Sample records for lensless x-ray imaging

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless ImagingLensless X-Ray

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless ImagingLenslessLensless

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless ImagingLensless

  5. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  6. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field...

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLendingX-Ray Imaging in

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLendingX-Ray Imaging

  10. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells with Soft X-Rays Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction...

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless

  12. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast...

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLendingX-Ray

  14. Lensless imaging of nanoporous glass with soft X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Joshua J.; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Jacobsen, Chris

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent soft X-ray diffraction has been used to image nanoporous glass structure in two dimensions using different methods. The merit of the reconstructions was judged using a new method of Fourier phase correlation with a final, refined image. The porous structure was found to have a much larger average size then previously believed.

  15. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  16. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4Lensless Imaging

  17. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4 J.Lensless

  18. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4Lensless

  19. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending aLensless Imaging

  20. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro-Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4 J. Lüning, W.

  1. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4 J. Lüning,

  2. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4 J.

  3. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4

  4. Lensless imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless4 Lensless Imaging of

  5. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending aLenslessLensless

  6. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending aLensless

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of MagneticLensless

  8. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of Magnetic

  9. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of

  10. Lensless MAD Imaging of Nonperiodic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearningLensless Imaging of4LenslessLensless

  11. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearning from1-1AdministrationLensless

  12. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this technique has been especially popular in imaging such complex structures as aerogels and yeast cells. When applying the CDI technique to a magnetic system, the same...

  13. Lensless imaging for point-of-care testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, SangJun

    We show a platform that merges a microfluidic chip with lensless imaging for CD4[superscript +] T-lymphocyte counting at resource-limited settings. To capture CD4[superscript +] T lymphocytes, anti-CD4[superscript +] ...

  14. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending a HandImaging of

  15. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending a HandImaging

  16. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  17. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  18. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  19. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  20. Coded Aperture Imaging for Fluorescent X-rays-Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haboub, Abdel; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Parkinson, Dilworth

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing a coded aperture pattern in front of a charge couple device pixilated detector (CCD) allows for imaging of fluorescent x-rays (6-25KeV) being emitted from samples irradiated with x-rays. Coded apertures encode the angular direction of x-rays and allow for a large Numerical Aperture x- ray imaging system. The algorithm to develop the self-supported coded aperture pattern of the Non Two Holes Touching (NTHT) pattern was developed. The algorithms to reconstruct the x-ray image from the encoded pattern recorded were developed by means of modeling and confirmed by experiments. Samples were irradiated by monochromatic synchrotron x-ray radiation, and fluorescent x-rays from several different test metal samples were imaged through the newly developed coded aperture imaging system. By choice of the exciting energy the different metals were speciated.

  1. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  2. Lensless Fourier-Transform Ghost Imaging with Classical Incoherent Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minghui Zhang; Qing Wei; Xia Shen; Yongfeng Liu; Honglin Liu; Jing Cheng; Shensheng Han

    2006-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourier-Transform ghost imaging of both amplitude-only and pure-phase objects was experimentally observed with classical incoherent light at Fresnel distance by a new lensless scheme. The experimental results are in good agreement with the standard Fourier-transform of the corresponding objects. This scheme provides a new route towards aberration-free diffraction-limited 3D images with classically incoherent thermal light, which have no resolution and depth-of-field limitations of lens-based tomographic systems.

  3. Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J.

    2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

  4. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L. (Princeton, NJ); Fraenkel, Ben (Jerusalem, IL); Gorman, James L. (Bordentown, NJ); Hill, Kenneth W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Roquemore, A. Lane (Cranbury, NJ); Stodiek, Wolfgang (Princeton, NJ); von Goeler, Schweickhard E. (Princeton, NJ)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  5. Imaging Quantum States with X-ray Compton Scattering | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Quantum States with X-ray Compton Scattering Wednesday, April 8, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Yoshiharu Sakurai (Japan Synchrotron...

  6. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Thibault, P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Elser, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Neiman, A. M. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  7. Biological Imaging by Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro,D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; et al.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  8. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  9. Segmentation of x-ray images using Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thai, T.Q.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Segmentation is a process of separating objects of interest from their background or from other objects in an image. Without a suitable segmentation scheme, it is very difficult to detect contraband in X-rays images. In this paper, a Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling (PRL) segmentation scheme is presented and compared with other segmentation methods. PRL segmentation is an interative algorithm that labels each pixel in an image by cooperative use of two information sources: the pixel probability and the degree of certainty of its probability supported by the neighboring pixels. The practical implementation and results of the PRL segmentation on X-ray baggage images are also discussed and compared with other segmentation methods. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  11. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  12. Dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E. [Aprend Technology, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States)] [Aprend Technology, Mountain View, California 94043 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop and test a method to quantify the effect of dimensionality on the noise in energy selective x-ray imaging.Methods: The Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a universal lower limit of the covariance of any unbiased estimator, is used to quantify the noise. It is shown that increasing dimensionality always increases, or at best leaves the same, the variance. An analytic formula for the increase in variance in an energy selective x-ray system is derived. The formula is used to gain insight into the dependence of the increase in variance on the properties of the additional basis functions, the measurement noise covariance, and the source spectrum. The formula is also used with computer simulations to quantify the dependence of the additional variance on these factors. Simulated images of an object with three materials are used to demonstrate the trade-off of increased information with dimensionality and noise. The images are computed from energy selective data with a maximum likelihood estimator.Results: The increase in variance depends most importantly on the dimension and on the properties of the additional basis functions. With the attenuation coefficients of cortical bone, soft tissue, and adipose tissue as the basis functions, the increase in variance of the bone component from two to three dimensions is 1.4 × 10{sup 3}. With the soft tissue component, it is 2.7 × 10{sup 4}. If the attenuation coefficient of a high atomic number contrast agent is used as the third basis function, there is only a slight increase in the variance from two to three basis functions, 1.03 and 7.4 for the bone and soft tissue components, respectively. The changes in spectrum shape with beam hardening also have a substantial effect. They increase the variance by a factor of approximately 200 for the bone component and 220 for the soft tissue component as the soft tissue object thickness increases from 1 to 30 cm. Decreasing the energy resolution of the detectors increases the variance of the bone component markedly with three dimension processing, approximately a factor of 25 as the resolution decreases from 100 to 3 bins. The increase with two dimension processing for adipose tissue is a factor of two and with the contrast agent as the third material for two or three dimensions is also a factor of two for both components. The simulated images show that a maximum likelihood estimator can be used to process energy selective x-ray data to produce images with noise close to the CRLB.Conclusions: The method presented can be used to compute the effects of the object attenuation coefficients and the x-ray system properties on the relationship of dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging systems.

  13. Imaging Nonequilibrium Atomic Vibrations with X-ray Diffuse Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Vishwanath, V.H.; /SLAC; Sheu, Y.M.; /Michigan U.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.; /U. Chicago; Reis, D; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; ,

    2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We use picosecond x-ray diffuse scattering to image the nonequilibrium vibrations of the lattice following ultrafast laser excitation. We present images of nonequilibrium phonons in InP and InSb throughout the Brillouin-zone which remain out of equilibrium up to nanoseconds. The results are analyzed using a Born model that helps identify the phonon branches contributing to the observed features in the time-resolved diffuse scattering. In InP this analysis shows a delayed increase in the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon population along high-symmetry directions accompanied by a decrease in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. In InSb the increase in TA phonon population is less directional.

  14. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  15. An X-ray Imaging Study of the Stellar Population in RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; E. D. Feigelson; L. K. Townsley; P. S. Broos; K. V. Getman; J. Wang; G. P. Garmire; D. Baba; T. Nagayama; M. Tamura; E. B. Churchwell

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of the stellar population in the Galactic massive star-forming region RCW49 and its central OB association Westerlund 2. We obtained a 40 ks X-ray image of a 17'x17' field using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and deep NIR images using the Infrared Survey Facility in a concentric 8'3x8'3 region. We detected 468 X-ray sources and identified optical, NIR, and Spitzer Space Telescope MIR counterparts for 379 of them. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of the X-ray image, enhanced by optical and infrared imaging data, yielded the following results: (1) The central OB association Westerlund 2 is resolved for the first time in the X-ray band. X-ray emission is detected from all spectroscopically-identified early-type stars in this region. (2) Most (86%) X-ray sources with optical or infrared identifications are cluster members in comparison with a control field in the Galactic Plane. (3) A loose constraint (2--5 kpc) for the distance to RCW49 is derived from the mean X-ray luminosity of T Tauri stars. (4) The cluster X-ray population consists of low-mass pre--main-sequence and early-type stars as obtained from X-ray and NIR photometry. About 30 new OB star candidates are identified. (5) We estimate a cluster radius of 6'--7' based on the X-ray surface number density profiles. (6) A large fraction (90%) of cluster members are identified individually using complimentary X-ray and MIR excess emission. (7) The brightest five X-ray sources, two Wolf-Rayet stars and three O stars, have hard thermal spectra.

  16. Hard X-ray Microscopic Images of the Human Hair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goo, Jawoong; Jeon, Soo Young; Oh, Tak Heon; Hong, Seung Phil; Lee, Won-Soo [Department of Dermatology and Institute of Hair and Cosmetic Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Yon, Hwa Shik [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The better visualization of the human organs or internal structure is challenging to the physicist and physicians. It can lead to more understanding of the morphology, pathophysiology and the diagnosis. Conventionally used methods to investigate cells or architectures, show limited value due to sample processing procedures and lower resolution. In this respect, Zernike type phase contrast hard x-ray microscopy using 6.95keV photon energy has advantages. We investigated hair fibers of the normal healthy persons. Coherence based phase contrast images revealed three distinct structures of hair, medulla, cortex, and cuticular layer. Some different detailed characters of each sample were noted. And further details would be shown and these results would be utilized as basic data of morphologic study of human hair.

  17. Automatic Extraction of Femur Contours from Hip X-ray Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    for large and complex bones in x-ray images. For instance, in a femur x-ray image (Fig. 1), the femoral head interior within solid bony walls (Fig. 1a). Moreover, the femoral head overlaps with the pelvis bone. In this case, the extraction of bone contours becomes a more complex problem than classical image segmentation

  18. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending

  19. SIMULATION OF ENERGY SELECTIVE X-RAY IMAGES FOR MATERIAL DIS-CRIMINATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    SIMULATION OF ENERGY SELECTIVE X-RAY IMAGES FOR MATERIAL DIS- CRIMINATION Rune S Thing1 , Syen J Carlo model is presented to evaluate the clinical benefits of optimal energy bins in spectral X-ray imaging, using the BEAMnrc code system. While energy resolving photon counting detectors have been

  20. In-orbit performance of the XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes: images and spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach

    2001-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of the three X-ray telescopes on-board of XMM-Newton is evaluated addressing imaging characteristics and effective collecting area. The agreement with ground calibration data is excellent. The analysis of images and spectra of cosmic X-ray sources, emphazising supernova and supernova remnants, prooves that the telescopes are even better than originally required.

  1. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  2. ZnTe:O phosphor development for x-ray imaging applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Z.T.; Summers, C.J.; Menkara, H.; Wagner, B.K.; Durst, R.; Diawara, Y.; Mednikova, G.; Thorson, T. [Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0826 (United States); Bruker AXS 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison Wisconson 53711 (United States)

    2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient ZnTe:O x-ray powder phosphor was prepared by a dry synthesis process using gaseous doping and etching medias. The x-ray luminescent properties were evaluated and compared to standard commercial phosphors exhibited an x-ray luminescent efficiency equivalent to 76% of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb and an equal resolution of 2.5 lines/mm. In addition, the fast decay time, low afterglow, and superior spectral match to conventional charge-coupled devices-indicate that ZnTe:O is a very promising phosphor candidate for x-ray imaging applications.

  3. X-ray Image Bank Open for Business - NERSC Center News, Feb 22, 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-RayX-rayX-ray Image

  4. Imaging Performance of the XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach; U. Briel; F. Haberl; H. Braeuninger; W. Burkert; A. Oppitz; P. Gondoin; D. Lumb

    2000-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-orbit imaging performance of the three X-ray telescopes on board of the X-ray astronomy observatory XMM-Newton is presented and compared with the performance measured on ground at the MPE PANTER test facility. The comparison shows an excellent agreement between the on ground and in-orbit performance.

  5. Tamper to delay motion and decrease ionization of a sample during short pulse x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Szoke; Abraham (Fremont, CA), Hau-Riege; Stefan P. (Fremont, CA), Chapman; Henry N. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for x-ray imaging of a small sample comprising positioning a tamper so that it is operatively connected to the sample, directing short intense x-ray pulses onto the tamper and the sample, and detecting an image from the sample. The tamper delays the explosive motion of the sample during irradiation by the short intense x-ray pulses, thereby extending the time to obtain an x-ray image of the original structure of the sample.

  6. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Magnetic thin-film nanostructures can exhibit a magnetic vortex state in which the magnetization vectors lie in...

  7. A Combinational Approach to the Fusion, De-noising and Enhancement of Dual-Energy X-Ray Luggage Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    dual-energy X-ray images for better object classification and threat detection. The fusion stepA Combinational Approach to the Fusion, De-noising and Enhancement of Dual-Energy X-Ray Luggage-based noise reduction technique which is very efficient in removing background noise from fused X-ray images

  8. X-ray tomographic image magnification process, system and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinney, J.H.; Bonse, U.K.; Johnson, Q.C.; Nichols, M.C.; Saroyan, R.A.; Massey, W.N.; Nusshardt, R.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A computerized three-dimensional x-ray tomographic microscopy system is disclosed, comprising: (a) source means for providing a source of parallel x-ray beams, (b) staging means for staging and sequentially rotating a sample to be positioned in the path of the (c) x-ray image magnifier means positioned in the path of the beams downstream from the sample, (d) detecting means for detecting the beams after being passed through and magnified by the image magnifier means, and (e) computing means for analyzing values received from the detecting means, and converting the values into three-dimensional representations. Also disclosed is a process for magnifying an x-ray image, and apparatus therefor. 25 figures.

  9. X-ray tomographic image magnification process, system and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinney, John H. (Danville, CA); Bonse, Ulrich K. (Dortmund, DE); Johnson, Quintin C. (Livermore, CA); Nichols, Monte C. (Livermore, CA); Saroyan, Ralph A. (Livermore, CA); Massey, Warren N. (Livermore, CA); Nusshardt, Rudolph (Waltrop, DE)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computerized three-dimensional x-ray tomographic microscopy system is disclosed, comprising: a) source means for providing a source of parallel x-ray beams, b) staging means for staging and sequentially rotating a sample to be positioned in the path of the c) x-ray image magnifier means positioned in the path of the beams downstream from the sample, d) detecting means for detecting the beams after being passed through and magnified by the image magnifier means, and e) computing means for analyzing values received from the detecting means, and converting the values into three-dimensional representations. Also disclosed is a process for magnifying an x-ray image, and apparatus therefor.

  10. Note: Dynamic strain field mapping with synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, L. [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Bie, B. X. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Ran, X. X.; Qi, M. L., E-mail: qiml@whut.edu.cn [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Parab, N.; Sun, J. Z.; Liao, H. J.; Hudspeth, M. C.; Claus, B. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Fezzaa, K.; Sun, T. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, W. [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Material Science Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gong, X. L., E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a dynamic strain field mapping method based on synchrotron X-ray digital image correlation (XDIC). Synchrotron X-ray sources are advantageous for imaging with exceptional spatial and temporal resolutions, and X-ray speckles can be produced either from surface roughness or internal inhomogeneities. Combining speckled X-ray imaging with DIC allows one to map strain fields with high resolutions. Based on experiments on void growth in Al and deformation of a granular material during Kolsky bar/gas gun loading at the Advanced Photon Source beamline 32ID, we demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic XDIC. XDIC is particularly useful for dynamic, in-volume, measurements on opaque materials under high strain-rate, large, deformation.

  11. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosendz, O.; Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L{sub 3} absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu. Although electrical transport measurements in a non-local geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x-rays at the Co and Cu L{sub 3} absorption edges.

  12. Imaging of lateral spin valves with soft x-ray microscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosendz, O.; Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.; LBNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated Co/Cu lateral spin valves by means of high-resolution transmission soft x-ray microscopy with magnetic contrast that utilizes x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). No magnetic XMCD contrast was observed at the Cu L{sub 3} absorption edge, which should directly image the spin accumulation in Cu, although electrical transport measurements in a nonlocal geometry clearly detected the spin accumulation in Cu, which remained unchanged during illumination with circular polarized x rays at the Co and Cu L{sub 3} absorption edges.

  13. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-Ray Imaging ofX-Ray

  14. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gales, S.G.; Bentley, C.D. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu{sup 2+} has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 10{sup 3} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}] and high fluxes [greater than 10{sup 4} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 {mu}m. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  15. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, J., E-mail: jlu@pppl.gov [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Caughey, T. A.; Brunner, J. [Inrad Optics, 181 Legrand Avenue, Northvale, New Jersey 07647 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the radii of curvature of the two crystals of this imaging scheme are matched to eliminate the astigmatism and to satisfy the Bragg condition across both crystal surfaces for a given x-ray energy. In this paper, we consider more general configurations of this imaging scheme, which allow us to vary the magnification for a given pair of crystals and x-ray energy. The stigmatic imaging scheme has been validated for the first time by imaging x-rays generated by a micro-focus x-ray source with source size of 8.4 ?m validated by knife-edge measurements. Results are presented from imaging the tungsten L?1 emission at 8.3976 keV, using a convex Si-422 crystal and a concave Si-533 crystal with 2d-spacings of 2.21707 Å and 1.65635 Å and radii of curvature of 500 ± 1 mm and 823 ± 1 mm, respectively, showing a spatial resolution of 54.9 ?m. This imaging scheme is expected to be of interest for the two-dimensional imaging of laser produced plasmas.

  16. The Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Mengning; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Hayes, Matt; Milathianaki, Despina; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument specializes in hard X-ray, in-vacuum, high power density experiments in all areas of science. Two main sample chambers, one containing a 100 nm focus and one a 1 µm focus, are available, each with multiple diagnostics, sample injection, pump–probe and detector capabilities. The flexibility of CXI has enabled it to host a diverse range of experiments, from biological to extreme matter.

  17. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ?2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ?10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (?100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ?64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  18. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hantke, Max, F.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  19. High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hantke, Max, F.

    Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.

  20. X-ray photon-in/photon-out methods for chemical imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Matthew A.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Most interesting materials in nature are heterogeneous, so it is useful to have analytical techniques with spatial resolution sufficient to resolve these heterogeneities.This article presents the basics of X-ray photon-in/photon-out chemical imaging. This family of methods allows one to derive images reflectingthe chemical state of a given element in a complex sample, at micron or deep sub-micron scale. X-ray chemical imaging is relatively non-destructiveand element-selective, and requires minimal sample preparation. The article presents the basic concepts and some considerations of data takingand data analysis, along with some examples.

  1. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.

  2. Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.

    These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.

  3. PERTURBATION-BASED ERROR ANALYSIS OF ITERATIVE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM FOR X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    -ray computed tomography. The effects of the quantization error in forward-projection, back computed tomography (CT) have been proposed to improve image quality and reduce dose [1]. These methodsPERTURBATION-BASED ERROR ANALYSIS OF ITERATIVE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION ALGORITHM FOR X-RAY COMPUTED

  4. Optimization of X-ray Radiographic Imaging Birsen Yazici, Il-Young Son, An Jin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    while minimizing the patient dose. Digital phantoms are generated using the virtual photographic Synopsis This chapter presents x-ray image quality optimization techniques using digital phantom images quality analysis. Absorbed doses in organs and tissues of the segmented VIP-Man phantom are obtained from

  5. To the Graduate Council: I am submitting herewith a thesis written by Yue Zheng entitled "X-Ray Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    -ray imaging for airport luggage inspection and the characteristics of single-energy and dual-energy x-ray data single energy and dual energy x-ray images, are then presented in four categories: (1) gray based color-coding approaches and dual-energy image fusion algorithms --spatial information- based

  6. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu; Gamboa, E. J. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Streit, J. [Schafer Corporation, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-? x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  7. Performance of CID camera X-ray imagers at NIF in a harsh neutron environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, N. E. [LLNL; Schneider, M. B. [LLNL; Bell, P. M. [LLNL; Piston, K. W. [LLNL; Moody, J. D. [LLNL; James, D. L. [LLNL; Ness, R. A. [LLNL; Haugh, M. J. [NSTec; Lee, J. J. [NSTec; Romano, E. D. [NSTec

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charge-injection devices (CIDs) are solid-state 2D imaging sensors similar to CCDs, but their distinct architecture makes CIDs more resistant to ionizing radiation.1–3 CID cameras have been used extensively for X-ray imaging at the OMEGA Laser Facility4,5 with neutron fluences at the sensor approaching 109 n/cm2 (DT, 14 MeV). A CID Camera X-ray Imager (CCXI) system has been designed and implemented at NIF that can be used as a rad-hard electronic-readout alternative for time-integrated X-ray imaging. This paper describes the design and implementation of the system, calibration of the sensor for X-rays in the 3 – 14 keV energy range, and preliminary data acquired on NIF shots over a range of neutron yields. The upper limit of neutron fluence at which CCXI can acquire useable images is ~ 108 n/cm2 and there are noise problems that need further improvement, but the sensor has proven to be very robust in surviving high yield shots (~ 1014 DT neutrons) with minimal damage.

  8. Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Impurity and Edge Research Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati 00044 (Italy); Kim, Junghee [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Major of Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Science Department, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 2–40 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

  9. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    This entry contains ten diffraction patterns, and reconstructions images, of individual living Cyanobium gracile cells, imaged using 517 eV X-rays from the LCLS XFEL. The Hawk software package was used for phasing. The Uppsala aerosol injector was used for sample injection, assuring very low noise levels. The cells come from various stages of the cell cycle, and were imaged in random orientations.

  10. Wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Jin, W.; Huang, D. W.; Ding, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Zhuang, G. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The wavelength calibration of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer is a key issue for the measurements of plasma rotation. For the lack of available standard radiation source near 3.95 Å and there is no other diagnostics to measure the core rotation for inter-calibration, an indirect method by using tokamak plasma itself has been applied on joint Texas experimental tokamak. It is found that the core toroidal rotation velocity is not zero during locked mode phase. This is consistent with the observation of small oscillations on soft x-ray signals and electron cyclotron emission during locked-mode phase.

  11. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-Ray Imaging of the

  12. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-Ray Imaging of

  13. 3D Reconstruction of the Femoral Bone using two X-ray Images from Orthogonal Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D Reconstruction of the Femoral Bone using two X-ray Images from Orthogonal Views B. Nikkhahe of the femur and 97 % of the model femur shaft less than 2 mm from the CT scan. Also the femoral head visualization of the femur including the femoral collumn and condyles is important for the clinician in a number

  14. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  15. An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holler, M.; Raabe, J.; Diaz, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Quitmann, C.; Menzel, A.; Bunk, O. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an instrument dedicated to 3D scanning x-ray microscopy, allowing a sample to be precisely scanned through a beam while the angle of x-ray incidence can be changed. The position of the sample is controlled with respect to the beam-defining optics by laser interferometry. The instrument achieves a position stability better than 10 nm standard deviation. The instrument performance is assessed using scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy and we demonstrate a resolution of 18 nm in 2D imaging of a lithographic test pattern while the beam was defined by a pinhole of 3 {mu}m in diameter. In 3D on a test object of copper interconnects of a microprocessor, a resolution of 53 nm is achieved.

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy by full-field X-ray microscopy of a thin graphite flake: Imaging and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    .bittencourt@ua.ac.be * Corresponding author Keywords: carbon; graphene; nanostructure; NEXAFS; X-ray microscopy Beilstein J structure of graphite flakes consisting of a few graphene layers. The flake was produced by exfoli- ation of the remarkable transport properties of graphene in 2004 by Geim and Novoselov triggered intense interest in its

  17. Performance of a static-anode/flat-panel x-ray fluoroscopy system in a diagnostic strength magnetic field: A truly hybrid x-ray/MR imaging system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahrig, R.; Wen, Z.; Ganguly, A.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J.A.; Stevens, G.M.; Saunders, R.F.; Pelc, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sunnybrook and Women's Health Sciences Center and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); GE Healthcare, Schenectady, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasing in variety and frequency, facilitated by advances in imaging technology. Our hybrid imaging system (GE Apollo{sup TM} flat panel, custom Brand x-ray static anode x-ray tube, GE Lunar high-frequency power supply and 0.5 T Signa SP{sup TM}) provides both x-ray and MR imaging capability to guide complex procedures without requiring motion of the patient between two distant gantries. The performance of the x-ray tube in this closely integrated system was evaluated by modeling and measuring both the response of the filament to an externally applied field and the behavior of the electron beam for field strengths and geometries of interest. The performance of the detector was assessed by measuring the slanted-edge modulation transfer function (MTF) and when placed at zero field and at 0.5 T. Measured resonant frequencies of filaments can be approximated using a modified vibrating beam model, and were at frequencies well below the 25 kHz frequency of our generator for our filament geometry. The amplitude of vibration was not sufficient to cause shorting of the filament during operation within the magnetic field. A simple model of electrons in uniform electric and magnetic fields can be used to estimate the deflection of the electron beam on the anode for the fields of interest between 0.2 and 0.5 T. The MTF measured at the detector and the DQE showed no significant difference inside and outside of the magnetic field. With the proper modifications, an x-ray system can be fully integrated with a MR system, with minimal loss of image quality. Any x-ray tube can be assessed for compatibility when placed at a particular location within the field using the models. We have also concluded that a-Si electronics are robust against magnetic fields. Detailed knowledge of the x-ray system installation is required to provide estimates of system operation.

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreasHelp Table ofBiological Imaging

  19. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreasHelp TableBiological Imaging by

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreasHelp TableBiological Imaging

  1. Method for characterizing mask defects using image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hau-Riege, Stefan Peter (Fremont, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention applies techniques for image reconstruction from X-ray diffraction patterns on the three-dimensional imaging of defects in EUVL multilayer films. The reconstructed image gives information about the out-of-plane position and the diffraction strength of the defect. The positional information can be used to select the correct defect repair technique. This invention enables the fabrication of defect-free (since repaired) X-ray Mo--Si multilayer mirrors. Repairing Mo--Si multilayer-film defects on mask blanks is a key for the commercial success of EUVL. It is known that particles are added to the Mo--Si multilayer film during the fabrication process. There is a large effort to reduce this contamination, but results are not sufficient, and defects continue to be a major mask yield limiter. All suggested repair strategies need to know the out-of-plane position of the defects in the multilayer.

  2. Diffraction imaging for in-situ characterization of double-crystal x-ray monochromators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Heald, Steve M; Brewe, Dale; Meron, Mati

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging of the Bragg reflected x-ray beam is proposed and validated as an in-situ method for characterization of performance of double-crystal monochromators under the heat load of intense synchrotron radiation. A sequence of images is collected at different angular positions on the reflectivity curve of the second crystal and analyzed. The method provides rapid evaluation of the wavefront of the exit beam, which relates to local misorientation of the crystal planes along the beam footprint on the thermally distorted first crystal. The measured misorientation can be directly compared to results of finite element analysis. The imaging method offers an additional insight on the local intrinsic crystal quality over the footprint of the incident x-ray beam.

  3. A concept to collect neutron and x-ray images on the same line of sight at NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, F. E., E-mail: fmerrill@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Grim, G. P.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Pak, A.; Park, H.-S. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron and x-ray images are collected at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the size and shape of inertial confinement fusion implosions. The x-ray images provide a measure of the size and shape of the hot region of the deuterium-tritium fuel while the neutron images provide a measure of the size and shape of the burning plasma. Although these two types of images are collected simultaneously, they are not collected along the same line of sight (LOS). One 14 MeV neutron image is collected on the NIF equator, and two x-ray images are collected along the polar axis and nearly perpendicular to the neutron imaging line of sight on the equator. Both measurements use pinhole apertures to form the images, but existing x-ray imaging provides time-resolved measurements while the neutron images are time-integrated. Detailed comparisons of the x-ray and neutron images can provide information on the fuel assembly, but these studies have been limited because the implosions are not azimuthally symmetric and the images are collected along different LOS. We have developed a conceptual design of a time-integrated x-ray imaging system that could be added to the existing neutron imaging LOS. This new system would allow these detailed studies, providing important information on the fuel assembly of future implosions. Here we present this conceptual design and the expected performance characteristics.

  4. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten K?{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  5. Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.

    1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.

  6. 2D and 3D Refraction Based X-ray Imaging Suitable for Clinical and Pathological Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Masami [Institute of Science and Technology, Tokyo Univ. of Science, Yamasaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dept. of Photo-Science, GUAS, Shonan, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Bando, Hiroko; Ueno, Ei [Dept. of Breast-Thyroid-Endocrine Surgery, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] (and others)

    2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first observation of micro papillary (MP) breast cancer by x-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) and the first observation of the 3D x-ray internal structure of another breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS), are reported. The specimen size for the sheet-shaped MP was 26 mm x 22 mm x 2.8 mm, and that for the rod-shaped DCIS was 3.6 mm in diameter and 4.7 mm in height. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory, KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. We achieved a high-contrast x-ray image by adopting a thickness-controlled transmission-type angular analyzer that allows only refraction components from the object for 2D imaging. This provides a high-contrast image of cancer-cell nests, cancer cells and stroma. For x-ray 3D imaging, a new algorithm due to the refraction for x-ray CT was created. The angular information was acquired by x-ray optics diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). The number of data was 900 for each reconstruction. A reconstructed CT image may include ductus lactiferi, micro calcification and the breast gland. This modality has the possibility to open up a new clinical and pathological diagnosis using x-ray, offering more precise inspection and detection of early signs of breast cancer.

  7. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Biedermann, C; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L F; Graf, A; Gu, M F; Hill, K W; Barnsley, R

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The parameters of the ITER core plasmas will be measured using the Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (CIXS), a high-resolution crystal spectrometer focusing on the L-shell spectra of highly ionized tungsten atoms. In order to correctly infer the plasma properties accurate atomic data are required. Here, some aspects of the underlying physics are discussed using experimental data and theoretical predictions from modeling.

  8. Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damilakis, John; Adams, Judith E.; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nonradiologists in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometrymorphometry studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.dose measurements in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  9. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics along with novel methodology has made it possible to...

  10. Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

  11. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, A., E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir; Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S. [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 ?m, respectively.

  12. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  13. Beam hardening effects in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabior, Michael; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Bunk, Oliver; Schuster, Manfred; Schroer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz [Siemens AG Corporate Technology, 80200 Muenchen (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Siemens AG Corporate Technology, 80200 Muenchen (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In this work, the authors investigate how beam hardening affects the image formation in x-ray phase-contrast imaging and consecutively develop a correction algorithm based on the results of the analysis. Methods: The authors' approach utilizes a recently developed x-ray imaging technique using a grating interferometer capable of visualizing the differential phase shift of a wave front traversing an object. An analytical description of beam hardening is given, highlighting differences between attenuation and phase-contrast imaging. The authors present exemplary beam hardening artifacts for a number of well-defined samples in measurements at a compact laboratory setup using a polychromatic source. Results: Despite the differences in image formation, the authors show that beam hardening leads to a similar reduction of image quality in phase-contrast imaging as in conventional attenuation-contrast imaging. Additionally, the authors demonstrate that for homogeneous objects, beam hardening artifacts can be corrected by a linearization technique, applicable to all kinds of phase-contrast methods using polychromatic sources. Conclusions: The evaluated correction algorithm is shown to yield good results for a number of simple test objects and can thus be advocated in medical imaging and nondestructive testing.

  14. Feasibility Study of Gas Electron Multiplier Detector as an X-Ray Image Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Sukyoung; Lee, Soonhyouk

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For its ease manufacturing, flexible geometry, and cheap manufacturing cost, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector can be used as an x-ray image sensor. For this purpose, we acquired relative detection efficiencies and suggested a method to increase the detection efficiency in order to study the possibility of GEM detector as an x-ray image sensor. The GEM detector system is composed of GEM foils, the instrument system, the gas system, and the negative power supply. The instrument system consists of the A225 charge sensitive preamp, A206 discriminator, and MCA8000D multichannel analyzer. For the gas system, Argon gas was mixed with CO2 to the ratio of 8:2, and for the negative 2,000 volts, the 3106D power supply was used. The CsI-coated GEM foil was used to increase the detection efficiency. Fe-55 was used as an x-ray source and the relative efficiency was acquired by using the ratio of GEM detector to the CdTe detector. The total count method and the energy spectrum method were used to calculate the rel...

  15. Regularization of soft-X-ray imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wingen, Andreas [ORNL; Shafer, Morgan W [ORNL; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL; Hill, Judith C [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An image inversion scheme for the soft X-ray imaging system (SXRIS) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak is developed to obtain the local soft X-ray emission at a poloidal cross-section from the spatially line-integrated image taken by the SXRIS camera. The scheme uses the Tikhonov regularization method since the inversion problem is generally ill-posed. The regularization technique uses the generalized singular value decomposition to determine a solution that depends on a free regularization parameter. The latter has to be chosen carefully, and the so called {\\it L-curve} method to find the optimum regularization parameter is outlined. A representative test image is used to study the properties of the inversion scheme with respect to inversion accuracy, amount/strength of regularization, image noise and image resolution. The optimum inversion parameters are identified, while the L-curve method successfully computes the optimum regularization parameter. Noise is found to be the most limiting issue, but sufficient regularization is still possible at noise to signal ratios up to 10%-15%. Finally, the inversion scheme is applied to measured SXRIS data and the line-integrated SXRIS image is successfully inverted.

  16. Pore level imaging of fluid transport using synchrotron x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, M.E.; Hazlett, R.D.; Muegge, E.L. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Spanne, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Soll, W.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently developed high resolution computed microtomography (CMI) using synchrotron X-ray sources is analogous to conventional medical Cr scanning and provides the ability to obtain three-dimensional images of specimens with a spatial resolution on the order of micrometers. Application of this technique to the study of core samples has previously been shown to provide excellent two- and three-dimensional high resolution descriptions of pore structure and mineral distributions of core material. Recently, computed microtomographic endpoint saturation images of a fluid filled sandstone core sample were obtained using a microtomographic apparatus and a high energy X-ray beam produced by a superconducting wiggler at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Images of a 6 mm subsection of the one inch diameter core sample were obtained prior and subsequent to flooding to residual oil. Both oil and brine phases were observable within the imaged rock matrix. The rock matrix image data was used as input to a fluid transport simulator and the results compared with the end point saturation images and data. These high resolution images of the fluid filled pore space have not been previously available to researchers and will provide valuable insight to fluid flow, and provide data as input into and validation of high resolution porous media flow simulators, such as percolation-network and Lattice Boltzmann models.

  17. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  18. Soft x-ray backlighting of cryogenic implosions using a narrowband crystal imaging system (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckl, C., E-mail: csto@lle.rochester.edu; Bedzyk, M.; Brent, G.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Guy, D.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Ingraham, S.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Jungquist, R. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-performance cryogenic DT inertial confinement fusion implosion experiment is an especially challenging backlighting configuration because of the high self-emission of the core at stagnation and the low opacity of the DT shell. High-energy petawatt lasers such as OMEGA EP promise significantly improved backlighting capabilities by generating high x-ray intensities and short emission times. A narrowband x-ray imager with an astigmatism-corrected bent quartz crystal for the Si He{sub ?} line at ?1.86 keV was developed to record backlit images of cryogenic direct-drive implosions. A time-gated recording system minimized the self-emission of the imploding target. A fast target-insertion system capable of moving the backlighter target ?7 cm in ?100 ms was developed to avoid interference with the cryogenic shroud system. With backlighter laser energies of ?1.25 kJ at a 10-ps pulse duration, the radiographic images show a high signal-to-background ratio of >100:1 and a spatial resolution of the order of 10 ?m. The backlit images can be used to assess the symmetry of the implosions close to stagnation and the mix of ablator material into the dense shell.

  19. X-ray imaging of extended magnetic domain walls in Ni80Fe20 wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, S.; Fry, P. W.; Allwood, D. A.; Bryan, M. T.; Gibbs, M. R. J.; Schrefl, T.; Im, M.-Y.; Fischer, P.

    2009-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy to image magnetization configurations in 700 nm wide Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} planar wires attached to 'nucleation' pads Domain walls were observed to inject only across half of the wire width but extend to several micrometers in length. Magnetostatic interactions with adjacent wires caused further unusual domain wall behavior. Micromagnetic modeling suggests the extended walls have Neel-like structure along their length and indicates weaker exchange coupling than is often assumed. These observations explain previous measurements of domain wall injection and demonstrate that magnetic domain walls in larger nanowires cannot always be considered as localized entities.

  20. A monochromatic x-ray imaging system for characterizing low-density foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanier, Nicholas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taccetti, Jose M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamilton, Christopher E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In High Energy Density (HED) laser experiments, targets often require small, low-density, foam components. However, their limited size can preclude single component characterization, forcing one to rely solely on less accurate bulk measurements. We have developed a monochromatic imaging a system to characterize both the density and uniformity of single component low-mass foams. This x-ray assembly is capable of determining line-averaged density variations near the 1% level, and provides statistically identical results to those obtained at the Brookhaven's NSLS. This system has the added benefit of providing two-dimensional density data, allowing an assessment of density uniformity.

  1. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 d dX-Ray Imaging

  2. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 dX-Ray Imaging

  3. Development of an adaptable coherent x-ray diffraction microscope with the emphasis on imaging hydrated specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Daewoong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehyun; Shimada, Hiroki; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Sunam; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Gallagher-Jones, Marcus [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of a versatile coherent x-ray diffraction microscope capable of imaging biological specimens in solution. The microscope is a flexible platform accommodating various conditions, from low vacuum (10{sup ?2} Pa) to helium gas filled ambient pressure. This flexibility greatly expands the application area, from in situ materials science to biology systems in their native state, by significantly relaxing restrictions to the sample environment. The coherent diffraction microscope has been used successfully to image a yeast cell immersed in buffer solution. We believe that the design of this coherent diffraction microscope can be directly adapted to various platforms such as table top soft x-ray laser, synchrotron x-ray sources, and x-ray free electron laser with minor relevant adjustments.

  4. 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, K., E-mail: nishim11@nuclear.es.kit.ac.jp; Sanpei, A., E-mail: sanpei@kit.ac.jp; Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S. [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

  5. Continuous motion scan ptychography: Characterization for increased speed in coherent x-ray imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Junjing; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Chen, Si; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris; Vine, David J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ptychography is a coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) method for extended objects in which diffraction patterns are acquired sequentially from overlapping coherent illumination spots. The object’s complex transmission function can be reconstructed from those diffraction patterns at a spatial resolution limited only by the scattering strength of the object and the detector geometry. Most experiments to date have positioned the illumination spots on the sample using a move-settle-measure sequence in which the move and settle steps can take longer to complete than the measure step. We describe here the use of a continuous “fly-scan” mode for ptychographic data collection in whichmore »the sample is moved continuously, so that the experiment resembles one of integrating the diffraction patterns from multiple probe positions. This allows one to use multiple probe mode reconstruction methods to obtain an image of the object and also of the illumination function. We show in simulations, and in x-ray imaging experiments, some of the characteristics of fly-scan ptychography, including a factor of 25 reduction in the data acquisition time. This approach will become increasingly important as brighter x-ray sources are developed, such as diffraction limited storage rings.« less

  6. Development of Hard X-ray Imaging Optics with Two Pairs of Elliptical and Hyperbolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuyama, S.; Fujii, M.; Wakioka, T.; Mimura, H.; Handa, S.; Kimura, T. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Makina, Y.; Ishikawa, T. [SPring-8/RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayoucho, Sayogun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yamauchi, K. [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To form a magnified hard X-ray image with a 50 nm resolution, we have studied total reflection mirror optics with two pairs of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors, which is called 'Advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez system'. A designed optical system has 200x and 300x magnifications in vertical and horizontal directions. Also diffraction limit size in the optical system is 40 nmx45 nm. We fabricated a pair of elliptical and hyperbolic mirrors for horizontal imaging with a figure accuracy of 2 nm using elastic emission machining (EEM), microstitching interferometry (MSI) and relative-angle-determinable stitching interferometry (RADSI). One-dimensional tests for forming a demagnified image of a slit were carried out at an X-ray energy of 11.5 keV at BL29XUL (EH2) of SPring-8. As a result, a shape beam with a FWHM of 78 nm was observed. This demonstrates that we realized one-dimensional Wolter optics that has a spatial resolution of 78 nm.

  7. Generalized Uncertainty Quantification for Linear Inverse Problems in X-ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Michael James

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In industrial and engineering applications, X-ray radiography has attained wide use as a data collection protocol for the assessment of material properties in cases where direct observation is not possible. The direct measurement of nuclear materials, particularly when they are under explosive or implosive loading, is not feasible, and radiography can serve as a useful tool for obtaining indirect measurements. In such experiments, high energy X-rays are pulsed through a scene containing material of interest, and a detector records a radiograph by measuring the radiation that is not attenuated in the scene. One approach to the analysis of these radiographs is to model the imaging system as an operator that acts upon the object being imaged to produce a radiograph. In this model, the goal is to solve an inverse problem to reconstruct the values of interest in the object, which are typically material properties such as density or areal density. The primary objective in this work is to provide quantitative solutions with uncertainty estimates for three separate applications in X-ray radiography: deconvolution, Abel inversion, and radiation spot shape reconstruction. For each problem, we introduce a new hierarchical Bayesian model for determining a posterior distribution on the unknowns and develop efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for sampling from the posterior. A Poisson likelihood, based on a noise model for photon counts at the detector, is combined with a prior tailored to each application: an edge-localizing prior for deconvolution; a smoothing prior with non-negativity constraints for spot reconstruction; and a full covariance sampling prior based on a Wishart hyperprior for Abel inversion. After developing our methods in a general setting, we demonstrate each model on both synthetically generated datasets, including those from a well known radiation transport code, and real high energy radiographs taken at two U. S. Department of Energy laboratories.

  8. all-sky x-ray image: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sky coverage each orbit, and full sky coverage each 50 days, hard x-ray studies of gamma-ray bursts, AGN, galactic transients, x-ray binaries and accretion-powered pulsars can be...

  9. Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdan Neculaes, V., E-mail: neculaes@research.ge.com; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)] [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient.

  10. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zand, J.J.M. In`T; Fenimore, E.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Saitama (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements ({approximately}100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source.

  11. Simultaneous measurements of several state variables in shocked carbon by imaging x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E. J., E-mail: eliseo@umich.edu; Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M. R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Falk, K.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the novel experimental technique of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering to measure the spatial profiles of the temperature, ionization state, relative material density, and the shock speed in a high-energy density system. A blast wave driven in a low-density foam is probed with 90? scattering of 7.8?keV helium-like nickel x-rays, which are spectrally dispersed and resolved in one spatial dimension by a doubly curved crystal. The inferred properties of the shock are shown to be self-consistent with 1D analytical estimates. These high-resolution measurements enable a direct comparison of the observed temperature with the results from hydrodynamic simulations. We find good agreement with the simulations for the temperature at the shock front but discrepancies in the modeling of the spatial temperature profile and shock speed. These results indicate the challenges in modeling the shock dynamics of structured materials like foams, commonly used in many high-energy density and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  12. X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy for use in plasma transport research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Rice, J. E.; Gao, C.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; White, A. E.; Wolfe, S. M. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research describes advancements in the spectral analysis and error propagation techniques associated with x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) that have enabled this diagnostic to be used to accurately constrain particle, momentum, and heat transport studies in a tokamak for the first time. Doppler tomography techniques have been extended to include propagation of statistical uncertainty due to photon noise, the effect of non-uniform instrumental broadening as well as flux surface variations in impurity density. These methods have been deployed as a suite of modeling and analysis tools, written in interactive data language (IDL) and designed for general use on tokamaks. Its application to the Alcator C-Mod XICS is discussed, along with novel spectral and spatial calibration techniques. Example ion temperature and radial electric field profiles from recent I-mode plasmas are shown, and the impact of poloidally asymmetric impurity density and natural line broadening is discussed in the context of the planned ITER x-ray crystal spectrometer.

  13. Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogan, Michael J.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastien; /SLAC; Chapman, Henry N.; /DESY /Hamburg U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /LLNL, Livermore /TOFWERK AG; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bajt, Sasa; /DESY; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; /Uppsala U.; Schulz, Joachim; /DESY

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10{sub 12} photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

  14. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N. (Connecticut); (USARL)

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  15. Simultaneous High-Resolution 2-Dimensional Spatial and 1-Dimensional Picosecond Streaked X-ray Pinhole Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steel, A B; Nagel, S R; Dunn, J; Baldis, H A

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentech x-ray streak camera was run at the LLNL Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser to record simultaneous space- and time-resolved measurements of picosecond laser-produced plasmas. Four different x-ray energy channels were monitored using broad-band filters to record the time history of Cu targets heated at irradiances of 10{sup 16} - 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Through the Cu filter channel, a time-resolution below 3ps was obtained. Additionally, an array of 10 {micro}m diameter pinholes was placed in front of the camera to produce multiple time-resolved x-ray images on the photocathode and time-integrated images on the phosphor with 10 and 15 times magnification, respectively, with spatial resolution of <13 {micro}m.

  16. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhaodong; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhao, Bozhen; Qin, Xiubo; Wei, Cunfeng; Liu, Yu; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of CsI(Tl) layer, but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system. In this paper, four substrates including fused silica (SiO2), silver-film coated SiO2, graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation. Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO), modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ). The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output, it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics. However, films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves, whether or not coated with silver film. Furthermore, scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ, but have the lowest MTF. By controll...

  17. Relationship of brain imaging with radionuclides and with x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1981-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of high sensitivity and specificity for altered local cerebral structure, x-ray computed tomography (CT) is the preferred initial diagnostic imaging study under most circumstances when cerebral disease is suspected. CT has no competitor for detecting fresh intracerebral hemorrhage. Radionuclide imaging (RN) scan is preferred when relative perfusion is to be assessed, in patients allergic to contrast media, and when an adequate CT study is not technically possible. (RN) plays an important complementary role to CT, especially for patients suspected of subacute or chronic subdura hematoma, cerebral infarction, arteriovenous malformations, meningitis, encephalitis, normal pressure hydrocephalus, or when CT findings are inconclusive. When CT is not available, RN serves as a good screening study for suspected cerebral tumor, infection, recent infarction, arteriovenous malformation, and chronic subdural hematoma. Future improvement in radionuclide imaging by means of emission composition potential. The compound plating approacl threshold for all the investigated transistors and fast neutron spectra lies within the raal. The value of the potential slightly changes with the coordinate change in this region, i.e. the charge on a collecting electrode is not practically guided up to a certain moment of time during the movement of nonequilibrium carriers.

  18. Quantitative Mapping of Structured Polymeric Systems Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of Soft X-ray Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Quantitative Mapping of Structured Polymeric Systems Using Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of Soft X-ray Images I. N. Koprinarov, A. P. Hitchcock,* C. T. McCrory, and R. F. Childs Department of this system. The sample was studied fully hydrated in order to perform the quantitative mapping when

  19. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  20. Synchrotron-based imaging and tomography with hard X-rays C. Rau a,b,c,e,*, V. Crecea a,d

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Synchrotron-based imaging and tomography with hard X-rays C. Rau a,b,c,e,*, V. Crecea a,d , W. Liu, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany h BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin, Germany i Department Hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool to study opaque materials on the micro

  1. The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager: FOXSI Sam Kruckera,b, Steven Christec, Lindsay Glesenera,d, Shin-nosuke Ishikawaa, Stephen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan ABSTRACT The Focusing Optics x-ray Solar Imager. Today's leading solar HXR instrument, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI, solar physics, solar flares, silicon strip detectors, grazing-incidence optics, high-energy x-ray optics

  2. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  3. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antier, S; Limousin, O; Caroli, E; da Silva, R M Curado; Blondel, C; Chipaux, R; Honkimaki, V; Horeau, B; Laurent, P; Maia, J M; Meuris, A; Del Sordo, S; Stephen, J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the initial exploration of soft gamma-ray sky in the 60's, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars and black holes are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical process. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of Caliste module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe cr...

  4. Attenuation Correction of L-shell X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Liu; Bo, Ma; Qing, Xu; Lingtong, Yan; Li, Li; Songlin, Feng; Xiangqian, Feng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography(XFCT) is a prevalent experimental technique which is utilized to investigate the spatial distribution of elements in sample. The sensitivity of L-shell XFCT of some elements is lower than that of K-shell XFCT. However, the image reconstruction for this technique has much more problems than that of transmission tomography, one of which is self-absorption. In the present work, a novel strategy was developed to deal with such problems. But few researches are concerned on attenuation correction of L-shell XFCT that are essential to get accurate reconstructed image. We make use of the known quantities and the unknown elemental concentration of interest to express the unknown attenuation maps. And then the attenuation maps are added in the contribution value of the pixel in MLEM reconstruction method. Results indicate that the relative error is less than 14.1%, which is proved this method can correct L-shell XFCT very well.

  5. X-ray imaging with monochromatic and small focal spot size sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of x-ray energy and intensity (under investigation) Measurements at the Elettra (Trieste) synchrotron Edge Response Function at ATF * Spot size * He Pipe added * 10 7 10 8...

  6. Imaging X-ray spectroscopy with micro-X and Chandra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutherford, John (John Morton)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High spectral resolution observations of X-ray phenomena have the potential to uncover new physics. Currently, only point sources can be probed with high resolution spectra, using gratings. Extended objects like supernova ...

  7. Reflection nebulae in the Galactic Center: the case for soft X-ray imaging polarimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, F; Soffitta, P; Karas, V; Kunneriath, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of irradiation and fluorescence of the 6.4 keV bright giant molecular clouds surrounding Sgr A*, the central supermassive black hole of our Galaxy, remains enigmatic. Testing the theory of a past active period of Sgr A* requires X-ray polarimetry. In this paper, we show how modern imaging polarimeters could revolutionize our understanding of the Galactic Center. Through Monte Carlo modeling, we produce a 4-8 keV polarization map of the Galactic Center, focusing on the polarimetric signature produced by Sgr B1, Sgr B2, G0.11-0.11, Bridge E, Bridge D, Bridge B2, MC2, MC1, Sgr C3, Sgr C2, and Sgr C1. We estimate the resulting polarization, include polarized flux dilution by the diffuse plasma emission detected toward the GC, and simulate the polarization map that modern polarimetric detectors would obtain assuming the performances of a mission prototype. The eleven reflection nebulae investigated in this paper present a variety of polarization signatures, ranging from nearly unpolarized to highly pola...

  8. Concept to diagnose mix with imaging x-ray Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Paul A.; Gamboa, Eliseo J.; Huntington, Channing M.; Kuranz, Carolyn C. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent mixing of two fluid species is a ubiquitous problem, prevalent in systems such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions, supernova remnants, and other astrophysical systems. In complex, high Reynolds number compressible high energy density (HED) flows such as these, hydrodynamic instabilities initiate the turbulent mixing process, which can then feedback and alter the mean hydrodynamic motion through nonlinear processes. In order to predict how these systems evolve under turbulent conditions, models are used. However, these models require detailed quantitative data to validate and constrain their detailed physics models as well as improve them. Providing this much needed data is currently at the forefront of HED research but is proving elusive due to a lack of available diagnostics capable of directly measuring detailed flow variables. Thomson scattering is a promising technique in this regard as it provides fundamental conditions of the flow ({rho}, T, Zbar) due to its direct interaction with the small scales of the fluid or plasma and was recently considered as a possible mix diagnostic. With the development of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering (IXRTS) obtaining spatial profiles of these variables is within reach. We propose a novel use of the IXRTS technique that will provide more detailed quantitative data required for model validation in mix experiments.

  9. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Shi, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, MS37-B332, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  10. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Antier; P. Ferrando; O. Limousin; E. Caroli; R. M. Curado da Silva; C. Blondel; R. Chipaux; V. Honkimaki; B. Horeau; P. Laurent; J. M. Maia; A. Meuris; S. Del Sordo; J. B. Stephen

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the initial exploration of soft gamma-ray sky in the 60's, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars and black holes are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical process. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of Caliste module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. These results, obtained at 200-300 keV, demonstrate their capability to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. Applying a selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90 degrees Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1 degree and 5%. The modulation factor remains larger than 0.4 when essentially no selection is made at all on the data. These results prove that the Caliste-256 modules have performances allowing them to be excellent candidates as detectors with polarimetric capabilities, in particular for future space missions.

  11. Pressurized subsampling system for pressured gas-hydrate-bearing sediment: Microscale imaging using X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yusuke, E-mail: u-jin@aist.go.jp; Konno, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Jiro [Production Technology Team, Methane Hydrate Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Sapporo 062-8517 (Japan)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized subsampling system was developed for pressured gas hydrate (GH)-bearing sediments, which have been stored under pressure. The system subsamples small amounts of GH sediments from cores (approximately 50 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height) without pressure release to atmospheric conditions. The maximum size of the subsamples is 12.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. Moreover, our system transfers the subsample into a pressure vessel, and seals the pressure vessel by screwing in a plug under hydraulic pressure conditions. In this study, we demonstrated pressurized subsampling from artificial xenon-hydrate sediments and nondestructive microscale imaging of the subsample, using a microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) system. In addition, we estimated porosity and hydrate saturation from two-dimensional X-ray CT images of the subsamples.

  12. Time resolved, 2-D hard X-ray imaging of relativistic electron-beam target interactions on ETA-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crist, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sampayan, S.; Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Houck, T.; Weir, J.; Trimble, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Krogh, M. [AlliedSignal FM and T, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced radiographic applications require a constant source size less than 1 mm. To study the time history of a relativistic electron beam as it interacts with a bremsstrahlung converter, one of the diagnostics they use is a multi-frame time-resolved hard x-ray camera. They are performing experiments on the ETA-II accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate details of the electron beam/converter interactions. The camera they are using contains 6 time-resolved images, each image is a 5 ns frame. By starting each successive frame 10 ns after the previous frame, they create a 6-frame movie from the hard x-rays produced from the interaction of the 50-ns electron beam pulse.

  13. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object by use of an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parham, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Dean; Chapman, Leroy D.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using an X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include detecting an image of an object. The method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a single monochromator crystal in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a second X-ray beam having a predetermined energy level is produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beam for transmission of the second X-ray beam through the object and emission from the object as a transmitted X-ray beam. The transmitted X-ray beam can be directed at an angle of incidence upon a crystal analyzer. Further, an image of the object can be detected from a beam diffracted from the analyzer crystal.

  14. Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Park, H.-S.; Patel, P. K.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Springer, P. T.; Suter, L.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

  15. Distribution of unresolvable anisotropic microstructures revealed in visibility-contrast images using x-ray Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Kawabata, Katsuyuki; Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yamazaki, Takashi; Momose, Atsushi [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, the University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Talbot interferometry has been widely used as a technique for x-ray phase imaging and tomography. We propose a method using this interferometry for mapping distribution of parameters characterizing anisotropic microstructures, which are typically of the order of {mu}m in size and cannot be resolved by the imaging system, in a sample. The method uses reduction in fringe visibility, which is caused by such unresolvable microstructures, in moire images obtained using an interferometer. We applied the method to a chloroprene rubber sponge sample, which exhibited uniaxial anisotropy of reduced visibility. We measured the dependencies of reduced visibility on both the Talbot order and the orientation of the sample and obtained maps of three parameters and their anisotropies that characterize the unresolvable anisotropic microstructures in the sample. The maps indicated that the anisotropy of the sample's visibility contrast mainly originated from the anisotropy of the microstructure elements' average size. Our method directly provides structural information on unresolvable microstructures in real space, which is only accessible through the ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering measurements in reciprocal space, and is expected to be broadly applied to material, biological, and medical sciences.

  16. Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution In Thermoplastic-Natural Rubber Blend Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Sahrim; Rasid, Rozaidi; Mouad, A. T. [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Aziz Mohamed, A.; Abdullah, Jaafar; Dahlan, M.; Mohamad, Mahathir; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Hamzah Harun, M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal [Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Hafizal Yazid, Faculty of Applied Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. Saffiey W.

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray microtomography and ImageJ 1.39 u is used as a tool to quantify volume percentage of B{sub 4}C as fillers in thermoplastic-natural rubber blend composites. The use of percentage of area occupied by fillers as obtain from ImageJ from the microtomography sliced images enables the proposed technique to easily obtain the amount volume percentage of B{sub 4}C in the composite non-destructively. Comparison with other technique such as density measurement and chemical analysis proves the proposed technique as one of the promising approach.

  17. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-Ray DiagnosticsX-Ray

  18. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 d dX-RayX-Ray

  19. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  20. Design and imaging performance of achromatic diffractive/refractive X-ray and Gamma-ray Fresnel lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald K. Skinner

    2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Achromatic combinations of a diffractive Phase Fresnel Lens and a refractive correcting element have been proposed for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and for microlithography, but considerations of absorption often dictate that the refractive component be given a stepped profile, resulting in a double Fresnel lens. The imaging performance of corrected Fresnel lenses, with and without `stepping' is investigated and the trade-off between resolution and useful bandwidth in different circumstances is discussed. Provided the focal ratio is large, correction lenses made of low atomic number materials can be used with X-rays in the range approximately 10--100 keV without stepping. The use of stepping extends the possibility of correction to higher aperture systems, to energies as low as a few kilo electron volts and to gamma-rays of $\\sim$ mega electron volt energy.

  1. Fundamental x-ray interaction limits in diagnostic imaging detectors: Spatial resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Ian

    , London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, London Health transformed with the emergence of digital detector technology. Although digital systems offer many practical of future digital x-ray detectors. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. DOI: 10

  2. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  3. The process of data formation for the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) in Solar Orbiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giordano, Sara; Piana, Michele; Massone, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is a hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy device to be mounted in the Solar Orbiter cluster with the aim of providing images and spectra of solar flaring regions at different photon energies in the range from a few keV to around 150 keV. The imaging modality of this telescope is based on the Moire pattern concept and utilizes 30 sub-collimators, each one containing a pair of co-axial grids. This paper applies Fourier analysis to provide the first rigorous description of the data formation process in STIX. Specifically, we show that, under first harmonic approximation, the integrated counts measured by STIX sub-collimators can be interpreted as specific spatial Fourier components of the incoming photon flux, named visibilities. Fourier analysis also allows the quantitative assessment of the reliability of such interpretation. The description of STIX data in terms of visibilities has a notable impact on the image reconstruction process, since it fosters the applic...

  4. Fabrication of high aspect grating using bonded substrate for X-ray refraction imaging by Talbot-Lau interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Takuji; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Ito, Wataru; Agano, Toshitaka [Medical Systems Research and Development Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan); Imaging Technology Center, R and D Management Headquarters, FUJIFILM Corp., 798, Miyanodai, Kaisei-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa 258-8538 (Japan)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve the image quality of X-ray refraction images using a Talbot-Lau interferometer, we have been attempting to fabricate gratings with high aspect ratio. In our attempt, deep grooves of grating structure were channeled on a Si substrate bonded by Au diffusion bonding method, and the grooves were filled with Au where the Au layer used for the bonding Si substrate was acting as a seed layer of Au electroplating. From the results of a visibility measurement and a cross sectional SEM image, it was confirmed that the grooves with a pitch of 5.8 {mu}m and a depth of 100 {mu}m could be successfully filled with Au over a large area of 72 Multiplication-Sign 80 mm{sup 2}. Using this grating, the X-ray refraction images for the cartilage of a knee joint of a livestock pig could be obtained where SPS method was employed for the single-shot image acquisition.

  5. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  6. The application of soft x-ray imaging techniques to auroral research. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of building and operating a grazing incidence X-ray telescope for auroral zone studies from the Polar Plasma Laboratory (PPL) is discussed. A detailed structural analysis of the preferred design, an array of seven nested Wolter mirrors, is presented. An engineering evaluation of the requirements for the instrumental configuration, power, weight and telemetry is included. The problems of radiation hardening and thermal control are discussed. The resulting strawman instrument is presented.

  7. Design of the high-resolution soft X-ray imaging system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianchao; Ding, Yonghua, E-mail: yhding@mail.hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xiao, Zhengyu; Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new soft X-ray diagnostic system has been designed on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) aiming to observe and survey the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities. The system consists of five cameras located at the same toroidal position. Each camera has 16 photodiode elements. Three imaging cameras view the internal plasma region (r/a < 0.7) with a spatial resolution about 2 cm. By tomographic method, heat transport outside from the 1/1 mode X-point during the sawtooth collapse is found. The other two cameras with a higher spatial resolution 1 cm are designed for monitoring local MHD activities respectively in plasma core and boundary.

  8. Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by ECN using several different techniques - Silicone molds (Valencia) - X-ray absorption tomography (CAT) - X-Ray phase contrast imaging (Argonne) - Microscopy (Sandia) ...

  9. X-ray Diffraction and Multi-Frame Phase Contrast Imaging Diagnostics for IMPULSE at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, Adam [National Security Technologies, LLC; Carlson, Carl [National Security Technologies, LLC; Young, Jason [National Security Technologies, LLC; Curtis, Alden [National Security Technologies, LLC; Jensen, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, Kyle [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yeager, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fezza, Kamel [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The diagnostic needs of any dynamic loading platform present unique technical challenges that must be addressed in order to accurately measure in situ material properties in an extreme environment. The IMPULSE platform (IMPact system for Ultrafast Synchrotron Experiments) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is no exception and, in fact, may be more challenging, as the imaging diagnostics must be synchronized to both the experiment and the 60 ps wide x-ray bunches produced at APS. The technical challenges of time-resolved x-ray diffraction imaging and high-resolution multi-frame phase contrast imaging (PCI) are described in this paper. Example data from recent IMPULSE experiments are shown to illustrate the advances and evolution of these diagnostics with a focus on comparing the performance of two intensified CCD cameras and their suitability for multi-frame PCI. The continued development of these diagnostics is fundamentally important to IMPULSE and many other loading platforms and will benefit future facilities such as the Dynamic Compression Sector at APS and MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-Ray Diagnostics

  11. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-Ray

  12. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. CategoryFebruaryFebruary 17,Time-Delay X-ray Holography

  13. X-Ray Imaging Current-Driven Magnetic Domain-Wall Motion in Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 d d XX-RayX-Ray

  14. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 d dX-Ray

  15. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging and elemental mapping from biological samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Rao; M Swapna; R Cesareo; A Brunetti; T Akatsuka; T Yuasa; T Takeda; G Gigante

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study utilized the new hard X-ray microspectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS, BNL, USA, for elemental mapping. This facility provided the primary beam in a small spot of the order of {approx}10 {mu}m, for focussing. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, the synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescent intensities for Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ti and Cu were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The sample is scanned in a 'step-and-repeat' mode for fast elemental mapping measurements and generated elemental maps at 8, 10 and 12 keV, from a small animal shell (snail). The accumulated trace elements, from these biological samples, in small areas have been identified. Analysis of the small areas will be better suited to establish the physiology of metals in specific structures like small animal shell and the distribution of other elements.

  16. Statistical models and regularization strategies in statistical image reconstruction of low-dose X-ray computed tomography: a survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Jianhua; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods have shown potential to substantially improve the image quality of low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) as compared to the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) method for various clinical tasks. According to the maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation, the SIR methods can be typically formulated by an objective function consisting of two terms: (1) data-fidelity (or equivalently, data-fitting or data-mismatch) term modeling the statistics of projection measurements, and (2) regularization (or equivalently, prior or penalty) term reflecting prior knowledge or expectation on the characteristics of the image to be reconstructed. Existing SIR methods for low-dose CT can be divided into two groups: (1) those that use calibrated transmitted photon counts (before log-transform) with penalized maximum likelihood (pML) criterion, and (2) those that use calibrated line-integrals (after log-transform) with penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion. Accurate s...

  17. Analysis of the KROTOS KFC test by coupling X-Ray image analysis and MC3D calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brayer, C.; Charton, A.; Grishchenko, D.; Fouquart, P.; Bullado, Y.; Compagnon, F.; Correggio, P.; Cassiaut-Louis, N.; Piluso, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA Cadarache, DEN, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Les-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a hypothetical severe accident sequence in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the hot molten materials (corium) issuing from the degraded reactor core may generate a steam explosion if they come in contact with water and may damage the structures and threaten the reactor integrity. The SERENA program is an international OECD project that aims at helping the understanding of this phenomenon also called Fuel Coolant Interaction (FCI) by providing data. CEA takes part in this program by performing tests in its KROTOS facility where steam explosions using prototypic corium can be triggered. Data about the different phases in the premixing are extracted from the KROTOS X-Ray radioscopy images by using KIWI software (KROTOS Image analysis of Water-corium Interaction) currently developed by CEA. The MC3D code, developed by IRSN, is a thermal-hydraulic multiphase code mainly dedicated to FCI studies. It is composed of two applications: premixing and explosion. An overall FCI calculation with MC3D requires a premixing calculation followed by an explosion calculation. The present paper proposes an alternative approach in which all the features of the premixing are extracted from the X-Ray pictures using the KIWI software and transferred to an MC3D dataset for a direct simulation of the explosion. The main hypothesis are discussed as well as the first explosion results obtained with MC3D for the KROTOS KFC test. These results are rather encouraging and are analyzed on the basis of comparisons with the experimental data. (authors)

  18. X-ray holography of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solem, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author reviews the reasons for x-ray imaging of biological specimens and the techniques presently being used for x-ray microscopy. The author points out the advantages of x-ray holography and the difficulties of obtaining the requisite coherence with conventional sources. The author discusses the problems of radiation damage and the remarkable fact that short pulse x-ray sources circumvent these problems and obtain high-resolution images of specimens in the living state. Finally, the author reviews some of the efforts underway to develop high-intensity coherent x-ray sources for the laboratory. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Upgraded high time-resolved x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy system for J-TEXT ohmic plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Huang, D. W.; Li, Q. L.; Yan, W.; Luo, Y. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yang, Z. J.; Rao, B.; Ding, Y. H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the upgraded x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) system on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) tokamak and the latest experimental results obtained in last campaign. With 500 Hz frame rate of the new Pilatus detector and 5 cm × 10 cm spherically bent crystal, the XICS system can provide core electron temperature (T{sub e}), core ion temperature (T{sub i}), and plasma toroidal rotation (V{sub ?}) with a maximum temporal resolution of 2 ms for J-TEXT pure ohmic plasmas. These parameters with high temporal resolution are very useful in tokamak plasma research, especially for rapidly changed physical processes. The experimental results from the upgraded XICS system are presented.

  20. Biomedical nuclear and X-ray imager using high-energy grazing incidence mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Craig, William W.; Hasegawa, Bruce; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging of radiation sources located in a subject is explored for medical applications. The approach involves using grazing-incidence optics to form images of the location of radiopharmaceuticals administered to a subject. The optics are "true focusing" optics, meaning that they project a real and inverted image of the radiation source onto a detector possessing spatial and energy resolution.

  1. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X?ray Computed Microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Jansik, Danielle P.; Um, Wooyong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: X-ray microtomography (XMT), a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging technique, was applied to demonstrate its capability to visualize the mineralogical alteration and microstructure changes in hydrated Portland cement exposed to carbon dioxide under geologic sequestration conditions. Steel coupons and basalt fragments were added to the cement paste in order to simulate cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. XMT image analysis showed the changes of material density and porosity in the degradation front (density: 1.98 g/cm3, porosity: 40%) and the carbonated zone (density: 2.27 g/cm3, porosity: 23%) after reaction with CO2- saturated water for 5 months compared to unaltered cement (density: 2.15 g/cm3, porosity: 30%). Three-dimensional XMT imaging was capable of displaying spatially heterogeneous alteration in cement pores, calcium carbonate precipitation in cement cracks, and preferential cement alteration along the cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. This result also indicates that the interface between cement and host rock or steel casing is likely more vulnerable to a CO2 attack than the cement matrix in a wellbore environment. It is shown here that XMT imaging can potentially provide a new insight into the physical and chemical degradation of wellbore cement by CO2 leakage.

  2. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, James M., E-mail: jlamb@mednet.ucla.edu; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  3. Progress in Three-Dimensional Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Cui, C; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Noy, A; Hau-Riege, S P; Kinney, J M; Shapiro, D; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Lima, E; Minor, A M; He, H

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourier inversion of phased coherent diffraction patterns offers images without the resolution and depth-of-focus limitations of lens-based tomographic systems. We report on our recent experimental images inverted using recent developments in phase retrieval algorithms, and summarize efforts that led to these accomplishments. These include ab-initio reconstruction of a two-dimensional test pattern, infinite depth of focus image of a thick object, and its high-resolution ({approx}10 nm resolution) three-dimensional image. Developments on the structural imaging of low density aerogel samples are discussed.

  4. A theoretical comparison of x-ray angiographic image quality using energy-dependent and conventional subtraction methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A. [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada) and London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions of dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.

  5. Automatic Annotation of X-ray Images: A Study on Attribute Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ünay, Devrim

    Processing and Analysis Group, Philips Research, The Netherlands Abstract. Advances in the medical imaging, analyzed, classified, stored and retrieved in medical centers. As a result, medical image classification Introduction Storing, archiving and sharing patient information among medical centers has become a crucial task

  6. X-ray Surveys and Wide-Field Optical/Near-Infrared Imaging with the Joint Dark Energy Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Brandt

    2004-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I briefly describe a few important scientific issues that could be addressed effectively via the combination of data from JDEM and X-ray missions. The topics covered are largely focused on active galactic nuclei (AGN) and include (1) the selection of AGN via X-ray emission and optical variability, (2) nuclear outbursts in galaxies due to transient fueling of their supermassive black holes, (3) moderate-luminosity AGN at high redshift (z > 4) found via application of "dropout" techniques to X-ray sources, and (4) the host-galaxy morphologies of X-ray selected AGN. I also describe the substantial challenges to obtaining wide-field X-ray data with sufficient sensitivity to complement JDEM properly.

  7. Capabilities and limitations of Phase Contrast Imaging techniques with X-rays and neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damato, Antonio Leonardo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) was studied with the goal of understanding its relevance and its requirements. Current literature does not provide insight on the effect of a relaxation in coherence requirements on the PCI ...

  8. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  9. Quantitative X-Ray Imaging of Intraplaque Hemorrhage in Aortas of ApoE-/-/LDL-/- Double Knockout Mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langheinrich,A.; Michniewicz, A.; Sedding, D.; Lai, B.; Jorgensen, S.; Bohle, R.; Ritman, E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives: To determine if hemorrhage into an arterial wall can be detected in CT images by virtue of the iron content. Materials and Methods: Aortas from male apoE-/-/LDL-/- mice (n = 31) were infused in situ with contrast agent, for micro-CT scanning and histology. Roentgen-opacities within the aortic walls were identified by histology and micro-x-ray fluorescence to be iron or calcium. Dual-energy scanning was performed at 2 energy levels using synchrotron-based micro-CT [(2 {mu}m)3 voxels, 16 and 20 keV] and 64-slice CT (0.4 x 0.4 x 0.6 mm voxels, 80 and 120 kVp). Results: Opacities were identified as hemorrhage-related clusters of multiple punctate deposits, containing both Fe (0.48 x 10-12 g/voxel) and Ca (3.18 x 10-2 g/voxel), or as isolated confluent accumulations of exclusively calcium. Subtraction of the dual-energy CT scans discriminated iron from calcium deposits. Conclusion: Detection and quantification of iron deposits in hemorrhaged atherosclerotic lesions is feasible by dual-energy CT imaging.

  10. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui, E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bitter, M., E-mail: chen33@llnl.gov, E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kerr, S. [Department of Applied Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  11. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging PrintImaging

  12. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImagingImaging

  13. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager Spots andImaging

  14. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager SpotsImaging

  15. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImagerImaging Antifungal

  16. Multi-Material Decomposition Using Statistical Image Reconstruction in X-Ray CT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    and Jeffrey A. Fessler Abstract--Dual-energy (DE) CT scans provide two sets of measurements at two different-mean-square (RMS) errors. Index Terms--Computed tomography, dual energy, multi- material decomposition, statistical image reconstruction I. INTRODUCTION Dual-energy (DE) CT reconstruction methods typically re- construct

  17. A Super-high Angular Resolution Principle for Coded-mask X-ray Imaging Beyond the Diffraction Limit of Single Pinhole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Zhang; Shuang Nan Zhang

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always demanded by astrophysics and solar physics, which can be realized by coded-mask imaging with very long mask-detector distance in principle. Previously the diffraction-interference effect has been thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at low energy end with very long mask-detector distance. In this work the diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size of 50* 50 square micrometers and the mask-detector distance of 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV, and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV where diffraction can not be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also shortly discussed.

  18. High-resolution chemical imaging of gold nanoparticles using hard x-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Schroer, C. G. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, J. [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany) [Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Germany; Hofmann, G.; Grunwaldt, J.-D. [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Damsgaard, C. D. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)] [Center for Electron Nanoscopy and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Wellenreuther, G.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine resonant scattering with (ptychographic) scanning coherent diffraction microscopy to determine the chemical state of gold nanoparticles with high spatial resolution. Ptychographic images of the sample are recorded for a series of energies around the gold L{sub 3} absorption edge. From these data, chemical information in the form of absorption and resonant scattering spectra is reconstructed at each location in the sample. For gold nanoparticles of about 100 nm diameter, a spatial resolution of about 20-30 nm is obtained. In the future, this microscopy approach will open the way to operando studies of heterogeneous catalysts on the nanometer scale.

  19. Imaging single cells in a beam of live cyanobacteria with an X-ray laser

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schot, Gijs, vander

    Diffraction pattern of a micron-sized S. elongatus cell at 1,100 eV photon energy (1.13 nm wavelength) with ~10^11 photons per square micron on the sample in ~70 fs. The signal to noise ratio at 4 nm resolution is 3.7 with 0.24 photons per Nyquist pixel. The cell was alive at the time of the exposure. The central region of the pattern (dark red) is saturated and this prevented reliable image reconstruction.

  20. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)Hydrogen StorageITERITERBuilding EnergyImaging

  1. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager Spots and

  2. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager Spots

  3. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager

  4. A Full-Field KB-FZP Microscope for Hard X-Ray Imaging with Sub-100 nm Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    , Germany, 6 BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin, Germany A full-field hard X-ray microscope was performed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a synchrotron radiation source of the third generation

  5. Element-specific imaging of magnetic domains at 25 nm spatial resolution using soft x-ray microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayreuther, Günther

    magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy M-TXM . This was first demonstrated at the synchrotron facility BESSY I in Berlin.8­10 In this article experiments with M-TXM obtained at the XM-1 beamline

  6. Comparison of the bubble size distribution in silicate foams using 2-dimensional images and 3-dimensional x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert, G.; Baker, D.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Allard, E.; Larocque, J. (McGill); (UC)

    2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Three silicate glasses were hydrated at high pressure and then heated at atmospheric pressure to exsolve the water into bubbles and create foams. The bubble size distribution in these foams was measured by x-ray microtomography on the GSECARS BM-13 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The bubble area distributions were measured in two dimensions using the image slices produced from the microtomography and the software ImageJ. The bubble volume distributions were measured from the three-dimensional tomographic images with the BLOB3D software. We found that careful analysis of the microtomography data in both two and three dimensions was necessary to avoid the physically unrealistic, experimental artifact of identifying and counting many small bubbles whose surfaces were not defined by a septum of glass. When this artifact was avoided the foams demonstrated power-law distributions of bubble sizes in both two and three dimensions. Conversion of the power-law exponents for bubble areas measured in two dimensions to exponents for bubble volumes usually agreed with the measured three dimensional volume exponents. Furthermore, the power-law distributions for bubble volumes typically agree with multiple theories of bubble growth, all of which yield an exponent of 1 for the cumulative bubble volume distribution. The measured bubble volume distributions with exponents near 0.3 can be explained by diffusive growth as proposed by other authors, but distributions with exponents near 1.4 remain to be explained and are the subject of continuing research on the effects of water concentration and melt viscosity on foaming behavior.

  7. Broadband X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with NuSTAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Kristin K; Harrison, Fiona; An, Hongjun; Boggs, Steven; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fryer, Chris L; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles J; Markwardt, Craig; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Zoglauer, Andreas; Zhang, William

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present broadband (3 -- 78 keV) NuSTAR X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the Crab nebula and pulsar. We show that while the phase-averaged and spatially integrated nebula + pulsar spectrum is a power-law in this energy band, spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula finds a break at $\\sim$9 keV in the spectral photon index of the torus structure with a steepening characterized by $\\Delta\\Gamma\\sim0.25$. We also confirm a previously reported steepening in the pulsed spectrum, and quantify it with a broken power-law with break energy at $\\sim$12 keV and $\\Delta\\Gamma\\sim0.27$. We present spectral maps of the inner 100\\as\\ of the remnant and measure the size of the nebula as a function of energy in seven bands. These results find that the rate of shrinkage with energy of the torus size can be fitted by a power-law with an index of $\\gamma = 0.094\\pm 0.018$, consistent with the predictions of Kennel and Coroniti (1984). The change in size is more rapid in the NW direction, coinciding with the counter-jet w...

  8. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  9. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-Temperature and Rotation-Velocity Profiles in Fusion Energy Research Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Broennimann, Ch; Eikenberry, E F; Ince-Cushman, A; Lee, S G; Rice, J E; Scott, S

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new imaging high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) has been developed to measure continuous profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity in fusion plasmas. Following proof-of-principle tests on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and the NSTX spherical tokamak, and successful testing of a new silicon, pixilated detector with 1 MHz count rate capability per pixel, an imaging XCS is being designed to measure full profiles of Ti and v? on C-Mod. The imaging XCS design has also been adopted for ITER. Ion-temperature uncertainty and minimum measurable rotation velocity are calculated for the C-Mod spectrometer. The affects of x-ray and uclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are calculated to predict performance on ITER.

  10. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  11. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  12. X-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references.

  13. Aberration-corrected X-ray spectrum imaging and Fresnel contrast to differentiate nanoclusters and cavities in helium-irradiated alloy 14YWT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael K [ORNL] [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium accumulation negatively impacts structural materials used in neutron-irradiated environments, such as fission and fusion reactors. Next-generation fission and fusion reactors will require structural materials, such as steels, resistant to large neutron doses yet see service temperatures in the range most affected by helium embrittlement. Previous work has indicated the difficulty of experimentally differentiating nanometer-sized helium bubbles from the Ti-Y-O rich nanoclustsers (NCs) in radiation-tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Because the NCs are expected to sequester helium away from grain boundaries and reduce embrittlement, experimental methods to study simultaneously the NC and bubble populations are needed. In this study, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results combining high-collection-efficiency X-ray spectrum images (SIs), multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA), and Fresnel-contrast bright-field STEM imaging have been used for such a purpose. Results indicate that Fresnel-contrast imaging, with careful attention to TEM-STEM reciprocity, differentiates bubbles from NCs, and MVSA of X-ray SIs unambiguously identifies NCs. Therefore, combined Fresnel-contrast STEM and X-ray SI is an effective STEM-based method to characterize helium-bearing NFAs.

  14. Monte Carlo study for optimal conditions in single-shot imaging with femtosecond x-ray laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jaehyun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Joti, Yasumasa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)] [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense x-ray pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable the unveiling of atomic structure in material and biological specimens via ultrafast single-shot exposures. As the radiation is intense enough to destroy the sample, a new sample must be provided for each x-ray pulse. These single-particle delivery schemes require careful optimization, though systematic study to find such optimal conditions is still lacking. We have investigated two major single-particle delivery methods: particle injection as flying objects and membrane-mount as fixed targets. The optimal experimental parameters were searched for via Monte Carlo simulations to discover that the maximum single-particle hit rate achievable is close to 40%.

  15. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics.

  16. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics.

  17. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  18. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  19. SU-E-J-83: Ion Imaging to Better Estimate In-Vivo Relative Stopping Powers Using X-Ray CT Prior-Knowledge Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, M [Dipartamento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria - DEIB, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Collins-Fekete, C [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Riboldi, M; Baroni, G [Dipartamento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria - DEIB, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Doolan, P [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); University College London, London (United Kingdom); Hansen, D [Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Seco, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To reduce uncertainties in relative stopping power (RSP) estimates for ions (alpha and carbon) by using Ion radiographic-imaging and X-ray CT prior-knowledge. Methods: A 36×36 phantom matrix composed of 9 materials with different thicknesses and randomly placed is generated. Theoretical RSPs are calculated using stopping power (SP) data from three references (Janni, ICRU49 and Bischel). We introduced an artificial systematic error (1.5%, 2.5% or 3.5%) and a random error (<0.5%) to the SP to simulated patient ion-range errors present in clinic environment. Carbon/alpha final energy for each RSPs set (theoretical and from CT images) is obtained with a ray-tracing algorithm. A gradient descent (GD) method is used to minimize the difference in exit particle energy, between theory and X-ray CT RSP maps, by iteratively correcting the RSP map from X-ray CT. Once a new set of RSPs is obtained for a direction a new optimization is done over other direction using the RSPs from the previous optimization. Theoretical RSPs are compared with experimental RSPs obtained with Gammex Phantom. Results: Preliminary results show that optimized RSP values can be obtained with smaller uncertainties (<1%) than clinical RSPs (1.5% to 3.5%). Theoretical values from three different references show uncertainties, up to 3% from experimental values. Further investigation will consider prior-knowledge from RSP obtained with CT images and ion radiographies from Monte Carlo Simulations. Conclusion: GD and ray-tracing methods have been implemented to reduce RSP uncertainties from values obtained for clinical treatment. Experimental RSPs will be obtained using carbon/alpha beams to consider the existence of material dependent systematic errors. Based on the results, it is hoped to show that using ray-tracing optimization with ion radiography and prior knowledge on RPSs, treatment planning accuracy and cost-effectiveness can be improved.

  20. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablant, N A; Bitter, M; Burhenn, R; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Goto, M; Hill, K W; Langenberg, A; Lazerson, S; Mardenfeld, M; Morita, S; Neilson, G H; Oishi, T; Pedersen, T S

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) is currently being built for installation on W7-X. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements under many plasma conditions, including ECH heated plasmas. Installation is expected before the first experimental campaign (OP1.1), making an important set of measurements available for the first W7-X plasmas. This diagnostic will also work in concert with the HR-XCS diagnostic to provide an excellent diagnostic set for core impurity transport on W7-X.

  1. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  2. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  3. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-Ray ImagingX-Ray

  4. X-ray phase contrast imaging of biological specimens with femtosecond pulses of betatron radiation from a compact laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneip, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 (United States); McGuffey, C.; Dollar, F.; Chvykov, V.; Kalintchenko, G.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Matsuoka, T.; Schumaker, W.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Yanovsky, V. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109 (United States); Bloom, M. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Palmer, C. A. J.; Schreiber, J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that x-rays from a recently demonstrated table top source of bright, ultrafast, coherent synchrotron radiation [Kneip et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 980 (2010)] can be applied to phase contrast imaging of biological specimens. Our scheme is based on focusing a high power short pulse laser in a tenuous gas jet, setting up a plasma wakefield accelerator that accelerates and wiggles electrons analogously to a conventional synchrotron, but on the centimeter rather than tens of meter scale. We use the scheme to record absorption and phase contrast images of a tetra fish, damselfly and yellow jacket, in particular highlighting the contrast enhancement achievable with the simple propagation technique of phase contrast imaging. Coherence and ultrafast pulse duration will allow for the study of various aspects of biomechanics.

  5. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

  6. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending a Hand

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending a

  8. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearning from1-1Administration

  9. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -ofLearning

  10. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  11. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  12. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  13. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  14. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray

  15. Atomic-Scale Chemical Imaging and Quantification of Metallic Alloy Structures by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ping [Sandia National Laboratories; Zhou, Lin [Ames Laboratory; Kramer, Matthew J. [Ames Laboratory; Smith, David J. [Arizona State University

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of atomic-scale crystal structure for nanostructured intermetallic alloys, such as magnetic alloys containing Al, Ni, Co (alnico) and Fe, is crucial for understanding physical properties such as magnetism, but technically challenging due to the small interatomic distances and the similar atomic numbers. By applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping to the study of two intermetallic phases of an alnico alloy resulting from spinodal decomposition, we have determined atomic-scale chemical composition at individual lattice sites for the two phases: one is the B2 phase with Fe0.76Co0.24 -Fe0.40Co0.60 ordering and the other is the L21 phase with Ni0.48Co0.52 at A-sites, Al at B?-sites and Fe0.20Ti0.80 at B??-sites, respectively. The technique developed through this study represents a powerful real-space approach to investigate structure chemically at the atomic scale for a wide range of materials systems.

  16. A camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Alameda, J; Woods, B; Frank, M; Bogan, M J; Barty, A; Boutet, S; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Hajdu, J; Shapiro, D

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser. The camera consists of a laterally-graded multilayer mirror which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter both for wavelength and angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from non-sample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates on to a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beamstop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the FLASH FEL (i.e. between 6 nm and 60 nm) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32 nm, 16 nm, 13.5 nm, and 4.5 nm. At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH free-electron laser with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

  17. ACIS Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer: detector on Chandra ASCA Advanced Satellite for Astronomy and Cosmology: X-ray telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and ROSAT HRMA High Resolution Mirror Assembly: Chandra mirrors IPC Imaging Proportional Camera: detector

  18. Time-resolved x-ray imaging of high-power laser-irradiated under-dense silica aerogels and agar foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Estabrook, K.G.; Bauer, J.D. [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of experiments in which a high-power laser was used to irradiate low density (4 - 9 mg/cm{sup 3}) silica aerogel and agar foam targets. The laser-solid interaction and energy transport through the material were monitored with time-resolved imaging diagnostics, and the data show the production and propagation of an x-ray emission front in the plasma. The emission-front trajectory data are found to be in significant disagreement with detailed simulations, which predict a much more rapid heating of the cold material, and the data suggest that this discrepancy is not explainable by target inhomogeneities. Evidence suggests that energy transport into the cold material may be dominated by thermal conduction; however, no completely satisfactory explanation for the discrepancies is identified, and further experimental and theoretical research is necessary in order to resolve this important problem in laser-plasma interaction physics.

  19. Principles of X-ray Navigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, John Eric; /SLAC

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray navigation is a new concept in satellite navigation in which orientation, position and time are measured by observing stellar emissions in x-ray wavelengths. X-ray navigation offers the opportunity for a single instrument to be used to measure these parameters autonomously. Furthermore, this concept is not limited to missions in close proximity to the earth. X-ray navigation can be used on a variety of missions from satellites in low earth orbit to spacecraft on interplanetary missions. In 1997 the Unconventional Stellar Aspect Experiment (USA) will be launched as part of the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). USA will provide the first platform for real-time experimentation in the field of x-ray navigation and also serves as an excellent case study for the design and manufacturing of space qualified systems in small, autonomous groups. Current techniques for determining the orientation of a satellite rely on observations of the earth, sun and stars in infrared, visible or ultraviolet wavelengths. It is possible to use x-ray imaging devices to provide arcsecond level measurement of attitude based on star patterns in the x-ray sky. This technique is explored with a simple simulation. Collimated x-ray detectors can be used on spinning satellites to provide a cheap and reliable measure of orientation. This is demonstrated using observations of the Crab Pulsar taken by the high Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-1) in 1977. A single instrument concept is shown to be effective, but dependent on an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity and thus susceptible to errors in that estimate. A star scanner based on a differential measurement from two x-ray detectors eliminates the need for an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity. A first order model and a second order model of the two star scanner concepts are considered. Many of the stars that emit in the x-ray regime are also x-ray pulsars with frequency stability approaching a part in 10{sup 9}. By observing these pulsations, a satellite can keep accurate time autonomously. They have demonstrated the acquisition and tracking of the Crab nebula pulsar by simulating the operation of a phase-locked loop.

  20. Design and development of a 3D X-ray microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brayanov, Jordan, 1981-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of needle-free injection systems demands better and faster imaging systems, capable of imaging the transient and steady state response of an injection into real tissue. X-ray radiography, x-ray ...

  1. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  2. Scintillating Fiber Array Characterization and Alignment for Neutron Imaging using the High Energy X-ray (HEX) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckles, R. A., Ali, Z. A., Cradick, J. R., Traille, A. J., Warthan, W. A.

    2009-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Neutron Imager diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will produce high-resolution, gated images of neutron-generating implosions. A similar pinhole imaging experiment (PINEX) diagnostic was recently deployed at the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Both the SNL and LLNL neutron imagers use similar fiber array scintillators (BCF-99-555). Despite diverse resolution and magnification requirements, both diagnostics put significant onus on the scintillator spatial quality and alignment precision to maintain optimal point spread. Characterization and alignment of the Z-PINEX scintillator and imaging system were done at NSTec/Livermore Operations in 2009, and is currently underway for the NIF Neutron Imager.

  3. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  4. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  5. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  6. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  7. Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamentalmicroscopies Research of magnetism in low dimensions has notnanoscience [3]. Solid state magnetism is also a showcase in

  8. HAWK-I imaging of the X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557: The red sequence at z=1.39

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Lidman; P. Rosati; M. Tanaka; V. Strazzullo; R. Demarco; C. Mullis; N. Ageorges; M. Kissler-Patig; M. G. Petr-Gotzens; F. Selman

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use HAWK-I, the recently-commissioned near-IR imager on Yepun (VLT-UT4), to obtain wide-field, high-resolution images of the X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557 in the J and Ks bands, and we use these images to build a colour-magnitude diagram of cluster galaxies. Galaxies in the core of the cluster form a tight red sequence with a mean J-Ks colour of 1.9 (Vega system). The intrinsic scatter in the colour of galaxies that lie on the red sequence is similar to that measured for galaxies on the red sequence of the Coma cluster. The slope and location of the red sequence can be modelled by passively evolving the red sequence of the Coma cluster backwards in time. Using simple stellar population (SSP) models, we find that galaxies in the core of XMMU J2235.3-2557 are, even at z=1.39, already 3 Gyr old, corresponding to a formation redshift of z ~ 4. Outside the core, the intrinsic scatter and the fraction of galaxies actively forming stars increase substantially. Using SSP models, we find that most of these galaxies will join the red sequence within 1.5 Gyr. The contrast between galaxies in the cluster core and galaxies in the cluster outskirts indicates that the red sequence of XMMU J2235.3-2557 is being built from the dense cluster core outwards.

  9. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  10. FULL FIELD X-RAY IMAGING (FXI) Group Leader: Wah-Keat Lee2 Proposal Team: G. Amatucci1, L. Berman2, L. Butler3, W. Chiu4, Y. Chu2, P. Crane5, D. Dunand6,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    -operando studies of energy storage devices · X-ray imaging for biofuels to evaluate biomass breakdown · In situ · Nanostructure of biological armor · Micro and nano physiological networks Micro/nano fluidic devices. K dynamics of freeze-casting for biomaterials · Micro and nanofluidic devices from biomimetics

  11. Effect of Network Structure on Characterization and Flow Modeling Using X-ray Micro-Tomography Images of Granular and Fibrous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattad, Pradeep; Willson, Clinton S.; Thompson, Karsten E. (LSU)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Image-based network modeling has become a powerful tool for modeling transport in real materials that have been imaged using X-ray computed micro-tomography (XCT) or other three-dimensional imaging techniques. Network generation is an essential part of image-based network modeling, but little quantitative work has been done to understand the influence of different network structures on modeling. We use XCT images of three different porous materials (disordered packings of spheres, sand, and cylinders) to create a series of four networks for each material. Despite originating from the same data, the networks can be made to vary over two orders of magnitude in pore density, which in turn affects network properties such as pore-size distribution and pore connectivity. Despite the orders-of-magnitude difference in pore density, single-phase permeability predictions remain remarkably consistent for a given material, even for the simplest throat conductance formulas. Detailed explanations for this beneficial attribute are given in the article; in general, it is a consequence of using physically representative network models. The capillary pressure curve generated from quasi-static drainage is more sensitive to network structure than permeability. However, using the capillary pressure curve to extract pore-size distributions gives reasonably consistent results even though the networks vary significantly. These results provide encouraging evidence that robust network modeling algorithms are not overly sensitive to the specific structure of the underlying physically representative network, which is important given the variety image-based network-generation strategies that have been developed in recent years.

  12. Chemical imaging at 30 nm spatial resolution in 2-d and 3-d with Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    sensitive imaging of environmental biofilms; speciation and quantitative mapping of metals in natural river in January 1997, after serving on the editorial board since 1986. He has worked with AFCC since 2008 on fuel

  13. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  14. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  15. Segmented crystalline scintillators: An initial investigation of high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Ian

    elements, without loss of spatial resolution due to the spread of optical photons. Radiation damage studies radiotherapy imaging conditions. Results from the radiation damage studies showed that both CsI Tl and BGO Wang, Jin Yamamoto, and Hong Du Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

  16. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland) [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)] [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States); Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F. [UCSF Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [UCSF Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  17. Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

  18. Frontiers in X-Ray Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Young

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

  19. Shad-o-Snap X-Ray Camera Hardware Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -o-Snap x-ray camera is a complete, stand-alone x-ray imaging device featuring "smart" microprocessor-controlled camera electronics and a convenient USB interface. The plug- and-play interface allows easy control by the silicon photodiodes. The Shad-o-Snap camera also includes electronics to digitize the video signal

  20. Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Electromagnetic Application: X-RAY Alawi H. Ba-Surrah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    , Pulyui published high-quality x-ray images in journals in Paris and London. · Nikola Tesla In April 1887, Nikola Tesla began to investigate X-rays using high voltages and tubes of his own design, as well. The principle behind Tesla's device is called the Bremsstrahlung process, in which a high-energy secondary X

  2. Quantitative electron density characterization of soft tissue substitute plastic materials using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Chabior, M.; Zanette, I.; Pfeiffer, F. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cozzini, C.; Sperl, J. I.; Bequé, D. [GE Global Research, 85748 Garching (Germany); Langner, O.; Coman, J. [QRM GmbH, Möhrendorf (Germany); Ruiz-Yaniz, M. [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department and Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many scientific research areas rely on accurate electron density characterization of various materials. For instance in X-ray optics and radiation therapy, there is a need for a fast and reliable technique to quantitatively characterize samples for electron density. We present how a precise measurement of electron density can be performed using an X-ray phase-contrast grating interferometer in a radiographic mode of a homogenous sample in a controlled geometry. A batch of various plastic materials was characterized quantitatively and compared with calculated results. We found that the measured electron densities closely match theoretical values. The technique yields comparable results between a monochromatic and a polychromatic X-ray source. Measured electron densities can be further used to design dedicated X-ray phase contrast phantoms and the additional information on small angle scattering should be taken into account in order to exclude unsuitable materials.

  3. Detection of improvised explosive devices at long-range using coded aperture imaging of backscattered X-rays with dynamic reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Jayna T. (Jayna Teresa)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standoff detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a continuing problem for the U.S. military. Current X-ray detection systems cannot detect explosives at distances above a few meters and with a source-detector ...

  4. MULTI-STRANDED AND MULTI-THERMAL SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: EVIDENCE FROM HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE AND EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Saar, S. H.; Kashyap, V. L.; Weber, M. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L., E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.ed [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Japanese/USA/UK Hinode spacecraft were used to investigate the spatial and thermal properties of an isolated quiescent coronal loop. We constructed differential emission measure (DEM) curves using Monte Carlo based, iterative forward fitting algorithms. We studied the loop as a whole, in segments, in transverse cuts, and point-by-point, always with some form of background subtraction, and find that the loop DEM is neither isothermal nor extremely broad, with approximately 96% of the EM between 6.2 {<=}log T{<=} 6.7, and an EM-weighted temperature of log T = 6.48 {+-} 0.16. We find evidence for a gradual change in temperature along the loop, with log T increasing only by {approx}0.1 from the footpoints to the peak. The combine XRT-EIS data set does a good job of constraining the temperature distribution for coronal loop plasma. Our studies show that the strong constraints at high and low temperatures provided by the combined data set are crucial for obtaining reasonable solutions. These results confirm that the observations of at least some loops are not consistent with isothermal plasma, and therefore cannot be modeled with a single flux tube and must be multi-stranded.

  5. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  6. Gated x-ray detector for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, John A.; Aragonez, Robert; Archuleta, Tom; Barnes, Cris; Casper, Larry; Fatherley, Valerie; Heinrichs, Todd; King, Robert; Landers, Doug; Lopez, Frank; Sanchez, Phillip; Sandoval, George; Schrank, Lou; Walsh, Peter; Bell, Perry; Brown, Matt; Costa, Robert; Holder, Joe; Montelongo, Sam; Pederson, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); VI Control Systems Ltd., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new gated x-ray imaging cameras have recently been designed, constructed, and delivered to the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, CA. These gated x-Ray detectors are each designed to fit within an aluminum airbox with a large capacity cooling plane and are fitted with an array of environmental housekeeping sensors. These instruments are significantly different from earlier generations of gated x-ray images due, in part, to an innovative impedance matching scheme, advanced phosphor screens, pulsed phosphor circuits, precision assembly fixturing, unique system monitoring, and complete remote computer control. Preliminary characterization has shown repeatable uniformity between imaging strips, improved spatial resolution, and no detectable impedance reflections.

  7. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  8. Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S.; Wehlburg, J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-rays* Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the pachge is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to persomel and property since exTlosive devices may be "booby trapped." We have developed a method to x-ray a paclage using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them iare scattered back towards the source. The backscattenng of x-rays is propordoml to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This 24"' dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Using transmission radiography-to image the contents of an unknown package poses some undesirable risks. The object must have an x-ray film placed on the side opposite the x-ray source; this cannot be done without moving the package if it has been placed firmly against a wall or pillar. Therefore it would be extremely usefid to be able to image the contents of a package from only one side, without ever having to disturb the package itself. where E is the energy of the incoming x-ray. The volume of x-rays absorbed is important because it is, of course, directly correlated to the intensity of x-mys that will be scattered. Most of the x-rays that scatter will do so in a genemlly forward direction; however, a small percentage do scatter in a backward direction. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the various fates of x-rays directed into an object. The package that was examined in this ex~enment was an attache case made of pressed fiberboardwith a vinyl covering. It was approxirmtely 36 cm wide by 51 cm long by 13 cm deep. The case was placed on an aluminum sheet under the x-ray source. Because of the laborato~ setup, the attache case was rastered in the y-coordinate direction, while the x-ray source mstered in the x-coordinate direction. However, for field use, the x-ray source would of course raster in both the x- and y-coordinate directions, while the object under interrogation would remain stationary and undisturbed. A mobile system for use by law enforcement agencies or bomb disposal squads needs to be portable and somewhat durable. A 300 kV x-ray source should be sufficient for the task requirements and can be mounted on a mobile system. A robotic carriage could be used to transport the x-ray source and the CCD camera to the proximity of the suspect package. The controlling and data analyzing elements of the system' could then be maintained at a &tie distance from the possible explosive. F@re 8 shows a diagram of a conceptual design of a possible system for this type of use. The use of backscattered x-rays for interrogation of packages that may contain explosive devices has been shown to be feasible inthelaboratory. Usinga 150kVx-ray source anddetectors consisting of plastic scintillating material, all bomb components including the wiring were detectable. However, at this time the process requires more time than is desirable for the situations in which it will most likely be needed. Further development of the technology using CCD cameras, rather than the plastic stint illator detectors, shows promise of leading to a much faster system, as well as one with better resolution. Mounting the x- ray source and the CCD camera on a robotic vehicle while keeping the controlling and analyzing components and the opemting personnel a safe distance away from the suspect package will allow such a package to be examined at low risk to human life.

  9. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu, E-mail: i-jeon@chonnam.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jin-Ho [Pro-optics Co., Ltd., 475 Ami-ri, Bubal-eup, Icheon 467-866 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gye-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Nambu University, 76 Chumdan Jungang 1-ro, Gwangsan-gu, Gwangju 506-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Youb [School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  10. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P

  11. Performance enhancement approaches for a dual energy x-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Kenneth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evans, J.P.O. , “Stereoscopic dual energy imaging for targetCrawford, C.R. , “Dual Energy Volumetric X-ray Tomographicimages in 4–10 MeV Dual- energy customs system for material

  12. Chandra X-ray Analysis of Galaxy Cluster A168

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanbin Yang; Zhiying Huo; Xu Zhou; Suijian Xue; Shude Mao; Jun Ma; Jiansheng Chen

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Chandra X-ray observations of galaxy cluster A168 (z=0.045). Two X-ray peaks with a projected distance of 676 kpc are found to be located close to two dominant galaxies, respectively. Both peaks are significantly offset from the peak of the number density distribution of galaxies. This suggests that A168 consists of two subclusters, a northern subcluster (A168N) and a southern subcluster (A168S). Further X-ray imaging analysis reveals that (1) the X-ray isophotes surrounding the two X-ray peaks are heavily distorted, (2) an elongated and ontinuous filament connects the two X-ray peaks. These suggest that strong interactions have occurred between the two subclusters. Spectral analysis shows that A168 has a mean temperature of 2.53 +/- 0.09 keV and a mean metallicity of 0.31 +/- 0.04 Z_{solar}. The metallicity is roughly a constant across the cluster but the temperature shows some systematic variations. Most X-ray, optical and radio properties of A168 are consistent with it being an off-axis merger several Gyrs after a core passage, although detailed numerical simulations are required to see whether the observed properties, in particular the significant offset between the optical and X-ray centers, can be reproduced in such a scenario.

  13. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I. (Clayton, MO); Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  14. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  15. Regularized Equally Sloped Tomography Algorithm for Low Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yunzhe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based imaging computed tomography extraction algorithms and10 2.2. Computed Tomography reconstruction theory andcontrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological

  16. Regularized Equally Sloped Tomography Algorithm for Low Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yunzhe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based imaging computed tomography extraction algorithms andcontrast X-ray computed tomography for observing biological10 2.2. Computed Tomography reconstruction theory and

  17. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ni-K edge in Stackhousia tryonii Bailey hyperaccumulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachenko, A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro x-ray ?uorescence ( -XRF) mapping was performed using15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -XRF imaging was used to determinelocalisation in planta. Typical -XRF maps obtained of stem,

  18. advanced x-ray techniques: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a new X-ray radiographic technique for measuring density uniformity of silica aerogels used as radiator in proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors. To obtain...

  19. Design and assembly of a telecentric zoom lens for the Cygnus x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R M; Brown, K K; Curtis, A H; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Frogget, B C; Garten, J R; Howe, R A; Huerta, J A; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; McGillivray, K D; Smith, S S; Furlanetto, M R; Haines, T J

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal is to collect x-ray images of different sized targets, which are positioned inside a containment vessel, onto different sized CCD cameras.

  20. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  1. Pixel Array Detector for Time-Resolved X-ray Science, September 1, 1997 - September 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruner, Sol M.

    2000-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress on the design, fabrication, testing and assembly of two-layer Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) is described. The PADs are developed for challenging time-resolved X-ray imaging applications at synchrotron radiation X-ray sources.

  2. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  3. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

  4. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

  5. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  6. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 degrees C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  7. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  8. The BMW X-ray Cluster Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Moretti; Luigi Guzzo; Sergio Campana; Stefano Covino; Davide Lazzati; Marcella Longhetti; Emilio Molinari; Maria Rosa Panzera; Gianpiero Tagliaferri; Ian Dell'Antonio

    2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.

  9. The BMW X-ray Cluster Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moretti, A; Campana, S; Covino, S; Lazzati, D; Longhetti, M; Molinari, E; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Dell'Antonio, I P; Moretti, Alberto; Guzzo, Luigi; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Lazzati, Davide; Longhetti, Marcella; Molinari, Emilio; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Antonio, Ian Dell'

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.

  10. Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael J. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Goldammer, Matthias [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Schulz, Michael [Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Bangalore (India); Böni, Peter [Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

  11. Inner-Shell Multiple Ionization of Polyatomic Molecules With an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Studied By Coincident Ion Momentum Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erk, B. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Rolles, D. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Foucar, L. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Rudek, B. [Max Planck Advanced Study Group and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Epp, S. W. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Cryle, M. [Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Bostedt, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Schorb, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Technical Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. for Optic and Atomic Physics; Bozek, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Rouzee, A. [Max Born Inst., Berlin (Germany); Hundertmark, A. [Max Born Inst., Berlin (Germany); Marchenko, T. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Paris (France); Simon, M. [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Paris (France); Filsinger, F. [Fritz Haber Inst. for Max Planck Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany); Christensen, L. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; De, S. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Trippel, S. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg (Germany); Küpper, J. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) and Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Physics, Center for Ultrafast Imaging; Stapelfeldt, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry; Wada, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan), Dept. of Physical Science; Ueda, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). IMRAM; Swiggers, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Messerschmidt, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source; Schröter, C. D. [Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Moshammer, R. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schlichting, I. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Medical Rearch, Heidelburg (Germany); Ullrich, J. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); National Institute for Physics and Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Rudenko, A. [Max Planck Society, Hamburg (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics; Max Planck Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization and fragmentation of two selenium containing hydrocarbon molecules, methylselenol (CH3SeH) and ethylselenol (C2H5SeH), by intense (>1017 W cm-2 ) 5 fs x-ray pulses with photon energies of 1.7 and 2 keV has been studied by means of coincident ion momentum spectroscopy. Measuring charge states and ion kinetic energies, we find signatures of charge redistribution within the molecular environment. Furthermore, by analyzing fragment ion angular correlations, we can determine the laboratory-frame orientation of individual molecules and thus investigate the fragmentation dynamics in the molecular frame. This allows distinguishing protons originating from different molecular sites along with identifying the reaction channels that lead to their emission.

  12. Inner-Shell Multiple Ionization of Polyatomic Molecules With an Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Studied By Coincident Ion Momentum Imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Erk, B.; Rolles, D.; Foucar, L.; Rudek, B.; Epp, S. W.; Cryle, M.; Bostedt, C.; Schorb, S.; Bozek, J.; Rouzee, A.; et al

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization and fragmentation of two selenium containing hydrocarbon molecules, methylselenol (CH3SeH) and ethylselenol (C2H5SeH), by intense (>1017 W cm-2 ) 5 fs x-ray pulses with photon energies of 1.7 and 2 keV has been studied by means of coincident ion momentum spectroscopy. Measuring charge states and ion kinetic energies, we find signatures of charge redistribution within the molecular environment. Furthermore, by analyzing fragment ion angular correlations, we can determine the laboratory-frame orientation of individual molecules and thus investigate the fragmentation dynamics in the molecular frame. This allows distinguishing protons originating from different molecular sites along with identifying the reactionmore »channels that lead to their emission.« less

  13. PROBING DYNAMICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION WITH RADIO AND X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY, IMAGING, AND TIMING IN THE 2002 APRIL 11 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Nita, Gelu M.; Gary, Dale E. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kontar, Eduard P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on detailed analysis of radio and X-ray observations of a flare on 2002 April 11 augmented by realistic three-dimensional modeling, we have identified a radio emission component produced directly at the flare acceleration region. This acceleration region radio component has distinctly different (1) spectrum, (2) light curves, (3) spatial location, and, thus, (4) physical parameters from those of the separately identified trapped or precipitating electron components. To derive evolution of physical parameters of the radio sources we apply forward fitting of the radio spectrum time sequence with the gyrosynchrotron source function with five to six free parameters. At the stage when the contribution from the acceleration region dominates the radio spectrum, the X-ray- and radio-derived electron energy spectral indices agree well with each other. During this time the maximum energy of the accelerated electron spectrum displays a monotonic increase with time from {approx}300 keV to {approx}2 MeV over roughly one minute duration indicative of an acceleration process in the form of growth of the power-law tail; the fast electron residence time in the acceleration region is about 2-4 s, which is much longer than the time of flight and so requires a strong diffusion mode there to inhibit free-streaming propagation. The acceleration region has a relatively strong magnetic field, B {approx} 120 G, and a low thermal density, n{sub e} {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. These acceleration region properties are consistent with a stochastic acceleration mechanism.

  14. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  15. APS X-rays Reveal Picasso's Secret

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed APS X-rays Reveal Picasso's Secret OCTOBER 15, 2012 Bookmark and Share X-rays reveal that Picasso's "Old Guitarist," at...

  16. Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridriksson, Joel Karl

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

  17. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; N. Kobayashi; Y. Tsuboi

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is found from a mid-infrared protostar L1448 IRS 3(A). The lack of detection of this source in our deep NIR images indicates that this source has a very steep spectral slope of > 3.2 in 2--10 micron.

  18. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  19. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  20. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrs, Roscoe E. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  1. What are Being Discovered by the Forefront Cosmic X-ray Observations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ejiri, Shinji

    ) The launch of Suzaku by the Mu-5 rocket on 2005 July 10, from the JAXA's Uchi- noura Space Center. (right knowledge on the X-ray Universe had to wait the detection of Solar X-rays in 1949 using V-2 rockets [18 MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image) [9] which was transported in 2009 July by Space Shuttle onto

  2. X-ray spectroscopy of low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juett, Adrienne Marie, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using instruments onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). The first ...

  3. Extending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Jianwei "John"

    , the radiation damage. While the radiation damage problem can be mitigated somewhat by using cryogenic techniques resolution without serious radiation damage to the specimens. Although X-ray crystallography becomesExtending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray Microscopy Without X-ray Optics

  4. Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted fromOF X-RAY PULSES TO THE PUMP LASER IN AN ULTRAFAST X-RAY

  5. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Tsuboi, Y

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is fou...

  6. Interferometric phase detection at x-ray energies via Fano resonance control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. P. Heeg; C. Ott; D. Schumacher; H. -C. Wille; R. Röhlsberger; T. Pfeifer; J. Evers

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern x-ray light sources promise access to structure and dynamics of matter in largely unexplored spectral regions. However, the desired information is encoded in the light intensity and phase, whereas detectors register only the intensity. This phase problem is ubiquitous in crystallography and imaging, and impedes the exploration of quantum effects at x-ray energies. Here, we demonstrate phase-sensitive measurements characterizing the quantum state of a nuclear two-level system at hard x-ray energies. The nuclei are initially prepared in a superposition state. Subsequently, the relative phase of this superposition is interferometrically reconstructed from the emitted x-rays. Our results form a first step towards x-ray quantum state tomography, and provide new avenues for structure determination and precision metrology via x-ray Fano interference.

  7. Suzaku Reveals Helium-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD+303639

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Murashima; M. Kokubun; K. Makishima; J. Kotoku; H. Murakami; K. Matsushita; K. Hayashida; K. Arnaud; K. Hamaguchi; H. Matsumoto

    2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    BD+303639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O and Ne/O abundance ratios exceed the solar value by a factor of at least 30 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  8. Suzaku Reveals Helium-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD+303639

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murashima, M; Makishima, K; Kotoku, J; Murakami, H; Matsushita, K; Hayashida, K; Arnaud, K; Hamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, H

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BD+303639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O and Ne/O abundance ratios exceed the solar value by a factor of at least 30 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  9. High-resolution radio observations of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Miller-Jones

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I present an overview of important results obtained using high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of X-ray binary systems. These results derive from both astrometric observations and resolved imaging of sources, from black holes to neutron star and even white dwarf systems. I outline a number of upcoming developments in instrumentation, both new facilities and ongoing upgrades to existing VLBI instruments, and I conclude by identifying a number of important areas of investigation where VLBI will be crucial in advancing our understanding of X-ray binaries.

  10. Multidimensional analysis of X-ray variability of AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Halevin

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we analyzed X-ray light curves of active galactic nucleus NGC 4051 obtained using Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer of Chandra satellite. Taking into account mainly flaring behaviour of AGNs we have used wavelet analysis for searching of short time lived events on light curves.

  11. X-Ray Astronomy to Resonant Theranostics for Cancer Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA E-mail: nahar@astronomy.ohio. The falling particles spiral around the black hole, move faster close to it and release energy in the form jets at the center (Observed by X-ray space observatory Chandra). In the image: red indicates low-energy

  12. A Soft X-Ray Lag Detected in Centaurus A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachibana, Yutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shidatsu, Megumi; Arimoto, Makoto; Yoshii, Taketoshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Pike, Sean; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed time lag analysis on the X-ray light curves of Centaurus A (Cen A) obtained by the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) aboard the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) in three energy bands (2--4 keV, 4--10 keV, and 10--20 keV). We discovered a soft X-ray lag relative to higher energies (soft lag) on a time scale of days by employing the discrete correlation function (DCF) and the z-transformed discrete correlation function (ZDCF) method in a flare episode. A peak in the DCF and the ZDCF was observed at a soft lag of $\\sim 5$ days in 2--4 keV versus 4--10 keV and in 4--10 keV versus 10--20 keV, and $\\sim 10$ days in 2--4 keV versus 10--20 keV. We found it difficult to explain the observed X-ray variation with the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the soft lags reflect the different cooling times of the relativistic electrons in these three energy bands. Alternatively, if the X-ray variation was produced in a corona surrounding or along the inner part of the accretion disk, we can explain ...

  13. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.X-Ray Techniques to Study Mesoscale Magnetism Jeffrey B.

  14. Portable X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System was designed and built by Ames Laboratory and the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. The system uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and a high purity germanium detector on the other side. the inspection head is portable and can be easily positioned around ventilation ducts and pipes up to 36 inches in diameter. Wide angle and narrow beam X-ray shots are used to identify the type of holdup material and the amount of the contaminant. Precise assay data can be obtained within minutes of the interrogation. A profile of the containerized holdup material and a permanent record of the measurement are immediately available.

  15. X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehnpfennig, T.F.

    1981-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

  16. Techniques for synchronization of X-Ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast X-Ray facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corlett, J.N.; Doolittle, L.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synchronization of ultrafast x-ray pulses produced in theAccurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted fromOF X-RAY PULSES TO THE PUMP LASER IN AN ULTRAFAST X-RAY

  17. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  18. An X-ray jet in the BL Lac S5 2007+777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Sambruna; D. Donato; C. C. Cheung; F. Tavecchio; L. Maraschi

    2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The BL Lac S5 2007+777 was observed by us with Chandra, to find the X-ray counterpart to its 18" radio jet, and study its structure. Indeed, a bright X-ray jet was discovered in the 33 ks ACIS-S image of the source. We present its properties and briefly discuss the implications.

  19. Penalized Weighted Least-Squares Approach for Low-Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penalized Weighted Least-Squares Approach for Low-Dose X- Ray Computed Tomography Jing Wang*1, noise-resolution tradeoff, ROC curve. 1. INTRODUCTION Low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China ABSTRACT The noise of low-dose computed

  20. Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

  1. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchheim,, A. P.; Dal Molin, D.C.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Provis, J.L.; Fischer, P.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C{sub 3}A or 3CaO {center_dot} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C{sub 3}A or Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 8}Al{sub 6}O{sub 18}), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C{sub 3}A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C{sub 3}A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C{sub 3}A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C{sub 3}A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping.

  2. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; et al

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  3. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  4. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

  5. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  6. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon (Oswego, IL); Mills, Dennis M. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  7. Energy flow in light-coupling masks for lensless optical lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Energy flow in light-coupling masks for lensless optical lithography Olivier J. F. Martin@zurich.ibm.com Abstract: We illustrate the propagation of light in a new type of coupling mask for lensless optical. Biebuck, B. Michel, O.J.F. Martin and N.B. Piller, "Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless

  8. X-ray populations in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fabbiano

    2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's sensistive, high resolution Chandra X-ray observations allow the study of many populations of X-ray sources. The traditional astronomical tools of photometric diagrams and luminosity functions are now applied to these populations, and provide the means for classifying the X-ray sources and probing their evolution. While overall stellar mass drives the amount of X-ray binaries in old stellar population, the amount of sources in star-forming galaxies is related to the star formation rate. Shart-lived, luminous, high mass binaries (HNXBs) dominate these young populations.

  9. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  10. X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krauss, Miriam Ilana

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

  11. Statement of Work Third Party Algorithm Development and Evaluation of Detection of Liquid Explosives in Dual-Energy Digital Radiographic/TIP Ready X-ray Images - Public Version

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nekoogar, F; Martz, Jr., H E

    2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this statement of work is for third party collaborators to train, validate and have Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) evaluate algorithms to detect liquid threats in digital radiography (DR)/TIP Ready X-ray (TRX) images that will be provided by LLNS through the Transportation and Security Administration (TSA). LLNS will provide a set of images with threat(s) to determine detection rates and non-threat images from airports to determine false alarm rates. A key including a bounding box showing the locations of the threats and non-threats will be provided for the images. It is expected that the Subcontractor shall use half of the images with their keys for training the algorithms and the other half shall be used for validation (third party evaluation) purposes. The Subcontractor shall not use the key to the second half of the data other than for the validation and reporting of the performance of its algorithm (not for training). The Subcontractor has 45 business days from the receipt of datasets and the Subcontract to: (1) Run their detection/classification algorithms on the data; (2) Deliver a final report describing their performance by generating Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves using their algorithm; and (3) Deliver a copy of the third party's executable software (already trained and validated by the datasets) to LLNL accompanied by a user manual. LLNS will evaluate the performance of the same algorithm on another separate set of data. LLNS evaluation of the Subcontractor's algorithm will be documented in a final report within 30 days of receiving the executable code. This report will be sent to TSA and the report may be disseminated to the Subcontract at TSA's discretion.

  12. X-ray source populations in galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fabbiano

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's sensitive, high-resolution X-ray observations allow the study of populations of X-ray sources, in the luminosity range of Galactic X-ray binaries, in galaxies as distant as 20-30 Mpc. The traditional astronomical tools of photometric diagrams and luminosity functions are now applied to these populations, providing a direct probe of the evolved binary component of different stellar populations. The study of the X-ray populations of E and S0 galaxies has revamped the debate on the formation and evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and on the role of globular clusters in these processes. While overall stellar mass drives the amount of X-ray binaries in old stellar populations, the amount of sources in star forming galaxies is related to the star formation rate. Short-lived, luminous, high-mass binaries (HMXBs) dominate these young populations. The most luminous sources in these systems are the debated ULXs, which have been suggested to be ~100-1000 Msol black holes, but could alternatively include a number of binaries with stellar mass black holes. Very soft sources have also been discovered in many galaxies and their nature is currently being debated. Observations of the deep X-ray sky, and comparison with deep optical surveys, are providing the first evidence of the X-ray evolution of galaxies.

  13. Thermal management of masks for deep x-ray lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khounsary, A.; Chojnowski, D.; Mancini, D.C.; Lai, B.; Dejus, R.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses some options and techniques in the thermal management of masks used in deep x-ray lithography. The x-ray masks are thin plates made of low-atomic-number materials on which a patterned thin film of a high-atomic-number metal has been deposited. When they are exposed to an x-ray beam, part of the radiation is transmitted to replicate the pattern on a downstream photoresist, and the remainder is absorbed in the mask in the form of heat. This heat load can cause deformation of the mask and thus image distortion in the lithography process. The mask geometry considered in the present study is 100 mm x 100 mm in area, and about 0.1 to 2 mm thick. The incident radiation is a bending magnet x-ray beam having a footprint of 60 mm x 4 mm at the mask. The mask is scanned vertically about {+-} 30 mm so that a 60 mm x 60 mm area is exposed. the maximum absorbed heat load in the mask is 80 W, which is significantly greater than a few watts encountered in previous systems. In this paper, cooling techniques, substrate material selection, transient and steady state thermal and structural behavior, and other thermo-mechanical aspects of mask design are discussed. It is shown that, while diamond and graphite remain attractive candidates, at present beryllium is a more suitable material for this purpose and, when properly cooled, can provide the necessary dimensional tolerance.

  14. Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckewer, P.I.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

  15. Lensless Magneto-optic speed sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, Lynn R. (Los Alamos, NM); Forman, Peter R. (Los Alamos, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 .mu.m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation.

  16. Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, L.R.; Forman, P.R.; Rodriguez, P.J.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor is disclosed. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 {micro}m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation. 5 figs.

  17. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...

  18. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for a Berea Sandstone: Resolution Effect. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for...

  19. Manipulating X-rays with Tiny Mirrors | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for controlling X-rays. MEMS, or microelectromechanical systems, allow shrinking the optics to the microscale creating ultrafast devices for reflecting X-rays at precise times...

  20. Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    temperature ambient (plastic windows) 5 Radiography - Monochromatic x-rays - Absorption of x-rays by the fuel - Ensemble averaged (flux limited) - Room temperature ambient...

  1. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Durbin, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  2. Columbia University X-Ray Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University X-Ray Measurements of the Levitated Dipole Experiment J. L. Ellsworth, J. Kesner MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center D.T. Garnier, A.K. Hansen, M.E. Mauel Columbia University

  3. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  4. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  5. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  6. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  7. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Yajiang; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging.

  8. Cumulative luminosity functions of the X-ray point source population in M31

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Shaw Greening; C. Tonkin; R. Barnard; U. Kolb; J. P. Osborne

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results from a detailed analysis of the X-ray point sources in the XMM-Newton survey of M31. These sources are expected to be mostly X-ray binaries. We have so far studied 225 of the 535 sources found by automated source detection. Only sources which were present in all three EPIC images were considered. X-ray binaries are identified by their energy spectrum and power density spectrum. Unlike in other surveys we have obtained source luminosities from freely fit emission models. We present uncorrected luminosity functions of the sources analysed so far.

  9. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  10. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore »freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaojing [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Steinbrener, Jan [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Kirz, Janos [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Marchesini, Stephano [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Neiman, Aaron M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Turner, Joshua J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Jacobsen, Chris [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  12. Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, Christoph

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

  13. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Proposal system. So, in order to receive beamtime for an experiment you have in mind, you would have to complete a short proposal form (specific instructions as to...

  14. SMB, X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobs RunningSEABRV2/01/12SMB SMB

  15. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome to theAbsorption

  16. Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jr., A. C.; Bell, Z. W.; Carpenter, D. A.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor resolution. Also, the development of more advanced materials characterization techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is driven by a design agency desire for tighter specifications and more uniform materials. Brighter screens would allow us to probe materials on a finer scale, leading to a better understanding of material behavior. A number of X-ray screen materials were studied that would be suitable for direct replacement in existing digital imaging systems. Spectroscopic evaluations were first made for a several candidates and indicated that lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) would be a promising candidate for MeV images. A relative comparison of brightness at various energies was then completed which showed that cesium iodide (CsI) could increase brightness by over an order of magnitude. Since image quality is also important for better screens, the resolving capabilities of candidate materials were measured. Resolution measurements were completed at X-ray peak energies up to 420KeV with magnified optical imaging systems, and indicated that LSO and Industrial Quality Incorporated glass (IQI) exhibited higher resolution than the CsI screen. The results give a choice of materials that can be tailored to the particular test under consideration. If high-speed images are necessary and some resolution can be sacrificed, the CsI screen will be a good choice. The screen can be replaced by an IQI or LSO unit if higher resolution is needed later, for instance to focus in on a region of interest. A number of significant findings were obtained from this study. Most important of the findings was that materials are commercially available that are much brighter than screens currently in use. This finding meets the original objective of the project. Two objectives of the study; however, were not met. We hoped to evaluate a 'quantum dot' (nanometer-sized particles of semiconductor material) wavelength conversion screen, but the manufacturer ceased production of the screen shortly before the project was started. The dot screen could be efficient in converting ultraviolet light to visible light which would have proved important for utilizing a Cherenkov screen. Since this was a very new, cutting-edge technology, an alternative supplier was not found during the study. Also, high-energy testing of a Cherenkov light screen was not performed due to difficulties in obtaining appropriate approvals for locating test equipment in the high-energy X-ray vault at Y-12. The test is still important, and is being pursued through follow-on funding sources. Although many film shots will be eliminated by the availability of high quality digital images, the largest potential gains result from the availability of clearer images that show fine detail in the parts under analysis. Digital radiographic data also offers the possibility of easily sharing data with other sites. This could prove invaluable when critical material, placement, assembly, or quality issues are pressing. Also, increased throughput in the NDE facility allows statistically significant numbers of units to be analyzed. Digital technologies may in fact be needed just to meet minimum requirements of future demands. Increased brightness screens allow for such innovations as 3-D tomographic images to be acquired in a reasonable time. Much of the skill required to interpret 'flattened' X-ray images is not needed to maneuver around the reconstructed tomogram. This study showed that several commercially available materials are much brighter than screens currently in use. The study also showed that materials othe

  17. Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

  18. Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tod E. Strohmayer

    2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

  19. X-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336342

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    , Chicago, IL 60637, USA 3 Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source and School of Applied and EngineeringX-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336­342 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www to establish a breakthrough in high-resolution, simultaneous area mapping of multiple trace elements

  20. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

  1. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  2. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  3. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  4. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K. (Chicago, IL); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Solem, Johndale C. (Los Alamos, NM); Haddad, Waleed S. (Chicago, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  5. The X-ray/submillimetre link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Almaini

    2000-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely believed that most of the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) is produced by a vast, hitherto undetected population of obscured AGN. Deep X-ray surveys with Chandra and XMM will soon test this hypothesis. Similarly, recent sub-mm surveys with SCUBA have revealed an analogous population of exceptionally luminous, dust-enshrouded {\\em star-forming} galaxies at high redshift. There is now growing evidence for an intimate link between these obscured populations. There are currently large uncertainties in the models, but several independent arguments lead to the conclusion that a significant fraction of the SCUBA sources ($10-30% $) will contain quasars. Recent observational studies of SCUBA survey sources appear to confirm these predictions, although the relative roles of AGN and star-forming activity in heating the dust are unclear. Forthcoming surveys combining X-ray and sub-mm observations will provide a very powerful tool for disentangling these processes.

  6. X-ray atlas of rheumatic diseases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dihlmann, W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas comprises instructive X-rays of the various inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases in all stages at the extremities and the spinal column. In addition, the complex pattern of the wide range of arthroses, also known as degenerative rheumatic disease is included. Besides the instructive pointers to X-ray diagnosis, the book is also a guide to differential diagnosis. Hence, this book is actually an X-ray atlas of joint diseases in general. Selected Contents: Introduction: What Does ''Rheumatism'' Actually Mean./Radiographic Methodology in Rheumatic Diseases of the Locomotor System/The Mosaic of Arthritis/Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis/Seronegative Spondylarthritis/Classic Collagen Diseases/Enthesiopathies/Gout-Pseudogout

  7. Combined microstructure x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayers are man-made microstructures which vary in depth and are now of sufficient quality to be used as x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics. Gratings are man-made in plane microstructures which have been used as optic elements for most of this century. Joining of these two optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical elements has the potential for greatly enhancing both the throughput and the resolution attainable in these spectral ranges. The characteristics of these new optic elements will be presented and compared to experiment with emphasis on the unique properties of these combined microstructures. These results reported are general in nature and not limited to the soft x-ray or extreme ultraviolet spectral domains and also apply to neutrons. 19 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  10. Theoretical standards in x-ray spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to extend our state-of-the-art, ab initio XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) codes, FEFF. Our current work has been highly successful in achieving accurate, user-friendly XAFS standards, exceeding the performance of both tabulated standards and other codes by a considerable margin. We now propose to add the capability to treat more complex materials. This includes multiple-scattering, polarization dependence, an approximate treatment of XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure), and other improvements. We also plan to adapt FEFF to other spectroscopies, e.g. photoelectron diffraction (PD) and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS).

  11. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensusX-RayX-Ray

  12. A Chandra X-ray Study of NGC 1068: II. The Luminous X-ray Source Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Smith; Andrew S. Wilson

    2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the compact X-ray source population in the Seyfert~2 galaxy NGC 1068, imaged with Chandra. We find a total of 84 compact sources, of which 66 are projected onto the galactic disk of NGC 1068. Spectra of the brightest sources have been modeled with both multi-color disk blackbody and power-law models. The power-law model provides the better description of the spectrum for most of these sources. Five sources have 0.4-8 keV intrinsic luminosities greater than 10^{39} erg/s, assuming that their emission is isotropic and that they are associated with NGC 1068. We refer to these sources as Intermediate Luminosity X-ray Objects (IXOs). If these five sources are X-ray binaries accreting with luminosities that are both sub-Eddington and isotropic, then the implied source masses are >7 solar masses, and so they are inferred to be black holes. The brightest source has a much harder spectrum (Gamma = 0.9\\pm0.1) than that found in Galactic black hole candidates and other IXOs. It also shows large-amplitude variability on both short-term and long-term timescales. The ratio of the number of sources with luminosities greater than 2.1 x 10^{38} erg/s in the 0.4-8 keV band to the rate of massive star formation is the same, to within a factor of two, for NGC 1068, the Antennae, NGC 5194 (the main galaxy in M51), and the Circinus galaxy. This suggests that the rate of production of X-ray binaries per massive star is approximately the same for galaxies with currently active star formation, including ``starbursts''.

  13. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  14. Chandra Deep X-ray Observation of a Typical Galactic Plane Region and Near-Infrared Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ebisawa; M. Tsujimoto; A. Paizis; K. Hamaguchi; A. Bamba; R. Cutri; H. Kaneda; Y. Maeda; G. Sato; A. Senda; M. Ueno; S. Yamauchi; V. Beckmann; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; P. Dubath; E. Nishihara

    2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer Imaging array (ACIS-I), we have carried out a deep hard X-ray observation of the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray source had been reported previously. We have detected 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) as well as strong Galactic diffuse emission within two partially overlapping ACIS-I fields (~250 arcmin^2in total). Sum of all the detected point source fluxes accounts for only ~ 10 % of the total X-ray flux in the field of view. Even hypothesizing a new population of much dimmer and numerous Galactic point sources, the total observed X-ray flux cannot be explained. Therefore, we conclude that X-ray emission from the Galactic plane has truly diffuse origin. Only 26 point sources were detected both in the soft and hard bands, indicating that there are two distinct classes of the X-ray sources distinguished by the spectral hardness ratio. Surface number density of the hard sources is only slightly higher than that measured at the high Galactic latitude regions, indicating that majority of the hard sources are background AGNs. Following up the Chandra observation, we have performed a near-infrared (NIR) survey with SOFI at ESO/NTT. Almost all the soft X-ray sources have been identified in NIR and their spectral types are consistent with main-sequence stars, suggesting most of them are nearby X-ray active stars. On the other hand, only 22 % of the hard sources had NIR counterparts, which are presumably Galactic. From X-ray and NIR spectral study, they are most likely to be quiescent cataclysmic variables. We have also carried out a precise spectral study of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission excluding the point sources.

  15. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  16. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  17. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Fromme, Petra; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kirian, Richard A.; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Schulz, Joachim; DePonte, Daniel P.; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R. Bruce; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Martin, Andrew V.; Schlichting, Ilme; Lomb, Lukas; Coppola, Nicola; Shoeman, Robert L.; Epp, Sascha W.; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Foucar, Lutz; Kimmel, Nils; Weidenspointner, Georg; Holl, Peter; Liang, Mengning; Barthelmess, Miriam; Caleman, Carl; Boutet, Sebastien; Bogan, Michael J.; Krzywinski, Jacek; Bostedt, Christoph; Bajt, Sasa; Gumprecht, Lars; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Schmidt, Carlo; Homke, Andre; Reich, Christian; Pietschner, Daniel; Struder, Lothar; Hauser, Gunter; Gorke, Hubert; Ullrich, Joachim; Herrmann, Sven; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Soltau, Heike; Kuhnel, Kai-Uwe; Messerschmidt, Marc; Bozek, John D.; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Frank, Matthias; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Starodub, Dmitri; Williams, Garth J.; Hajdu, Janos; Timneanu, Nicusor; Seibert, M. Marvin; Andreasson, Jakob; Rocker, Andrea; Jonsson, Olof; Svenda, Martin; Stern, Stephan; Nass, Karol; Andritschke, Robert; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Krasniqi, Faton; Bott, Mario; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Wang, Xiaoyu; Grotjohann, Ingo; Holton, James M.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Neutze, Richard; Marchesini, Stefano; Fromme, Raimund; Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Andersson, Inger; Hirsemann, Helmut; Potdevin, Guillaume; Graafsma, Heinz; Nilsson, Bjorn; Spence, John C. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction ‘snapshots’ are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source. We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes. More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (~200?nm to 2??m in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes. This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.

  18. Catalog of supersoft X-ray sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Greiner

    2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This catalog comprises an up-to-date (December 1999) list of luminous (>10^36 erg/s), binary supersoft X-ray sources. This electronic version (including the accompannying Web-pages) supersedes the printed version of Greiner (1996).

  19. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  20. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  1. High-intensity double-pulse X-ray free-electron laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marinelli, A.; Ratner, D.; Lutman, A. A.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; Decker, F. -J.; Loos, H.; Behrens, C.; Gilevich, S.; Miahnahri, A. A.; et al

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-ray free-electron laser has opened a new era for photon science, improving the X-ray brightness by ten orders of magnitude over previously available sources. Similar to an optical laser, the spectral and temporal structure of the radiation pulses can be tailored to the specific needs of many experiments by accurately manipulating the lasing medium, that is, the electron beam. Here we report the generation of mJ-level two-colour hard X-ray pulses of few femtoseconds duration with an XFEL driven by twin electron bunches at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This performance represents an improvement of over an order of magnitudemore »in peak power over state-of-the-art two-colour XFELs. The unprecedented intensity and temporal coherence of this new two-colour X-ray free-electron laser enable an entirely new set of scientific applications, ranging from X-ray pump/X-ray probe experiments to the imaging of complex biological samples with multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion.« less

  2. Absolute x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped low-density aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K. B.; Satcher, J. H.; May, M. J.; Poco, J. F.; Sorce, C. M.; Colvin, J. D.; Hansen, S. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Moon, S. J.; Davis, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Primout, M.; Babonneau, D. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Direction des Application Militaires (CEA/DAM), Ile-de-France, F91297 Arpajon (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Beutler, D. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas have been measured in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx_equal}15 keV at the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The targets' x-ray yields have been studied for variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length, and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx_equal}10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of x rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the x-ray spectral yields, the x-ray temporal waveforms have been measured and it is observed that the emitted x rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted x-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Further, the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities is found to be 2%-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx_equal}10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The propagation of the laser heating in the target volume has been characterized with two-dimensional imaging. Source-region heating is seen to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted x-ray power.

  3. Absolute X-Ray Yields From Laser-Irradiated Ge-Doped Low-Density Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, K B; Satcher, J H; May, M J; Poco, J F; Sorce, C M; Colvin, J D; Hansen, S B; MacLaren, S A; Moon, S J; Davis, J F; Girard, F; Villette, B; Primout, M; Babonneau, D; Coverdale, C A; Beutler, D E

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the OMEGA laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester) to measure the X-ray yields from laser-irradiated germanium-doped ultra-low-density aerogel plasmas in the energy range from sub-keV to {approx} 15 keV. They have studied the targets X-ray yields with variation in target size, aerogel density, laser pulse length and laser intensity. For targets that result in plasmas with electron densities in the range of {approx} 10% of the critical density for 3{omega} light, one can expect 10-11 J/sr of X-rays with energies above 9 keV, and 600-800 J/sr for energies below 3.5 keV. In addition to the X-ray spectral yields, they have measured the X-ray temporal waveforms and found that the emitted X rays generally follow the delivered laser power, with late-time enhancements of emitted X-ray power correlated with hydrodynamic compression of the hot plasma. Also, they find the laser energy reflected from the target by plasma instabilities to be 2-7% of the incident energy for individual beam intensities {approx} 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. They also have characterized the propagation of the laser heating in the target volume with two-dimensional imaging. They find the source-region heating to be correlated with the temporal profile of the emitted X-ray power.

  4. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  5. Fundamental Parameters of Low Mass X-ray Binaries II: X-Ray Persistent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorge Casares; Phil Charles

    2005-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of fundamental parameters in X-ray luminous (persistent) X-ray binaries has been classically hampered by the large optical luminosity of the accretion disc. New methods, based on irradiation of the donor star and burst oscillations, provide the opportunity to derive dynamical information and mass constraints in many persistent systems for the first time. These techniques are here reviewed and the latest results presented.

  6. 0.2 Hz Plasma-Focus-based source of fast neutrons and hard x rays for applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, C.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Lazarte, A.; Knoblauch, P. [Laboratorio Plasma Focus - Instituto de Fisica del Plasma - Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN - Universidad de Buenos Aires - PLADEMA (Argentina); Clausse, A. [PLADEMA - UNICEN - CNEA (Argentina)

    2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A small chamber Plasma Focus that operates at 0.2 Hz for several minutes is used as a source of hard x rays and fast neutrons. The device is powered by a microprocessor controlled capacitor charging power supply. The x rays are used for introspective imaging of metallic pieces, static and in motion, that allows for the detection of internal defects as small as 1 mm. The x ray radiation is able to produce clear images of objects placed behind several millimeters of iron and steel. The fast neutrons allow for the detection of hydrogenated substances and can discriminate between different concentrations of water located near the device.

  7. Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

    2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

  8. Advances in Parametric X-Ray Production at the RPI Linear Accelerator B. Sones, Y. Danon, and R. Block

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Advances in Parametric X-Ray Production at the RPI Linear Accelerator B. Sones, Y. Danon, and R-ray source for practical applications such as medical imaging and material characterization. This phenomenon

  9. Road Materials and Pavement Design. Volume X No. X/2001, pages 1 to n Synchrotron X-Ray microtomography: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Road Materials and Pavement Design. Volume X ­ No. X/2001, pages 1 to n Synchrotron X Materials and Pavement Design. Volume X ­ No. X/2001 1. Introduction X-ray imaging techniques are non

  10. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

  11. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

  12. Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, aiming to understand their sciences for applying a new material. In particular, soft x-ray capabilities have been used to obtain microscopic-level understanding of the...

  13. Dawn of x-ray nonlinear optics | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dawn of x-ray nonlinear optics Wednesday, July 8, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: David Reis, PULSE Program Description X-ray free electron lasers...

  14. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    times science has used high-brilliance x-rays to look so closely at these reactions. Lead author Dr. David Mueller at the ALS using x-rays to characterize working fuel cells....

  15. A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure October 7, 2014 Bookmark and Share Philip Coppens An x-ray crystal structure solved by Philip Coppens has been chosen as one of the world's...

  16. Nanofabrication of Diffractive X-ray Optics for Synchrotrons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the soft x-ray range and down to 15 nm in the multi keV range. For use at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources, diffractive optics must be capable of withstanding extreme...

  17. Beyond Chandra - the X-ray Surveyor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisskopf, Martin C; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 16 years, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has provided an unparalleled means for exploring the universe with its half-arcsecond angular resolution. Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, planets, and solar system objects addressing almost all areas of current interest in astronomy and astrophysics. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address even more demanding science questions, such as the formation and subsequent growth of black hole seeds at very high redshift; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, together with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, has initiated a concept study for such a mission named the X-ray Surveyor. This study starts with a baseline payloa...

  18. X-ray mammography with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burattini, E. (CNR and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy)); Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Rimondi, O. (Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita and Sezione INFN di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy)); Indovina, P.L. (Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell'Universita and Sezione INFN di Napoli, Naples (Italy)); Pocek, M.; Simonetti, G. (Istituto di Radiologia, Ospedale Sant'Eugenio, Universita di Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)); Benassi, M.; Tirelli, C. (Istituto Nazionale del Cancro, Regina Elena, Rome (Italy)); Passariello, R. (Cattedra di Radiologia, Universita dell'Aquila, L'Aquila (Italy))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the first time in the literature, radiographs of breast phantoms were obtained using several monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-ray beams of selected energy in the range from 14 to 26 keV. In addition, after optimization of the photon energy as a function of the phantom thickness, several mammographs were obtained on surgically removed human breast specimens containing cancer nodules. Comparison between radiographs using a conventional x-ray unit and those obtained of the same specimens utilizing synchrotron monochromatic beams clearly shows that higher contrast and better resolution can be achieved with synchrotron radiation. These results demonstrate the possibility of obtaining radiographs of excised human breast tissue containing a greater amount of radiological information using synchrotron radiation.

  19. X-rays from Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach

    2002-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of X-ray observations of supernova remnants is presented including the explosion fragment A of the Vela SNR, Tycho, N132D, RX J0852-4622, the Crab Nebula and the 'bulls eye', and SN 1987A, high-lighting the progress made with Chandra and XMM-Newton and touching upon the questions which arise from these observations and which might inspire future research.

  20. Bright X-ray galaxies in SDSS filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tugay, A V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighteen bright X-ray emitting galaxies were found in nearby filaments within SDSS region. Basic X-ray spectral parameters were estimated for these galaxies using power law model with photoelectric absorption. A close pair of X-ray galaxies was found.

  1. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    .A. & Svergun D.I. (1987). Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering. NY: Plenum PressSmall Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Laboratory Learning Experiences o - Use of small angle X-ray scattering instrumentation o - Programs that you will use SAXS (BRUKER AXS) PRIMUS (Konarev, Volkov, Koch

  2. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  3. Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Feigelson, E D; Getman, K V; Broos, P S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603...

  4. ASCA Observations of the Sgr B2 Cloud: An X-Ray Reflection Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Murakami; K. Koyama; M. Sakano; M. Tsujimoto; Y. Maeda

    1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the ASCA results of imaging spectroscopy of the giant molecular cloud Sgr B2. The X-ray spectrum is found to be very peculiar; it exhibits a strong emission line at 6.4 keV, a low energy cutoff below about 4 keV and a pronounced edge-structure at 7.1 keV. The X-ray image is extended and its peak position is shifted from the core of the molecular cloud toward the Galactic center by about 1--2 arcminute. The X-ray spectrum and the morphology are well reproduced by a scenario that X-rays from an external source located in the Galactic center direction are scattered by the molecular cloud Sgr B2, and come into our line of sight. Thus Sgr B2 may be called an X-ray reflection nebula. Possible implications of the Galactic center activity related to this unique source are presented.

  5. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  6. Possibility of corrector plate tuning of x-ray focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talman, Richard

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Schemes for focusing a hard x-ray beam to a small spot are described. The theoretical minimum spot size, assuming perfect mirror shape, is shown to be 4 nm FWHM, independent of x-ray wavelength. This is less than the 10 nm previously said to be the minimum achievable diffraction-limited x-ray spot size. While providing the penetrating power only possible with x rays, this approaches the resolution needed to image individual atoms or atomic layers. However, the perfect mirror assumption is physically unrealistic. This paper discusses the compensation of mirror shape errors by a corrector plate and shows that the tolerances for corrector plate shape are far looser than are tolerances for mirror shape. The full eventual success of achieving theoretical minimum resolution will require mirror shape precision considerably better than has been achieved at this time, though far looser than would be required for simpleminded paraboloidal focusing. Two variants of the scheme, subject to the same mathematical treatment, are described. (i) The ''corrector plate'' name is copied from the similarly functioning element of the same name in a Schmidt camera. The focusing is achieved using glancing, yet coherent, reflection from a high-Z paraboloidal mirror. The strategy is to obtain dominant focusing from reflection and to compensate with weak refractive focusing. The reflective focusing is strong and achromatic but insufficiently accurate. The refractive focusing is weak and chromatic but highly accurate. The corrector plate improves resolution the way eyeglasses help a person to see. It can, for example, be ''fitted'' the same trial-and-error way an optometrist establishes a prescription for glasses. Dimensional tolerances for the compensator are far looser than would be needed for a mirror to achieve the same resolution. Unlike compound refractive lenses, attenuation will be small, at least for wavelengths longer than 1 A, because the compensation layer is thin. (ii) For this variant, the corrector plate is a washer-shaped refractive or Fresnel lens, and the mirror is (theoretically) a perfect cone. All focusing is provided by the lens. Even though the cone provides no focusing, it improves the resolution by increasing the numerical aperture of the device. Compared to a paraboloidal shape, it is assumed that the conical shape can be more accurately fabricated. Of the two variants, only the first variant is, in principle, capable of achieving the theoretical minimum resolution. Configurations are suggested, in both case (i) and case (ii), that use currently possible construction precisions to produce resolutions better than have been achieved to date. However, both results will remain well above the theoretical minimum until fabrication techniques have been developed that provide greater precision than is possible at this time.

  7. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  8. Regularization approach for tomosynthesis X-ray inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tigkos, Konstantinos; Hassler, Ulf; Holub, Wolfgang; Woerlein, Norbert; Rehak, Markus [Fraunhofer Development Center X-ray Technologies (EZRT), Dept. Application Specific Methods and Systems (AMS), Fraunhofer IIS, Flugplatzstraße 75, 90768 Fürth (Germany)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray inspection is intended to be used as an escalation technique for inspection of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) in aerospace applications, especially in case of unclear indications from ultrasonic or other NDT modalities. Due to their large dimensions, most aerospace components cannot be scanned by conventional computed tomography. In such cases, X-ray Laminography may be applied, allowing a pseudo 3D slice-by-slice reconstruction of the sample with Tomosynthesis. However, due to the limited angle acquisition geometry, reconstruction artifacts arise, especially at surfaces parallel to the imaging plane. To regularize the Tomosynthesis approach, we propose an additional prescan of the object to detect outer sample surfaces. We recommend the use of contrasted markers which are temporarily attached to the sample surfaces. The depth position of the markers is then derived from that prescan. As long as the sample surface remains simple, few markers are required to fit the respective object surfaces. The knowledge about this surface may then be used to regularize the final Tomosynthesis reconstruction, performed with markerless projections. Eventually, it can also serve as prior information for an ART reconstruction or to register a CAD model of the sample. The presented work is carried out within the European FP7 project QUICOM. We demonstrate the proposed approach within a simulation study applying an acquisition geometry suited for CFRP part inspection. A practical verification of the approach is planned later in the project.

  9. Crushing of interstellar gas clouds in supernova remnants II. X-ray emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Orlando; F. Bocchino; G. Peres; F. Reale; T. Plewa; R. Rosner

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    AIMS. We study and discuss the time-dependent X-ray emission predicted by hydrodynamic modeling of the interaction of a SNR shock wave with an interstellar gas cloud. The scope includes: 1) to study the correspondence between modeled and X-ray emitting structures, 2) to explore two different physical regimes in which either thermal conduction or radiative cooling plays a dominant role, and 3) to investigate the effects of the physical processes at work on the emission of the shocked cloud in the two different regimes. METHODS. We use a detailed hydrodynamic model, including thermal conduction and radiation, and explore two cases characterized by different Mach numbers of the primary shock: M = 30 in which the cloud dynamics is dominated by radiative cooling and M = 50 dominated by thermal conduction. From the simulations, we synthesize the expected X-ray emission, using available spectral codes. RESULTS. The morphology of the X-ray emitting structures is significantly different from that of the flow structures originating from the shock-cloud interaction. The hydrodynamic instabilities are never clearly visible in the X-ray band. Shocked clouds are preferentially visible during the early phases of their evolution. Thermal conduction and radiative cooling lead to two different phases of the shocked cloud: a cold cooling dominated core emitting at low energies and a hot thermally conducting corona emitting in the X-ray band. The thermal conduction makes the X-ray image of the cloud smaller, more diffuse, and shorter-lived than that observed when thermal conduction is neglected.

  10. Three-dimensional mapping of nickel oxidation states using full field x-ray absorption near edge structure nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S. [HeteroFoaM Center, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States); Chu, Yong S. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 703 Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Yi, Jaemock [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Bldg. 438-B007 Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., MS 69 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.

  11. X-ray server : an outline resource for simulations of x-ray diffraction and scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanov, S.; Biosciences Division

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Server is a public project operational at the APS since 1997 with the goals to explore novel network technologies for providing wide scientific community with access to personal research results, establishing scientific collaborations, and refining scientific software. The Server provides Web-based access to a number of programs developed by the author in the field of X-ray diffraction and scattering. The software code operates directly on the Server available for use without downloading. Currently seven programs are accessible that have been used more than 85,000 times. This report discusses the Server philosophy, provides an overview of the physical models and algorithms beneath the codes and demonstrates some applications of the programs. It is shown with examples and statistics how the Server goals are achieved. The plans for further X-ray Server development are outlined.

  12. HgMn Stars as apparent X-ray emitters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubrig, S; Mathys, G

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the ROSAT all-sky survey 11 HgMn stars were detected as soft X-ray emitters (Berghoefer, Schmitt & Cassinelli 1996). Prior to ROSAT, X-ray observations with the Einstein Observatory had suggested that stars in the spectral range B5-A7 are devoid of X-ray emission. Since there is no X-ray emitting mechanism available for these stars (also not for HgMn stars), the usual argument in the case of an X-ray detected star of this spectral type is the existence of an unseen low-mass companion which is responsible for the X-ray emission. The purpose of the present work is to use all available data for our sample of X-ray detected HgMn stars and conclude on the nature of possible companions.

  13. X-ray emission properties of galaxies in Abell 3128

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell J. Smith

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We use archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data to investigate X-ray emission from early-type galaxies in the rich z=0.06 cluster Abell 3128. By combining the X-ray count-rates from an input list of optically-selected galaxies, we obtain a statistical detection of X-ray flux, unbiased by X-ray selection limits. Using 87 galaxies with reliable Chandra data, X-ray emission is detected for galaxies down to M_B ~ -19.0, with only an upper limit determined for galaxies at M_B ~ -18.3. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosities is consistent with recent determinations of the low-mass X-ray binary content of nearby elliptical galaxies. Taken individually, in contrast, we detect significant (3sigma) flux for only six galaxies. Of these, one is a foreground galaxy, while two are optically-faint galaxies with X-ray hardness ratios characteristic of active galactic nuclei. The remaining three detected galaxies are amongst the optically-brightest cluster members, and have softer X-ray spectra. Their X-ray flux is higher than that expected from X-ray binaries, by a factor 2-10; the excess suggests these galaxies have retained their hot gaseous haloes. The source with the highest L_X / L_B ratio is of unusual optical morphology with prominent sharp-edged shells. Notwithstanding these few exceptions, the cluster population overall exhibits X-ray properties consistent with their emission being dominated by X-ray binaries. We conclude that in rich cluster environments, interaction with the ambient intra-cluster medium acts to strip most galaxies of their hot halo gas.

  14. Cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Dongmei; Zhu Shouping; Yi Huangjian; Zhang Xianghan; Chen Duofang; Liang Jimin [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Tian Jie [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The appearance of x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) opens new possibilities to perform molecular imaging by x ray. In the previous XLCT system, the sample was irradiated by a sequence of narrow x-ray beams and the x-ray luminescence was measured by a highly sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. This resulted in a relatively long sampling time and relatively low utilization of the x-ray beam. In this paper, a novel cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography strategy is proposed, which can fully utilize the x-ray dose and shorten the scanning time. The imaging model and reconstruction method are described. The validity of the imaging strategy has been studied in this paper. Methods: In the cone beam XLCT system, the cone beam x ray was adopted to illuminate the sample and a highly sensitive CCD camera was utilized to acquire luminescent photons emitted from the sample. Photons scattering in biological tissues makes it an ill-posed problem to reconstruct the 3D distribution of the x-ray luminescent sample in the cone beam XLCT. In order to overcome this issue, the authors used the diffusion approximation model to describe the photon propagation in tissues, and employed the sparse regularization method for reconstruction. An incomplete variables truncated conjugate gradient method and permissible region strategy were used for reconstruction. Meanwhile, traditional x-ray CT imaging could also be performed in this system. The x-ray attenuation effect has been considered in their imaging model, which is helpful in improving the reconstruction accuracy. Results: First, simulation experiments with cylinder phantoms were carried out to illustrate the validity of the proposed compensated method. The experimental results showed that the location error of the compensated algorithm was smaller than that of the uncompensated method. The permissible region strategy was applied and reduced the reconstruction error to less than 2 mm. The robustness and stability were then evaluated from different view numbers, different regularization parameters, different measurement noise levels, and optical parameters mismatch. The reconstruction results showed that the settings had a small effect on the reconstruction. The nonhomogeneous phantom simulation was also carried out to simulate a more complex experimental situation and evaluated their proposed method. Second, the physical cylinder phantom experiments further showed similar results in their prototype XLCT system. With the discussion of the above experiments, it was shown that the proposed method is feasible to the general case and actual experiments. Conclusions: Utilizing numerical simulation and physical experiments, the authors demonstrated the validity of the new cone beam XLCT method. Furthermore, compared with the previous narrow beam XLCT, the cone beam XLCT could more fully utilize the x-ray dose and the scanning time would be shortened greatly. The study of both simulation experiments and physical phantom experiments indicated that the proposed method was feasible to the general case and actual experiments.

  15. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffet, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2-ID-B intermediate-energy scanning X-ray microscope at theW. D. , Morrison, G. R. et al. Scanning transmission X-rayX-ray spectromicroscopy with the scanning transmission X-ray

  16. Deep Near Infrared Observations of the X-ray Emitting Class 0 Protostar Candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi; G. Chartas; M. Goto; N. Kobayashi; H. Terada; A. T. Tokunaga

    2002-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtained near infrared (NIR) imaging with the Subaru Telescope of the class 0 protostar candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3, two of which were discovered to have X-ray emission by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We found strong evidence for the class~0 nature of the X-ray sources. First, our deep K-band image shows no emission brighter than 19.6 mag from both of these X-ray sources. Since class I protostars or class II T Tauri stars should be easily detected in the NIR with this sensitivity, the lack of K-band detection suggests that they are likely much more obscured than class I protostars. Second, our H2 v=1-0 S(1) image shows a bubble-like feature from one of the X-ray class 0 protostar candidates, which reinforces the idea that this is a class 0 protostar. We also discuss the nature of nine NIR sources found in our deep image based on their colors, spatial coincidence with millimeter cores, and the properties of their X-ray counterparts.

  17. X-ray generation using carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parmee, Richard J.; Collins, Clare M.; Milne, William I.; Cole, Matthew T.

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of these sys- tems are illustrated in Figure 2(b) also outlines the principle mode of operation. Here, sealed in an inexpensive and eas- ily fabricated evacuated glass or ceramic envelope, the elec- trons are liberated from a metallic filament, often made... - ment of CNT-based FE sources is provided in [152]. Here we provide a condensed review of the progress, as it pertains to X-ray sources, since then. CNTs have some of the highest attainable aspect ratios, high thermal conductivity, low chemical...

  18. Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan ManagingW.tepidumAngle X-ray Scattering

  19. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome to theAbsorption Spectroscopy X-ray

  20. A grazing incidence x-ray streak camera for ultrafast, single-shot measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jun; Engelhorn, K.; Cho, B.I.; Lee, H.J.; Greaves, M.; Weber, C.P.; Falcone, R.W.; Padmore, H. A.; Heimann, P.A.

    2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast x-ray streak camera has been realized using a grazing incidence reflection photocathode. X-rays are incident on a gold photocathode at a grazing angle of 20 degree and photoemitted electrons are focused by a large aperture magnetic solenoid lens. The streak camera has high quantum efficiency, 600fs temporal resolution, and 6mm imaging length in the spectral direction. Its single shot capability eliminates temporal smearing due to sweep jitter, and allows recording of the ultrafast dynamics of samples that undergo non-reversible changes.

  1. NOVEL INTEGRATING SOLID STATE DETECTOR WITH SEGMENTATION FOR SCANNING TRANSMISSION SOFT X-RAY MICROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FESER,M.; JACOBSEN,C.; REHAK,P.; DE GERONIMO,G.; HOLL,P.; STUDER,L.

    2001-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrating solid state detector with segmentation has been developed that addresses the needs in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy below 1 keV photon energy. The detector is not cooled and can be operated without an entrance window which leads to a total photon detection efficiency close to 100%. The chosen segmentation with 8 independent segments is matched to the geometry of the STXM to maximize image mode flexibility. In the bright field configuration for 1 ms integration time and 520 eV x-rays the rms noise is 8 photons per integration.

  2. X-ray technology behind NASA's black-hole hunter (NuSTAR)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Craig, Bill

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Livermore Lab astrophysicist Bill Craig describes his team's role in developing X-ray imaging technology for the NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission. The black-hole-hunting spacecraft bagged its first 10 supermassive black holes this week

  3. developing more effective X-ray detector systems for airport security;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory STFC has also responded to the National Security Strategy by establishing the initial operating developments to meet current and future challenges. It includes a high energy X-ray imaging facility capable in Oxfordshire, or at STFC's UK Astronomy Technology Centre in Edinburgh. The SFL is available to scientists

  4. High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals Jeffrey A. Geuthera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    as the lower-energy L-shell peaks, allowing more positive sample identification. This report shows how a paired-ray sources for use in imaging, materials analysis, and other applications. For many applications, for example, high-energy sources enable the excitation of the K-shell x-ray peaks for high-Z materials as well

  5. Characterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro-Computed-Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    , Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 Three-dimensional (3-D) images of two ceramic-matrix textile composites were studied represent a new class of integrally woven ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature appliCharacterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro

  6. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell Xiaojing Huang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Hooman

    crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 e of biological electron microscopy [1­3]. Radiation damage precludes repeated imaging of live specimens [4 in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103

  7. X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V458 Vulpeculae with Suzaku

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro Tsujimoto; Dai Takei; Jeremy J. Drake; Jan-Uwe Ness; Shunji Kitamoto

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted a target of opportunity X-ray observation of the classical nova V458 Vulpeculae 88 days after the explosion using the Suzaku satellite. With a 20 ks exposure, the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer detected X-ray emission significantly harder than typical super-soft source emission. The X-ray spectrum shows K lines from N, Ne, Mg, Si, and S, and L-series emission from Fe in highly ionized states. The spectrum can be described by a single temperature (0.64 keV) thin thermal plasma model in collisional equilibrium with a hydrogen-equivalent extinction column density of ~3e21/cm2, a flux of ~1e-12 erg/s/cm2, and a luminosity of ~6e34 erg/s in the 0.3-3.0 keV band at an assumed distance of 13 kpc. We found a hint of an enhancement of N and deficiencies of O and Fe relative to other metals. The observed X-ray properties can be interpreted as the emission arising from shocks of ejecta from an ONe-type nova.

  8. X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V458 Vulpeculae with Suzaku

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Drake, Jeremy J; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted a target of opportunity X-ray observation of the classical nova V458 Vulpeculae 88 days after the explosion using the Suzaku satellite. With a 20 ks exposure, the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer detected X-ray emission significantly harder than typical super-soft source emission. The X-ray spectrum shows K lines from N, Ne, Mg, Si, and S, and L-series emission from Fe in highly ionized states. The spectrum can be described by a single temperature (0.64 keV) thin thermal plasma model in collisional equilibrium with a hydrogen-equivalent extinction column density of ~3e21/cm2, a flux of ~1e-12 erg/s/cm2, and a luminosity of ~6e34 erg/s in the 0.3-3.0 keV band at an assumed distance of 13 kpc. We found a hint of an enhancement of N and deficiencies of O and Fe relative to other metals. The observed X-ray properties can be interpreted as the emission arising from shocks of ejecta from an ONe-type nova.

  9. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. The X-ray synchrotron emission of RCW 86 and the implications for its age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacco Vink; Johan Bleeker; Kurt van der Heyden; Andrei Bykov; Aya Bamba; Ryo Yamazaki

    2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report here X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of the northeastern shell of the supernova remnant RCW 86 with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Along this part of the shell the dominant X-ray radiation mechanism changes from thermal to synchrotron emission. We argue that both the presence of X-ray synchrotron radiation and the width of the synchrotron emitting region suggest a locally higher shock velocity of V_s = 2700 km/s and a magnetic field of B = 24+/-5 microGauss. Moreover, we also show that a simple power law cosmic ray electron spectrum with an exponential cut-off cannot explain the broad band synchrotron emission. Instead a concave electron spectrum is needed, as predicted by non-linear shock acceleration models. Finally, we show that the derived shock velocity strengthens the case that RCW 86 is the remnant of SN 185.

  11. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  12. Low-Mass X-Ray Binary MAXI J1421-613 Observed by MAXI GSC and Swift XRT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serino, Motoko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Kennea, Jamie A; Fukushima, Kosuke; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitor of All sky X-ray Image (MAXI) discovered a new outburst of an X-ray transient source named MAXI J1421-613. Because of the detection of three X-ray bursts from the source, it was identified as a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary. The results of data analyses of the MAXI GSC and the Swift XRT follow-up observations suggest that the spectral hardness remained unchanged during the first two weeks of the outburst. All the XRT spectra in the 0.5-10 keV band can be well explained by thermal Comptonization of multi-color disk blackbody emission. The photon index of the Comptonized component is $\\approx$ 2, which is typical of low-mass X-ray binaries in the low/hard state. Since X-ray bursts have a maximum peak luminosity, it is possible to estimate the (maximum) distance from its observed peak flux. The peak flux of the second X-ray burst, which was observed by the GSC, is about 5 photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. By assuming a blackbody spectrum of 2.5 keV, the maximum distance to the source is estimated as 7 kpc...

  13. X-ray emission from Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ness, J U; Wolk, S J; Dennerl, K; Burwitz, V

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ksec with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of Saturn. We found no evidence for smaller or larger angular extent. The expected background level is 56 cts, i.e., the count rate is (1.6 +- 0.2) 10^-3 cts/s. The extracted photons are rather concentrated towards the equator of the apparent disk, while both polar caps have a relative photon deficit. The inclination angle of Saturn during the observation was -27 degrees, so that the northern hemisphere was not visible during the complete observation. In addition, it was occulted by the ring system. We found a small but significant photon excess at one edge of the ring system. The light curve shows a small dip twice at identical phases,...

  14. The variability properties of X-ray steep and X-ray flat quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio Fiore; Ari Laor; Martin Elvis; Fabrizio Nicastro; Emanuele Giallongo

    1998-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the variability of 6 low redshift, radio quiet `PG' quasars on three timescales (days, weeks, and months) using the ROSAT HRI. The quasars were chosen to lie at the two extreme ends of the ROSAT PSPC spectral index distribution and hence of the H$\\beta$ FWHM distribution. The observation strategy has been carefully designed to provide even sampling on these three basic timescales and to provide a uniform sampling among the quasars We have found clear evidence that the X-ray steep, narrow H_beta, quasars systematically show larger amplitude variations than the X-ray flat broad H_beta quasars on timescales from 2 days to 20 days. On longer timescales we do not find significant differences between steep and flat quasars, although the statistics are poorer. We suggest that the above correlation between variability properties and spectral steepness can be explained in a scenario in which the X-ray steep, narrow line objects are in a higher L/L_Edd state with respect to the X-ray flat, broad line objects. We evaluated the power spectrum of PG1440+356 (the brigthest quasar in our sample) between 2E-7 and 1E-3 Hz, where it goes into the noise. The power spectrum is roughly consistent with a 1/f law between 1E-3 and 2E-6 Hz. Below this frequency it flattens significantly.

  15. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  16. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  17. 2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Stephenson

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

  18. Remote lensless focusing of a light beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Nikolai I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remote focusing of light in a graded-index medium via mode interference is demonstrated using exact analytical solutions of the wave equation. Strong focusing of light occurs at extremely long distances and it revivals periodically with distance due to mode interference. High efficiency transfer of a strongly focused subwavelength spot through optical waveguide over large distances takes place with a period of revival. Super-oscillatory hot-spots with the sizes which are beyond the conventional Abbe diffraction limit can be observed at large distances from the source. This can provide the possibility to detect optical super-resolution information in the far-field without any evanescent waves. Far-field super-resolution imaging capabilities of a graded-index waveguide are also analyzed.

  19. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  20. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  1. Sum rules for polarization-dependent x-ray absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankudinov, A.; Rehr, J.J. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete set of sum rules is obtained for polarization-dependent x-ray-absorption fine structure and x-ray circular magnetic dichroism (CMD), analogous to those for CMD derived by Thole [ital et] [ital al]. These sum rules relate x-ray-absorption coefficients to the ground-state expectation values of various operators. Problems with applying these sum rules are discussed.

  2. A laser triggered vacuum spark x-ray lithography source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keating, Richard Allen

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ionized state or the physical processes occurring 15 in a high temperature plasma. There are many advantages to the use of the vacuum spark as an x-ray source; the simplicity of the machine is one. The x-ray output is within the range usable for x-ray... spark apparatus ha- been studied here to determine its applicability to x-ray lithography. A capacitor which stored approximately 3 KJ supplied most of the energy for the plasma. A Nd-YAG laser was used to supply electrons and metallic atoms...

  3. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  4. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  5. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare...

  6. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation Through Modulation Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ultra-short coherent X-ray radiation by controlling the fraction of the beam that can be properly unchirped using a few-cycle laser

  7. The Daguerreotype and the X-ray: A Deep Look

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - likely will play a crucial role in future scientific breakthroughs. Last week, hers was the first daguerreotype to undergo powerful x-ray analysis in a collaboration...

  8. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  9. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB?SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non?destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three?dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  10. SU-E-I-01: A Fast, Analytical Pencil Beam Based Method for First Order X-Ray Scatter Estimation of Kilovoltage Cone Beam X-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J; Bourland, J [Wake Forest University, Winston-salem, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To analytically estimate first-order x-ray scatter for kV cone beam x-ray imaging with high computational efficiency. Methods: In calculating first-order scatter using the Klein-Nishina formula, we found that by integrating the point-to-point scatter along an interaction line, a “pencil-beam” scatter kernel (BSK) can be approximated to a quartic expression when the imaging field is small. This BSK model for monoenergetic, 100keV x-rays has been verified on homogeneous cube and cylinder water phantoms by comparing with the exact implementation of KN formula. For heterogeneous medium, the water-equivalent length of a BSK was acquired with an improved Siddon's ray-tracing algorithm, which was also used in calculating pre- and post- scattering attenuation. To include the electron binding effect for scattering of low-kV photons, the mean corresponding scattering angle is determined from the effective point of scattered photons of a BSK. The behavior of polyenergetic x-rays was also investigated for 120kV x-rays incident to a sandwiched infinite heterogeneous slab phantom, with the electron binding effect incorporated. Exact computation and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for comparisons, using the EGSnrc code package. Results: By reducing the 3D volumetric target (o(n{sup 3})) to 2D pencil-beams (o(n{sup 2})), the computation expense can be generally lowered by n times, which our experience verifies. The scatter distribution on a flat detector shows high agreement between the analytic BSK model and exact calculations. The pixel-to-pixel differences are within (-2%, 2%) for the homogeneous cube and cylinder phantoms and within (0, 6%) for the heterogeneous slab phantom. However, the Monte Carlo simulation shows increased deviation of the BSK model toward detector periphery. Conclusion: The proposed BSK model, accommodating polyenergetic x-rays and electron binding effect at low kV, shows great potential in efficiently estimating the first-order scatter from small imaging fields. We are investigating more thoroughly to improve performance and explore applications.

  11. Dose, exposure time, and resolution in Serial X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starodub, D; Rez, P; Hembree, G; Howells, M; Shapiro, D; Chapman, H N; Fromme, P; Schmidt, K; Weierstall, U; Doak, R B; Spence, J C

    2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using detailed simulation and analytical models, the exposure time is estimated for serial crystallography, where hydrated laser-aligned proteins are sprayed across a continuous synchrotron beam. The resolution of X-ray diffraction microscopy is limited by the maximum dose that can be delivered prior to sample damage. In the proposed Serial Crystallography method, the damage problem is addressed by distributing the total dose over many identical hydrated macromolecules running continuously in a single-file train across a continuous X-ray beam, and resolution is then limited only by the available fluxes of molecules and X-rays. Orientation of the diffracting molecules is achieved by laser alignment. We evaluate the incident X-ray fluence (energy/area) required to obtain a given resolution from (1) an analytical model, giving the count rate at the maximum scattering angle for a model protein, (2) explicit simulation of diffraction patterns for a GroEL-GroES protein complex, and (3) the frequency cut off of the transfer function following iterative solution of the phase problem, and reconstruction of a density map in the projection approximation. These calculations include counting shot noise and multiple starts of the phasing algorithm. The results indicate the number of proteins needed within the beam at any instant for a given resolution and X-ray flux. We confirm an inverse fourth power dependence of exposure time on resolution, with important implications for all coherent X-ray imaging. We find that multiple single-file protein beams will be needed for sub-nanometer resolution on current third generation synchrotrons, but not on fourth generation designs, where reconstruction of secondary protein structure at a resolution of 7 {angstrom} should be possible with short (below 100 s) exposures.

  12. X-Ray Observations of the Sagittarius D HII Region toward the Galactic Center with Suzaku

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Sawada; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Katsuji Koyama; Casey J. Law; Takeshi Go Tsuru; Yoshiaki Hyodo

    2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a Suzaku X-ray study of the Sagittarius D (Sgr D) HII region in the Galactic center region. Two 18'x18' images by the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) encompass the entire Sgr D complex. Thanks to the low background, XIS discovered two diffuse sources with low surface brightness and obtained their high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. One is associated with the core of the Sgr D HII region, arising from the young stellar cluster. The other is a new object in the vicinity of the region. We also present 3.5 cm and 6.0 cm radio continuum maps of the new source using the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. We conclude that the source is a new supernova remnant (SNR; G1.2--0.0) based on: (1) the 0.9+/-0.2 keV thermal X-ray spectrum with emission lines from highly ionized atoms; (2) the diffuse nature with an apparent extent of ~10 pc at the Galactic center distance inferred from the X-ray absorption (~8.5x10^{22} cm^{-2}); and (3) the nonthermal radio continuum spectral index (~-0.5). Our discovery of an SNR in the Sgr D HII region leads to a revision of the view of this system, which had been considered to be a thermal HII region and its environment.

  13. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Strauss, Moshe (Omer, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  14. Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard state X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the combination of the similarities between the X-ray properties of low luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties argues that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island state neutron stars and low/hard state black holes are known to be indistinguishable, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet dominated accretion flow to a thin disk dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen.

  15. Isotropic star in low-mass X-ray binaries and X-ray pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehedi Kalam; Sk. Monowar Hossein; Sajahan Molla

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model for compact stars in the low mass X-ray binaries(LMXBs) and X-ray pulsars using a metric given by John J. Matese and Patrick G. Whitman \\citep{Matese and Whitman1980}. Here the field equations are reduced to a system of two algebraic equations considering the isotropic pressure. Compact star candidates 4U 1820-30(radius=10km) in LMXBs, and Her X-1(radius=7.7km), SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS1)(radius=7.07km) and SAX J 1808.4-3658(SS2)(radius=6.35km) in X-ray pulsars satisfy all the energy conditions, TOV-equation and stability condition. From our model, we have derived mass($M$), central density($\\rho_{0}$), suface density($\\rho_{b}$), central pressure($p_{0}$), surface pressure($p_{b}$) and surface red-shift($Z_{s}$) of the above mentioned stars, which are very much consistant with the observed/reported datas\\citep{N. K. Glendenning1997,Gondek2000}. We have also observe the adiabatic index($\\gamma$>4/3) of the above steller objects.

  16. Residual stress measurement using X-ray diffraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    .3.6.2. Synchrotron Diffraction.........................................................................9 II. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION.....................................12 2.1. X-ray Source... radiations ...................................................................16 Table 2.2 Structure factors and reflection conditions ...................................................20 Table 4.1 Chemical composition of SS316...

  17. Ultrafast x-rays: radiographing magnetism Project overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    , head of the ultrafast magnetism group. Stanford PULSE is a worldwide renowned centre for ultrafast1 Ultrafast x-rays: radiographing magnetism Project overview The main purpose of the proposed, it is now possible to achieve x-ray pulses that are a few femtoseconds long and that are focused within

  18. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  19. Residual stress measurement using X-ray diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -rays..............................................................................................16 2.4. Bragg's Law ..........................................................................................................18 2.5. Diffractometer Geometry... Figure 2.2 Schematic showing the basic components of a modern x-ray tube. Beryllium window is highly transparent to x-rays...............................15 Figure 2.3 Coherent scattering from an electron to a point P...

  20. Fourteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Fourteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 12 - 25, 2012 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major Ridge National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang

  1. Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boothroyd, Andrew

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites Graeme Eoin Johnstone A Thesis submitted are performed using a variety of neutron scattering and x-ray scattering techniques. The electronic ground for analysing the results of the polarised neutron scattering experiment. There are a large number of people who

  2. Tenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Tenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering September 24 - October 11, 2008 at Argonne of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

  3. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10 - 24, 2013 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major Ridge National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang

  4. Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 11 ­ June 25, 2011 at Argonne of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

  5. Sixteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Sixteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 14-28, 2014 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Suzanne G.E. te Velthuis, Esen Ercan Alp

  6. Twelfth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Twelfth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 12 ­ June 26, 2010 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

  7. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering May 30 ­ June 13, 2009 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

  8. Millisecond oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muno, Michael Patrick, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I analyze 68 oscillation trains detected in a search of 159 thermonuclear bursts from eight neutron star X-ray binaries observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. I use all data that were public as of September 2001. ...

  9. Atomic holography with electrons and x-rays: Theoretical and experimental studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Len, P M [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gabor first proposed holography in 1948 as a means to experimentally record the amplitude and phase of scattered wavefronts, relative to a direct unscattered wave, and to use such a {open_quotes}hologram{close_quotes} to directly image atomic structure. But imaging at atomic resolution has not yet been possible in the way he proposed. Much more recently, Szoeke in 1986 noted that photoexcited atoms can emit photoelectron of fluorescent x-ray wavefronts that are scattered by neighboring atoms, thus yielding the direct and scattered wavefronts as detected in the far field that can then be interpreted as holographic in nature. By now, several algorithms for directly reconstructing three-dimensional atomic images from electron holograms have been proposed (e.g. by Barton) and successfully tested against experiment and theory. Very recently, Tegze and Faigel, and Grog et al. have recorded experimental x-ray fluorescence holograms, and these are found to yield atomic images that are more free of the kinds of aberrations caused by the non-ideal emission or scattering of electrons. The basic principles of these holographic atomic imaging methods are reviewed, including illustrative applications of the reconstruction algorithms to both theoretical and experimental electron and x-ray holograms. The author also discusses the prospects and limitations of these newly emerging atomic structural probes.

  10. Lensless Imaging of Atomic Surface Structures via Ptychography | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatest News ReleasesDepartmentLending a Hand Lending

  11. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  12. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  13. X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filippo Frontera

    2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observational status of the X-ray afterglow emission, its mean properties (detection rate, continuum spectra, line features, and light curves), and the X-ray constraints on theoretical models of gamma-ray bursters and their progenitors. I also discuss the early onset afterglow emission, the remaining questions, and the role of future X-ray afterglow observations.

  14. Scattering of x rays from low-Z materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, J.L.; Kissel, L.D.; Catron, H.C.; Hansen, R.A.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X rays incident on thin beryllium, boron, carbon, and other low-Z materials undergo both elastic and inelastic scattering as well as diffraction from the crystalline or crystalline-like structure of the material. Unpolarized monoenergetic x rays in the 1.5 to 8.0-keV energy range were used to determine the absolute scattering efficiency of thin beryllium, carbon, and boron foils. These measurements are compared to calculated scattering efficiencies predicted by single-atom theories. In addition, the relative scattering efficiency versus x-ray energy was measured for other low-Z foils using unpolarized bremsstrahlung x rays. In all the low-Z foils examined, we observed Bragg-like x-ray diffraction due to the ordered structure of the materials.

  15. Hard X-rays from Ultra-Compact HII Regions in W49A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; T. Hosokawa; E. D. Feigelson; K. V. Getman; P. S. Broos

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the Chandra detection of hard X-ray emission from the Welch ring in W49A, an organized structure of ultra-compact (UC) HII regions containing a dozen nascent early-type stars. Two UC HII regions are associated with hard X-ray emission in a deep Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image exposed for 96.7 ks. One of the two X-ray sources has no near-infrared counterpart and is extended by ~5 arcsec, or ~0.3 pc, at a distance of ~11.4 kpc, which is spatially aligned with the cometary radio continuum emission associated with the UC HII region. The X-ray spectrum of the emission, when fit with a thermal model, indicates a heavily absorbed plasma with extinction of \\~5x10^{23}/cm^{2}, temperature of ~7 keV, and X-ray luminosity in the 3.0-8.0 keV band of ~3x10^{33} ergs/s. Both the luminosity and the size of the emission resemble the extended hard emission found in UC HII regions in Sagittarius B2, yet they are smaller by an order of magnitude than the emission found in massive star clusters such as NGC 3603. Three possibilities are discussed for the cause of the hard extended emission in the Welch ring: an ensemble of unresolved point sources, shocked interacting winds of the young O stars, and a wind-blown bubble interacting with ambient cold matter.

  16. The Origin and Properties of X-ray-emitting Gas in the Halos of both Starburst and Normal Spiral Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David K. Strickland

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the empirical properties of diffuse X-ray emitting gas in the halos of both nearby starburst galaxies and normal spiral galaxies, based on high resolution X-ray spectral imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Diffuse thermal X-ray emission can provide us with unique observational probes of outflow and accretion processes occurring in star-forming galaxies, and their interaction with the inter-galactic medium. I consider both the spatial distribution of the diffuse X-ray emission in and around edge-on starburst galaxies with superwinds (e.g. surface brightness profiles, distribution with respect to H-alpha and radio emission), and its spectral properties (e.g. thermal or non-thermal nature, abundance ratios, temperatures and soft and hard X-ray luminosities). These results are discussed in the context of current theoretical models of supernova-driven superwinds, and compared to the more limited data on extra-planar hot gas around edge-on normal galaxies.

  17. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  18. Suzaku Spectroscopy of the Extended X-Ray Emission in M17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiaki Hyodo; Masahiro Tsujimoto; Kenji Hamaguchi; Katsuji Koyama; Shunji Kitamoto; Yoshitomo Maeda; Yohko Tsuboi; Yuichiro Ezoe

    2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a Suzaku spectroscopic study of the soft extended X-ray emission in the HII region M17. The spectrum of the extended emission was obtained with a high signal-to-noise ratio in a spatially-resolved manner using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS). We established that the contamination by unresolved point sources, the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission, the cosmic X-ray background, and the local hot bubble emission is negligible in the background-subtracted XIS spectrum of the diffuse emission. Half a dozen of emission lines were resolved clearly for the first time, including K lines of highly ionized O, Ne, and Mg as well as L series complex of Fe at 0.5--1.5 keV. Based on the diagnosis of these lines, we obtained the following results: (1) the extended emission is an optically-thin thermal plasma represented well by a single temperature of 3.0 +/- 0.4 MK, (2) the abundances of elements with emission lines in the diffuse spectrum are 0.1--0.3 solar, while those of bright discrete sources are 0.3--1.5 solar, (3) the metal abundances relative to each other in the diffuse emission are consistent with solar except for a Ne enhancement of a factor of 2, (4) both the plasma temperature and the chemical composition of the diffuse emission show no spatial variation across the studied spatial scale of about 5 pc.

  19. X-ray Fading and Expansion in the "Miniature Supernova Remnant" of GK Persei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takei, D; Yamaguchi, H; Slane, P; Uchiyama, Y; Katsuda, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a second epoch of Chandra X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the spatially-resolved old nova remnant GK Persei. An ACIS-S3 observation of 97.4 ks was conducted in November 2013 after a lapse of 13.8 years from the last visit in 2000. The X-ray emitting nebula appeared more faint and patchy compared with the first epoch. The flux decline was particularly evident in fainter regions and the mean decline was 30-40 % in the 0.5-1.2 keV energy band. A typical expansion of the brightest part of the remnant was 1.9 arcsec, which corresponds to an expansion rate of 0.14 arcsec yr^{-1}. The soft X-ray spectra extracted from both the 2000 and 2013 data can be explained by a non-equilibrium ionization collisional plasma model convolved with interstellar absorption, though do not allow us to constrain the origin of the flux evolution. The plasma temperature has not significantly evolved since the 2000 epoch and we conclude that the fading of the X-ray emission is due largely to expansion. This implies that recent ...

  20. Optical, UV, and X-ray Clues to the Nature of Narrow Line AGNs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Laor

    2000-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    AGNs with narrow Balmer lines show various extreme properties. In particular, rapid X-ray variability, steep X-ray spectra, peculiar optical and UV line ratios, and possibly peculiar line profiles. Since all these phenomena occur together they are likely to be related to one specific underlying physical parameter. I review recent evidence, based on HST imaging of low z quasars, which suggests that the H-beta line width and continuum luminosity of quasars provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the black hole mass. This implies that narrow-line AGN have relatively low black hole masses, and thus high L/L_Edd, as independently suggested based on their steep X-ray spectra. I present additional evidence suggesting that the X-ray variability and the radio loudness are primarily driven by the black hole mass. The high mass inflow rate into the core of narrow-line AGNs may produce a denser and more enriched BLR, a high column radiation pressure driven outflow, and a smaller illumination angle for the NLR, as suggested by the observed emission line properties. Narrow-line AGNs may thus provide important clues for understanding the rich overall phenomenology of AGNs.

  1. Workshops on Science Enabled by a Coherent, CW, Synchrotron X-ray Source, June 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Joel

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In June of 2011 we held six two-day workshops called "XDL-2011: Science at the Hard X-ray Diffraction Limit". The six workshops covered (1) Diffraction-based imaging techniques, (2) Biomolecular structure from non-crystalline materials, (3) Ultra-fast science, (4) High-pressure science, (5) Materials research with nano-beams and (6) X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS), In each workshop, invited speaker from around the world presented examples of novel experiments that require a CW, diffraction-limited source. During the workshop, each invited speaker provided a one-page description of the experiment and an illustrative graphic. The experiments identified by the workshops demonstrate the broad and deep scientific case for a CW coherent synchrotron x-ray source. The next step is to perform detailed simulations of the best of these ideas to test them quantitatively and to guide detailed x-ray beam-line designs. These designs are the first step toward developing detailed facility designs and cost estimates.

  2. Deep x-ray lithography for micromechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, T.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guckel, H. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensions of the German LIGA process have brought about fabrication capability suitable for cost effective production of precision engineered components. The process attributes allow fabrication of mechanical components which are not capable of being made via conventional subtractive machining methods. Two process improvements have been responsible for this extended capability which involve the areas of thick photoresist application and planarization via precision lapping. Application of low-stress x-ray photoresist has been achieved using room temperature solvent bonding of a preformed photoresist sheet. Precision diamond lapping and polishing has provided a flexible process for the planarization of a wide variety of electroplated metals in the presence of photoresist. Exposure results from the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that structural heights of several millimeter and above are possible. The process capabilities are also well suited for microactuator fabrication. Linear and rotational magnetic microactuators have been constructed which use coil winding technology with LIGA fabricated coil forms. Actuator output forces of 1 milliNewton have been obtained with power dissipation on the order of milliWatts. A rotational microdynamometer system which is capable of measuring torque-speed data is also discussed.

  3. X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

  4. AugEX: AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER ON CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bapat, Bhas

    for determining elemental composition which have a space heritage X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Particle-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Expected Advantage: cover low Z elements with higher sensitivity than XRF or PIXE. ACHARYA-ray absorption or charged particle bombardment X-ray emission induced by X-ray absorption: XRF X-ray emission

  5. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore »computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  6. X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G; Sidky, Emil; Pelizzari, Charles; Pan, Xiaochuan; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in-situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3d computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3d-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm)$^3$ field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.

  7. Development of a dual MCP framing camera for high energy x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumi, N., E-mail: izumi2@llnl.gov; Hall, G. N.; Carpenter, A. C.; Allen, F. V.; Cruz, J. G.; Felker, B.; Hargrove, D.; Holder, J.; Lumbard, A.; Montesanti, R.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K.; Stone, G.; Thao, M.; Vern, R.; Zacharias, R.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Bell, P. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently developed diagnostic techniques at LLNL require recording backlit images of extremely dense imploded plasmas using hard x-rays, and demand the detector to be sensitive to photons with energies higher than 50 keV [R. Tommasini et al., Phys. Phys. Plasmas 18, 056309 (2011); G. N. Hall et al., “AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using ARC on the NIF,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (these proceedings)]. To increase the sensitivity in the high energy region, we propose to use a combination of two MCPs. The first MCP is operated in a low gain regime and works as a thick photocathode, and the second MCP works as a high gain electron multiplier. We tested the concept of this dual MCP configuration and succeeded in obtaining a detective quantum efficiency of 4.5% for 59 keV x-rays, 3 times larger than with a single plate of the thickness typically used in NIF framing cameras.

  8. Sensing the wavefront of x-ray free-electron lasers using aerosol spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, N.Duane; Starodub, Dimitri; Lomb, Lukas; Hampton, Christina Y.; Martin, Andrew V.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Barty, Anton; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John; Epp, Sascha W.; Erk, Benjamin; Hartmann, Robert; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Rudek, Benedikt; Foucar, Lutz

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing intense, focused x-ray free electron laser (FEL) pulses is crucial for their use in diffractive imaging. We describe how the distribution of average phase tilts and intensities on hard x-ray pulses with peak intensities of 10 21 W/m2 can be retrieved from an ensemble of diffraction patterns produced by 70 nm-radius polystyrene spheres, in a manner that mimics wave-front sensors. Besides showing that an adaptive geometric correction may be necessary for diffraction data from randomly injected sample sources, the paper demonstrates the possibility of collecting statistics on structured pulses using only the diffraction patterns they generate and highlights the imperative to study its impact on single-particle diffractive imaging.

  9. X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios G Athanassiadis; Patrick J. La Rivière; Emil Sidky; Charles Pelizzari; Xiaochuan Pan; Heinrich M. Jaeger

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in-situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3d computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3d-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm)$^3$ field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.

  10. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  11. X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); La Rivière, Patrick J.; Sidky, Emil; Pan, Xiaochuan [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Pelizzari, Charles [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Jaeger, Heinrich M., E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3D computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3D-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52?mm resolution in a (60 mm){sup 3} field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.

  12. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Howells, M. R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kao, C. -C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Mentes, T. O. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); TASC-INFM National Lab, Trieste (Italy); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sanchez-Hanke, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  13. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  14. Characterisation of hydraulic fractures in limestones using X-ray microtomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renard, Francois; Desrues, Jacques; Plougonven, Erwan; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic tension fractures were produced in porous limestones using a specially designed hydraulic cell. The 3D geometry of the samples was imaged using X-ray computed microtomography before and after fracturation. Using these data, it was possible to estimate the permeability tensor of the core samples, extract the path of the rupture and compare it to the heterogeneities initially present in the rock.

  15. X-Ray Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Characterization of Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sain, J D; Brown, W D; Chinn, D J; Martz Jr., H E; Morales, K E; Schneberk, D J; Updike, E O

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The summary of this report is: (1) The Xradia Micro XCT and LLNL CCAT x-ray systems are used to nondestructively characterize a variety of materials, assemblies, and reference standard components; (2) The digital radiograph (DR) and computed tomography (CT) image data may be used for metrology, quality control, and defect detection; and (3) The ability to detect and characterize imperfections leads to improvements in the manufacturing processes for assemblies.

  16. How DARHT Works - the World's Most Powerful X-ray Machine

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an essential scientific tool that supports Stockpile Stewardship at the Laboratory. The World's most powerful x-ray machine, it's used to take high-speed images of mock nuclear devices - data that is used to confirm and modify advanced computer codes in assuring the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent.

  17. How DARHT Works - the World's Most Powerful X-ray Machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an essential scientific tool that supports Stockpile Stewardship at the Laboratory. The World's most powerful x-ray machine, it's used to take high-speed images of mock nuclear devices - data that is used to confirm and modify advanced computer codes in assuring the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent.

  18. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs–7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  19. X-ray afterglows from gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tavani

    1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider possible interpretations of the recently detected X- ray afterglow from the gamma-ray burst source GRB 970228. Cosmological and Galactic models of gamma-ray bursts predict different flux and spectral evolution of X-ray afterglows. We show that models based on adiabatic expansion of relativistic forward shocks require very efficient particle energization or post-burst re-acceleration during the expansion. Cooling neutron star models predict a very distinctive spectral and flux evolution that can be tested in current X-ray data.

  20. Linear accelerator x-ray sources with high duty cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig; Gozani, Tsahi; Langeveld, Willem G. J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Hernandez, Michael [XScell corp., 2134 Old Middlefield Way, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray cargo inspection systems typically use a several-MV pulsed linear accelerator (linac) to produce a bremsstrahlung spectrum of x rays by bombarding a target with electrons. The x rays traverse the cargo and are detected by a detector array. Spectroscopy of the detected x rays is very desirable: if one can determine the spectrum of the transmitted x rays, one can determine the Z of the material they traversed. Even in relatively low-dose modes of operation, thousands of x rays arrive at each detector element during each pulse, unless the x rays are heavily absorbed or scattered by the cargo. For portal or fixed-site systems, dose rates, and therefore x-ray count rates, are even higher. Because of the high x-ray count rate, spectroscopy is impractical in conventional cargo inspection systems, except in certain special cases. For a mobile system, typical pulse durations are a few microseconds, and the number of pulses is on the order of 100 per second, leading to a duty factor of about 0.04%. Clearly, a linear accelerator x-ray source with much higher duty factor would be useful, since then the same number of x rays could be spread out over time, reducing the x-ray count rate. In this paper, we explore the possibility of designing a linear accelerator system, using more or less Conventional Off the Shelf (COTS) components, capable of duty cycles of 1% or greater. A survey was conducted of available linac RF source options and, given the possibilities, calculations were performed for suitable beam centerline designs. Keeping in mind that the size and cost of the accelerator system should be practical for use in a mobile cargo inspection system, only a few options are shown to be reasonably feasible, both requiring the use of klystrons instead of the magnetrons used in conventional systems. An S-Band design appears clearly possible, and there is also a promising X-Band design.