectal NTCPs between the 3 plans. Conclusions: IMRT dose painting for localized prostate cancer using {sup 11}C-choline PET scans is technically feasible. Dose painting results in higher TCPs without higher NTCPs.

Chang, Joe H. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia) [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lim Joon, Daryl [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia)] [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Lee, Sze Ting [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Gong, Sylvia J. [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia)] [Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Anderson, Nigel J. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia)] [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Scott, Andrew M. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Davis, Ian D. [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Victoria (Australia); Clouston, David [Focus Pathology, Victoria (Australia)] [Focus Pathology, Victoria (Australia); Bolton, Damien [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia) [University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Urology, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Hamilton, Christopher S. [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia)] [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); Khoo, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.khoo@rmh.nhs.uk [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia) [Radiation Oncology Centre, Austin Health, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Comparison of Heart and Coronary Artery Doses Associated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy for Distal Esophageal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare heart and coronary artery radiation exposure using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. four-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) treatment plans for patients with distal esophageal cancer undergoing chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with distal esophageal cancers treated with IMRT from March 2007 to May 2008 were identified. All patients were treated to 50.4 Gy with five-field IMRT plans. Theoretical 3D-CRT plans with four-field beam arrangements were generated. Dose-volume histograms of the planning target volume, heart, right coronary artery, left coronary artery, and other critical normal tissues were compared between the IMRT and 3D-CRT plans, and selected parameters were statistically evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment planning showed significant reduction (p < 0.05) in heart dose over 3D-CRT as assessed by average mean dose (22.9 vs. 28.2 Gy) and V30 (24.8% vs. 61.0%). There was also significant sparing of the right coronary artery (average mean dose, 23.8 Gy vs. 35.5 Gy), whereas the left coronary artery showed no significant improvement (mean dose, 11.2 Gy vs. 9.2 Gy), p = 0.11. There was no significant difference in percentage of total lung volume receiving at least 10, 15, or 20 Gy or in the mean lung dose between the planning methods. There were also no significant differences observed for the kidneys, liver, stomach, or spinal cord. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy achieved a significant improvement in target conformity as measured by the conformality index (ratio of total volume receiving 95% of prescription dose to planning target volume receiving 95% of prescription dose), with the mean conformality index reduced from 1.56 to 1.30 using IMRT. Conclusions: Treatment of patients with distal esophageal cancer using IMRT significantly decreases the exposure of the heart and right coronary artery when compared with 3D-CRT. Long-term studies are necessary to determine how this will impact on development of coronary artery disease and other cardiac complications.

Kole, Thomas P.; Aghayere, Osarhieme; Kwah, Jason [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Comprehensive Analysis of Cardiac Dose in Balloon-Based High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate radiation dose to the heart in 60 patients with left-sided breast cancer who were treated with balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy using MammoSite or Contura applicators. Methods and Materials: We studied 60 consecutive women with breast cancer who were treated with 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions using MammoSite (n = 37) or Contura (n = 23) applicators. The whole heart and the left and right ventricles were retrospectively delineated, and dose-volume histograms were analyzed. Multiple dosimetrics were reported, such as mean dose (D{sub mean}); relative volume receiving 1.7, 5, 10, and 20 Gy (V1.7, V5, V10, and V20, respectively); dose to 1 cc (D{sub 1cc}); and maximum point dose (D{sub max}). Biologic metrics, biologically effective dose and generalized equivalent uniform dose were computed. The impact of lumpectomy cavity location on cardiac dose was investigated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation of D{sub mean} was 2.45 {+-} 0.94 Gy (range, 0.56-4.68) and 3.29 {+-} 1.28 Gy (range, 0.77-6.35) for the heart and the ventricles, respectively. The average whole heart V5 and V10 values were 10.2% and 1.3%, respectively, and the heart D{sub max} was >20 Gy in 7 of 60 (11.7%) patients and >25 Gy in 3 of 60 (5%) patients. No cardiac tissue received {>=}30 Gy. The V1.7, V5, V10, V20, and D{sub mean} values were all higher for the ventricles than for the whole heart. For balloons located in the upper inner quadrant of the breast, the average whole heart D{sub mean} was highest. The D{sub mean}, biologically effective dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose values for heart and ventricles decreased with increasing minimal distance from the surface of the balloon. Conclusions: On the basis of these comprehensive cardiac dosimetric data, we recommend that cardiac dose be routinely reported and kept as low as possible in balloon-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning for patients with left-sided breast cancer so the correlation with future cardiac toxicity data can be investigated.

Valakh, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@valakh.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Yongbok; Werts, E. Day; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Comparison of Three-Dimensional (3D) Conformal Proton Radiotherapy (RT), 3D Conformal Photon RT, and Intensity-Modulated RT for Retroperitoneal and Intra-Abdominal Sarcomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare three-dimensional conformal proton radiotherapy (3DCPT), intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT), and 3D conformal photon radiotherapy (3DCRT) to predict the optimal RT technique for retroperitoneal sarcomas. Methods and Materials: 3DCRT, IMRT, and 3DCPT plans were created for treating eight patients with retroperitoneal or intra-abdominal sarcomas. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the gross tumor plus a 2-cm margin, limited by bone and intact fascial planes. For photon plans, the planning target volume (PTV) included a uniform expansion of 5 mm. For the proton plans, the PTV was nonuniform and beam-specific. The prescription dose was 50.4 Gy/Cobalt gray equivalent CGE. Plans were normalized so that >95% of the CTV received 100% of the dose. Results: The CTV was covered adequately by all techniques. The median conformity index was 0.69 for 3DCPT, 0.75 for IMRT, and 0.51 for 3DCRT. The median inhomogeneity coefficient was 0.062 for 3DCPT, 0.066 for IMRT, and 0.073 for 3DCRT. The bowel median volume receiving 15 Gy (V15) was 16.4% for 3DCPT, 52.2% for IMRT, and 66.1% for 3DCRT. The bowel median V45 was 6.3% for 3DCPT, 4.7% for IMRT, and 15.6% for 3DCRT. The median ipsilateral mean kidney dose was 22.5 CGE for 3DCPT, 34.1 Gy for IMRT, and 37.8 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral mean kidney dose was 0 CGE for 3DCPT, 6.4 Gy for IMRT, and 11 Gy for 3DCRT. The median contralateral kidney V5 was 0% for 3DCPT, 49.9% for IMRT, and 99.7% for 3DCRT. Regardless of technique, the median mean liver dose was <30 Gy, and the median cord V50 was 0%. The median integral dose was 126 J for 3DCPT, 400 J for IMRT, and 432 J for 3DCRT. Conclusions: IMRT and 3DCPT result in plans that are more conformal and homogenous than 3DCRT. Based on Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in Clinic benchmarks, the dosimetric advantage of proton therapy may be less gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity.

Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Louis, Debbie; Flampouri, Stella; Li, Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)] [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Paryani, Nitesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Slopsema, Roelf [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)] [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Clinical Outcome of Patients Treated With 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) for Prostate Cancer on RTOG 9406  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Report of clinical cancer control outcomes on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9406, a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) dose escalation trial for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Methods and Materials: RTOG 9406 is a Phase I/II multi-institutional dose escalation study of 3D-CRT for men with localized prostate cancer. Patients were registered on five sequential dose levels: 68.4 Gy, 73.8 Gy, 79.2 Gy, 74 Gy, and 78 Gy with 1.8 Gy/day (levels I-III) or 2.0 Gy/day (levels IV and V). Neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT) from 2 to 6 months was allowed. Protocol-specific, American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), and Phoenix biochemical failure definitions are reported. Results: Thirty-four institutions enrolled 1,084 patients and 1,051 patients are analyzable. Median follow-up for levels I, II, III, IV, and V was 11.7, 10.4, 11.8, 10.4, and 9.2 years, respectively. Thirty-six percent of patients received NHT. The 5-year overall survival was 90%, 87%, 88%, 89%, and 88% for dose levels I-V, respectively. The 5-year clinical disease-free survival (excluding protocol prostate-specific antigen definition) for levels I-V is 84%, 78%, 81%, 82%, and 82%, respectively. By ASTRO definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 57%, 59%, 52%, 64% and 75% (low risk); 46%, 52%, 54%, 56%, and 63% (intermediate risk); and 50%, 34%, 46%, 34%, and 61% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. By the Phoenix definition, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 68%, 73%, 67%, 84%, and 80% (low risk); 70%, 62%, 70%, 74%, and 69% (intermediate risk); and 42%, 62%, 68%, 54%, and 67% (high risk) for levels I-V, respectively. Conclusion: Dose-escalated 3D-CRT yields favorable outcomes for localized prostate cancer. This multi-institutional experience allows comparison to other experiences with modern radiation therapy.

Michalski, Jeff, E-mail: michalski@wustl.edu [Radiation Oncology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Image-guided Therapy Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Winter, Kathryn [Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Mack [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Markoe, Arnold [University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Ryu, Janice [Radiation Oncology, University of California-Davis, Davis, California (United States); Radiation Oncology Associates, Sacramento, California (United States); Parliament, Matthew [Radiation Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Purdy, James A. [Radiation Oncology, University of California-Davis, Davis, California (United States); Image-guided Therapy Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Valicenti, Richard K. [Radiation Oncology, University of California-Davis, Davis, California (United States); Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cox, James D. [Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Urethral Pain Among Prostate Cancer Survivors 1 to 14 Years After Radiation Therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate how treatment-related and non-treatment-related factors impact urethral pain among long-term prostate cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: Men treated for prostate cancer with radiation therapy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Goeteborg, Sweden from 1993 to 2006 were approached with a study-specific postal questionnaire addressing symptoms after treatment, including urethral burning pain during urination (n=985). The men had received primary or salvage external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or EBRT in combination with brachytherapy (BT). Prescribed doses were commonly 70 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions for primary and salvage EBRT and 50 Gy plus 2 Multiplication-Sign 10.0 Gy for EBRT + BT. Prostatic urethral doses were assessed from treatment records. We also recruited 350 non-pelvic-irradiated, population-based controls matched for age and residency to provide symptom background rates. Results: Of the treated men, 16% (137 of 863) reported urethral pain, compared with 11% (27 of 242) of the controls. The median time to follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-14.3 years). Prostatic urethral doses were similar to prescription doses for EBRT and 100% to 115% for BT. Fractionation-corrected dose and time to follow-up affected the occurrence of the symptom. For a follow-up {>=}3 years, 19% of men (52 of 268) within the 70-Gy EBRT + BT group reported pain, compared with 10% of men (23 of 222) treated with 70 Gy primary EBRT (prevalence ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.0). Of the men treated with salvage EBRT, 10% (20 of 197) reported urethral pain. Conclusions: Survivors treated with EBRT + BT had a higher risk for urethral pain compared with those treated with EBRT. The symptom prevalence decreased with longer time to follow-up. We found a relationship between fractionation-corrected urethral dose and pain. Among long-term prostate cancer survivors, the occurrence of pain was not increased above the background rate for prostatic urethral doses up to 70 Gy{sub 3}.

Pettersson, Niclas, E-mail: niclas.pettersson@vgregion.se [Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Olsson, Caroline [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Alsadius, David; Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden)] [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg (Sweden)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Comparative Study of Different {beta}-Radiation Doses for Preventing Pterygium Recurrence  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the pterygium recurrence rates after treatment with two different {beta}-radiation doses. Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 63.0 {+-} 10.3 years (men, 48 eyes, and women, 47 eyes) and initially treated with {beta}-radiation after pterygium excision were recruited. The mean follow-up period was 49.9 {+-} 51.3 months. The patients were assigned to two dose groups: a high-dose (40 Gy) or a low-dose (20 Gy) group. The statistical significance of differences in patient age, pterygium size, and interval between surgery and radiotherapy were analyzed in the 20-Gy group using the Cox proportional hazard model at p < .05. Results: The high- and low-dose groups included 28 and 67 eyes, respectively. Pterygia recurred in 11 eyes, all in the low-dose group. The interval between surgery and radiotherapy was not a significant predictor of recurrence. Smaller pterygia had a lower risk of recurrence than pterygia that had encroached the pupillary area (pterygium located within one-third of the corneal radius from the limbus, corrected hazard ratio [HR], 0.069; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.006-0.766; p = .030; pterygium extending beyond one-third of the corneal radius, corrected HR, 0.188; 95% CI, 0.018-0.696; p = 0.019; and pterygium reaching the pupillary area, corrected HR, 0.184; 95% CI, 0.036-0.929; p = .040). Older age was marginally significant as a negative predictor of recurrence (HR, 0.943; 95% CI, 0.887-1.003; p = .061). No scleromalacia developed during the follow-up period. Conclusions: {beta}-Radiation at 40 Gy was more efficacious than at 20 Gy in preventing pterygium recurrence without scleromalacia development, particularly for large-size pterygia and those in young patients.

Yamada, Takayuki, E-mail: tyamada-oph@umin.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Mochizuki, Hideki [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Ue, Takahiro [Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Red Cross and Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiuchi, Yoshiaki [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Takahashi, Yasuhiro [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Oinaka, Matsuyoshi [Department of Ophthalmology, Hiroshima Red Cross and Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Radiotherapy of Painful Vertebral Hemangiomas: The Single Center Retrospective Analysis of 137 Cases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: An evaluation of dose-response relationship and an attempt to define predictive factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 137 cases of painful vertebral hemangioma irradiations (101 patients). Fraction dose (fd) varied from 2 to 15 Gy (123 fractionated and 14 radiosurgical treatments), and total dose (TD) from 8 to 30 Gy (111 cases irradiated with fd of 2 GY to TD of 24 Gy). We evaluated pain relief, changes in analgesic requirements, and reossification. Results: Means of pain relief 1, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (defined as a decrease of primary pain level expressed in percent) were 60.5%, 65.4%, 68.3%, and 78.4%, respectively. Proportion of patients with no need for analgesics and patients using tramadol were 39%, 40%, 44%, 57%, and 20%, 17%, 22%, and 11% in these times. The proportion of patients experiencing complete/partial pain relief changed from 36/48% 1 month, to 64/22% 1.5 years after radiotherapy. No impact of radiotherapy on reossification was found. The positive impact of fd and TD increase for analgesics uptake reduction and pain relief was found. An increase of the fd by 1 Gy results in 27% chance of analgesics uptake reduction and 3.8% reduction of pain, whereas 14% analgesics uptake reduction and 2.2% of pain reduction in case of the TD. The predictive factors improving results were found: female gender, older age, better performance states (the chance of the lower analgesic treatment decreases over 2.5 times in comparison to the higher Zubrod degree), bigger Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained data support the efficacy of radiotherapy in improving pain secondary to vertebral hemangioma, with the degree of pain amelioration being related to increasing fd and TD. The positive predictive factors were defined: female gender, older age, better performance status, increased Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration, and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy.

Miszczyk, Leszek, E-mail: leszek@io.gliwice.pl [Radiotherapy Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice (Poland); Tukiendorf, Andrzej [Cardiff Research Consortium, The MediCentre Eastgate House, Cardiff, South Glamorgan (United Kingdom)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of Cerebral Metastases From Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate clinical and physico-dosimetric variables affecting clinical outcome of patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2006, 373 patients (298 men and 75 women, median age 65 years) with brain metastases from NSCLC underwent GKRS. All of them had KPS {>=} 60%, eight or fewer brain metastases, confirmed histopathological diagnosis and recent work-up (<3 months). Thirty-five patients belonged to recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class I, 307 patients were in RPA Class II, 7 patients were in RPA Class III. Median tumor volume was 3.6 cm{sup 3}. Median marginal dose was 22.5 Gy at 50% isodose.; median 10 Gy and 12 Gy isodose volumes were 30.8 cm{sup 3} and 15.8 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Follow-up with MRI was performed every 3 months. Overall survival data were collected from internal database, telephone interviews, and identifying registries. Results: Mean follow-up after GKRS was 51 months (range, 6 to 96 months); mean overall survival was 14.2 months. Of 373 patients, 29 were alive at time of writing, 104 had died of cerebral progression, and 176 had died of systemic progression. In 64 cases it was not possible to ascertain the cause. Univariate and multivariate analysis were adjusted for the following: RPA class, surgery, WBRT, age, gender, number of lesions, median tumor volume, median peripheral dose, and 10 Gy and 12 Gy volumes. Identified RPA class and overall tumor volume >5 cc were the only two covariates independently predictive of overall survival in patients who died of cerebral progression. Conclusions: Global volume of brain disease should be the main parameter to consider for performing GKRS, which is a first-line therapy for patient in good general condition and controlled systemic disease.

Motta, Micaela, E-mail: motta.micaela@hsr.it [Radiotherapy Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Vecchio, Antonella del [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Attuati, Luca; Picozzi, Piero [Neurosurgery Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Perna, Lucia [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Franzin, Alberto [Neurosurgery Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Bolognesi, Angelo; Cozzarini, Cesare [Radiotherapy Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Calandrino, Riccardo [Medical Physics Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Mortini, Pietro [Neurosurgery Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Muzio, Nadia di [Radiotherapy Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Dose-Volume Comparison of Proton Radiotherapy and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: This study designed photon and proton treatment plans for patients treated with hypofractionated proton radiotherapy (PT) at the Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center (STPTC). We then calculated dosimetric parameters and compared results with simulated treatment plans for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), using dose--volume histograms to clearly explain differences in dose distributions between PT and SBRT. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (stage IA, n = 15 patients; stage IB, n = 6 patients) were studied. All tumors were located in the peripheral lung, and total dose was 66 Gray equivalents (GyE) (6.6 GyE/fraction). For treatment planning, beam incidence for proton beam technique was restricted to two to three directions for PT, and seven or eight noncoplanar beams were manually selected for SBRT to achieve optimal planning target volume (PTV) coverage and minimal dose to organs at risk. Results: Regarding lung tissues, mean dose, V5, V10, V13, V15, and V20 values were 4.6 Gy, 13.2%, 11.4%, 10.6%, 10.1%, and 9.1%, respectively, for PT, whereas those values were 7.8 Gy, 32.0%, 21.8%, 17.4%, 15.3%, and 11.4%, respectively, for SBRT with a prescribed dose of 66 Gy. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients between PTV and dose--volume parameters of V5, V10, V15, and V20 were 0.45, 0.52, 0.58, and 0.63, respectively, for PT, compared to 0.52, 0.45, 0.71, and 0.74, respectively, for SBRT. Conclusions: Correlations between dose--volume parameters of the lung and PTV were observed and may indicate that PT is more advantageous than SBRT when treating a tumor with a relatively large PTV or several tumors.

Kadoya, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki_kadoya@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medical Physics, Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center, Southern Tohoku Institute of Neuroscience, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Department of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Obata, Yasunori [School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Kato, Takahiro [Department of Medical Physics, Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center, Southern Tohoku Institute of Neuroscience, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Kagiya, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Tomoda, Takuya; Takada, Akinori; Takayama, Kanako; Fuwa, Nobukazu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern Tohoku Proton Therapy Center, Southern Tohoku Research Institute for Neuroscience, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Head-and-Neck Target Delineation Among Radiation Oncology Residents After a Teaching Intervention: A Prospective, Blinded Pilot Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We conducted this study to determine the feasibility of incorporating a teaching intervention on target delineation into the educational curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program and to assess the short-term effects on resident skills. Methods and Materials: The study schema consisted of a baseline evaluation, the teaching intervention, and a follow-up evaluation. At the baseline evaluation, the participants contoured three clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) (70 Gy, 59.4 Gy, and 54 Gy) on six contrast-enhanced axial computed tomography images of a de-identified patient with Stage T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue. The participants attended a series of head-and-neck oncology and anatomy seminars. The teaching intervention consisted of a didactic lecture and an interactive hands-on practical session designed to improve the knowledge and skills for target delineation in the head and neck. At the follow-up evaluation, the residents again contoured the CTVs. Results: Of the 14 eligible residents, 11 (79%) actually participated in the study. For all participants, but especially for those who had not had previous experience with head-and-neck target delineation, the teaching intervention was associated with improvement in the delineation of the node-negative neck (CTV 54 Gy contour). Regardless of clinical experience, participants had difficulty determining what should be included in the CTV 59.4 Gy contour to ensure adequate coverage of potential microscopic disease. Conclusion: Incorporating a teaching intervention into the education curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program is feasible and was associated with short-term improvements in target delineation skills. Subsequent interventions will require content refinement, additional validation, longer term follow-up, and multi-institutional collaboration.

Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: bekelmaj@mskcc.org; Wolden, Suzanne; Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Later Outcomes and Alpha/Beta Estimate From Hypofractionated Conformal Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Versus Standard Fractionation for Localized Prostate Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Now that the follow-up time has exceeded 5 years, an estimate of the {alpha}/{beta} ratio can be presented. The additional late outcomes in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer using a hypofractionated vs. a standard fractionation regimen are reported from this prospective nonrandomized contemporary comparison. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 nonrandomized patients chose hypofractionation delivered in 20 fractions of 3 Gy or 3.15 Gy (mean 3.06 Gy) for localized prostate cancer within a median overall time of 32 days (range, 29-49) using four fractions weekly. A total of 160 comparable patients were contemporarily treated within a median of 55 days (range 49-66). The median follow-up was 66 months (range, 24-95) for the hypofractionated arm and 63 months (range, 36-92) for the standard arm. The percentage of patients in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups was 36%, 46%, and 18% in the hypofractionated arm and 44%, 50%, and 6% in standard arm (2 Gy), respectively. Results: The 5-year actuarial biochemical absence of disease (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) and disease-free survival rate was the same at 89% in both arms, making the {alpha}/{beta} calculation unambiguous. The point ratio of {alpha}/{beta} was 1.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-5.1 Gy). The 95% confidence interval was determined entirely by the binomial confidence limits in the numbers of patients. Rectal reactions of grade 3 and 4 occurred in 1 of 114 (hypofractionated) and 2 of 160 (standard) patients. Conclusions: The presented three-dimensional conformal regimen was acceptable, and the {alpha}/{beta} value was 1.8, in agreement with other very recent low meta-analyses (reviewed in the '' section).

Leborgne, Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Italiano, Montevideo (Uruguay); Fowler, Jack, E-mail: jackfowlersbox@gmail.com [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Leborgne, Jose H.; Mezzera, Julieta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Italiano, Montevideo (Uruguay)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Permanent prostate brachytherapy: Dosimetric results and analysis of a learning curve with a dynamic dose-feedback technique  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) program utilizing intraoperative inverse-planned dynamic dose-feedback was initiated without prior firsthand experience of alternative techniques. The purpose of this study is to assess the dosimetric learning curve associated with this approach. Methods and Materials: A total of 77 patients underwent PPB implants as monotherapy for localized prostate cancer to a prescription dose of 145 Gy with loose 125I seeds between December 2003 and June 2004. Intraoperative and postoperative dosimetric values, total implanted radioactivity, and operating room (OR) times were compared by sequential case number for all cases. Results: The median intraoperative dosimetric values were: D90 (the minimum dose to 90% of the prostate) = 170 Gy (range, 135-203 Gy), V100 (the volume of the prostate that receives 100% of the prescription dose) = 96% (range, 86-100), V150 = 66% (range, 34-86). Median postoperative dosimetric values were as follows: D90 = 168 Gy (range, 132-197 Gy), V100 = 95% (range, 86-99), V150 = 74% (range, 51-84). Median implanted activity was 0.79 mCi per cubic centimeter of prostate (range, 0.541-1.13). There was no significant correlation by case number on any postoperative dosimetric parameter studied. Door-to-door OR time was reduced from median 138 to 97.5 min per case at the end of the series with a correlation coefficient of -0.76 for the initial 28 cases. Conclusion: Satisfactory dosimetric parameters can be achieved from the outset without a learning curve effect in an appropriately trained environment. The learning curve for dynamic dose-feedback PPB in a clinic naive to other techniques is apparent in terms of OR time.

Acher, Peter [Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: peter.acher@gstt.nhs.uk; Popert, Rick [Department of Urology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Nichol, Janette [Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Potters, Louis [New York Prostate Institute, South Nassau Communities Hospital, Oceanside, NY (United States); Morris, Stephen [Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Beaney, Ronald [Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Flash polymerization of silicone oils using gamma radiation for conserving waterlogged wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments were designed to develop a collection of irradiation parameters for polymerizing a variety of molecular weights of polymer siloxanes for the purpose of bulking and conserving waterlogged archaeological organic materials. Waterlogged wooden tongue depressors (Betula spp) were bulked with five different silicone oils of varying molecular weights, denoted as PS340, PS341, PS343, SFD-1, and an equal mix of SFD-1 and SFD-5. The lightest weight oil being PS340 and the heaviest being the SFD-I /SFD-5 mix. These bulked samples were exposed to gamma radiation emitted from a nuclear research reactor and received gamma doses ranging from 30 Gy to 228 Gy with dose rates ranging from 0.6 Gy/min to 5.1 Gy/min. Following irradiation, thin cross sections of each tongue depressor were analyzed and photographed using a photomicroscope. The results of the irradiation indicated that the heavier molecular weights of siloxanes fully bulked the wood cells. For these fully bulked samples, large radiation doses induced polymerization in the oil to such an extent the cells swelled and became extremely distorted. However, for the same fully bulked samples, small radiation doses produced little to moderate polymerization of the oil in the wood cells. For the tongue depressors bulked with the lighter weight siloxanes, low radiation doses produced very little polymerization, whereas the higher doses induced substantially more polymerization within the wood cells but not to the point of distortion. With these lighter weight siloxanes, the wood cells were not as fully bulked nor looked as natural as those cells bulked with the heavier weight oils. The best combination of molecular weight and radiation dose occurred with the samples bulked in PS343 and irradiated with gamma-rays to a dose of 150 Gy.

Gidden, Richmond Paul

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Is It Time to Tailor the Prediction of Radio-Induced Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients? Building the First Set of Nomograms for Late Rectal Syndrome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Development of user-friendly tools for the prediction of single-patient probability of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity through self-assessed questionnaires (minimum follow-up, 36 months) by 718 adult men in the AIROPROS 0102 trial. Doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Nomograms were created based on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three endpoints were considered: G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding (52/718 events), G3 late rectal bleeding (24/718 events), and G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence (LINC, 19/718 events). Results: Inputs for the nomogram for G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding estimation were as follows: presence of abdominal surgery before RT, percentage volume of rectum receiving >75 Gy (V75Gy), and nomogram-based estimation of the probability of G2 to G3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity (continuous variable, which was estimated using a previously published nomogram). G3 late rectal bleeding estimation was based on abdominal surgery before RT, V75Gy, and NOMACU. Prediction of G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence was based on abdominal surgery before RT, presence of hemorrhoids, use of antihypertensive medications (protective factor), and percentage volume of rectum receiving >40 Gy. Conclusions: We developed and internally validated the first set of nomograms available in the literature for the prediction of radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Calculations included dosimetric as well as clinical variables to help radiation oncologists predict late rectal morbidity, thus introducing the possibility of RT plan corrections to better tailor treatment to the patient's characteristics, to avoid unnecessary worsening of quality of life, and to provide support to the patient in selecting the best therapeutic approach.

Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS - Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rancati, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.rancati@istitutotumori.mi.it [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Yu Changhong [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vavassori, Vittorio [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Humanitas - Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Cagna, Elena [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Gabriele, Pietro [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Mauro, Flora Anna; Baccolini, Micaela [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Bianchi, Carla [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Menegotti, Loris [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Monti, Angelo F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Giganti, Maria Olga [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Dept. of Oncology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milan (Italy); and others

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project  

SciTech Connect

The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pinese, Jose P. P. [Department of Geosciences-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Quality of Life After Hypofractionated Concomitant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Boost for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the change in health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated using hypofractionated radiotherapy combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: A prospective Phase I-II study enrolled patients with any of the following: clinical Stage T3 disease, prostate-specific antigen level {>=}20 ng/mL, or Gleason score 8-10. Radiotherapy consisted of 45 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction) to the pelvic lymph nodes with a concomitant 22.5 Gy intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost to the prostate, for a total of 67.5 Gy (2.7 Gy per fraction) in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Daily image guidance was performed using three gold seed fiducials. Quality of life was measured using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), a validated tool that assesses four primary domains (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal). Results: From 2004 to 2007, 97 patients were treated. Median follow-up was 39 months. Compared with baseline, at 24 months there was no statistically significant change in the mean urinary domain score (p = 0.99), whereas there were decreases in the bowel (p < 0.01), sexual (p < 0.01), and hormonal (p < 0.01) domains. The proportion of patients reporting a clinically significant difference in EPIC urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal scores at 24 months was 27%, 31%, 55%, and 60%, respectively. However, moderate and severe distress related to these symptoms was minimal, with increases of only 3% and 5% in the urinary and bowel domains, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy was well tolerated. Although there were modest rates of clinically significant patient-reported urinary and bowel toxicity, most of this caused only mild distress, and moderate and severe effects on QOL were limited. Additional follow-up is ongoing to characterize long-term QOL.

Quon, Harvey [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cheung, Patrick C.F., E-mail: patrick.cheung@sunnybrook.ca [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Loblaw, D. Andrew; Morton, Gerard; Pang, Geordi; Szumacher, Ewa; Danjoux, Cyril [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Kiss, Alex; Mamedov, Alexandre; Deabreu, Andrea [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effects of radioactive hot particles on pig skin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of these studies was to determine the incidence and severity of lesions resulting from very localized deposition of dose to skin from small (< 0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles as produced in the work environments of nuclear reactors. Hanford mini-pigs were exposed, both on a slightly off the skin, to localized replicate doses from 0.31 to 64 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70 {mu}m depth unless noted otherwise) using Sc-46, Yb-175, Tm-170, and fissioned UC{sub 2} isotopes having maximum beta-particle energies from about 0.3 to 3 MeV. Erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored for up to 71 days post-irradiation. The responses followed normal cumulative probability distributions, and therefore, no true threshold could be defined. Hence, 10 and 50% scab incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. The lowest dose which produced 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for Yb-175 (0.5 MeV maximum energy) beta particle exposures, and about 3 to 9 Gy for other isotopes. The histopathology of lesions was determined at several doses. Single exposures to doses as large as 1,790 Gy were also given, and results were observed for up to 144 days post-exposure. Severity of detriment was estimated by analyzing the results in terms of lesion diameter, persistence, and infection. Over 1,100 sites were exposed. Only two exposed sites became infected after doses near 5000 Gy; the lesions healed quickly on treatment. 105 refs., 145 figs., 47 tabs.

Kaurin, D.G.; Baum, J.W.; Schaefer, C.W. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

In vivo dosimetry with radiochromic films in low-voltage intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: EBT2 radiochromic films were studied and used for in vivo dosimetry in targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT), a technique in which the Intrabeam system (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) is used to perform intraoperative partial breast irradiation with x-rays of 50 kV{sub p}. Methods: The energy of the radiation emitted by the Intrabeam with the different spherical applicators, under 1 and 2 cm of solid water, and under the tungsten impregnated rubber used for shielding of the heart in TARGIT of the breast, was characterized with measurements of half-value layer (HVL). The stability of response of EBT2 was verified inside this range of energies. EBT2 films were calibrated using the red and green channels of the absorption spectrum in the 0-20 Gy dose range delivered by the Intrabeam x-rays. The dependence of film response on temperature during irradiation was measured. For in vivo dosimetry, pieces of radiochromic films wrapped in sterile envelopes were inserted after breast conserving surgery and before TARGIT into the excision cavity, on the skin and on the shielded pectoralis fascia for treatments of the left breast. Results: HVLs of the Intrabeam in TARGIT of the breast correspond to effective energies of 20.7-36.3 keV. The response of EBT2 was constant inside this range of energies. We measured the dose to the target tissue and to organs at risk in 23 patients and obtained an average dose of 13.52 {+-} 1.21 Gy to the target tissue. Dose to the skin in close proximity to the applicator was 2.22 {+-} 0.97 Gy, 0.29 {+-} 0.17 Gy at 5-10 cm from the applicator, and 0.08 {+-} 0.07 Gy at more than 10 cm from the applicator. Dose to the pectoral muscle for left breast treatment was 0.57 {+-} 0.23 Gy. Conclusions: Our results show that EBT2 films are accurate at the beam energies, dose range, and irradiation temperature found in TARGIT and that in vivo dosimetry in TARGIT with EBT2 films wrapped in sterile envelopes is a feasible procedure. Measured dose to the organs at risk indicates that the technique is safe from side effects to the skin and the heart.

Avanzo, M.; Rink, A.; Dassie, A.; Massarut, S.; Roncadin, M.; Borsatti, E.; Capra, E. [Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Surgery, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, 33081 Aviano (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Quantitative effect of combined chemotherapy and fractionated radiotherapy on the incidence of radiation-induced lung damage: A prospective clinical study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of radiological changes compatible with radiation-induced lung damage as determined by computed tomography (CT), and subsequently calculate the dose effect factors (DEF) for specified chemotherapeutic regimens. Radiation treatments were administered once daily, 5 days-per-week. Six clinical protocols were evaluated: ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and DTIC) followed by 35 Gy in 20 fractions; MOPP (nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) followed by 35 Gy in 20; MOPP/ABVD followed by 35 Gy in 20; CAV (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and vincristine) followed by 25 Gy in 10; and 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) concurrent with either 50-52 Gy in 20-21 or 30-36 Gy in 10-15 fractions. CT examinations were taken before and at predetermined intervals following radiotherapy. CT evidence for the development of radiation-induced damage was defined as an increase in lung density within the irradiated volume. The radiation dose to lung was calculated using a CT-based algorithm to account for tissue inhomogeneities. Different fractionation schedules were converted using two isoeffect models, the estimated single dose (ED) and the normalized total dose (NTD). The actuarial incidence of radiological pneumonitis was 71% for the ABVD, 49% for MOPP, 52% for MOPP/ABVD, 67% for CAV, 73% for 5-FU radical, and 58% for 5-FU palliative protocols. Depending on the isoeffect model selected and the method of analysis, the DEF was 1.11-1.14 for the ABVD, 0.96-0.97 for the MOPP, 0.96-1.02 for the MOPP/ABVD, 1.03-1.10 for the CAV, 0.74-0.79 for the 5-FU radical, and 0.94 for the 5-FU palliative protocols. DEF were measured by comparing the incidence of CT-observed lung damage in patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy to those receiving radiotherapy alone. The addition of ABVD or CAV appeared to reduce the tolerance of lung to radiation. 40 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Mah, K.; Van Dyk, J.; Braban, L.E.; Hao, Y.; Keane, T.J. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Poon, P.Y. (Univ. of British Columbia (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Radiation Therapy With Full-Dose Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We completed a Phase I trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with previously untreated pancreatic cancer. The results of a subset of patients with unresectable disease who went on to receive planned additional therapy are reported here. Methods and Materials: All patients received two 28-day cycles of gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1, 8, and 15) and oxaliplatin (40-85 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1 and 15, per a dose-escalation schema). Radiation therapy was delivered concurrently with Cycle 1 (27 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). At 9 weeks, patients were reassessed for resectability. Those deemed to have unresectable disease were offered a second round of treatment consisting of 2 cycles of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin and 27 Gy of radiation therapy (total, 54 Gy). Radiation was delivered to the gross tumor volume plus 1 cm by use of a three-dimensional conformal technique. We used the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to assess acute toxicity. Late toxicity was scored per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Computed tomography scans were reviewed to determine pattern of failure, local response, and disease progression. Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression models were used to evaluate survival and freedom from failure. Results: Thirty-two patients from the Phase I dose-escalation study had unresectable disease, three of whom had low-volume metastatic disease. Of this group, 16 patients went on to receive additional therapy to complete a total of 4 cycles of chemotherapy and 54 Gy of concurrent radiation. For this subset, 38% had at least a partial tumor response at a median of 3.2 months. Median survival was 11.8 months (range, 4.4-26.3 months). The 1-year freedom from local progression rate was 93.8% (95% confidence interval, 63.2-99.1). Conclusions: Radiation therapy to 54 Gy with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine and oxaliplatin is well tolerated and results in favorable rates of local tumor response and 1-year freedom from local progression.

Hunter, Klaudia U.; Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Desai, Sameer [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Murphy, James D. [School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chugh, Rashmi [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Biermann, Janet Sybil [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Dose Constraints to Prevent Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy in Patients Treated for Lung Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: As the recommended radiation dose for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) increases, meeting dose constraints for critical structures like the brachial plexus becomes increasingly challenging, particularly for tumors in the superior sulcus. In this retrospective analysis, we compared dose-volume histogram information with the incidence of plexopathy to establish the maximum dose tolerated by the brachial plexus. Methods and Materials: We identified 90 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation from March 2007 through September 2010, who had received >55 Gy to the brachial plexus. We used a multiatlas segmentation method combined with deformable image registration to delineate the brachial plexus on the original planning CT scans and scored plexopathy according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. Results: Median radiation dose to the brachial plexus was 70 Gy (range, 56-87.5 Gy; 1.5-2.5 Gy/fraction). At a median follow-up time of 14.0 months, 14 patients (16%) had brachial plexopathy (8 patients [9%] had Grade 1, and 6 patients [7%] had Grade {>=}2); median time to symptom onset was 6.5 months (range, 1.4-37.4 months). On multivariate analysis, receipt of a median brachial plexus dose of >69 Gy (odds ratio [OR] 10.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.512-67.331; p = 0.005), a maximum dose of >75 Gy to 2 cm{sup 3} of the brachial plexus (OR, 4.909; 95% CI, 0.966-24.952; p = 0.038), and the presence of plexopathy before irradiation (OR, 4.722; 95% CI, 1.267-17.606; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: For lung cancers near the apical region, brachial plexopathy is a major concern for high-dose radiation therapy. We developed a computer-assisted image segmentation method that allows us to rapidly and consistently contour the brachial plexus and establish the dose limits to minimize the risk of brachial plexopathy. Our results could be used as a guideline in future prospective trials with high-dose radiation therapy for unresectable lung cancer.

Amini, Arya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, California (United States); Yang Jinzhong; Williamson, Ryan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); McBurney, Michelle L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Erasmus, Jeremy [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Karhade, Mandar; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; Cox, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Welsh, James, E-mail: jwelsh@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Microsoft PowerPoint - 06 Crawley Drive for Net Zero Energy Commercial Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROGRAM PROGRAM The Drive for Net-Zero Energy Commercial Buildings Drury B. Crawley, Ph.D. U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative commercialbuildings.energy.gov 1 gy y gy Buildings' Energy Use Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative commercialbuildings.energy.gov 2 Commercial Square Footage Projections g j 104 Plus ~38B ft. 2 new additions 72 82 66 Minus ~16B ft. 2 demolitions 66 Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative commercialbuildings.energy.gov 3 Source: EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2009, Table 5. 2010 2003 2030 Projected Electricity Growth 2010 to 2025, by End-Use Sector (site quad) Net-Zero Energy Commercial Building Initiative commercialbuildings.energy.gov 4 Projected Increase in

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281

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal F0 Germline Irradiation Authors: J.E. Baulch and O.G. Raabe Institutions: Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA. The main goal of this grant is to evaluate heritable, transgenerational effects of low dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137Cs gamma rays) on Type B spermatogonia in 129SVE mice; wild-type and heterozygous for Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The ATM heterozygotes are carriers for a genetic mutation (AT mutated, ATM) that is thought to predispose both humans and mice to radiation sensitivity. Experiments conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated heritable effects of paternal germline exposure to ionizing radiation in mice using 1.0 Gy of

282

NFkB in the Thiol-Induced Adaptive Response (A)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A) A) David Grdina The University of Chicago Abstract Exposure of cells to low non-lethal doses of ionizing radiation (≤ 10 cGy) or WR1065, the active free thiol form of amifostine, can induce pro-survival pathways that result in protection against the damaging effects of a 2 Gy dose of ionizing radiation. One such signaling pathway involves the activation of NFκB and the subsequent elevation of active manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). SOD2 is a mitochondrial matrix protein that serves as the primary mitochondrial defense against superoxide formation. Its primary function is to facilitate the dismutation of two molecules of superoxide anion (O2-) produced by normal respiratory processes or following exposure to ionizing radiation into water and hydrogen peroxide. To characterize the role of SOD2 in the radiation- and

283

Lighting Technology Panel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology Panel Technology Panel Federal Utility Partnership Working Group N b 2009 November 1 1 8, 2009 Doug Avery Southern California Edison Southern California Edison National Energy Conservation M d t Mandates * There are Federal and State Mandates to reduce energy consumption - California Investor Owned Electric Utilities are ordered to save around 3 Billion kWh's each y year from 2007-2113 - Federal buildings ordered to reduce electrical Federal buildings ordered to reduce electrical energy consumption 35% by 2012 Energy Consump ption gy Lighting accounts for 42 7% of energy consumption Lighting accounts for 42.7% of energy consumption Data Courtesy of SDG&E Data Courtesy of SDG&E Energy Consump ption gy More than ¾ of the lighting load is non-residential. Data Courtesy of SDG&E

284

September 18, 2013, FTCP Face to Face Meeting Presentation - NTC Briefing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 18th, 2012 September 18th, 2012 Discussion Topics Discussion Topics NTC T h l * NTC Technology * Nuclear Safety Training Program y g g * Safeguards & Security Training Program Program NTC Technology gy * eLearning - SAF-200DE: Safety Conscious Work Environment Prerequisite - PHY-210DE: Facility Security Officer Orientation SAF 330DE: Accident Investigation Refresher - SAF-330DE: Accident Investigation Refresher * Distance Learning - SAF-720: Hazard Identification - SAF-725: Hazard Categorization ISC 202: Legal Aspects of Inquiries - ISC-202: Legal Aspects of Inquiries NTC Technology gy * Continuing Education - SAF-340DV NELT: Differing Professional Opinions and Employee Concerns - SAF-340DV NELT: Environmental Sustainability and Compliance - SAF-340DV NELT: Managing the Safety Basis - SAF-785DV: Technical Safety Requirements

285

Genetic profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines sensitive to low dose radiation David Rocke University of California Davis Abstract Previous study from our laboratory has identified pathways associated with low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in vivo that is consistent across individuals. Furthermore, gene expression patterns have revealed genetic variation between individuals, which may play a role in individual sensitivity to LDIR. The aim is to evaluate microRNA and mRNA expression patterns in lymphoblast cell lines that exhibit sensitivity to radiation. Human lymphoblastoid cell lines were screened for low dose radiation sensitivity by apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and colony forming assay. Cells were irradiated with 5cGy and 10cGy and analyzed at multiple time

286

Microsoft PowerPoint - 2010_07_27_SECA_SD Vora F.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gy gy g July 27, 2010 Dr. Shailesh D. Vora Technology Manager, Fuel Cells National Energy Technology Laboratory United States Department of Energy SECA Mission * Enable the generation of efficient, cost-effective l t i it f d ti l ith t h i electricity from domestic coal with near-zero atmospheric emissions of CO 2 and air pollutants (99% CO 2 capture) and minimal use of water in central power generation applications. * Provide the technology base to permit grid-independent distributed generation applications. g pp 60% Environmental: Low Cost, Fuel-Flexible: S NG ≥ 99% CO Modular Efficiency (Coal HHV) <0.5ppm NOx, low H 2 O use similar footprint to IGCC Syngas, NG, H 2 , Diesel, etc. ≥ 99% CO 2 Capture Modular Technology 2 SECA Program Structure Program Management Industry Input Project M t Research Topics Needs Management Core Industry

287

Microsoft PowerPoint - NEUP FY2011 R&D Review Processes For Web.pptx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gy gy y g FY2011 Review Process FY2011 NEUP Review Process FY2011 NEUP Review Process RPA Proposals RPA 3 Pagers: Submission of three page RPA Proposals 3 page P R i RPA 3 Pagers: Submission of three page proposals by university respondents Relevancy Panels: Composed of two Federally selected reviewers representing technical areas Peer Review Panels: Composed of Federally Relevancy Panels Peer Review Panels Peer Review Panels: Composed of Federally selected University or Laboratory technical peers Recommendation Panels: Composed of Federal Directors and their selected advisors SSO Selection: Presentation of Recommendation Panels SSO Selection: Presentation of recommendations by NEUP to the SSO Invited: Proposals selected by the SSO to submit a full proposal N t I it d P l t l t d b th SSO SSO Selection

288

REPLY TO AmN OF: EM-421  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

gy5.t3 CIy ( 1 IG-. 14-l gy5.t3 CIy ( 1 IG-. 14-l \ United States Government L/d &J~f,j-o p-1 memoratwJum h:3. I q Department of Energy DATE: fi\jfS 0 2 1990 REPLY TO AmN OF: EM-421 SUwECT: Addition of Sites to FUSRAP To' Lester K. Price, Director Technical Services Division Oak Ridge Operations Office Attached is a memorandum approving transfer of responsibility for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in New York and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) Site in New Jersey to FUSRAP. Please incorporate these sites in the FUSRAP rebaselining effort now underway. As we previously discussed, fundinq for NBL will provide for continued surveillance and maintenance activities at the site and will be borne FUSRAP beginning in FY 1991. Funding for NFSS will be provided under

289

The Honorable Bill Johnson j.  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- Department of En&gy, - Department of En&gy, Washington, DC 20585 \APR 0 3 7995 The Honorable Bill Johnson j. 30 Church Street, Rochester, New-York 14614 / Dear MayorJohnson: 'I Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a'nei approach to openness in the Department of'Energy (DDE) and its communications with the public. In, support of this initiative, we are pleased to forward the enclosed info&tion related to the former University of. Rochester site in, your jurisdiction performed work for DOE or its predecessor agencies. Thins information is provided for your information, use, and retqntion. DDE's Formerly Utilized SitesRemedial Action Program.isI responsible for identification of sites used by DOE's predecessor agencies, determining current 'radiological condition.'and, where, it has authority, performing

290

Optimization of Stereotactic Radiotherapy Treatment Delivery Technique for Base-Of-Skull Meningiomas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares static conformal field (CF), intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and dynamic arcs (DA) for the stereotactic radiotherapy of base-of-skull meningiomas. Twenty-one cases of base-of-skull meningioma (median planning target volume [PTV] = 21.3 cm{sup 3}) previously treated with stereotactic radiotherapy were replanned with each technique. The plans were compared for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conformity index (CI) and homogeneity index (HI), and doses to normal structures at 6 dose values from 50.4 Gy to 5.6 Gy. The mean CI was 1.75 (CF), 1.75 (DA), and 1.66 (IMRT) (p gland. These results demonstrate that stereotactic IMRT should be considered to treat base-of-skull meningiomas with a PTV larger than 25 cm{sup 3}, due to improved conformity and normal tissue sparing, in particular for the brain stem and ipsilateral temporal lobe.

Clark, Brenda G. [Departments of Medical Physics, Radiation Oncology, and Radiology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)], E-mail: brclark@ottawahospital.on.ca; Candish, Charles; Vollans, Emily; Gete, Ermias; Lee, Richard; Martin, Monty; Ma, Roy; McKenzie, Michael [Departments of Medical Physics, Radiation Oncology, and Radiology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

Deasy, Joseph O., E-mail: jdeasy@radonc.wustl.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Cancer Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Marks, Lawrence [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chao, K.S. Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Nam, Jiho [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Volumetric Modulation Arc Radiotherapy With Flattening Filter-Free Beams Compared With Static Gantry IMRT and 3D Conformal Radiotherapy for Advanced Esophageal Cancer: A Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A feasibility study was performed to evaluate RapidArc (RA), and the potential benefit of flattening filter-free beams, on advanced esophageal cancer against intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: The plans for 3D-CRT and IMRT with three to seven and five to seven fixed beams were compared against double-modulated arcs with avoidance sectors to spare the lungs for 10 patients. All plans were optimized for 6-MV photon beams. The RA plans were studied for conventional and flattening filter-free (FFF) beams. The objectives for the planning target volume were the volume receiving {>=}95% or at most 107% of the prescribed dose of <1% with a dose prescription of 59.4 Gy. For the organs at risk, the lung volume (minus the planning target volume) receiving {>=}5 Gy was <60%, that receiving 20 Gy was <20%-30%, and the mean lung dose was <15.0 Gy. The heart volume receiving 45 Gy was <20%, volume receiving 30 Gy was <50%. The spinal dose received by 1% was <45 Gy. The technical delivery parameters for RA were assessed to compare the normal and FFF beam characteristics. Results: RA and IMRT provided equivalent coverage and homogeneity, slightly superior to 3D-CRT. The conformity index was 1.2 {+-} 0.1 for RA and IMRT and 1.5 {+-} 0.2 for 3D-CRT. The mean lung dose was 12.2 {+-} 4.5 for IMRT, 11.3 {+-} 4.6 for RA, and 10.8 {+-} 4.4 for RA with FFF beams, 18.2 {+-} 8.5 for 3D-CRT. The percentage of volume receiving {>=}20 Gy ranged from 23.6% {+-} 9.1% to 21.1% {+-} 9.7% for IMRT and RA (FFF beams) and 39.2% {+-} 17.0% for 3D-CRT. The heart and spine objectives were met by all techniques. The monitor units for IMRT and RA were 457 {+-} 139, 322 {+-} 20, and 387 {+-} 40, respectively. RA with FFF beams showed, compared with RA with normal beams, a {approx}20% increase in monitor units per Gray, a 90% increase in the average dose rate, and 20% reduction in beam on time (owing to different gantry speeds). Conclusion: RA demonstrated, compared with conventional IMRT, a similar target coverage and some better dose sparing to the organs at risk; the advantage against conventional 3D-CRT was more evident. RA with FFF beams resulted in minor improvements in plan quality but with the potential for additional useful reduction in the treatment time.

Nicolini, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.nicolini@eoc.ch [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Ghosh-Laskar, Sarbani; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Banerjee, Sushovan; Chaudhary, Suresh; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Munshi, Anusheel [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mancosu, Pietro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milano-Rozzano (Italy)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milano-Rozzano (Italy); Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Poly [1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] solutions used as low dose ionizing radiation dosimeter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of polymetallayne poly[1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] (Pt-DEBP) in chloroform solution is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses from 0.01 Gy to 1 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. A new band at 420 nm is observed in the emission spectra, in superposition to the emission maximum at 398 nm, linearly dependent on dose. We propose to use the ratio of the emission amplitude bands as the dosimetric parameter. This method proved to be robust, accurate, and can be used as a dosimeter in medical applications.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil); Batagin-Neto, A.; Fernandes, D. M. [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fratoddi, I.; Russo, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Timing of Salvage Radiotherapy After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy can potentially eradicate residual microscopic disease. Defining the optimal patient and treatment factors is essential and is particularly relevant within the context of adjuvant vs early vs delayed postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A systematic review of all published SRT studies was performed to identify the pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) after SRT. A total of 41 studies encompassing 5597 patients satisfied the study entry criteria. Radiobiologic interpretation of biochemical tumor control was used to provide the framework for the observed relationships. Results: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before SRT (P<.0001) and RT dose (P=.0052) had a significant and independent association with RFS. There was an average 2.6% loss of RFS for each incremental 0.1 ng/mL PSA at the time of SRT (95% CI, {approx}2.2-3.1). With a PSA level of 0.2 ng/mL or less before SRT, the RFS approached 64%. The dose for salvage RT in the range of 60-70 Gy seemed to be on the steep part of the sigmoidal dose-response curve, with a dose of 70 Gy achieving 54% RFS compared with only 34% for 60 Gy. There was a 2% improvement in RFS for each additional Gy (95% CI, {approx}0.9-3.2). The observed dose-response was less robust on sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: This study provides Level 2a evidence for initiating SRT at the lowest possible PSA. Dose escalation is also suggested by the data. Progressively better tumor control rates with SRT after radical prostatectomy are achieved with a lower PSA at initiation and with a higher RT dose. Early salvage RT may be an equivalent strategy to adjuvant RT.

King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes of Involved-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy After Chemotherapy for Early-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma With Mediastinal Involvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric and clinical outcomes of involved-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IF-IMRT) for patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients with early-stage HL that involved the mediastinum were reviewed. Eight patients had Stage I disease, and 44 patients had Stage II disease. Twenty-three patients (44%) presented with a bulky mediastinum, whereas 42 patients (81%) had involvement of both the mediastinum and either cervical or axillary nodes. All patients received combination chemotherapy followed by IF-IMRT. The prescribed radiation dose was 30-40 Gy. The dose-volume histograms of the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. Results: The median mean dose to the primary involved regions (planning target volume, PTV1) and boost area (PTV2) was 37.5 Gy and 42.1 Gy, respectively. Only 0.4% and 1.3% of the PTV1 and 0.1% and 0.5% of the PTV2 received less than 90% and 95% of the prescribed dose, indicating excellent PTV coverage. The median mean lung dose and V20 to the lungs were 13.8 Gy and 25.9%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival, local control, and progression-free survival rates were 100%, 97.9%, and 96%, respectively. No Grade 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities were reported. Conclusions: Despite the large target volume, IF-IMRT gave excellent dose coverage and a favorable prognosis, with mild toxicity in patients with early-stage mediastinal HL.

Lu Ningning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li Yexiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wu Runye; Zhang Ximei; Wang Weihu; Jin Jing; Song Yongwen; Fang Hui; Ren Hua; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Chen Bo; Dai Jianrong; Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, National Cancer Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Base, supplementary, and derived SI units...steradian sr Magnetic flux density tesla T Molar energy joule per mole J/mol Molar entropy joule per mole kelvin J/mol · K Derived units Molar heat capacity joule per mole kelvin J/mol · K Absorbed does gray Gy Moment of force newton meter N · m Acceleration meter per second squared m/s 2 Permeability...

297

Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developmentsTechnology developments /1/1 PET gy pgy p Wind turbines are getting larger and larger: Until 1970sW was considered to be a maximum ­ Mid 1990s: 1.5-2.5 MW, rotor size 60 ~ 90 m ­ Then: 2 5-3 MW 70 ~ 100 m, 3 5 Turbines.jpg Systems 0 Systems 012 Tip speed

Zevenhoven, Ron

298

Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.

Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Yadav, Poonam [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Welsh, James S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahner, Tasha [University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Paliwal, Bhudatt [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Trial of Concomitant Boost Using Indium-111-Capromab Pendetide (ProstaScint) Imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate, in a prospective study, the use of {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan to guide the delivery of a concomitant boost to intraprostatic region showing increased uptake while treating the entire gland with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From September 2002 to November 2005, 71 patients were enrolled. Planning pelvic CT and {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan images were coregistered. The entire prostate gland received 75.6 Gy/42 fractions, whereas areas of increased uptake in {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan received 82 Gy. For patients with T3/T4 disease, or Gleason score {>=}8, or prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, 12 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy was given. In January 2005 the protocol was modified to give 6 months of androgen deprivation therapy to patients with a prostate-specific antigen level of 10-20 ng/mL or Gleason 7 disease. Results: Thirty-one patients had low-risk, 30 had intermediate-risk, and 10 had high-risk disease. With a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year biochemical control rates were 94% for the entire cohort and 97%, 93%, and 90% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. Maximum acute and late urinary toxicities were Grade 2 for 38 patients (54%) and 28 patients (39%) and Grade 3 for 1 and 3 patients (4%), respectively. One patient had Grade 4 hematuria. Maximum acute and late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 for 32 patients (45%) and 15 patients (21%), respectively. Most of the side effects improved with longer follow-up. Conclusion: Concomitant boost to areas showing increased uptake in {sup 111}In-capromab pendetide scan to 82 Gy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy while the entire prostate received 75.6 Gy was feasible and tolerable, with 94% biochemical control rate at 5 years.

Wong, William W., E-mail: wong.william@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Schild, Steven E.; Vora, Sujay A.; Ezzell, Gary A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Nguyen, Ba D.; Ram, Panol C.; Roarke, Michael C. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Treatment Planning Constraints to Avoid Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy: An Independent Test of QUANTEC Criteria Using a Prospectively Collected Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Methods and Materials: Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results: Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D{sub 50} = 32.4 Gy and and {gamma} = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion: These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy.

Moiseenko, Vitali, E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Harrow, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam [Department of Oral Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thompson, Anna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Changes in salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck tumors measured by quantitative pertechnetate scintigraphy: Comparison of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy with and without Amifostine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare changes in salivary gland function after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (RT), with or without Amifostine, for tumors of the head-and-neck region using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods and Materials: A total of 75 patients received pre- and post-therapeutic QSGS to quantify the salivary gland function. In all, 251 salivary glands were independently evaluated. Changes in the maximum uptake ({delta}U) and relative excretion rate ({delta}F) both pre- and post-RT were determined to characterize radiation-induced changes in the salivary gland function. In addition, dose-response curves were calculated. Results: In all groups, maximum uptake and relative excretion rate were reduced after RT ({delta}U {glands, the reduction was smaller for the IMRT-low than for the IMRT-high group. For the Amifostine-high and the conventional group the difference was significant only for one parameter ({delta}U, parotid and submandibular glands, p gland excretion rate of more than 50%,' the dose-response curves yielded D{sub 50}-values of 34.2 {+-} 12.2 Gy for the conventionally treated group and 36.8 {+-} 2.9 Gy for the IMRT group. For the Amifostine group, an increased D{sub 50}-values of 46.3 {+-} 2.3 Gy was obtained. Conclusion: Intensity-modulated RT can significantly reduce the loss of parotid gland function when respecting a certain dose threshold. Conventional RT plus Amifostine prevents reduced salivary gland function only in the patient group treated with <40.6 Gy.

Muenter, Marc W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany) and Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: m.muenter@dkfz.de; Hoffner, Simone [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Vincentius-Klinik Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hof, Holger [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Josef-Hospital Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Huber, Peter [Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

131I-Anti-CD45 Antibody Plus Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide before Allogeneic Hematophoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a Phase I/II study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131I-anti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/ml) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two of 59 patients (88%) receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102-298 mCi 131I delivering an estimated 5.3-19 (mean 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n=4) to 5.25 Gy (n=42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year non-relapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared to those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients transplanted using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics-risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; p=.09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and Phase II results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study.

Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Clinical and Dosimetric Predictors of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Series of Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Lung  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report clinical and dosimetric factors predictive of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) from a series of 240 patients. Methods and Materials: Of the 297 isocenters treating 263 patients, 240 patients (n=263 isocenters) had evaluable information regarding RP. Age, gender, current smoking status and pack-years, O{sub 2} use, Charlson Comorbidity Index, prior lung radiation therapy (yes/no), dose/fractionation, V{sub 5}, V{sub 13}, V{sub 20}, V{sub prescription}, mean lung dose, planning target volume (PTV), total lung volume, and PTV/lung volume ratio were recorded. Results: Twenty-nine patients (11.0%) developed symptomatic pneumonitis (26 grade 2, 3 grade 3). The mean V{sub 20} was 6.5% (range, 0.4%-20.2%), and the average mean lung dose was 5.03 Gy (0.547-12.2 Gy). In univariable analysis female gender (P=.0257) and Charlson Comorbidity index (P=.0366) were significantly predictive of RP. Among dosimetric parameters, V{sub 5} (P=.0186), V{sub 13} (P=.0438), and V{sub prescription} (where dose = 60 Gy) (P=.0128) were significant. There was only a trend toward significance for V{sub 20} (P=.0610). Planning target volume/normal lung volume ratio was highly significant (P=.0024). In multivariable analysis the clinical factors of female gender, pack-years smoking, and larger gross internal tumor volume and PTV were predictive (P=.0094, .0312, .0364, and .052, respectively), but no dosimetric factors were significant. Conclusions: Rate of symptomatic RP was 11%. Our mean lung dose was <600 cGy in most cases and V20 <10%. In univariable analysis, dosimetric factors were predictive, while tumor size (or tumor/lung volume ratio) played a role in multivariable and univariable and analysis, respectively.

Baker, Ryan [University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States); Han Gang [Department of Biostatistics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Sarangkasiri, Siriporn; DeMarco, MaryLou; Turke, Carolyn; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Dilling, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Dilling@Moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory-Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Materials: Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was generated from 4D-CT data sets according to CT values of less than than -860 Hounsfield units (HU) as a threshold. The functional lung image was defined as the area where LAA was excluded from the image of the total lung. Two respiratory-gated radiotherapy plans (70 Gy/35 fractions) were designed and compared in each patient as follows: Plan A was an anatomical IMRT or VMAT plan based on the total lung; Plan F was a functional IMRT or VMAT plan based on the functional lung. Dosimetric parameters (percentage of total lung volume irradiated with {>=}20 Gy [V20], and mean dose of total lung [MLD]) of the two plans were compared. Results: V20 was lower in Plan F than in Plan A (mean 1.5%, p = 0.025 in IMRT, mean 1.6%, p = 0.044 in VMAT) achieved by a reduction in MLD (mean 0.23 Gy, p = 0.083 in IMRT, mean 0.5 Gy, p = 0.042 in VMAT). No differences were noted in target volume coverage and organ-at-risk doses. Conclusions: Functional IGRT planning based on LAA in respiratory-guided IMRT or VMAT appears to be effective in preserving a functional lung in lung cancer patients with COPD.

Kimura, Tomoki, E-mail: tkkimura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan); Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Resected Pancreatic Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Analysis of 210 Patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively analyze the results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: The records of 210 patients treated with gross complete resection (R0: 147 patients; R1: 63 patients) and IORT with or without EBRT were reviewed. One hundred forty-seven patients (70.0%) were treated without EBRT and 114 patients (54.3%) were treated in conjunction with chemotherapy. The median doses of IORT and EBRT were 25 Gy (range, 20-30 Gy) and 45 Gy (range, 20-60Gy), respectively. The median follow-up of the surviving 62 patients was 26.3 months (range, 2.7-90.5 months). Results: At the time of this analysis, 150 of 210 patients (71.4%) had disease recurrences. Local failure was observed in 31 patients (14.8%), and the 2-year local control rate in all patients was 83.7%. The median survival time and the 2-year actuarial overall survival (OS) in all 210 patients were 19.1 months and 42.1%, respectively. Patients treated with IORT and chemotherapy had a significantly more favorable OS than those treated with IORT alone (p = 0.0011). On univariate analysis, chemotherapy use, degree of resection, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and pathological N stage had a significant impact on OS and on multivariate analysis; these four factors were significant prognostic factors. Late gastrointestinal morbidity of NCI-CTC Grade 4 was observed in 7 patients (3.3%). Conclusion: IORT yields an excellent local control rate for resected pancreatic cancer with few frequencies of severe late toxicity, and IORT combined with chemotherapy confers a survival benefit compared with that of IORT alone.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Jingu, Keiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Okuno, Yoshishige [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Nishino, Shigeo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sapporo Kosei General Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Ogo, Etsuyo [Department of Radiology, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Uchida, Nobue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shimane Medical University, Shimane (Japan); Karasawa, Kumiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

University of Missouri housinG 101  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- consumer waste and is manufactured with electricity that is Green-e certified renewable energy: SoLID TrEES WaTEr EnErGy WaSTE GaSES 16 7,123 5 million 42 1,479 fully grown gallons BTU pounds pounds of CO2 as well as a high-energy 100-station cardio theater, more than 14,000 pounds of free weights, a 42-foot

Taylor, Jerry

308

Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and =}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83%-98% 'good/excellent' cosmetic outcomes, and minimal chronic toxicity, including late fibrosis.

Keller, Lanea M.M., E-mail: Lanea.Keller@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sopka, Dennis M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Marginal Recurrence Requiring Salvage Radiotherapy After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Spinal Metastases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Introduction: We sought to quantify and identify risk factors associated with margin recurrence (MR) requiring salvage radiotherapy after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for spinal metastases. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with spinal metastases who were treated with single-fraction SBRT between 2006 and 2009. Gross tumor was contoured, along with either the entire associated vertebral body(ies) or the posterior elements, and included in the planning target volume. No additional margins were used. MR was defined as recurrent tumor within one vertebral level above or below the treated lesion that required salvage radiotherapy. Only patients who presented for 3-month post-SBRT follow-up were included in the analysis. Fine and Gray competing risk regression models were generated to identify variables associated with higher risks of MR. MR was plotted using cumulative incidence analysis. Results: SBRT was delivered to 208 lesions in 149 patients. Median follow-up was 8.6 months, and median survival was 12.8 months. The median prescribed dose was 14 Gy (10-16 Gy). MR occurred in 26 (12.5%) treated lesions, at a median time of 7.7 months after SBRT. Patients with paraspinal disease at the time of SBRT (20.8% vs. 7.6% of patients; p = 0.02), and those treated with <16 Gy (16.3% vs. 6.3% of patients, p = 0.14) had higher rates of MR. Both variables were associated with significantly higher risk of MR on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: SBRT for spinal metastases results in a low overall rate of MR. The presence of paraspinal disease at the time of SBRT and a dose of <16 Gy were associated with higher risks of MR.

Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Djemil, Toufik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Burdick, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Woody, Neil; Balagamwala, Ehsan H.; Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Angelov, Lilyana [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Multi-Institutional Review of Repeat Irradiation of Chest Wall and Breast for Recurrent Breast Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To review the toxicity and clinical outcomes for patients who underwent repeat chest wall or breast irradiation (RT) after local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2005, 81 patients underwent repeat RT of the breast or chest wall for locally recurrent breast cancer at eight institutions. The median dose of the first course of RT was 60 Gy and was 48 Gy for the second course. The median total radiation dose was 106 Gy (range, 74.4-137.5 Gy). At the second RT course, 20% received twice-daily RT, 54% were treated with concurrent hyperthermia, and 54% received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up from the second RT course was 12 months (range, 1-144 months). Four patients developed late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. However, 25 patients had follow-up >20 months, and no late Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted. No treatment-related deaths occurred. The development of Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was not associated with any repeat RT variables. The overall complete response rate was 57%. No repeat RT parameters were associated with an improved complete response rate, although a trend was noted for an improved complete response with the addition of hyperthermia that was close to reaching statistical significance (67% vs. 39%, p = 0.08). The 1-year local disease-free survival rate for patients with gross disease was 53% compared with 100% for those without gross disease (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that repeat RT of the chest wall for patients with locally recurrent breast cancer is feasible, because it is associated with acceptable acute and late morbidity and encouraging local response rates.

Wahl, Andrew O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Rademaker, Alfred [Department of Preventative Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kiel, Krystyna D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Jones, Ellen L.; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Croog, Victoria; McCormick, Beryl M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hirsch, Arica; Karkar, Ami [Department of Radiation Oncology, Lutheran General Cancer Center, Park Ridge, IL (United States); Motwani, Sabin B.; Tereffe, Welela; Yu, T.-K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sher, David; Silverstein, Joshua; Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Kesslering, Christy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alexian Brothers Hospital, Elk Grove Village, IL (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Small, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)], E-mail: wsmall@nmff.org

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

313

Interstitial brachytherapy of periorificial skin carcinomas of the face: A retrospective study of 97 cases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy of facial periorificial skin carcinomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 skin carcinomas (88 basal cell carcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas) of the nose, periorbital areas, and ears from 40 previously untreated patients (Group 1) and 57 patients who had undergone surgery (Group 2). The average dose was 55 Gy (range, 50-65 Gy) in Group 1 and 52 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) in Group 2 (mean implantation times: 79 and 74 hours, respectively). We calculated survival rates and assessed functional and cosmetic results de visu. Results: Median age was 71 years (range, 17-97 years). There were 29 T1, 8 T2, 1 T3, and 2 Tx tumors in Group 1. Tumors were <2 cm in Group 2. Local control was 92.5% in Group 1 and 88% in Group 2 (median follow-up, 55 months; range, 6-132 months). Five-year disease-free survival was better in Group 1 (91%; range, 75-97) than in Group 2 (80%; range, 62-90; p = 0.23). Of the 34 patients whose results were reassessed, 8 presented with pruritus or epiphora; 1 Group 2 patient had an impaired eyelid aperture. Cosmetic results were better in Group 1 than in Group 2 with, respectively, 72% (8/11) vs. 52% (12/23) good results and 28 (3/11) vs. 43% (10/23) fair results. Conclusions: Brachytherapy provided a high level of local control and good cosmetic results for facial periorificial skin carcinomas that pose problems of surgical reconstruction. Results were better for untreated tumors than for incompletely excised tumors or tumors recurring after surgery.

Rio, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France)]. E-mail: e-rio@nantes.fnclcc.fr; Bardet, Etienne [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Ferron, Christophe [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France); Peuvrel, Patrick [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Supiot, Stephane [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Campion, Loic [Department of Biostatistics, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Beauvillain De Montreuil, Claude [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France); Mahe, Marc Andre [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Dreno, Brigitte [Department of Dermatology, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan, E-mail: gsunav@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Schrott, Lisa [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Caldito, Gloria [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

NatioNal aNd Global Forecasts West VirGiNia ProFiles aNd Forecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· NatioNal aNd Global Forecasts · West VirGiNia ProFiles aNd Forecasts · eNerGy · Healt;#12;Copyright ©2012 by WVU Research Corporation Unless otherwise noted, data used for this forecast is from IHS Population 2 GlOBAl OUTlOOk 3 Current Trends 3 Forecast 6 UNITED STATES OUTlOOk 9 Global and United States

Mohaghegh, Shahab

316

Radiation-Induced Cancers From Modern Radiotherapy Techniques: Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Proton Therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess and compare secondary cancer risk resulting from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton therapy in patients with prostate and head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy in the scattering mode were planned for 5 prostate caner patients and 5 head-and-neck cancer patients. The secondary doses during irradiation were measured using ion chamber and CR-39 detectors for IMRT and proton therapy, respectively. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk was estimated by applying organ equivalent dose to dose distributions. Results: The average secondary doses of proton therapy for prostate cancer patients, measured 20-60cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.4 mSv/Gy to 0.1 mSv/Gy. The average secondary doses of IMRT for prostate patients, however, ranged between 3 mSv/Gy and 1 mSv/Gy, approximately one order of magnitude higher than for proton therapy. Although the average secondary doses of IMRT were higher than those of proton therapy for head-and-neck cancers, these differences were not significant. Organ equivalent dose calculations showed that, for prostate cancer patients, the risk of secondary cancers in out-of-field organs, such as the stomach, lungs, and thyroid, was at least 5 times higher for IMRT than for proton therapy, whereas the difference was lower for head-and-neck cancer patients. Conclusions: Comparisons of organ-specific organ equivalent dose showed that the estimated secondary cancer risk using scattering mode in proton therapy is either significantly lower than the cases in IMRT treatment or, at least, does not exceed the risk induced by conventional IMRT treatment.

Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: mxy131@ncc.re.k [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jinsung; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Kwan Ho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: fukumitsun@yahoo.co.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira [Department of Otolaryngology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Localized Gastric Adenocarcinoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate dosimetric parameters, acute toxicity, pathologic response, and local control in patients treated with preoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent chemotherapy for localized gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Between November 2007 and April 2010, 25 patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by preoperative IMRT and concurrent chemotherapy and, finally, surgical resection. The median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in 18 patients, capecitabine in 3, and other regimens in 4. Subsequently, resection was performed with total gastrectomy in 13 patients, subtotal gastrectomy in 7, and other surgeries in 5. Results: Target coverage, expressed as the ratio of the minimum dose received by 99% of the planning target volume to the prescribed dose, was a median of 0.97 (range, 0.92-1.01). The median V{sub 30} (percentage of volume receiving at least 30 Gy) for the liver was 26%; the median V{sub 20} (percentage of volume receiving at least 20 Gy) for the right and left kidneys was 14% and 24%, respectively; and the median V{sub 40} (percentage of volume receiving at least 40 Gy) for the heart was 18%. Grade 3 acute toxicity developed in 14 patients (56%), including dehydration in 10, nausea in 8, and anorexia in 5. Grade 4 acute toxicity did not develop in any patient. There were no significant differences in the rates of acute toxicity, hospitalization, or feeding tube use in comparison to those in a group of 50 patients treated with preoperative three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. R0 resection was obtained in 20 patients (80%), and pathologic complete response occurred in 5 (20%). Conclusions: Preoperative IMRT for gastric adenocarcinoma was well tolerated, accomplished excellent target coverage and normal structure sparing, and led to appropriate pathologic outcomes.

Chakravarty, Twisha; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ajani, Jaffer A. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mansfield, Paul F. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Briere, Tina M.; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mok, Henry; Reed, Valerie K.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma  

SciTech Connect

Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women's Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

Vredenburgh, James J., E-mail: vrede001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer [Department of Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a 5-day test of an electrochemical bench-scale apparatus using a proprietary (NAS-GY) material formulation of a (Na) Super Ion Conductor (NaSICON) membrane in a Large Area NaSICON Structures (LANS) configuration. The primary objectives of this work were to assess system performance, membrane seal integrity, and material degradation while removing Na from Group 5 and 6 tank waste from the Hanford Site.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Balagopal, S.; Bhavaraju, S.

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...cm centimeter cal calorie d day eV electron volt F farad ft foot g gram G gauss Gy gray GHz gigahertz h hour Hz hertz in. inch J joule K Kelvin kbar kilobar keV kiloelectron volt kg kilogram kHz kilohertz kPa kilopascal ksi kips (1000 lb) per square inch kV kilovolt kW kilowatt L liter lb pound m...

323

Treatment Outcomes, Growth Height, and Neuroendocrine Functions in Patients With Intracranial Germ Cell Tumors Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We carried out a retrospective review of patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for intracranial germ cell tumor (GCT) using a lower dose than those previously reported. To identify an optimal GCT treatment strategy, we evaluated treatment outcomes, growth height, and neuroendocrine functions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GCT, including 4 patients with nongerminomatous GCT (NGGCT) were treated with CRT. The median age at initial diagnosis was 11.5 years (range, 6-19 years). Seventeen patients initially received whole brain irradiation (median dose, 19.8 Gy), and 5 patients, including 4 with NGGCT, received craniospinal irradiation (median dose, 30.6 Gy). The median radiation doses delivered to the primary site were 36 Gy for pure germinoma and 45 Gy for NGGCT. Seventeen patients had tumors adjacent to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), and 5 had tumors away from the HPA. Results: The median follow-up time was 72 months (range, 18-203 months). The rates of both disease-free survival and overall survival were 100%. The standard deviation scores (SDSs) of final heights recorded at the last assessment tended to be lower than those at initial diagnosis. Even in all 5 patients with tumors located away from the HPA, final height SDSs decreased (p = 0.018). In 16 patients with tumors adjacent to the HPA, 8 showed metabolic changes suggestive of hypothalamic obesity and/or growth hormone deficiency, and 13 had other pituitary hormone deficiencies. In contrast, 4 of 5 patients with tumors away from the HPA did not show any neuroendocrine dysfunctions except for a tendency to short stature. Conclusions: CRT for GCT using limited radiation doses resulted in excellent treatment outcomes. Even after limited radiation doses, insufficient growth height was often observed that was independent of tumor location. Our study suggests that close follow-up of neuroendocrine functions, including growth hormone, is essential for all patients with GCT.

Odagiri, Kazumasa, E-mail: t086016a@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan) [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Hata, Masaharu [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan); Aida, Noriko; Niwa, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kigasawa, Hisato [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Division of Hemato-oncology/Regeneration Medicine, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Ito, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Adachi, Masataka [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Endocrinology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Do Intermediate Radiation Doses Contribute to Late Rectal Toxicity? An Analysis of Data From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 94-06  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses, from 30 to 50 Gy, contribute to the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 1009 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 94-06 were analyzed using three approaches. First, the contribution of intermediate doses to a previously published fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was determined. Next, the extent to which intermediate doses provide additional risk information, after taking the LKB model into account, was investigated. Third, the proportion of rectum receiving doses higher than a threshold, VDose, was computed for doses ranging from 5 to 85 Gy, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which of these parameters were significantly associated with time to Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Results: Doses <60 Gy had no detectable impact on the fit of the LKB model, as expected on the basis of the small estimate of the volume parameter (n = 0.077). Furthermore, there was no detectable difference in late rectal toxicity among cohorts with similar risk estimates from the LKB model but with different volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model selected V75 as the only value of VDose significantly associated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: There is no evidence from these data that intermediate doses influence the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Instead, the critical doses for this endpoint seem to be {>=}75 Gy. It is hypothesized that cases of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity occurring among patients with V75 less than approximately 12% may be due to a 'background' level of risk, likely due mainly to biological factors.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Three-Year Outcomes of a Canadian Multicenter Study of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Conformal Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report 3-year toxicity, cosmesis, and efficacy of a multicenter study of external beam, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and August 2006, 127 women aged {>=}40 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or node-negative invasive breast cancer {<=}3 cm in diameter, treated with breast-conserving surgery achieving negative margins, were accrued to a prospective study involving five Canadian cancer centers. Women meeting predefined dose constraints were treated with APBI using 3 to 5 photon beams, delivering 35 to 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions, twice a day, over 1 week. Patients were assessed for treatment-related toxicities, cosmesis, and efficacy before APBI and at specified time points for as long as 3 years after APBI. Results: 104 women had planning computed tomography scans showing visible seromas, met dosimetric constraints, and were treated with APBI to doses of 35 Gy (n = 9), 36 Gy (n = 33), or 38.5 Gy (n = 62). Eighty-seven patients were evaluated with minimum 3-year follow-up after APBI. Radiation dermatitis, breast edema, breast induration, and fatigue decreased from baseline levels or stabilized by the 3-year follow-up. Hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, breast pain, and telangiectasia slightly increased from baseline levels. Most toxicities at 3 years were Grade 1. Only 1 patient had a Grade 3 toxicity with telangiectasia in a skin fold inside the 95% isodose. Cosmesis was good to excellent in 86% (89/104) of women at baseline and 82% (70/85) at 3 years. The 3-year disease-free survival was 97%, with only one local recurrence that occurred in a different quadrant away from the treated site and two distant recurrences. Conclusions: At 3 years, toxicity and cosmesis were acceptable, and local control and disease-free survival were excellent, supporting continued accrual to randomized APBI trials.

Berrang, Tanya S., E-mail: tberrang@bccancer.bc.ca [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Kim, Do-Hoon [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Nichol, Alan [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Cho, B.C. John [Princess Margaret Hospital, Ontario (Canada); University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mohamed, Islam G. [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Southern Interior, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Parhar, Tarnjit [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Wright, J.R. [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Truong, Pauline [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Sussman, Jonathan [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada); Wai, Elaine [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, BC (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Juravinski Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada); McMaster University, Ontario (Canada)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Experimental verification of a real-time compensation functionality for dose changes due to target motion in scanned particle therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Implementation and experimental assessment of a real-time dose compensation system for beam tracking in scanned carbon beam therapy of intrafractionally moving targets. Methods: A real-time dose compensation functionality has been developed and implemented at the experimental branch of the beam tracking system at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). Treatment plans for different target geometries have been optimized. They have been delivered using scanned carbon ions with beam tracking (BT) and real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT), respectively. Target motion was introduced by a rotating table. Dose distributions were assessed by ionization chamber measurements and dose reconstructions. These distributions have been compared to stationary delivery for BT as well as RDBT. Additionally simulations have been performed to investigate the dependence of delivered dose distributions on varying motion starting phases for BT and RDBT, respectively. Results: Average measured dose differences between static delivery and motion influenced delivery could be reduced from 27-68 mGy when BT was used to 12-37 mGy when RDBT was used. Nominal dose was 1000 mGy. Simulated dose deliveries showed improvements in dose delivery and robustness against varying starting motion phases when RDBT was used. Conclusions: A real-time dose compensation functionality extending the existing beam tracking functionality has been implemented and verified by measurements. Measurements and simulated dose deliveries show that real-time dose compensation can substantially improve delivered dose distributions for large rotational target motion compared to beam tracking alone.

Luechtenborg, Robert; Saito, Nami; Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Scrotal Irradiation in Primary Testicular Lymphoma: Review of the Literature and In Silico Planning Comparative Study  

SciTech Connect

We examined adjuvant irradiation of the scrotum in primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) by means of a literature review in MEDLINE, a telephone survey among Dutch institutes, and an in silico planning comparative study on scrotal irradiation in PTL. We did not find any uniform adjuvant irradiation technique assuring a safe planning target volume (PTV) coverage in published reports, and the definition of the clinical target volume is unclear. Histopathologic studies of PTL show a high invasion rate of the tunica albuginea, the epididymis, and the spermatic cord. In retrospective studies, a prescribed dose of at least 30 Gy involving the scrotum is associated with best survival. The majority of Dutch institutes irradiate the whole scrotum without using a planning computed tomography scan, with a single electron beam and a total dose of 30 Gy. The in silico planning comparative study showed that all evaluated approaches met a D{sub 95%} scrotal dose of at least 85% of the prescription dose, without exceeding the dose limits of critical organs. Photon irradiation with 2 oblique beams using wedges resulted in the best PTV coverage, with a mean value of 95% of the prescribed dose, with lowest maximum dose. Adjuvant photon or electron irradiation of the whole scrotum including the contralateral testicle with a minimum dose of 30 Gy is recommended in PTL. Computed tomography-based radiation therapy treatment planning with proper patient positioning and position verification guarantees optimal dose coverage.

Brouwer, Charlotte L., E-mail: c.l.brouwer@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wiesendanger, Esther M.; Hulst, Peter C. van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Imhoff, Gustaaf W. van [Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Beijert, Max [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

SciTech Connect

Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

332

Doses delivered to normal brain under different treatment protocols at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

As of October 31, 1996, 23 glioblastoma multiforme patients underwent BNCT under several treatment protocols at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. For treatment planning and dosimetry purposes, these protocols may be divided into four groups. The first group comprises protocols that used an 8-cm collimator and allowed a peak normal brain dose of 10.5 Gy-Eq to avolume of 1 cm{sup 3} were the thermal neutron flux was maximal (even if it happened to be in the tumor volume). The second group differs from the first in that it allowed a peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq. The protocols of the third and fourth groups allowed the prescribed peak normal brain dose of 12.6 Gy-Eq to be outside of the tumor volume, used a 12-cm collimator and, respectively, uni- or bilateral irradiations. We describe the treatment planning procedures and report the doses delivered to various structures of the brain.

Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Liu, H.B. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Actual Dose Variation of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients During Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: For intensity-modulated radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer, accurate dose delivery is crucial to the success of treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of daily image-guided patient setup corrections and to quantify the parotid gland volume and dose variations for nasopharyngeal cancer patients using helical tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Five nasopharyngeal cancer patients who underwent helical tomotherapy were selected retrospectively. Each patient had received 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Daily megavoltage CT scans were registered with the planning CT images to correct the patient setup errors. Contours of the spinal cord and parotid glands were drawn on the megavoltage CT images at fixed treatment intervals. The actual doses delivered to the critical structures were calculated using the helical tomotherapy Planned Adaptive application. Results: The maximal dose to the spinal cord showed a significant increase and greater variation without daily setup corrections. The significant decrease in the parotid gland volume led to a greater median dose in the later phase of treatment. The average parotid gland volume had decreased from 20.5 to 13.2 cm{sup 3} by the end of treatment. On average, the median dose to the parotid glands was 83 cGy and 145 cGy for the first and the last treatment fractions, respectively. Conclusions: Daily image-guided setup corrections can eliminate significant dose variations to critical structures. Constant monitoring of patient anatomic changes and selective replanning should be used during radiotherapy to avoid critical structure complications.

Han Chunhui [Division of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)], E-mail: chan@coh.org; Chen Yijen; Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Modeling of Salivary Production Recovery After Radiotherapy Using Mixed Models: Determination of Optimal Dose Constraint for IMRT Planning and Construction of Convenient Tools to Predict Salivary Function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The mathematical relationship between the dose to the parotid glands and salivary gland production needs to be elucidated. This study, which included data from patients included in a French prospective study assessing the benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT), sought to elaborate a convenient and original model of salivary recovery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 44 patients were included (35 with oropharyngeal and 9 with nasopharyngeal cancer). Of the 44 patients, 24 were treated with intensity-modulated RT, 17 with three-dimensional conformal RT, and 2 with two-dimensional RT. Stimulated salivary production was collected for {gland were modeled using a mixed model. Several models were developed to assess the best-fitting variable for the dose level to the parotid gland. Results: Models developed with the dose to the contralateral parotid fit the data slightly better than those with the dose to both parotids, suggesting that contralateral and ipsilateral parotid glands are not functionally equivalent even with the same dose level to the glands. The best predictive dose-value variable for salivary flow recovery was the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the recommendation of a dose constraint for intensity-modulated RT planning should be established at the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy rather than the mean dose. For complete salivary production recovery after 24 months, the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receiving >40 Gy should be gland.

Ortholan, Cecile [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)], E-mail: c.ortholan@wanadoo.fr; Chamorey, Emmanuel Phar [Department of Biostatistics, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Benezery, Karen; Thariat, Juliette [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Follana, Philippe; Peyrade, Frederique [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Sudaka, Anne [Department of Pathology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France); Gerard, Jean Pierre; Bensadoun, Rene Jean [Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Canceropole PACA, Nice (France)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Lacrimal Gland Radiosensitivity in Uveal Melanoma Patients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To find a dose-volume effect for inhomogeneous irradiated lacrimal glands. Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2006, 72 patients (42 men and 30 women) were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in a prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial (median follow-up, 32 months). A total dose of 50 Gy was given on 5 consecutive days. The mean of all Schirmer test results obtained {>=}6 months after treatment was correlated with the radiation dose delivered to the lacrimal gland. Also, the appearance of dry eye syndrome (DES) was related to the lacrimal gland dose distribution. Results: Of the 72 patients, 17 developed a late Schirmer value gland vs. reduced tear production (p = 0.000) and vs. the appearance of DES (p = 0.003), respectively. A median dose of 7 Gy/fraction to the lacrimal gland caused a 50% risk of low Schirmer results. A median dose of 10 Gy resulted in a 50% probability of DES. Conclusion: We found a clear dose-volume relationship for irradiated lacrimal glands with regard to reduced tear production and the appearance of DES.

Muller, Karin [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: k.muller@erasmusmc.nl; Nowak, Peter J.C.M. [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Naus, Nicole [Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pan, Connie de [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Santen, Cornelis A. van [Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luyten, Gre P.M. [Department of Ophthalmology, Leids University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Parotid Gland Function After Radiotherapy: The Combined Michigan and Utrecht Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze the combined and updated results from the University of Michigan and University Medical Center Utrecht on normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the parotid gland 1 year after radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 222 prospectively analyzed patients with various HN malignancies were treated with conventional and intensity-modulated RT. Stimulated individual parotid gland flow rates were measured before RT and 1 year after RT using Lashley cups at both centers. A flow ratio glands (Michigan: 157; Utrecht: 227 glands) was available for analysis 1 year after RT. Combined NTCP analysis based on mean dose resulted in a TD{sub 50} (uniform dose leading to 50% complication probability) of 39.9 Gy and m (steepness of the curve) of 0.40. The resulting NTCP curve had good qualitative agreement with the combined clinical data. Mean doses of 25-30 Gy were associated with 17-26% NTCP. Conclusions: A definite NTCP curve for parotid gland function 1 year after RT is presented, based on mean dose. No threshold dose was observed, and TD{sub 50} was equal to 40 Gy.

Dijkema, Tim, E-mail: T.Dijkema@umcutrecht.n [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Roesink, Judith M.; Braam, Petra M.; Houweling, Anette C.; Moerland, Marinus A. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eisbruch, Avraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Terhaard, Chris H.J. [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland.

Cannon, Donald M. [Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail: leen2@mskcc.org

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A Prospective Study of Salivary Gland Function in Lymphoma Patients Receiving Head and Neck Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the radiation dose-response relationship on salivary dysfunction and quality of life (QOL) over time in patients with lymphoma receiving radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck (H and N). Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective study on salivary-gland function in lymphoma patients receiving RT to the H and N. Fifteen patients were enrolled on the study. Dose-volume histograms and mean doses to the salivary glands were generated. Radiation-related toxicities and H and N-specific QOL were assessed before treatment and at prespecified time points posttreatment. Factors predicting a decrement in QOL were explored using Fisher's exact test. Results: During RT, 47% of patients experienced Grade >= 2 acute toxicity of the salivary gland, mucous membrane, or both. QOL scores improved over time, but up to one third of patients continued to have persistent oral symptoms at 2 years. At 6 months, a mean dose to at least one of the parotids of > 31 Gy was significantly associated with persistent dry mouth (100% vs. 17%, p = 0.02) and sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04); a mean dose of > 11 Gy to the minor salivary glands was significantly associated with persistent sticky saliva (100% vs. 25%, p = 0.04), although the difference was no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions: Limiting the mean parotid dose to gland dose to <= 11 Gy in lymphoma patients treated to the H and N may help reduce the risk of subacute xerostomia.

Rodrigues, Neesha A.; Killion, Leah; Hickey, Gail; Silver, Barbara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Martin, Chrystalla; Stevenson, Mary Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Body radiation exposure in breast cancer radiotherapy: Impact of breast IMRT and virtual wedge compensation techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Recent reports demonstrate a dramatically increased rate of secondary leukemia for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant high-dose anthracycline and radiotherapy, and that radiation is an independent factor for the development of leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation body exposure during breast radiotherapy and to characterize the factors associated with an increased exposure. Patients and Methods: In a prospective cohort of 120 women, radiation measurements were taken from four sites on the body at the time of adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze patient and treatment factors associated with the amount of scattered radiation. Results: For standard 50 Gy breast radiotherapy, the minimal dose received by abdominal organs is on average 0.45 Gy, ranging from 0.06 to 1.55 Gy. The use of physical wedges as a compensation technique was the most significant factor associated with increased scattered dose (p < 0.001), resulting in approximately three times more exposure compared with breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and dynamic wedge. Conclusions: The amount of radiation that is scattered to a patient's body is consistent with exposure reported to be associated with excess of leukemia. In accordance with the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle, we recommend using breast IMRT or virtual wedging for the radiotherapy of breast cancer receiving high-dose anthracycline chemotherapy.

Woo, Tony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Pignol@sw.ca; Rakovitch, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Vu, Toni [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hicks, Deanna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); O'Brien, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pritchard, Kathleen [Department of Medical Oncology, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Operable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Can SBRT Be Comparable to Surgery?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To review treatment outcomes for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in medically operable patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), using a Japanese multi-institutional database. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2004, a total of 87 patients with Stage I NSCLC (median age, 74 years; T1N0M0, n = 65; T2N0M0, n = 22) who were medically operable but refused surgery were treated using SBRT alone in 14 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. Total dose was 45-72.5 Gy at the isocenter, administered in 3-10 fractions. Median calculated biological effective dose was 116 Gy (range, 100-141 Gy). Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), cumulative local control rates for T1 and T2 tumors at 5 years after SBRT were 92% and 73%, respectively. Pulmonary complications above Grade 2 arose in 1 patient (1.1%). Five-year overall survival rates for Stage IA and IB subgroups were 72% and 62%, respectively. One patient who developed local recurrences safely underwent salvage surgery. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy is safe and promising as a radical treatment for operable Stage I NSCLC. The survival rate for SBRT is potentially comparable to that for surgery.

Onishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: honishi@yamanashi.ac.jp [School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [School of Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujino, Masaharu [School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Gomi, Kotaro [Cancer Institute Suwa Red-Cross Hospital, Suwa (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Yuzuru [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan); Takai, Yoshihiro [School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki (Japan); Kimura, Tomoki [School of Medicine, Kagawa University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeda, Atsuya [Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Ouchi, Atsushi [Keijinkai Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Kozuka, Takuyo [School of Cancer Institute Ariake Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Arimoto, Takuro [Kitami Red Cross Hospital, Kitami (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Jun [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Araki, Tsutomu [School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Implant breast reconstruction followed by radiotherapy: Can helical tomotherapy become a standard irradiation treatment?  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the benefits and limitations of helical tomotherapy (HT) for loco-regional irradiation of patients after a mastectomy and immediate implant-based reconstruction. Ten breast cancer patients with retropectoral implants were randomly selected for this comparative study. Planning target volumes (PTVs) 1 (the volume between the skin and the implant, plus margin) and 2 (supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and internal mammary nodes, plus margin) were 50 Gy in 25 fractions using a standard technique and HT. The extracted dosimetric data were compared using a 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. Doses for PTV1 and PTV2 were significantly higher with HT (V95 of 98.91 and 97.91%, respectively) compared with the standard technique (77.46 and 72.91%, respectively). Similarly, the indexes of homogeneity were significantly greater with HT (p = 0.002). HT reduced ipsilateral lung volume that received {>=}20 Gy (16.7 vs. 35%), and bilateral lungs (p = 0.01) and neighboring organs received doses that remained well below tolerance levels. The heart volume, which received 25 Gy, was negligible with both techniques. HT can achieve full target coverage while decreasing high doses to the heart and ipsilateral lung. However, the low doses to normal tissue volumes need to be reduced in future studies.

Massabeau, Carole, E-mail: cmassabeau@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Wakil, Georges; Castro Pena, Pablo; Viard, Romain; Zefkili, Sofia; Reyal, Fabien; Campana, Francois; Fourquet, Alain; Kirova, Youlia M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Fading in CaF/sub 2/(Tm/Dy) TL phosphors used in environmental radiation monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoluminescence dosimetry technique is currently used for occupational dosimetry and monitoring of supervised areas in the medical and industrial use of ionizing radiation. Recently, the problems about the potential effects of low dose levels, as those due to natural radiation or in the proximity of nuclear facilities, has produced a continuing interest in the study of thermoluminescent dosemeters for the measurement of environmental exposure. Undoubtedly, TLDs offer a number of advantages over other devices available for these purposes: they are small, relatively inexpensive, stable integrating detectors, which can be used in large number, placed everywhere, and assembled in a variety of arrangements. The aim of this paper is to report the fading observed for two different kind of calcium fluoride submitted to different climate conditions over storage time. CaF/sub 2/ (Dy/Tm) have been chosen because of their high sensitivity which makes them very useful in environmental dosimetry. On the other hand, the lower limit of the absorbed dose for CaF/sub 2/ is about 10/sup -6/Gy while for LiF is about 5x10/sup -5/Gy. Because the environmental absorbed dose in Italy is about 7x10/sup -5/Gy/month it is evident the usefulness of CaF/sub 2/ with respect to LiF.

Bacci, C.; Draghi, V.; Furetta, C.; Rispoli, B.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Dentalmaps: Automatic Dental Delineation for Radiotherapy Planning in Head-and-Neck Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose an automatic atlas-based segmentation framework of the dental structures, called Dentalmaps, and to assess its accuracy and relevance to guide dental care in the context of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A multi-atlas-based segmentation, less sensitive to artifacts than previously published head-and-neck segmentation methods, was used. The manual segmentations of a 21-patient database were first deformed onto the query using nonlinear registrations with the training images and then fused to estimate the consensus segmentation of the query. Results: The framework was evaluated with a leave-one-out protocol. The maximum doses estimated using manual contours were considered as ground truth and compared with the maximum doses estimated using automatic contours. The dose estimation error was within 2-Gy accuracy in 75% of cases (with a median of 0.9 Gy), whereas it was within 2-Gy accuracy in 30% of cases only with the visual estimation method without any contour, which is the routine practice procedure. Conclusions: Dose estimates using this framework were more accurate than visual estimates without dental contour. Dentalmaps represents a useful documentation and communication tool between radiation oncologists and dentists in routine practice. Prospective multicenter assessment is underway on patients extrinsic to the database.

Thariat, Juliette, E-mail: jthariat@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology/Institut de biologie et developpement du cancer (IBDC) centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) unite mixte de recherche UMR 6543, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice Cedex (France); Ramus, Liliane [DOSIsoft, Cachan (France); INRIA (Institut National de Recherche en Automatique et en Automatique)-Asclepios Research Project, Sophia-Antipolis (France); Maingon, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, Dijon Cedex (France); Odin, Guillaume [Department of Head-and-Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Institut Universitaire de la Face et du Cou, Nice Cedex (France); Gregoire, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology, St.-Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Darcourt, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology-Dentistry, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice Cedex (France); Guevara, Nicolas [Department of Head-and-Neck Surgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire-Institut Universitaire de la Face et du Cou, Nice Cedex (France); Orlanducci, Marie-Helene [Department of Odontology, CHU, Nice (France); Marcie, Serge [Department of Radiation Oncology/Institut de biologie et developpement du cancer (IBDC) centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) unite mixte de recherche UMR 6543, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice Cedex (France); Poissonnet, Gilles [Department of Head-and-Neck Surgery, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne-Institut Universitaire de la Face et du Cou, Nice Cedex (France); Marcy, Pierre-Yves [Department of Radiology, Cancer Center Antoine-Lacassagne, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice Cedex (France); and others

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Dose rate dependence for different dosimeters and detectors: TLD, OSL, EBT films, and diamond detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The use of laser accelerators in radiation therapy can perhaps increase the low number of proton and ion therapy facilities in some years due to the low investment costs and small size. The laser-based acceleration technology leads to a very high peak dose rate of about 10{sup 11} Gy/s. A first dosimetric task is the evaluation of dose rate dependence of clinical dosimeters and other detectors. Methods: The measurements were done at ELBE, a superconductive linear electron accelerator which generates electron pulses with 5 ps length at 20 MeV. The different dose rates are reached by adjusting the number of electrons in one beam pulse. Three clinical dosimeters (TLD, OSL, and EBT radiochromic films) were irradiated with four different dose rates and nearly the same dose. A faraday cup, an integrating current transformer, and an ionization chamber were used to control the particle flux on the dosimeters. Furthermore two diamond detectors were tested. Results: The dosimeters are dose rate independent up to 410{sup 9} Gy/s within 2% (OSL and TLD) and up to 1510{sup 9} Gy/s within 5% (EBT films). The diamond detectors show strong dose rate dependence. Conclusions: TLD, OSL dosimeters, and EBT films are suitable for pulsed beams with a very high pulse dose rate like laser accelerated particle beams.

Karsch, L.; Beyreuther, E.; Burris-Mog, T.; Kraft, S.; Richter, C.; Zeil, K.; Pawelke, J. [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Fetscherstr, 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Fetscherstr, 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Analysis of Dose at the Site of Second Tumor Formation After Radiotherapy to the Central Nervous System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Second tumors are an uncommon complication of multimodality treatment of childhood cancer. The present analysis attempted to correlate the dose received as a component of primary treatment and the site of the eventual development of a second tumor. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 16 patients who had received radiotherapy to sites in the craniospinal axis and subsequently developed a second tumor. We compared the historical fields and port films of the primary treatment with the modern imaging of the second tumor locations. We classified the location of the second tumors as follows: in the boost field; marginal to the boost field, but in a whole-brain field; in a whole-brain field; marginal to the whole brain/primary treatment field; and distant to the field. We divided the dose received into 3 broad categories: high dose (>45 Gy), moderate dose (20-36 Gy), and low dose (dose range (81%). Conclusions: Our data contradict previous publications that suggested that most second tumors develop in tissues that receive a low radiation dose. Almost all the second tumors in our series occurred in tissue within a target volume in the cranium that had received a moderate dose (20-36 Gy). These findings suggest that a major decrease in the brain volume that receives a moderate radiation dose is the only way to substantially decrease the second tumor rate after central nervous system radiotherapy.

Galloway, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Swanson, Erika L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Marcus, Robert B. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Metabolomic Response of Human Skin Tissue to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding how human organs respond to ionizing radiation (IR) at a systems biology level and identifying biomarkers for IR exposure at low doses can help provide a scientific basis for establishing radiation protection standards. Little is known regarding the physiological responses to low dose IR at the metabolite level, which represents the end-point of biochemical processes inside cells. Using a full thickness human skin tissue model and GC-MS-based metabolomics analysis, we examined the metabolic perturbations at three time points (3, 24 and 48 hr) after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. PLS-DA score plots revealed dose- and time-dependent clustering between sham and irradiated groups. Importantly, a comparable number of metabolites were detected to have significant change 48 hr after exposure to 3 and 10 cGy of irradiation, when compared with the high dose of 200 cGy. Biochemical pathway analysis showed perturbations to DNA/RNA damage and repair, lipid and energy metabolisms, even at low doses of IR.

Hu, Zeping; Kim, Young-Mo; Sowa, Marianne B.; Robinson, Robert J.; Gao, Xiaoli; Metz, Thomas O.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tumor Control Outcomes After Hypofractionated and Single-Dose Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Extracranial Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To report tumor local progression-free outcomes after treatment with single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and hypofractionated regimens for extracranial metastases from renal cell primary tumors. Patients and Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, 105 lesions from renal cell carcinoma were treated with either single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a prescription dose of 18-24 Gy (median, 24) or hypofractionation (three or five fractions) with a prescription dose of 20-30 Gy. The median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1-48). Results: The overall 3-year actuarial local progression-free survival for all lesions was 44%. The 3-year local progression-free survival for those who received a high single-dose (24 Gy; n = 45), a low single-dose (dose vs. low single dose, p = .001; high single dose vs. hypofractionation, p dose compared with a lower dose (p = .009) and a single dose vs. hypofractionation (p = .008). Conclusion: High single-dose, image-guided, intensity-modulated radiotherapy is a noninvasive procedure resulting in high probability of local tumor control for metastatic renal cell cancer generally considered radioresistant according to the classic radiobiologic ranking.

Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Greco, Carlo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Motzer, Robert [Solid Tumor Service, Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Magsanoc, Juan Martin; Pei Xin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Lovelock, Michael; Mechalakos, Jim [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zatcky, Joan; Fuks, Zvi; Yamada, Yoshiya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

The toxicity of inhaled particles of sup 238 PuO sub 2 in dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5{mu}m and 72 inhaled 3.0 {mu}m activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of {sup 238}Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 {mu}m and 3.0 {mu}, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, 800 liver cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10{sup 4} Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from {sup 238}Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gillett, N.A. (Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Prognostic Impact of Radiation Therapy to the Primary Tumor in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastasis at Diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (<5 metastases) at diagnosis underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy ({>=}45 Gy) to the primary site. Forty-four of these patients also received definitive local treatment for the oligometastases. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed better overall survival (OS) for those patients who received at least 63 Gy of radiation to the primary site (P=.002), received definitive local treatment for oligometastasis (P=.041), had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score >80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume {<=}124 cm{sup 3} (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Conclusions: Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.

Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Daniel, E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Hong, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Heymach, John V. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen G. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Thoracic Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lin, Steven H.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Predictive Factors for Radiation Pneumonitis in Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Receiving Combined-Modality Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. Methods and Materials: We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose-volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. Results: RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). Conclusions: We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT.

Fox, Amy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); 21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Dosoretz, Arie P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Mauch, Peter M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Freedman, Arnold S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Silver, Barbara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1?, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-?, MIP-1?, TNF ?, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Comparison of {sup 18}F-Fluorothymidine and {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Delineating Gross Tumor Volume by Optimal Threshold in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thoracic Esophagus  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the optimal method of using {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation to delineate the gross tumor volume (GTV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma verified by pathologic examination and compare the results with those using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT. Methods and Materials: A total of 22 patients were enrolled and underwent both FLT and FDG PET/CT. The GTVs with biologic information were delineated using seven different methods in FLT PET/CT and three different methods in FDG PET/CT. The results were compared with the pathologic gross tumor length, and the optimal threshold was obtained. Next, we compared the simulation plans using the optimal threshold of FLT and FDG PET/CT. The radiation dose was prescribed as 60 Gy in 30 fractions with a precise radiotherapy technique. Results: The mean +- standard deviation pathologic gross tumor length was 4.94 +- 2.21 cm. On FLT PET/CT, the length of the standardized uptake value 1.4 was 4.91 +- 2.43 cm. On FDG PET/CT, the length of the standardized uptake value 2.5 was 5.10 +- 2.18 cm, both of which seemed more approximate to the pathologic gross tumor length. The differences in the bilateral lung volume receiving >=20 Gy, heart volume receiving >=40 Gy, and the maximal dose received by spinal cord between FLT and FDG were not significant. However, the values for mean lung dose, bilateral lung volume receiving >=5, >=10, >=30, >=40, and >=50 Gy, mean heart dose, and heart volume receiving >=30 Gy using FLT PET/CT-based planning were significant lower than those using FDG PET/CT. Conclusion: A standardized uptake value cutoff of 1.4 on FLT PET/CT and one of 2.5 on FDG PET/CT provided the closest estimation of GTV length. Finally, FLT PET/CT-based treatment planning provided potential benefits to the lungs and heart.

Han Dali [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Yu Jinming, E-mail: yujmwin@yahoo.c [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Yu Yonghua; Zhang Guifang; Zhong Xiaojun; Lu Jie; Yin Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Fu Zheng [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Mu Dianbin [Department of Pathology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Zhang Baijiang [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); He Wei; Huo Zhijun; Liu Xijun; Kong Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Zhao Shuqiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China); Sun Xiangyu [Department of Pathology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, Shandong Province (China)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Concurrent Radiotherapy and Gemcitabine for Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Impact of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using gemcitabine (GEM) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Records of 108 patients treated with concurrent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and GEM were reviewed. The median dose of EBRT in all 108 patients was 50.4 Gy (range, 3.6-60.8 Gy), usually administered in conventional fractionations (1.8-2 Gy/day). During radiotherapy, most patients received GEM at a dosage of 250 to 350 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously weekly for approximately 6 weeks. After CCRT, 59 patients (54.6%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), mainly with GEM. The median follow-up for all 108 patients was 11.0 months (range, 0.4-37.9 months). Results: Initial responses after CCRT for 85 patients were partial response: 26 patients, no change: 51 patients and progressive disease: 8 patients. Local progression was observed in 35 patients (32.4%), and the 2-year local control (LC) rate in all patients was 41.9%. Patients treated with total doses of 50 Gy or more had significantly more favorable LC rates (2-year LC rate, 42.9%) than patients treated with total doses of less than 50 Gy (2-year LC rate, 29.6%). Regional lymph node recurrence was found in only 1 patient, and none of the 57 patients with clinical N0 disease had regional lymph node recurrence. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time in all patients were 23.5% and 11.6 months, respectively. Patients treated with AC had significantly more favorable OS rates (2-year OS, 31.8%) than those treated without AC (2-year OS, 12.4%; p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, AC use and clinical T stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: CCRT using GEM yields a relatively favorable LC rate for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and CCRT with AC conferred a survival benefit compared to CCRT without AC.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hirokawa, Naoki [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Shibuya, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Ogo, Etsuyo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Tsutomu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Nishimura, Yasumasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy for esophageal cancer  

SciTech Connect

A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc (RA) against 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques for esophageal cancer. Computed tomgraphy scans of 10 patients were included in the study. 3D-CRT, 4-field IMRT, and single-arc and double-arc RA plans were generated with the aim to spare organs at risk (OAR) and healthy tissue while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. The planning objective was to deliver 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) in 30 fractions. Plans were evaluated based on target conformity and dose-volume histograms of organs at risk (lung, spinal cord, and heart). The monitor unit (MU) and treatment delivery time were also evaluated to measure the treatment efficiency. The IMRT plan improves target conformity and spares OAR when compared with 3D-CRT. Target conformity improved with RA plans compared with IMRT. The mean lung dose was similar in all techniques. However, RA plans showed a reduction in the volume of the lung irradiated at V{sub 20Gy} and V{sub 30Gy} dose levels (range, 4.62-17.98%) compared with IMRT plans. The mean dose and D{sub 35%} of heart for the RA plans were better than the IMRT by 0.5-5.8%. Mean V{sub 10Gy} and integral dose to healthy tissue were almost similar in all techniques. But RA plans resulted in a reduced low-level dose bath (15-20 Gy) in the range of 14-16% compared with IMRT plans. The average MU needed to deliver the prescribed dose by RA technique was reduced by 20-25% compared with IMRT technique. The preliminary study on RA for esophageal cancers showed improvements in sparing OAR and healthy tissue with reduced beam-on time, whereas only double-arc RA offered improved target coverage compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT plans.

Vivekanandan, Nagarajan, E-mail: viveknaren@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India); Sriram, Padmanaban; Syam Kumar, S.A.; Bhuvaneswari, Narayanan; Saranya, Kamalakannan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute, Chennai (India)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Low-Dose-Rate Californium-252 Neutron Intracavitary Afterloading Radiotherapy Combined With Conformal Radiotherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To study the efficacy of low-dose-rate californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy (RT) combined with external pelvic RT for treatment of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The records of 96 patients treated for cervical cancer from 2006 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. For patients with tumors {radiation was performed (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) until the dose reached 20 Gy, and then {sup 252}Cf neutron intracavitary afterloading RT (once/week) was begun, and the frequency of external beam radiation was changed to four times/week. For patients with tumors >4 cm, {sup 252}Cf RT was performed one to two times before whole-pelvis external beam radiation. The tumor-eliminating dose was determined by using the depth limit of 5 mm below the mucosa as the reference point. In all patients, the total dose of the external beam radiation ranged from 46.8 to 50 Gy. For {sup 252}Cf RT, the dose delivered to point A was 6 Gy/fraction, once per week, for a total of seven times, and the total dose was 42 Gy. Results: The mean {+-} SD patient age was 54.7 {+-} 13.7 years. Six patients had disease assessed at stage IB, 13 patients had stage IIA, 49 patients had stage IIB, 3 patients had stage IIIA, 24 patients had stage IIIB, and 1 patient had stage IVA. All patients obtained complete tumor regression (CR). The mean {+-} SD time to CR was 23.5 {+-} 3.4 days. Vaginal bleeding was fully controlled in 80 patients within 1 to 8 days. The mean {+-} SD follow-up period was 27.6 {+-} 12.7 months (range, 6-48 months). Five patients died due to recurrence or metastasis. The 3-year survival and disease-free recurrence rates were 89.6% and 87.5 %, respectively. Nine patients experienced mild radiation proctitis, and 4 patients developed radiocystitis. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate {sup 252}Cf neutron RT combined with external pelvic RT is effective for treating cervical cancer, with a low incidence of complications.

Zhang Min [Department of Oncology, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Xu Hongde [Cancer Center, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Pan Songdan; Lin Shan; Yue Jianhua [Department of Oncology, Armed Police Hospital of Hangzhou, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Liu Jianren, E-mail: liujianren0571@hotmail.com [Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Testicular Doses in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate testicular doses contributed by kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kVCBCT) during image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: An EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate three-dimensional dose distributions from kVCBCT on 3 prostate cancer patients. Absorbed doses to various organs were compared between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments and kVCBCT scans. The impact of CBCT scanning mode, kilovoltage peak energy (kVp), and CBCT field span on dose deposition to testes and other organs was investigated. Results: In comparison with one 10-MV IMRT treatment, a 125-kV half-fan CBCT scan delivered 3.4, 3.8, 4.1, and 5.7 cGy to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, respectively, accounting for 1.7%, 3.2%, 3.2%, and 8.4% of megavoltage photon dose contributions. However, the testes received 2.9 cGy from the same CBCT scan, a threefold increase as compared with 0.7 cGy received during IMRT. With the same kVp, full-fan mode deposited much less dose to organs than half-fan mode, ranging from 9% less for prostate to 69% less for testes, except for rectum, where full-fan mode delivered 34% more dose. As photon beam energy increased from 60 to 125 kV, kVCBCT-contributed doses increased exponentially for all organs, irrespective of scanning mode. Reducing CBCT field span from 30 to 10 cm in the superior-inferior direction cut testicular doses from 5.7 to 0.2 cGy in half-fan mode and from 1.5 to 0.1 cGy in full-fan mode. Conclusions: Compared with IMRT, kVCBCT-contributed doses to the prostate, rectum, bladder, and femoral heads are clinically insignificant, whereas dose to the testes is threefold more. Full-fan CBCT usually deposits much less dose to organs (except for rectum) than half-fan mode in prostate patients. Kilovoltage CBCT-contributed doses increase exponentially with photon beam energy. Reducing CBCT field significantly cuts doses to testes and other organs.

Deng Jun, E-mail: jun.deng@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Chen Zhe; Yu, James B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Peschel, Richard E.; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Bypassing the learning curve in permanent seed implants using state-of-the-art technology  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to demonstrate, based on clinical postplan dose distributions, that technology can be used efficiently to eliminate the learning curve associated with permanent seed implant planning and delivery. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions evaluated 30 days after the implant of the initial 22 consecutive patients treated with permanent seed implants at two institutions were studied. Institution 1 (I1) consisted of a new team, whereas institution 2 (I2) had performed more than 740 preplanned implantations over a 9-year period before the study. Both teams had adopted similar integrated systems based on three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasonography, intraoperative dosimetry, and an automated seed delivery and needle retraction system (FIRST, Nucletron). Procedure time and dose volume histogram parameters such as D90, V100, V150, V200, and others were collected in the operating room and at 30 days postplan. Results: The average target coverage from the intraoperative plan (V100) was 99.4% for I1 and 99.9% for I2. D90, V150, and V200 were 191.4 Gy (196.3 Gy), 75.3% (73.0%), and 37.5% (34.1%) for I1 (I2) respectively. None of these parameters shows a significant difference between institutions. The postplan D90 was 151.2 Gy for I1 and 167.3 Gy for I2, well above the 140 Gy from the Stock et al. analysis, taking into account differences at planning, results in a p value of 0.0676. The procedure time required on average 174.4 min for I1 and 89 min for I2. The time was found to decrease with the increasing number of patients. Conclusion: State-of-the-art technology enables a new brachytherapy team to obtain excellent postplan dose distributions, similar to those achieved by an experienced team with proven long-term clinical results. The cost for bypassing the usual dosimetry learning curve is time, with increasing team experience resulting in shorter treatment times.

Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)]. E-mail: beaulieu@phy.ulaval.ca; Evans, Dee-Ann Radford [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aubin, Sylviane [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Angyalfi, Steven [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Husain, Siraj [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kay, Ian [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Martin, Andre-Guy [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Varfalvy, Nicolas [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Vigneault, Eric [Departement de Radio-oncologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Dunscombe, Peter [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size <40 mm in diameter (assessed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging), and no pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The treatment protocol consisted of whole-pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 20 Gy/10 fractions, pelvic EBRT with midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions, and HDR-ICBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (at point A). The cumulative biologically effective dose (BED) was 62 Gy{sub 10} ({alpha}/{beta} = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6-39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7-72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade {>=}1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%-28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%-8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade {>=}3 cases were observed for genitourinary/gastrointestinal late complications. Conclusions: These results suggest that definitive radiotherapy using HDR-ICBT with a low cumulative dose schedule (BED, 62 Gy{sub 10} at point A) can provide excellent local control without severe toxicity in nonbulky (<4-cm) early-stage cervical cancer.

Toita, Takafumi, E-mail: b983255@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saku Central Hospital, Saku (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Radiology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Radiation Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Norio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Dosimetric Advantage of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Whole Ventricles in the Treatment of Localized Intracranial Germinoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for whole ventricles (WV) in patients with a localized intracranial germinoma receiving induction chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 12 consecutive patients with localized intracranial germinomas who received induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy were used. Four-field coplanar three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and seven-field coplanar IMRT plans were created. In both plans, 24 Gy was prescribed in 12 fractions for the planning target volume (PTV) involving WV and tumor bed. In IMRT planning, optimization was conducted to reduce the doses to the organs at risk (OARs) as much as possible, keeping the minimum dose equivalent to that of 3D-CRT. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared in terms of the dose-volume statistics for target coverage and the OARs. Results: IMRT significantly increased the percentage volume of the PTV receiving 24 Gy compared with 3D-CRT (93.5% vs. 84.8%; p = 0.007), while keeping target homogeneity equivalent to 3D-CRT (p = 0.869). The absolute percentage reduction in the irradiated volume of the normal brain receiving 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% of 24 Gy ranged from 0.7% to 16.0% in IMRT compared with 3D-CRT (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the volume of the normal brain receiving 10% and 5% of 24 Gy between IMRT and 3D-CRT. Conformation number was significantly improved in IMRT (p < 0.001). For other OARs, the mean dose to the cochlea was reduced significantly in IMRT by 22.3% of 24 Gy compared with 3D-CRT (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Compared with 3D-CRT, IMRT for WV improved the target coverage and reduced the irradiated volume of the normal brain in patients with intracranial germinomas receiving induction chemotherapy. IMRT for WV with induction chemotherapy could reduce the late side effects from cranial irradiation without compromising control of the tumor.

Sakanaka, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Mizowaki, Takashi, E-mail: mizo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

Improving intensity-modulated radiation therapy using the anatomic beam orientation optimization algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel, anatomic beam orientation optimization (A-BOO) algorithm is proposed to significantly improve conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The A-BOO algorithm vectorially analyses polygonal surface mesh data of contoured patient anatomy. Five optimal (5-opt) deliverable beam orientations are selected based on (1) tangential orientation bisecting the target and adjacent organ's-at-risk (OARs) to produce precipitous dose gradients between them and (2) parallel incidence with polygon features of the target volume to facilitate conformal coverage. The 5-opt plans were compared to standard five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beam plans (5-equi, 7-equi, 9-equi) for: (1) gastric, (2) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) P-0126 prostate, and (3) RTOG H-0022 oropharyngeal (stage-III, IV) cancer patients. In the gastric case, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan reduced the right kidney V 20 Gy by 32.2%, 23.2%, and 20.6% compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams. In the prostate case, the coplanar 5-opt plan produced similar rectal sparing as the 7-equi and 9-equi plans with a reduction of the V 75, V 70, V 65, and V 60 Gy of 2.4%, 5.3%, 7.0%, and 9.5% compared to the 5-equi plan. In the stage-III and IV oropharyngeal cases, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan substantially reduced the V 30 Gy and mean dose to the contralateral parotid compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams: (stage-III) 7.1%, 5.2%, 6.8%, and 5.1, 3.5, 3.7 Gy and (stage-IV) 10.2%, 10.2%, 9.8% and 7.0, 7.1, 7.2 Gy. The geometry-based A-BOO algorithm has been demonstrated to be robust for application to a variety of IMRT treatment sites. Beam orientations producing significant improvements in OAR sparing over conventional IMRT can be automatically produced in minutes compared to hours with existing dose-based beam orientation optimization methods.

Potrebko, Peter S.; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.; Butler, James B.; El-Gubtan, Adel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0V9 (Canada); Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2N2 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3A 1R9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0V9 (Canada) and Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3A 1R9 (Canada)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

Strom, Daniel J.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

363

Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Survey in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine the current patterns of practice in Japan and to investigate factors that may make clinicians reluctant to use single-fraction radiotherapy (SF-RT). Methods and Materials: Members of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) completed an Internet-based survey and described the radiotherapy dose fractionation they would recommend for four hypothetical cases describing patients with painful bone metastasis (BM). Case 1 described a patient with an uncomplicated painful BM in a non-weight-bearing site from non-small-cell lung cancer. Case 2 investigated whether management for a case of uncomplicated spinal BM would be different from that in Case 1. Case 3 was identical with Case 2 except for the presence of neuropathic pain. Case 4 investigated the prescription for an uncomplicated painful BM secondary to oligometastatic breast cancer. Radiation oncologists who recommended multifraction radiotherapy (MF-RT) for Case 2 were asked to explain why they considered MF-RT superior to SF-RT. Results: A total of 52 radiation oncologists from 50 institutions (36% of JROSG institutions) responded. In all four cases, the most commonly prescribed regimen was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. SF-RT was recommended by 13% of respondents for Case 1, 6% for Case 2, 0% for Case 3, and 2% for Case 4. For Case 4, 29% of respondents prescribed a high-dose MF-RT regimen (e.g., 50 Gy in 25 fractions). The following factors were most often cited as reasons for preferring MF-RT: 'time until first increase in pain' (85%), 'incidence of spinal cord compression' (50%), and 'incidence of pathologic fractures' (29%). Conclusions: Japanese radiation oncologists prefer a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and are less likely to recommend SF-RT. Most Japanese radiation oncologists regard MF-RT as superior to SF-RT, based primarily on the time until first increase in pain.

Nakamura, Naoki, E-mail: naokinak@luke.or.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Hidaka (Japan); Wada, Hitoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Miyagi Cancer Center, Natori (Japan); Harada, Hideyuki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Mishima (Japan); Nozaki, Miwako [Department of Radiology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya (Japan); Nagakura, Hisayasu [Department of Radiology, KKR Sapporo Medical Center, Sapporo (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Kawasaki (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Nobue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo (Japan)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The carcinogenic risks of low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiations  

SciTech Connect

New information is available concerning the carcinogenic effects of radiation and the implications for risk assessment and risk management. This information comes from further follow-up of the epidemiological studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, patients irradiated medically for cancer and allied conditions, and workers exposed in various occupations. In the Japanese atomic bomb survivors the carcinogenic risks are estimated to be somewhat higher than previously, due to the reassessment of the atomic-bomb dosimetry, further follow-up with increase in the number of excess cancer deaths, particularly in survivors irradiated early in life, and changes in the methods of analysis to compute the age-specific risks of cancer. Because of the characteristics of the atomic bomb survivor series as regards sample size, age and sex distribution, duration for follow-up, person-years at risk, and type of dosimetry, the mortality experience of the atomic bomb survivors was selected by the UNSCEAR Committee and the BEIR V Committee as the more appropriate basis for projecting risk estimates for the general population. In the atomic bomb survivors, the dose-effect relationship for overall cancer mortality other than leukemia is consistent with linearity below 3 Gy, while the dose-effect relationship for leukemia, excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia, conforms best to a linear-quadratic function. The shape of the dose-incidence curve at low doses still remains uncertain, and the data do not rule out the possible existence of a threshold for an neoplasm. The excess relative risk of mortality from all cancers combined is estimated to be 1.39 per Gy (shielded kerma), which corresponds to an absolute risk of 10.0 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy; the relative risks is 1.41 at 1 Gy (organ-absorbed dose), and an absolute risk of 13.07 excess cancer deaths per 10,000 PYGy. 19 refs.

Fabrikant, J.I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Patient radiation dose in prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography and retrospectively gated helical technique with a 320-detector row CT scanner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation dose to patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for prospectively gated axial (PGA) technique and retrospectively gated helical (RGH) technique. Methods: Radiation doses were measured for a 320-detector row CT scanner (Toshiba Aquilion ONE) using small sized silicon-photodiode dosimeters, which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within an anthropomorphic phantom for a standard Japanese adult male. Output signals from photodiode dosimeters were read out on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed according to guidelines published in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Results: Organs that received high doses were breast, followed by lung, esophagus, and liver. Breast doses obtained with PGA technique and a phase window width of 16% at a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute were 13 mGy compared to 53 mGy with RGH technique using electrocardiographically dependent dose modulation at the same phase window width as that in PGA technique. Effective doses obtained in this case were 4.7 and 20 mSv for the PGA and RGH techniques, respectively. Conversion factors of dose length product to the effective dose in PGA and RGH were 0.022 and 0.025 mSv mGy{sup -1} cm{sup -1} with a scan length of 140 mm. Conclusions: CTCA performed with PGA technique provided a substantial effective dose reduction, i.e., 70%-76%, compared to RGH technique using the dose modulation at the same phase windows as those in PGA technique. Though radiation doses in CTCA with RGH technique were the same level as, or some higher than, those in conventional coronary angiography (CCA), the use of PGA technique reduced organ and effective doses to levels less than CCA except for breast dose.

Seguchi, Shigenobu; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Fujii, Keisuke; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan) and Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Myouken-chou, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8650 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Section of Radiological Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Thyroid V30 Predicts Radiation-Induced Hypothyroidism in Patients Treated With Sequential Chemo-Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Hypothyroidism (HT) is a frequent late side effect of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) therapy. The purpose of this study is to determine dose-volume constraints that correlate with functional impairment of the thyroid gland in HL patients treated with three-dimensional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 61 consecutive patients undergoing antiblastic chemotherapy and involved field radiation treatment (median dose, 32 Gy; range, 30-36 Gy) for HL were retrospectively considered. Their median age was 28 years (range, 14-70 years). Blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodo-thyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin antibody (ATG) were recorded basally and at different times after the end of therapy. For the thyroid gland, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), dosimetric parameters, and the percentage of thyroid volume exceeding 10, 20, and 30 Gy (V10, V20, and V30) were calculated in all patients. To evaluate clinical and dosimetric factors possibly associated with HT, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Eight of 61 (13.1%) patients had HT before treatment and were excluded from further evaluation. At a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 6-99 months), 41.5% (22/53) of patients developed HT after treatment. Univariate analyses showed that all dosimetric factors were associated with HT (p 62.5%, the risk was 70.8% (p < 0.0001). A Cox regression curve stratified by two levels of V30 value was created (odds ratio, 12.6). Conclusions: The thyroid V30 predicts the risk of developing HT after sequential chemo-radiotherapy and defines a useful constraint to consider for more accurate HL treatment planning.

Cella, Laura [Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research (CNR), Naples (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Conson, Manuel; Caterino, Michele; De Rosa, Nicola [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Liuzzi, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research (CNR), Naples (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Picardi, Marco; Grimaldi, Francesco [Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Solla, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research (CNR), Naples (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Farella, Antonio; Salvatore, Marco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Pacelli, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.pacelli@cnr.it [Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages, National Council of Research (CNR), Naples (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results of the 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK) has been established to prospectively characterize dose-volume effects of radiation in terms of side effects. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the function of the thyroid gland after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck region in children and adolescents. Methods and Materials: Detailed information regarding radiation doses to at-risk organs has been collected across Germany since 2001. Thyroid function was evaluated by blood value examinations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Information regarding thyroid hormone substitution was requested from the treating physicians. Results: Until May 2009, 1,086 patients from 62 centers were recruited, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiotherapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio of 3.072 (p = 0.002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had hazard ratios of 3.768 (p = 0.009) and 5.674 (p gland and/or hypophysis, can frequently be observed after radiotherapy in children. A structured follow-up examination is advised.

Boelling, Tobias, E-mail: Tobias.Boelling@uni-muenster.de [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck (Germany); Geisenheiser, Alina [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Pape, Hildegard [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf (Germany); Martini, Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Homburg/Saar, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Timmermann, Beate [Center for Proton Radiation Therapy, Paul-Scherrer-Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Fischedick, Karin [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Gerss, Joachim; Koch, Raphael [Department of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Center for Clinical Trials, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin With Radiotherapy for Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of concomitant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) using cisplatin (CDDP) with radiotherapy for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 29 cases of Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy and IAIC of CDDP from 1991 to 2006. External-beam therapy was given to the whole pelvis using four opposing parallel fields with an 18-MV linear accelerator unit. A central shield was used after 30-40 Gy with external whole-pelvic irradiation, and the total dose was 50 Gy. High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given with {sup 192}Ir microSelectron. The dose at Point A was 6 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions per week, and the total number of fractions was either 3 or 4. Two or three courses of IAIC were given concomitantly with CDDP 120 mg or carboplatin 300 mg. Results: We confirmed excellent medicine distribution directly by using computed tomographic angiography. The 5-year overall survival rate for Stage III patients was 62%, the cause-specific survival rate was 70%, and the local relapse-free survival rate was 89%. Local recurrence, distant metastasis, and occurrences of both were 7%, 38%, and 3%, respectively. The incidence of severe acute hematologic adverse reactions (Grade {>=}3) was 27% for all patients; however, all recovered without interruption of radiotherapy. Severe nonhematologic effects (Grade {>=}3) were 3%, including nausea and ileus. Only 1 patient's radiotherapy was interrupted for a period of 1 week because of ileus. Severe late complication rates (Grade {>=}3) for the bladder, rectum, and intestine were 3%, 3%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of IAIC and systemic chemotherapy should be considered to improve the prognosis of patients with Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

Kaneyasu, Yuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)], E-mail: kaneyasu@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Nagai, Nobutaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asa Citizen Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Yasutoshi; Yuki, Shintaro; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujiwara, Hisaya; Kudo, Yoshiki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Ito, Katsuhide [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radical External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Japan: Changing Trends in the Patterns of Care Process Survey  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To delineate changing trends in radical external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: Data from 841 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with EBRT in the Japanese Patterns of Care Study (PCS) from 1996 to 2005 were analyzed. Results: Significant increases in the proportions of patients with stage T1 to T2 disease and decrease in prostate-specific antigen values were observed. Also, there were significant increases in the percentages of patients treated with radiotherapy by their own choice. Median radiation doses were 65.0 Gy and 68.4 Gy from 1996 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2001, respectively, increasing to 70 Gy from 2003 to 2005. Moreover, conformal therapy was more frequently used from 2003 to 2005 (84.9%) than from 1996 to 1998 (49.1%) and from 1999 to 2001 (50.2%). On the other hand, the percentage of patients receiving hormone therapy from 2003 to 2005 (81.1%) was almost the same as that from 1996 to 1998 (86.3%) and from 1999 to 2001 (89.7%). Compared with the PCS in the United States, patient characteristics and patterns of treatments from 2003 to 2005 have become more similar to those in the United States than those from 1996 to 1998 and those from 1999 to 2001. Conclusions: This study indicates a trend toward increasing numbers of patients with early-stage disease and increasing proportions of patients treated with higher radiation doses with advanced equipment among Japanese prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT during 1996 to 2005 survey periods. Patterns of care for prostate cancer in Japan are becoming more similar to those in the United States.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Sasaki, Tomonari [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Kyushu Center, Fukuoka (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Araya, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Mukumoto, Nobutaka; Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total of 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.

Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Ishiuchi, Shogo [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Inoue, Osamu [Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Yoshii, Yoshihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Memorial Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Atsushi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, Takashi [Department of Neurosurgery, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Iraha, Shiro [Department of Radiology, Okinawa South Medical Center, Okinawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Ariga, Takuro; Kasuya, Goro; Murayama, Sadayuki [Department of Radiology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Preoperative Chemoradiation With Irinotecan and Capecitabine in Patients With Locally Advanced Resectable Rectal Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Phase II Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer has shown benefit over postoperative CRT; however, a standard CRT regimen has yet to be defined. We performed a prospective concurrent CRT Phase II study with irinotecan and capecitabine in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer to investigate the efficacy and safety of this regimen. Methods and Materials: Patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, and mid-to-lower rectal cancer were enrolled. Radiotherapy was delivered in 1.8-Gy daily fractions for a total of 45 Gy in 25 fractions, followed by a coned-down boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions. Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of 40 mg/m{sup 2} of irinotecan per week for 5 consecutive weeks and 1,650 mg/m{sup 2} of capecitabine per day for 5 days per week (weekdays only) from the first day of radiotherapy. Total mesorectal excision was performed within 6 {+-} 2 weeks. The pathologic responses and survival outcomes were included for the study endpoints. Results: In total, 48 patients were enrolled; 33 (68.7%) were men and 15 (31.3%) were women, and the median age was 59 years (range, 32-72 years). The pathologic complete response rate was 25.0% (11 of 44; 95% confidence interval, 12.2-37.8) and 8 patients (18.2% [8 of 44]) showed near-total tumor regression. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 75.0% and 93.6%, respectively. Grade 3 toxicities included leukopenia (3 [6.3%]), neutropenia (1 [2.1%]), infection (1 [2.1%]), alanine aminotransferase elevation (1 [2.1%]), and diarrhea (1 [2.1%]). There was no Grade 4 toxicity or treatment-related death. Conclusions: Preoperative CRT with irinotecan and capecitabine with treatment-free weekends showed very mild toxicity profiles and promising results in terms of survival.

Hong, Yong Sang [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyo Seong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun Yong; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chang, Hee Jin [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Gahb [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae, E-mail: khjung@amc.seoul.k [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Incorporating Heterogeneity Correction and 4DCT in Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): The Effect on Target Coverage, Organ-At-Risk Doses, and Dose Conformity  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the dosimetric impact of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) target volumes and heterogeneity correction (HC) on target coverage, organ-at-risk (OAR) doses, and dose conformity in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Twelve patients with lung cancer, scanned using both helical CT and 4DCT, were treated with SBRT (60 Gy in 3 fractions). The clinical plans were calculated without HC and based on targets from the free-breathing helical CT scan (PTV{sub HEL}). Retrospectively, the clinical plans were recalculated with HC and were evaluated based on targets from 4DCT datasets (PTV{sub 4D}) accounting for patient-specific target motion. The PTV{sub 4D} was greater than PTV{sub HEL} when tumor motion exceeded 7.5 mm (vector). There were significant decreases in target coverage (V100) for the recalculated vs. clinical plans (0.84 vs. 0.94, p < 0.02) for the same monitor units. When the recalculated plans were optimized for equivalent V100 of the clinical plans, there were significant increases in the 60-Gy dose spillage (1.27 vs. 1.13, p < 0.001) and 30-Gy dose spillage (5.20 vs. 3.73, p < 0.001) vs. the clinical plans. There was a significant increase (p < 0.04) in the mean OAR doses between the optimized re-calculated and the clinical plan. Tumor motion is an important consideration for target volumes defined using helical CT. Lower prescription doses may be required when prospectively planning with HC to achieve a similar level of toxicity and dose spillage as expected when planning based on homogeneous dose calculations.

Franks, Kevin N. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: Tom.Purdie@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Dawson, Laura A.; Bezjak, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Voxel-Based Dose Reconstruction for Total Body Irradiation With Helical TomoTherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We have developed a megavoltage CT (MVCT)-based dose reconstruction strategy for total body irradiation (TBI) with helical TomoTherapy (HT) using a deformable registration model to account for the patient's interfraction changes. The proposed technique serves as an efficient tool for delivered dose verification and, potentially, plan adaptation. Methods and Materials: Four patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with TBI using HT were selected for this study. The prescription was 12 Gy, 2 Gy/fraction, twice per day, given at least 6 h apart. The original plan achieved coverage of 80% of the clinical target volume (CTV) by the 12 Gy isodose surface. MVCTs were acquired prior to each treatment. Regions of interest were contoured on each MVCT. The dose for each fraction was calculated based on the MVCT using the HT planned adaptive station. B-spline deformable registration was conducted to establish voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the MVCT and the planning CT. The resultant deformation vector was employed to map the reconstructed dose from each fraction to the same point as the plan dose, and a voxel-to-voxel summed dose from all six fractions was obtained. The reconstructed dose distribution and its dosimetric parameters were compared with those of the original treatment plan. Results: While changes in CTV contours occurred in all patients, the reconstructed dose distribution showed that the dose-volume histogram for CTV coverage was close (<1.5%) to that of the original plan. For sensitive structures, the differences between the reconstructed and the planned doses were less than 3.0%. Conclusion: Voxel-based dose reconstruction strategy that takes into account interfraction anatomical changes using MVCTs is a powerful tool for treatment verification of the delivered doses. This proposed technique can also be applied to adaptive TBI therapy using HT.

Chao Ming, E-mail: mchao@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199 (United States); Penagaricano, Jose; Yan Yulong; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-7199 (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Quantification of Contralateral Breast Dose and Risk Estimate of Radiation-Induced Contralateral Breast Cancer Among Young Women Using Tangential Fields and Different Modes of Breathing  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Whole breast irradiation with deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique among left-sided breast cancer patients significantly reduces cardiac irradiation; however, a potential disadvantage is increased incidental irradiation of the contralateral breast. Methods and Materials: Contralateral breast dose (CBD) was calculated by comparing 400 treatment plans of 200 left-sided breast cancer patients whose tangential fields had been planned on gated and nongated CT data sets. Various anatomic and field parameters were analyzed for their impact on CBD. For a subgroup of patients (aged {<=}45 years) second cancer risk in the contralateral breast (CB) was modeled by applying the linear quadratic model, compound models, and compound models considering dose-volume information (DVH). Results: The mean CBD was significantly higher in DIBH with 0.69 Gy compared with 0.65 Gy in normal breathing (P=.01). The greatest impact on CBD was due to a shift of the inner field margin toward the CB in DIBH (mean 0.4 cm; range, 0-2), followed by field size in magnitude. Calculation with different risk models for CBC revealed values of excess relative risk/Gy ranging from 0.48-0.65 vs 0.46-0.61 for DIBH vs normal breathing, respectively. Conclusion: Contralateral breast dose, although within a low dose range, was mildly but significantly increased in 200 treatment plans generated under gated conditions, predominately due to a shift in the medial field margin. Risk modeling for CBC among women aged {<=}45 years also pointed to a higher risk when comparing DIBH with normal breathing. This risk, however, was substantially lower in the model considering DVH information. We think that clinical decisions should not be affected by this small increase in CBD with DIBH because DIBH is effective in reducing the dose to the heart in all patients.

Zurl, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.zurl@klinikum-graz.at [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Stranzl, Heidi; Winkler, Peter; Kapp, Karin Sigrid [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz (Austria)] [Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz (Austria)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung