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Sample records for len oir plantat

  1. UC OIR Strategic Plan This powerpoint summarizes the history of the developing charge and schedule for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UC OIR Strategic Plan This powerpoint summarizes the history of the developing charge and schedule for the UC OIR Strategic Plan. V1.0: presented to UCOAC in January. #12;UC OIR Strategic Plan

  2. PETROLEUM PLANTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Science 198, 942 (1977). Petroleum Plantations (continued)Diu is ion, Ext. 6782 PETROLEUM PLANT AT I ONs''e MelvinJapan April 1, 1978 PETROLEUM PLANTATIONS Melvin Calvin

  3. Len Necefer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Len Necefer is a member of the Navajo Tribe from Tsaile, Arizona and a participant in the 2014 DOE Tribal Energy Program Summer Internship Program at Sandia National Laboratories. He graduated with...

  4. Compound lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brixner, B.B.; Klein, M.M.; Winkler, M.A.

    1980-05-21

    The disclosure relates to at least one calcium fluoride optical element used in combination with at least two ordinary crown glass lens elements to greatly reduce secondary spectrum in optical systems.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Eucalypt Energy Plantations1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    invested in the plantation. The second analysis calculates a benefit-cost ratio from an actual case of the analysis was to calculate a break-even price for a eucalypt energy planta tion for the two levelsEconomic Evaluation of Eucalypt Energy Plantations1 Richard B. Standiford and F Thomas Ledig2

  6. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  7. Tuneable bioinspired lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charmet, Jérôme; Barton, Rupert; Oyen, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    categorised as those tuned by altering the shape of the lens and those tuned by altering the properties of the liquid. Three of the most promising classes of optofluidic lens are described below. The basis of hydraulically tuned lens is a circular, liquid... ] that enables the encapsulation of a liquid under a Parylene film, a transparent polymer typically deposited under vacuum, has also been used to make tuneable lenses [10]. However the rigidity of Parylene does not allow for large variation of optical power...

  8. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  9. Intraocular lens fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  10. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  11. Mycosphaerella species causing leaf disease in South African Eucalyptus plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mycosphaerella species causing leaf disease in South African Eucalyptus plantations Gavin C. HUNTER Eucalyptus plantations provide an important source of hardwood for forestry industries, worldwide. Several species of Mycosphaerella are associated with a destructive Eucalyptus leaf disease known

  12. Len Yi Part 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bsod nams rgyal mtshan

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Len Yi_3_Accession_Form.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4325 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Len Yi_3_Accession_Form.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 last updated by World... Oral Literature Project staff on Wednesday, Tuesday, June 8, 2010 Accession Form for Individual Recordings: Collection / Collector Name Bsod nams rgyal mtshan Tape No. / Track / Item No. 3 Length of track 1hr 21 mins Related tracks (include...

  13. Biomechanics of the lens capsule 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delange, Sherry Leanne

    2002-01-01

    Data on the mechanical properties of the lens capsule available in the literature are limited, providing only global and 1-D information. There has yet to be any systematic, rigorous study of the nonlinear multiaxial biomechanics of the lens...

  14. Plantation, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | OpenBethlehemPlainsboro Center,PlannedPlantation, Florida:

  15. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-10-21

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations is disclosed, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components. 2 figs.

  16. Miniature hybrid optical imaging lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sitter, Jr., David N. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A miniature lens system that corrects for imaging and chromatic aberrations, the lens system being fabricated from primarily commercially-available components. A first element at the input to a lens housing is an aperture stop. A second optical element is a refractive element with a diffractive element closely coupled to, or formed a part of, the rear surface of the refractive element. Spaced closely to the diffractive element is a baffle to limit the area of the image, and this is closely followed by a second refractive lens element to provide the final correction. The image, corrected for aberrations exits the last lens element to impinge upon a detector plane were is positioned any desired detector array. The diffractive element is fabricated according to an equation that includes, as variables, the design wavelength, the index of refraction and the radius from an optical axis of the lens system components.

  17. Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C. (1215 Brewster Dr., El Cerrito, CA 94530)

    1992-01-01

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.

  18. Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-11-03

    A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.

  19. Matinicus Plantation Elec Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to: navigation, searchScotland JumpPlantation Elec Co Jump to:

  20. Diseases of plantation forestry trees in eastern and southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diseases of plantation forestry trees in eastern and southern Africa J. Roux a*, G. Meke b , B a Introduction Plantations of non-native trees have been grown in Africa for more than 100 years.1,2 The most especially for construction timber and fuel, while in southern Africa this timber also sustains a thriving

  1. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.

    1990-11-27

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component is disclosed. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system. 8 figs.

  2. Lens system for a photo ion spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Young, Charles E. (Westmont, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Napersville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A lens system in a photo ion spectrometer for manipulating a primary ion beam and ionized atomic component. The atomic components are removed from a sample by a primary ion beam using the lens system, and the ions are extracted for analysis. The lens system further includes ionization resistant coatings for protecting the lens system.

  3. Biomechanics of the lens capsule 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heistand, Mark Richard

    2005-11-01

    -1 BIOMECHANICS OF THE LENS CAPSULE A Thesis by MARK RICHARD HEISTAND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 2004 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering BIOMECHANICS OF THE LENS CAPSULE A Thesis by MARK RICHARD HEISTAND Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  4. Bio-inspired fluidic lens for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shang-Feng (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    after the lens under test to relay the wavefront to the WFS.Source WFS Lens Under Test Wavefront Relay Micro-Lens Arrayafter the lens under test to relay the wavefront to the WFS.

  5. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  6. A broadband transformation-optics metasurface lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Xiang; Xiang Jiang, Wei; Feng Ma, Hui; Jun Cui, Tie, E-mail: tjcui@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, School of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We present a transformational metasurface Luneburg lens based on the quasi-conformal mapping method, which has weakly anisotropic constitutive parameters. We design the metasurface lens using inhomogeneous artificial structures to realize the required surface refractive indexes. The transformational metasurface Luneburg lens is fabricated and the measurement results demonstrate very good performance in controlling the radiated surface waves.

  7. Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Two new Phytophthora species from South African Eucalyptus plantations Bongani MASEKOa, *, Treena I the cause of collar and root rot disease outbreaks of cold tolerant Eucalyptus species in South Africa and has a slower growth rate in culture. Both P. frigida and P. alti- cola are pathogenic to Eucalyptus

  8. Establishing a Eucalyptus Energy Plantation on the Central Coast of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Establishing a Eucalyptus Energy Plantation on the Central Coast of California1 Norman H. Pillsbury examined in trial plantings in the United States include Alnus, Eucalyptus, Platanus, and Populus. 1 Presented at the Workshop on Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento, California 2

  9. Groundwater and soil chemical changes under phreatophytic tree plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Groundwater and soil chemical changes under phreatophytic tree plantations Esteban G. Jobba´gy1 4 May 2007. [1] The onset of groundwater consumption by plants can initiate a pathway of chemical inputs from aquifers to ecosystems, typically absent in groundwater recharge areas. We explored

  10. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  11. Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic accommodation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasser, Adrian

    Changes in crystalline lens radii of curvature and lens tilt and decentration during dynamic of Houston, College of Optometry, Houston, TX, USAAdrian Glasser Dynamic changes in crystalline lens radii accommodation, phakometry, tilt, decentration, crystalline, presbyopia Citation: Rosales, P., Wendt, M., Marcos

  12. www.umass.edu/oir ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    & Operations Director, Campus Recreation Corporate Sponsor- ship, Marketing and Promotions Minutemen Club Vice Provost for International ProgramsCampus Engagement Springfield Partner- ship News Office Publications Web / IT University Branding Major Program Marketing Research Communi- cations Sustainability Com

  13. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  14. Proposal for PLASMA LENS EXPERIMENT AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proposal for PLASMA LENS EXPERIMENT AT THE FINAL FOCUS TEST BEAM April 1, 1997 THE PLASMA LENS. Weidemann7. 1Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California 2University of California, Los Angeles, Berkeley, California 5University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 6National Laboratory for High Energy

  15. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  16. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Conjugate metamaterials and the perfect lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show how transformation optics makes it possible to design what we call conjugate metamaterials. We show that these materials can also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens. The so-called "perfect lens", which is a lens that could focus all components of light (including propagating and evanescent waves), can be regarded as a limiting case, in which the respective conjugate metamaterials approach the characteristics of left-handed metamaterials, which have a negative refractive index.

  19. Increase of monoterpene emissions from a pine plantation as a result of mechanical disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Increase of monoterpene emissions from a pine plantation as a result of mechanical disturbances and emission rates of monoterpenes were measured above a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada chemistry. The increase was mostly because of higher basal emission rates, but small changes

  20. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis  urophylla, indicated a strong response of these Eucalyptus trees to both water supply and atmospheric humidity during

  1. Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of Botryosphaeriaceae from plantation-grown Eucalyptus species in South China S. F The Botryosphaeriaceae is a species-rich family that includes pathogens of a wide variety of trees, including Eucalyptus in Eucalyptus plantations in South China. The aim of this study was to identify the Botryosphaeriaceae

  2. Author's personal copy Does reverse growth dominance develop in old plantations of Eucalyptus saligna?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    Author's personal copy Does reverse growth dominance develop in old plantations of Eucalyptus of stand development in plots of Eucalyptus saligna (Sm.) in Hawaii showed a period of increasing growth plantations of Eucalyptus saligna (Sm.) in Hawaii and Brazil would show a pattern of ``reverse'' growth

  3. The elliptical power law profile lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessore, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The deflection, potential, shear and magnification of a gravitational lens following an elliptical power law mass model are investigated. This mass model is derived from the circular power law profile through a rescaling of the axes, similar to the case of a singular isothermal ellipsoid. The resulting deflection can be calculated explicitly and given in terms of the Gaussian hypergeometric function. Analytic expressions for the remaining lensing properties are found as well. Because the power law profile lens contains a number of well-known lens models as special cases, the equivalence of the new expressions with known results is checked. Finally, it is shown how these results naturally lead to a fast and accurate numerical scheme for computing the deflection and other lens quantities, making this method a useful tool for realistically modelling observed lenses.

  4. Rotating black lens solution in five dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yu; Teo, Edward

    2008-09-15

    It has recently been shown that a stationary, asymptotically flat vacuum black hole in five space-time dimensions with two commuting axial symmetries must have an event horizon with either a spherical, ring or lens-space topology. In this paper, we study the third possibility, a so-called black lens with L(n,1) horizon topology. Using the inverse scattering method, we construct a black-lens solution with the simplest possible rod structure, and possessing a single asymptotic angular momentum. Its properties are then analyzed; in particular, it is shown that there must either be a conical singularity or a naked curvature singularity present in the space-time.

  5. RHIC electron lens test bench diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassner, D.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Miller, T.; Pikin, A.; Thieberger, P.

    2011-05-16

    An Electron Lens (E-Lens) system will be installed in RHIC to increase luminosity by counteracting the head-on beam-beam interaction. The proton beam collisions at the RHIC experimental locations will introduce a tune spread due to a difference of tune shifts between small and large amplitude particles. A low energy electron beam will be used to improve luminosity and lifetime of the colliding beams by reducing the betatron tune shift and spread. In preparation for the Electron Lens installation next year, a test bench facility will be used to gain experience with many sub-systems. This paper will discuss the diagnostics related to measuring the electron beam parameters.

  6. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2013-06-20

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  7. Analytic models of plausible gravitational lens potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune, E-mail: eabaltz@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: pjm@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: oguri@slac.stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, PO Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, PO Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  8. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  9. An economic analysis of the Texas A&M Plantation: A mathematical programming approach. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, James Edward

    1973-01-01

    the steers, and the caner pays the Plantation 616. 50 per hundredweight of gain of the steers. 'The previously presented rrw crop, forage, and beef cattle systems are the basic activities incorporated into the original programming model. These modelled...

  10. An Archaeological Survey for the City of Conroe Capital Projects Plantation South in Montgomery County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-31

    An archaeological survey for the proposed Plantation South project in central Montgomery County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) on July 13, 2010 under Antiquities Permit 5697 for the City of Conroe. The new road...

  11. Nurturing resistance : agency and activism of women tea plantation workers in a gendered space 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Supurna

    2014-07-01

    This thesis offers an analysis of labour relations and social space in the tea gardens of north-east India. Existing literature provides us with an understanding of how the plantations operate as economic spaces, but ...

  12. Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye- doped liquid crystals Tsung-Hsien Lin,1,2 Yuhua controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid. X. Ren, S. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Fabrication of off-axis holographic Fresnel lens used as multiplexer

  13. Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals Yun-Hsing Fan, Hongwen Ren@mail.ucf.edu http:/lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A switchable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a polymer controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens," Proc. SPIE 1168, 352-357 (1989). 2. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani

  14. Gravitational lens modeling with basis sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birrer, Simon; Refregier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We present a strong lensing modeling technique based on versatile basis sets for the lens and source planes. Our method uses high performance Monte Carlo algorithms, allows for an adaptive build up of complexity and bridges the gap between parametric and pixel based reconstruction methods. We apply our method to a HST image of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 and show that our method finds a reliable solution and is able to detect substructure in the lens and source planes simultaneously. Using mock data we show that our method is sensitive to sub-clumps with masses four orders of magnitude smaller than the main lens, which corresponds to about $10^8 M_{\\odot}$, without prior knowledge on the position and mass of the sub-clump. The modelling approach is flexible and maximises automation to facilitate the analysis of the large number of strong lensing systems expected in upcoming wide field surveys. The resulting search for dark sub-clumps in these systems, without mass-to-light priors, offers promise for p...

  15. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, James J. (San Jose, CA); Reichert, Patrick (Hayward, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing.

  16. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1992-01-14

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing. 11 figs.

  17. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA); Cahn, Robert (Walnut Creek, CA); Cederstrom, Bjorn (Traellborg, SE); Danielsson, Mats (Stocksund, SE); Vestlund, Jonas (Stockholm, SE)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  18. Novel Scanning Lens Instrument for Evaluating Fresnel Lens Performance: Equipment Development and Initial Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrero, R.; Miller, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.; Anton, I.; Sala, G.

    2013-07-01

    A system dedicated to the optical transmittance characterization of Fresnel lenses has been developed at NREL, in collaboration with the UPM. The system quantifies the optical efficiency of the lens by generating a performance map. The shape of the focused spot may also be analyzed to understand change in the lens performance. The primary instrument components (lasers and CCD detector) have been characterized to confirm their capability for performing optical transmittance measurements. Measurements performed on SoG and PMMA lenses subject to a variety of indoor conditions (e.g., UV and damp heat) identified differences in the optical efficiency of the evaluated lenses, demonstrating the ability of the Scanning Lens Instrument (SLI) to distinguish between the aged lenses.

  19. Multipoint photonic doppler velocimetry using optical lens elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frogget, Brent Copely; Romero, Vincent Todd

    2014-04-29

    A probe including a fisheye lens is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into fisheye lens, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to an index-matching lens and eventually to a fisheye lens. The fiber array flat polished and coupled to the index-matching lens using index-matching gel. Numerous fibers in a fiber array project numerous rays through the fisheye lens which in turn project many measurement points at numerous different locations to establish surface coverage over a hemispherical shape with very little crosstalk.

  20. Spatialtemporal patterns of Ceratocystis wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil By M. A. Ferreira1,7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Thomas C.

    Spatial­temporal patterns of Ceratocystis wilt in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil By M. A Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, has become the most important disease in eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp. and hybrids) plantations in Brazil. To further our understanding of the epidemiology

  1. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup ?3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  2. A GRAVITATIONAL LENS NEED NOT PRODUCE AN ODD ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-11-25

    lens subject to an assumption that the bending of light rays decreases as the light ... In this paper we translate the degree argument directly into 4-dimensional ...

  3. Candidate gravitational microlensing events for future direct lens imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, C. B.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Park, H.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sumi, T.; Koshimoto, N. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bozza, V. [Department of Physics, University of Salerno, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Abe, F.; Fukunaga, D.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H. [Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92-019, Auckland 1001 (New Zealand); Fukui, A. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; ?FUN Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    The mass of the lenses giving rise to Galactic microlensing events can be constrained by measuring the relative lens-source proper motion and lens flux. The flux of the lens can be separated from that of the source, companions to the source, and unrelated nearby stars with high-resolution images taken when the lens and source are spatially resolved. For typical ground-based adaptive optics (AO) or space-based observations, this requires either inordinately long time baselines or high relative proper motions. We provide a list of microlensing events toward the Galactic bulge with high relative lens-source proper motion that are therefore good candidates for constraining the lens mass with future high-resolution imaging. We investigate all events from 2004 to 2013 that display detectable finite-source effects, a feature that allows us to measure the proper motion. In total, we present 20 events with ? ? 8 mas yr{sup –1}. Of these, 14 were culled from previous analyses while 6 are new, including OGLE-2004-BLG-368, MOA-2005-BLG-36, OGLE-2012-BLG-0211, OGLE-2012-BLG-0456, MOA-2012-BLG-532, and MOA-2013-BLG-029. In ?12 yr from the time of each event the lens and source of each event will be sufficiently separated for ground-based telescopes with AO systems or space telescopes to resolve each component and further characterize the lens system. Furthermore, for the most recent events, comparison of the lens flux estimates from images taken immediately to those estimated from images taken when the lens and source are resolved can be used to empirically check the robustness of the single-epoch method currently being used to estimate lens masses for many events.

  4. CO2 Mitigation Potential of Biomass Energy Plantations in DevelopingRegions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --Latin America and Asia 11 --A Case Study of Biomass Energy Plantations in the Northeast of Brazil 12 5 are modernized. A recent assessment by Johansson et al. [1993] of the potential for renewable energy to global energy supply in a renewables-intensive global energy scenario (RIGES), providing 35% (206 EJ

  5. Mortality in Southern Ontario Red Pine Plantations: Causes, Consequences, and Management Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiang, Tom

    No. 69 2010 Mortality in Southern Ontario Red Pine Plantations: Causes, Consequences, and Management Options By J.A. McLAughLin1 , T. hsiAng2 , g. hALicki hAyden1 And s. greifenhAgen1 1 Ontario that is among the most extensively planted tree species in southern Ontario. In the 1920s, reforestation

  6. Aboveground carbon biomass of plantation-grown American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in absence of blight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). Forested ecosystems may help contribute toward carbon sequestration by capturing and storing atmospheric CO forests for carbon sequestration. Forest Ecology and Management 258 (2009) 288­294 A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Afforestation Carbon sequestration Competition Forest restoration Plantation establishment A B

  7. Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    .2%, supporting our hypothesis. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Carbon sequestration of these plantations to sequester carbon has received renewed interest, since carbon sequestration projects). A good estimate of carbon sequestration is essential to any project of this type. The rate of carbon

  8. Establishment phase greenhouse gas emissions in short rotation woody biomass plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    February 2014 Keywords: SRWC Populus Salix Greenhouse gas balance Bioenergy Land use change a b s t r a c plantations with willow (Salix spp.), hybrid-poplar (Populus spp.), and control plots in spring 2010 at two-rotation woody bio- energy crops (SRWC), specifically hybrid-poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), being

  9. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the assumption that palm oil is an ``environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurementsNitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread trop- ical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global

  10. Poplar plantation has the potential to alter the water balance in semiarid Inner Mongolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    100049, China d Key Lab Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Combating, Water and Soil plantation was intensified to combat desertification along China's northwestern border, i.e., within Inner). With the launch of the ``Three North Project'' (1978) and its successors (``Combating Desertification Project

  11. Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor Hongwen Ren, David Fox, P. Andrew Anderson be controlled by a servo motor. The lens cell is composed of elastic membrane, planar glass plate, a periphery by an exterior rubber membrane. The arm of a servo motor is used to deform the elastic rubber. Squeezing

  12. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, W.

    2010-01-01

    of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-raynanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. Theoptical performance of Fresnel zone plate lens based imaging

  13. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  14. HINS Superconducting Lens and Cryostat Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, T.M.; DiMarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is involved in the development of a 60 MeV superconducting linac. This linac is part of the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) R&D Program. The initial beam acceleration in the front end section of the linac is achieved using room temperature spoke cavities, each of which is combined with a superconducting focusing solenoid. These solenoid magnets are cooled with liquid helium at 4.5K, operate at 250 A and have a maximum magnetic field strength of 7.5 T. A prototype solenoid cryostat was built and tested at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility. This paper discusses the test results of the prototype and compares the measured and estimated performance of the cryostat. We also present the methods and results for measuring and fiducializing the axis of the solenoid lens.

  15. An Archaeological Survey for the City of Conroe Capital Projects Drennan West and Plantation North in Montgomery County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-30

    An archaeological survey of the route of the proposed Drennan Road and Plantation Drive in central Montgomery County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) on July 13, 2010 under Antiquities Permit 5696 for the City...

  16. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  17. Means to flexibly attach lens frames to temple members

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Harry D. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.

  18. HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON LASER ENGINEERED NET SHAPE (LENS) REPAIRED WELDMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T

    2006-10-06

    New methods of repairing mis-machined components are always of interest. In this study, an innovative method using Laser Engineered Net Shape{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) forming was used to repair intentionally mis-machined test articles. The components were repaired and subsequently hydrogen charged and burst tested. The LENS repair did not have an adverse effect on the solid state weld process that was used to repair the components. Hydrogen charged samples failed in a similar manner to the uncharged samples. Overall, the prospects for LENS repairing similar products are favorable and further work is encouraged.

  19. Estimation of aboveground biomass and inorganic nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, James Nelson

    1980-01-01

    ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON MOUSER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August lqBO Major Si bject: Forestry ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS AND INORGANIC NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION A Thesis by JAMES NELSON HOUSER Approved...

  20. Shallow seismic investigation of hydrogeologic problems in the Brazos River alluvium, Texas A&M Plantation, Burleson County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrayer, Michael Albert

    1966-01-01

    SHALLOW SEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC PROBLEMS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER ALLUVIUM, TEXAS A&M PLANTATION, BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Michael Albert McBrayer Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in Partial... fulfullment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Geology SHALLOW SEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC PROBLEMS IN THE BRAZOS RIVER ALLUVIUM, TEXAS DAM PLANTATION, BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis...

  1. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments:more »monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.« less

  2. Laser and acoustic lens for lithotripsy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Makarewicz, Anthony J. (San Ramon, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic focusing device whose acoustic waves are generated by laser radiation through an optical fiber. The acoustic energy is capable of efficient destruction of renal and biliary calculi and deliverable to the site of the calculi via an endoscopic procedure. The device includes a transducer tip attached to the distal end of an optical fiber through which laser energy is directed. The transducer tip encapsulates an exogenous absorbing dye. Under proper irradiation conditions (high absorbed energy density, short pulse duration) a stress wave is produced via thermoelastic expansion of the absorber for the destruction of the calculi. The transducer tip can be configured into an acoustic lens such that the transmitted acoustic wave is shaped or focused. Also, compressive stress waves can be reflected off a high density/low density interface to invert the compressive wave into a tensile stress wave, and tensile stresses may be more effective in some instances in disrupting material as most materials are weaker in tension than compression. Estimations indicate that stress amplitudes provided by this device can be magnified more than 100 times, greatly improving the efficiency of optical energy for targeted material destruction.

  3. Lensview: Software for modelling resolved gravitational lens images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall B. Wayth; Rachel L. Webster

    2006-09-19

    We have developed a new software tool, Lensview, for modelling resolved gravitational lens images. Based on the LensMEM algorithm, the software finds the best fitting lens mass model and source brightness distribution using a maximum entropy constraint. The method can be used with any point spread function or lens model. We review the algorithm and introduce some significant improvements. We also investigate and discuss issues associated with the statistical uncertainties of models and model parameters and the issues of source plane size and source pixel size. We test the software on simulated optical and radio data to evaluate how well lens models can be recovered and with what accuracy. For optical data, lens model parameters can typically be recovered with better than 1% accuracy and the degeneracy between mass ellipticity and power law is reduced. For radio data, we find that systematic errors associated with using processed radio maps, rather than the visibilities, are of similar magnitude to the random errors. Hence analysing radio data in image space is still useful and meaningful. The software is applied to the optical arc HST J15433+5352 and the radio ring MG1549+3047 using a simple elliptical isothermal lens model. For HST J15433+5352, the Einstein radius is 0.525" +/- 0.015 which probably includes a substantial convergence contribution from a neighbouring galaxy. For MG1549+3047, the model has Einstein radius 1.105" +/- 0.005 and core radius 0.16" 0.03. The total mass enclosed in the critical radius is 7.06 x 10^{10} Solar masses for our best model.

  4. Gravitational lens equation for embedded lenses; magnification and ellipticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Mathematics Department, University of Oklahoma, 601 Elm Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Kantowski, R.; Dai, X. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We give the lens equation for light deflections caused by point mass condensations in an otherwise spatially homogeneous and flat universe. We assume the signal from a distant source is deflected by a single condensation before it reaches the observer. We call this deflector an embedded lens because the deflecting mass is part of the mean density. The embedded lens equation differs from the conventional lens equation because the deflector mass is not simply an addition to the cosmic mean. We prescribe an iteration scheme to solve this new lens equation and use it to compare our results with standard linear lensing theory. We also compute analytic expressions for the lowest order corrections to image amplifications and distortions caused by incorporating the lensing mass into the mean. We use these results to estimate the effect of embedding on strong lensing magnifications and ellipticities and find only small effects, <1%, contrary to what we have found for time delays and for weak lensing, {approx}5%.

  5. Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loree, T.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Zuclich, J.A.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strobl, K.

    1999-04-13

    A method is disclosed for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject`s chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes. 8 figs.

  6. Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loree, deceased, Thomas R. (late of Albuquerque, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Zuclich, Joseph A. (San Antonio, TX); Shimada, Tsutomu (Los Alamos, NM); Strobl, Karlheinz (Fiskdale, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Method for quantifying optical properties of the human lens. The present invention includes the application of fiberoptic, OMA-based instrumentation as an in vivo diagnostic tool for the human ocular lens. Rapid, noninvasive and comprehensive assessment of the optical characteristics of a lens using very modest levels of exciting light are described. Typically, the backscatter and fluorescence spectra (from about 300- to 900-nm) elicited by each of several exciting wavelengths (from about 300- to 600-nm) are collected within a few seconds. The resulting optical signature of individual lenses is then used to assess the overall optical quality of the lens by comparing the results with a database of similar measurements obtained from a reference set of normal human lenses having various ages. Several metrics have been identified which gauge the optical quality of a given lens relative to the norm for the subject's chronological age. These metrics may also serve to document accelerated optical aging and/or as early indicators of cataract or other disease processes.

  7. Generation of Sound Bullets with a Nonlinear Acoustic Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Spadoni; Chiara Daraio

    2009-08-31

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery, to defense systems, but their performance is limited by their linear operational envelope and complexity. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of large amplitude, compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, enabled by a tunable, highly nonlinear acoustic lens. The lens consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying static pre-compression on the chains. We support our findings with theory, numerical simulations, and corroborate the results experimentally with photoelasticity measurements. Our nonlinear lens makes possible a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, enabling, for example, surgical control of acoustic energy.

  8. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  9. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  10. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael J. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

  11. Building strategy to penetrate deeper into the stagnant and unattractive contact lens market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toor, Tajinder (Tajinder Pal Singh)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis builds up important strategic elements to penetrate deeper into the stagnant and mature contact lens market by focusing on adolescents. First, contact lens adoption is studied to strategically generate awareness ...

  12. Stability, unfolding, and aggregation of the gamma D and gamma S human eye lens crystallins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills-Henry, Ishara Amenti Rakem

    2007-01-01

    The transparency of the human eye lens depends on the properties of the a- crystallin and py-crystallin families of proteins, which accumulate to very high concentrations in mature lens fiber cells. The 0- and y-crystallins ...

  13. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  14. Free-space microwave focusing by a negative-index gradient lens T. Driscolla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Free-space microwave focusing by a negative-index gradient lens T. Driscolla and D. N. Basov gradient-index lens with an index of refraction ranging from -2.67 edge to -0.97 center . Experimentally technology which offers significant design, mechanical, and cost advantages over other microwave lens

  15. Friend Lens: Novel Web Content Sharing through Strategic Manipulation of Cached HTML

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbons, John William

    2010-02-12

    of external content. This thesis details the construction and novel features of Friend Lens. Friend Lens is a web application that allows for user to author original content and for the extraction of complete copies of external sites using PHP. Friend Lens...

  16. Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer , Hongwen Ren1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Adaptive liquid lens actuated by photo-polymer Su Xu1 , Hongwen Ren1 , Yeong-Jyh Lin1 , M. G. Jim: An adaptive liquid lens actuated by a photo-polymer is demonstrated. The lens cell consists of a top glass light irradiation, the polymer is bent which exerts a pressure to regulate the curvature of the membrane

  17. Electrically switchable Fresnel lens using a polymer-separated composite film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Electrically switchable Fresnel lens using a polymer-separated composite film Yun-Hsing Fan, Florida 32816 swu@mail.ucf.edu http://lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A Fresnel lens with electrically. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Fabrication of off-axis holographic Fresnel lens used as multiplexer

  18. Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitsianis, Nikos P.

    Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens arrays) sensor whose visibility is modulated by a Fresnel lens array. The optimal element number of the lens," Proc. of IEEE. Signals, Systems and Computers 1, 843-838 (2001). 11. Fresnel Technologies Inc., http

  19. Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides a novel metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength- scale optical coupling into a nanophotonic waveguide. Using the plasmonic waveguide structure in Fresnel lens form, a much wider beam acceptance angle

  20. FIA-12-0024- In the matter of Len Latkovski

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Appellant appealed the adequacy of the search for responsive documents conducted by the Office of History. In a November 15, 2011, Decision and Order, OHA found that the Office of History had conducted an adequate search under the FOIA. Len Latkovski, Case No. FIA-11-0004 (November 15, 2011).

  1. Summer 2001 1 The GroupLens Research Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Summer 2001 1 The GroupLens Research Project: Collaborative Filtering Recommender Systems Joseph A. Konstan University of Minnesota konstan@cs.umn.edu http://www.grouplens.org Summer 2001 2 About me and Information Management Summer 2001 3 The Problem: Information Overload Too many research papers books movies

  2. Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    volts with fast response time. Such a device works well for a linearly polarized light. 2003 Optical-terminal adaptive Nematic liquid-crystal lens device," Opt. Lett. 19, 1013-1015 (1994). 6. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, "Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23

  3. Transient photoinduced diffractive solid immersion lens for infrared microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    plate structure on the surfaces of semiconductor wafers with high indices of refraction. Lenses properties were determined. We demonstrate that transient SILs can have lifetimes longer than 50 ps microscopy. A solid immersion lens SIL focuses radiation within a material of a high re- fractive index

  4. The Director's Lens: An Intelligent Assistant for Virtual Cinematography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .1 [Multimedia Information Systems]: Animations, Video General Terms Algorithms, Human Factors Keywords Virtual-generated animations, the task of crafting virtual camera work and edits for a sequence of 3D animation remains a timeThe Director's Lens: An Intelligent Assistant for Virtual Cinematography Christophe Lino IRISA

  5. Gravitational lens modelling in a citizen science context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Küng, Rafael; More, Anupreeta; Baeten, Elisabeth; Coles, Jonathan; Cornen, Claude; Macmillan, Christine; Marshall, Phil; More, Surhud; Odermatt, Jonas; Verma, Aprajita; Wilcox, Julianne K

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method to enable collaborative modelling of gravitational lenses and lens candidates, that could be used by non-professional lens enthusiasts. It uses an existing free-form modelling program (glass), but enables the input to this code to be provided in a novel way, via a user-generated diagram that is essentially a sketch of an arrival-time surface. We report on an implementation of this method, SpaghettiLens, which has been tested in a modelling challenge using 29 simulated lenses drawn from a larger set created for the Space Warps citizen science strong lens search. We find that volunteers from this online community asserted the image parities and time ordering consistently in some lenses, but made errors in other lenses depending on the image morphology. While errors in image parity and time ordering lead to large errors in the mass distribution, the enclosed mass was found to be more robust: the model-derived Einstein radii found by the volunteers were consistent with those produced by one of...

  6. The performance of magnetic lens for focusing VCN-SANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, M.; Iwashita, Y.; Kanaya, T.; Ichikawa, M.; Tongu, H.; Kennedy, S. J.; Shimizu, H. M.; Mishima, K.; Yamada, N. L.; Hirota, K.; Carpenter, J..; Lal, J.; Anderson, K.; Geltenbort, P.; Guerard, B.; Manzin, G.; Hino, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Bleuel, M.; NOP Collaboration (Biosciences Division); ( AES); ( MSD); (Kyoto Univ.); (Bragg Inst.); (KEK, 1-1); (RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako); (ILL); (KURRI); (Reactor Inst.)

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a prototype rotating-permanent magnet sextupole lens (named rot-PMSx) for more efficient experiments with neutron beams in time of flight (ToF) mode. This lens can modulate the focusing strength over range 1.5 x 10{sup 4} T/m{sup 2} {le} g' {le} 5.9 x 10{sup 4} T/m{sup 2}. Synchronization between the modulation and the beam pulse produces a focused beam without significant chromatic aberration. We anticipate that this lens could be utilized in focusing small angle neutron scattering (SANS) instruments for novel approach to high resolution SANS. We carried out experiments testing the principle of this lens at the very cold neutron (VCN) beamline (PF2) at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), France. The focused beam image size at the detector was kept constant at the same beam size as the source ({approx} 3 mm) over a wavelength range of 30 {angstrom} {le} {lambda} {le} 48 {angstrom} in focal length of {approx} 1.14 m. The flux gain was about 12 relative to a beam without focusing, and the depth of focus was quite large. These results show the good performance of this lens and the system. Thereupon we have demonstrated the performance of this test bed for high resolution focusing of VCN-SANS for a well-studied softmatter sample; a deuterium oxide solution of Pluronic F127, an (PEO){sub 100}(PPO){sub 65}(PEO){sub 100} tri-block copolymer in deuterium oxide. The results of the focusing experiment and the focusing VCN-SANS are presented.

  7. Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Ballmoos, P. von; Naya, J.; Albernhe, F.; Vedrenne, G. [Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Faiz, M. [KFUPM, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.

    1996-08-01

    A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consisted of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arc sec. The performance of the lens was tested in two ways. In one case, the gamma rays were focused on a single medium size germanium detector. In the second case, the gamma rays were focused on the central germanium detector of a 3 x 3 matrix of small germanium detectors. The efficiency, image concentration and image quality, and shape were measured. The tests performed with the 3 x 3 matrix detector system were particularly interesting. The wanted radiation was concentrated in the central detector. The 8 other detectors were used to detect the Compton scattered radiation, and their energy was summed with coincident events in the central detector. This resulted in a detector with the efficiency of a large detector (all 9 elements) and the background of a small detector (only the central element). The use of the 3 x 3 detector matrix makes it possible to tell if the source is off axis and, if so, to tell in which direction. The crystal lens acts very much like a simple convex lens for visible light. Thus if the source is off to the left then the image will focus off to the right illuminating the detector on the right side: telling one in which direction to point the telescope. Possible applications of this type of crystal lens to balloon and satellite experiments will be discussed.

  8. PETROLEUM PLANTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    ed). "Energy: Global Prospects 1985-2000 11 • New York (as Energy Converters 11 • Publ ishlng-cO:, New York (1977)oSolar Energy for Man 11 • John Wiley Sons, New York (1976).

  9. PETROLEUM PLANTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    the problem of our energy supply, which today, for the mostis converted today into chemical energy for use as materialtoday. And so it behooves us to find other ways to supply the energy

  10. PETROLEUM PLANTATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    a source of energy and materials. In Brazil, In sugar caneBrazil and in Puerto Rico as it does In this photograph. be a tremendous waste of energy.

  11. Effects of polyethylene mulch in a short-rotation, poplar plantation vary with weed-control strategies,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Scott

    Effects of polyethylene mulch in a short-rotation, poplar plantation vary with weed polyethylene mulch (poly mulch) across a range of site conditions, weed-control treatments and genotypes rights reserved. Keywords: Polyethylene mulch; Woody crops; Weed control Forest Ecology and Management

  12. Soil carbon and nitrogen cycling and storage throughout the soil profile in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil carbon and nitrogen cycling and storage throughout the soil profile in a sweetgum plantation partitioning of carbon (C) to fine roots under elevated [CO2], especially deep in the soil profile, could alter soil C and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests. After more than 11 years of free-air CO2 enrichment

  13. The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey:II. Gravitational lens candidate selection and follow-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. W. A. Browne; P. N. Wilkinson; N. J. F. Jackson; S. T. Myers; C. D. Fassnacht; L. V. E. Koopmans; D. R. Marlow; M. Norbury; D. Rusin; C. M. Sykes; A. D. Biggs; R. D. Blandford; A. G. de Bruyn; K-H. Chae; P. Helbig; L. J. King; J. P. McKean; T. J. Pearson; P. M. Phillips; A. C. S. Readhead; E. Xanthopoulos; T. York

    2002-11-11

    We report the final results of the search for gravitationally lensed flat-spectrum radio sources found in the combination of CLASS (Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey) and JVAS (Jodrell-Bank VLA Astrometric Survey). VLA observations of 16,503 sources have been made, resulting in the largest sample of arcsec-scale lens systems available. Contained within the 16,503 sources is a complete sample of 11,685 sources having two-point spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz flatter than -0.5 and 5 GHz flux densities $\\geq$30 mJy. A subset of 8,958 sources form a well-defined statistical sample suitable for analysis of the lens statistics. We describe the systematic process by which 149 candidate lensed sources were picked from the statistical sample on the basis of possessing multiple compact components in the 0.2 arcsec-resolution VLA maps. Candidates were followed up with 0.05 arcsec resolution MERLIN and 0.003 arcsec VLBA observations at 5 GHz and rejected as lens systems if they failed well-defined surface brightness and/or morphological tests. Maps for all the candidates can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/research/gravlens/index.html We summarize the properties of each of the 22 gravitational lens systems in JVAS/CLASS. Twelve are double-image systems, nine are four-image systems and one is a six-image system. Thirteen constitute a statistically well-defined sample giving a point-source lensing rate of 1:690$\\pm$190. The interpretation of the results in terms of the properties of the lensing galaxy population and cosmological parameters will be published elsewhere. (Abridged)

  14. Electrically tunable graded index planar lens based on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasari, H. Abrishamian, M. S.

    2014-08-28

    The realization of electrically tunable beam focusing using a properly designed conductivity pattern along a strip on a background single graphene flake with operation in the terahertz regime is proposed and numerically investigated. The strip is illuminated with a guided surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) plane wave and the physical origin of the design procedure is evaluated from the phase of effective mode index of propagating SPP wave on graphene. Upon tuning a gate voltage between the graphene sheet and the substrate, the focus tuning is achieved. Finite- difference time-domain numerical technique is employed to explore the propagation characteristic of SPP wave and the performance parameters of the lens include the focal length, full-width half-maximum, and focusing efficiency. Such a one atom thick planar lens with the capability of electrical focus tuning besides the compatibility with current planar optoelectronic systems can find valuable potential applications in the field of transformational plasmon optics.

  15. Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Krizmanic; Gerry Skinner; Neil Gehrels

    2006-01-03

    The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.

  16. Expected performance of a Laue lens based on bent crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valsan, Vineeth; Virgilli, Enrico; Liccardo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LAUE project devoted to build a long focal length focusing optics for soft gamma-ray astronomy (70/100 keV to $>$600 keV), we present results of simulation of a Laue lens, based on bent crystals in different assembling configurations (quasi-mosaic and reflection-like geometries). The main aim is to significantly overcome the sensitivity limits of the current generation of gamma-ray telescopes and improve the imaging capability.

  17. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  18. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR LENS SEARCH. IV. STATISTICAL LENS SAMPLE FROM THE FIFTH DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Fukugita, Masataka; Strauss, Michael A.; Gott, J. Richard; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Chiu, Kuenley; Johnston, David E.; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2010-08-15

    We present the second report of our systematic search for strongly lensed quasars from the data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). From extensive follow-up observations of 136 candidate objects, we find 36 lenses in the full sample of 77,429 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS Data Release 5. We then define a complete sample of 19 lenses, including 11 from our previous search in the SDSS Data Release 3, from the sample of 36,287 quasars with i < 19.1 in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 2.2, where we require the lenses to have image separations of 1'' < {theta} < 20'' and i-band magnitude differences between the two images smaller than 1.25 mag. Among the 19 lensed quasars, three have quadruple-image configurations, while the remaining 16 show double images. This lens sample constrains the cosmological constant to be {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.84{sup +0.06}{sub -0.08}(stat.){sup +0.09}{sub -0.07}(syst.) assuming a flat universe, which is in good agreement with other cosmological observations. We also report the discoveries of seven binary quasars with separations ranging from 1.''1 to 16.''6, which are identified in the course of our lens survey. This study concludes the construction of our statistical lens sample in the full SDSS-I data set.

  19. Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2013-10-29

    A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

  20. Exploiting lens aberrations to create electron vortex beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Clark; A. Béché; G. Guzzinati; A. Lubk; M. Mazilu; R. Van Boxem; J. Verbeeck

    2013-07-18

    A model for a new electron vortex beam production method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The technique calls on the controlled manipulation of the degrees of freedom of the lens aberrations to achieve a helical phase front. These degrees of freedom are accessible by using the corrector lenses of a transmission electron microscope. The vortex beam is produced through a particular alignment of these lenses into a specifically designed astigmatic state and applying an annular aperture in the condensor plane. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with simulations.

  1. BIO-MIMICRY OF HUMAN OPTICAL LENS Nithya Jayapratha, Dr. Seyoung An, Dr. Vitali Metlushko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metlushko, Vitali

    quality, material homogeneity, and production rate. Fabrication of high aspect ratio 3D micro structures is achieved by fabricating a 3D lens with soft spirals. The soft spiral lens is made of plastic material is basically a high aspect ratio 3-D microstructure. The fabrication can be done by sequentially adding thin

  2. Metal-Slit Array Fresnel-Lens for Optical Coupling Young Jin Jung1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Metal-Slit Array Fresnel-Lens for Optical Coupling Young Jin Jung1 , Dongwon Park1 , Sunkyu Yu1, for the first time, to utilize metal-slits array Fresnel lens for the optical coupling form free space into silicon slab waveguide while overcoming near focal length limit of the conventional dielectric Fresnel

  3. Lithium Lens ANSYS Mechanical Simula3on for Muon g-2 R. Schultz, P. Hurh (FNAL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Lithium Lens ANSYS Mechanical Simula3on for Muon g-2 R. Schultz, P. Hurh (FNAL) § The Lithium Collec;on Lens was used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider, is roughly 1e6 pulses per month § Muon g-2 intends to use the Lithium Collec

  4. Development status of a Laue lens project for gamma-ray astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Frontera; G. Loffredo; A. Pisa; L. Milani; F. Nobili; N. Auricchio; V. Carassiti; F. Evangelisti; L. Landi; S. Squerzanti; K. H. Andersen; P. Courtois; L. Amati; E. Caroli; G. Landini; S. Silvestri; J. B. Stephen; J. M. Poulsen; B. Negri; G. Pareschi

    2007-12-07

    We report the status of the HAXTEL project, devoted to perform a design study and the development of a Laue lens prototype. After a summary of the major results of the design study, the approach adopted to develop a Demonstration Model of a Laue lens is discussed, the set up described, and some results presented.

  5. Robust Aerial Object Tracking in Images with Lens Flare Andreas Nussberger1, Helmut Grabner1 and Luc Van Gool1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabner, Helmut

    often result in a high number of false detections. Depending on the solar radiation lens flares are very the date, time, position and attitude of the observer we predict the lens flare direction within the image

  6. Mechanical 144?GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Torres, V. Orazbayev, B. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Engheta, N.

    2014-12-15

    An all-metallic steerable beam antenna composed of an ?-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial lens is experimentally demonstrated at 144?GHz (?{sub 0}?=?2.083?mm). The ENZ lens is realized by an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working just near and above the cut-off of the TE{sub 10} mode. The lens focal arc on the xz-plane is initially estimated analytically as well as numerically and compared with experimental results demonstrating good agreement. Next, a flange-ended WR-6.5 waveguide is placed along the lens focal arc to evaluate the ENZ-lens antenna steerability. A gain scan loss below 3?dB is achieved for angles up to ±15°.

  7. Design of efficient lens ducts Rulian Fu, Guangjun Wang, Zhaoqi Wang, Enxu Ba, Guoguang Mu, and Xin-Hua Hu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of efficient lens ducts Rulian Fu, Guangjun Wang, Zhaoqi Wang, Enxu Ba, Guoguang Mu, and Xin-Hua Hu Lens ducts have the potential to couple the output from a laser diode array efficiently- tigate different design approaches of lens ducts and demonstrate the possibility to obtain an output beam

  8. A Maxwell's fish eye lens for the terahertz region Jingbo Liu, Rajind Mendis, and Daniel M. Mittleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    A Maxwell's fish eye lens for the terahertz region Jingbo Liu, Rajind Mendis, and Daniel M://apl.aip.org/features/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://apl.aip.org/authors #12;A Maxwell's fish eye lens for the terahertz region; published online 15 July 2013) We implement a two-dimensional Maxwell's fish eye lens using a waveguide

  9. STRUCTURAL AND IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN EYE LENS FIBER CELLS FROM Cx46 AND Cx50 KNOCKOUT MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 STRUCTURAL AND IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN EYE LENS FIBER CELLS FROM Cx46 AND Cx50 KNOCKOUT organization of lens fiber cells in connexin 46 (Cx46) and connexin 50 (Cx50) knockout mice. Morphometric analyses and the application of immunocytochemical techniques revealed that in Cx46 knockout lens (Cx46

  10. Root biomass and nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda L.) plantation in East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Charles LaGrone

    1978-01-01

    ROOT BIOMASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUP TAED!l LJ PIJIN ATION IN EAST TEIJIS A Thesis by Charles LaGrone Tuttle Submitted to the Graduate College of Texa s A & M University in partial, fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 iVIajor Subject: Forest S "ience ROOT BIOMASS AND NUTRIENT CONTENT OF A 25-YEAR-OLD LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L. ) PLANTATION IN EAST TEXAS A Thesis by Charles LaGrone Tuttle Approved...

  11. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100?m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  12. A Gravitational Lens Solution for IRAS F10214+4724

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Broadhurst; Joseph Lehar

    1995-05-03

    We show that the high redshift IRAS source F10214 is highly magnified by the gravitational field of an intervening elliptical galaxy, accounting for its many anomalous properties. Detailed radio and near-IR images identify the IRAS source with a symmetric arc, centered on a red object, or lensing galaxy. To explain the observed structures, the center of the source must much more highly magnified than its outer regions. Lensing predicts a small counterimage to the arc, which we find adjacent to the lensing galaxy. A red component in the observed spectrum suggests a lens redshift of unity, and the lens model yields a mass estimate of $M(r<3kpc)\\approx10^{11}{M_solar}$, consistent with an ordinary elliptical galaxy. We present new high-resolution optical images which show a thin arc of emission, implying an intrinsically small source ($<0.5kpc$) which is highly magnified ($\\sim20\\times$). Since the optical is strongly polarized with a Seyfert~II spectrum, we propose that the optical arc is magnified image of the inner region of an obscured AGN. The obscuring ``torus'' will be similarly magnified, naturally accounting for the large IR flux. We show that finding objects like F10214+4724 in redshift surveys is probable, given the level of magnification bias expected for compact luminous IRAS sources. Such cases represent the obscured AGN counterparts to the lensed QSO population and, because of their extended sizes, are useful in determining the mass distribution in the lensing galaxies.

  13. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Dune Acres, IN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  14. Radiation Dose to the Lens During Craniospinal Irradiation-An Improvement in Proton Radiotherapy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, David M. [Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I.; Adams, Judith A. C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ntarbell@partners.org

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of angle modification of cranial field proton beam therapy on the radiation dose delivered to the lens during craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients with central nervous system tumors who received CSI with a posterior fossa boost were analyzed for the radiation dose to the lens. Thirteen patients received cranial field treatment using standard opposed-lateral proton beams, and 26 patients received treatment with angled posterior-oblique proton beams. The lens dose in a test case also was evaluated by comparing conventional X-rays with the two proton beam planning methods by using a CMS/Xio three-dimensional planning system. Results: Substantial lens dose sparing was realized with the angling of the cranial proton beams 15{sup o}-20{sup o} to the posterior. In the 39 treated patients who were analyzed (median age, 7 years), average dose delivered to the lens was decreased by approximately 50% by angling of the proton beams, with the average maximum dose decreasing from 74% to 40% of the prescribed dose (p < 0.0001). Significant lens sparing was seen in patients 10 years and younger (median age, 6 years; p < 0.0001), whereas an insignificant decrease was seen in older patients (median age, 16 years; p = 0.14). With the opposed-lateral technique (median age, 6 years), the lens dose increased significantly with decreasing age (p = 0.002), whereas there was no effect of age on lens dose in the angled beam-treated group (median age, 8.5 years; p = 0.73). Conclusion: The present study clearly shows an advantage in sparing of the lens dose by angling the beams used during proton beam CSI. This effect is most pronounced in patients 10 years and younger because of anatomic effects of sinus development.

  15. Micro-Ball Lens Array Fabrication in Photoresist Using Ptfe Hydrophobic Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu Ruey Fang; Tsai Wen Ren; Tsai Jhy Cherng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method to fabricate micro-ball lens and its array. The key technology is to use the hydrophobic characteristics of polyterafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate. High contact angle between melted photoresist pattern and PTFE can generate micro-ball lens and its array. PTFE thin film was spun onto a silicon wafer and dried in oven. Photoresist AZ4620 was used to pattern micro-columns with different diameters 60, 70 and 80 $\\mu$m. A thermal reflow process then was applied to melt these micro-column patterns resulted in micro-ball lens array. The achieved micro-ball lens array with diameter 98 $\\mu$m was fabricated using 80 $\\mu$m in diameter patterns. This method provides a simple fabrication process and low material cost.

  16. Biomechanics of the Lens Capsule from Native to After Cataract Surgery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedrigi, Ryan M.

    2010-01-16

    quasispherical morphology to change focus from distant to near objects. Given its highly mechanical nature, it is prudent to study the native lens capsule from the perspective of biomechanics for such applications as understanding the mechanism of accommodation...

  17. Simulations of the SLAC Plasma Lens Shinichi Masuda \\Lambda and Pisin Chen y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coordinates. Each macro particle has the shape like a ring. The current densities on each grid point; TABLE 1. Beam parameters in the SLAC plasma lens experiment. Quantities Values Energy E 30 and 50 Ge

  18. Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittenberg, Andrew

    Intrinsic modulation of ENSO predictability viewed through a local Lyapunov lens Christina magnitude, frequency, and physical evolution. Local Lyapunov exponents (LLEs) estimated from the monthly Predictability Á Local Lyapunov exponents 1 Introduction The limits of predictability of the state

  19. Enhancing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awad, Christina

    2012-01-01

    6. WORKS CITED 1. Advantages of Fresnel Lenses. 2012.optics/advantages-of- fresnel-lenses/? &pagenum=1 (accessedSODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens A Thesis submitted in

  20. Redshifted formaldehyde from the gravitational lens B0218+357

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Jethava; C. Henkel; K. M. Menten; C. L. Carilli; M. J. Reid

    2007-06-25

    The gravitational lens toward B0218+357 offers the unique possibility to study cool moderately dense gas with high sensitivity and angular resolution in a cloud that existed half a Hubble time ago. Observations of the radio continuum and six formaldehyde (H2CO) lines were carried out with the VLA, the Plateau de Bure interferometer, and the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. Three radio continuum maps indicate a flux density ratio between the two main images, A and B, of ~ 3.4 +/- 0.2. Within the errors the ratio is the same at 8.6, 14.1, and 43 GHz. The 1_{01}-0_{00} line of para-H2CO is shown to absorb the continuum of image A. Large Velocity Gradient radiative transfer calculations are performed to reproduce the optical depths of the observed two cm-wave "K-doublet" and four mm-wave rotational lines. These calculations also account for a likely frequency-dependent continuum cloud coverage. Confirming the diffuse nature of the cloud, an n(H2) density of < 1000 cm^{-3} is derived, with the best fit suggesting n(H2) ~ 200 cm^{-3}. The H2CO column density of the main velocity component is ~5 * 10^{13} cm^{-2}, to which about 7.5 * 10^{12} cm^{-2} has to be added to also account for a weaker feature on the blue side, 13 km/s apart. N(H2CO)/N(NH3) ~ 0.6, which is four times less than the average ratio obtained from a small number of local diffuse (galactic) clouds seen in absorption. The ortho-to-para H2CO abundance ratio is 2.0 - 3.0, which is consistent with the kinetic temperature of the molecular gas associated with the lens of B0218+357. With the gas kinetic temperature and density known, it is found that optically thin transitions of CS, HCN, HNC, HCO+, and N2H+ (but not CO) will provide excellent probes of the cosmic microwave background at redshift z=0.68.

  1. Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Stephen S. L. Peppin; Alan C. F. Cocks; John S. Wettlaufer

    2011-09-09

    We present a new, physically-intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing of soils and other dense, particulate suspensions. Motivated by experimental evidence, we consider the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack will then propagate across the soil to form a new lens. The process is controlled by two factors: the cohesion of the soil, and the geometrical supercooling of the water in the soil; a new concept introduced to measure the energy available to form a new ice lens. When the supercooling exceeds a critical amount (proportional to the cohesive strength of the soil) a new ice lens forms. This condition for ice-lens formation and growth does not appeal to any ad hoc, empirical assumptions, and explains how periodic ice lenses can form with or without the presence of a frozen fringe. The proposed mechanism is in good agreement with experiments, in particular explaining ice-lens pattern formation, and surges in heave rate associated with the growth of new lenses. Importantly for systems with no frozen fringe, ice-lens formation and frost heave can be predicted given only the unfrozen properties of the soil. We use our theory to estimate ice-lens growth temperatures obtaining quantitative agreement with the limited experimental data that is currently available. Finally we suggest experiments that might be performed in order to verify this theory in more detail. The theory is generalizable to complex natural-soil scenarios, and should therefore be useful in the prediction of macroscopic frost heave rates.

  2. Using a Microcapillary Refractive X-Ray Lens for Focusing And Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudchik, Y.I.; Komarov, F.F.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Park, H.; Cremer, J.T.

    2009-06-03

    The microcapillary lens, formed by air bubbles in a hollow core glass capillary filled with epoxy, is a novel design of a compound refractive lens for X-rays. The epoxy enclosed between two air bubbles has the form of a biconcave lens and acts as a positive lens for X-rays. Each individual lens is spherical with radius of curvature equal to the inner radius of the capillary. Up to 500 individual biconcave lenses can be formed in a single capillary with diameters from 50 to 500 {mu}m. Due to the small radius of curvatures that can be achieved, microcapillary lenses typically have shorter focal lengths than those made by compression or injection molding. For example, microcapillary lenses with a focal length about 5 cm for 8 keV X-rays and 50-micron aperture are readily available. We have produced a set of lenses in a 200-micron inner-diameter glass capillary with 100--350 individual microlenses and measured their parameters at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Photon Source. Our investigations have also shown that the lenses are suitable for imaging applications with an X-ray tube as a source of X-rays. A simple X-ray microscope is discussed. The microscope consists of a copper anode X-ray tube, X-ray lens and CCD-camera. The object, lens and CCD-camera were placed in-line at distances to satisfy the lens formula. It is shown that the field of view of the microscope is about 1 mm and resolution is equal to 3--5 {mu}m.

  3. Prospects for Integrating a Hollow Electron Lens into the LHC Collimation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jeffrey Claiborne; /SLAC; Assmann, Ralph; Previtali, Valentina; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Valishev, Alexander; /CERN /Fermilab

    2009-08-03

    It has been proposed to use a hollow electron lens with the LHC beam collimation system [1]. The hollow electron beam would be used as a beam scraper and positioned at a closer sigma than the primary collimators to increase the halo particle diffusion rate striking the primaries. In this paper we use multi-turn beam tracking simulations to analyze the effectiveness of such a lens when integrated into the LHC collimation system.

  4. Simulation of an Aspheric Glass Lens Forming Behavior in Progressive GMP Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Sung Ho; Lee, Young Min; Kang, Jeong Jin; Hong, Seok Kwan; Shin, Gwang Ho; Heo, Young Moo [Precision Molds and Dies Technology Team, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 7-47 Songdo-Dong, Yeonsu-Gu, Incheon 406-800 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Tae Sung [Kmold Team, JY solutec, 47BL-6LT, 436-5 Nonhyeon-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-848 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-17

    Recently, GMP(Glass Molding Press) process is mainly used to produce aspheric glass lenses. Because glass lens is heated at high temperature above Tg (Transformation Temperature) for forming the glass, the quality of aspheric glass lens is deteriorated by residual stresses which are generated in a aspheric glass lens after forming. In this study, as a fundamental study to develop the mold for progressive GMP process, we conducted a aspheric glass lens forming simulation. Prior to a aspheric glass lens forming simulation, compression and thermal conductivity tests were carried out to obtain mechanical and thermal properties of K-PBK40 which is newly developed material for precision molding, and flow characteristics of K-PBK40 were obtained at high temperature. Then, using the flow characteristics obtained, compression simulation was carried out and compared with the experimental result for the purpose of verifying the obtained flow characteristics. Finally, a glass lens press simulation in progressive GMP process was carried out and we could forecast the shape of deformed glass lenses and residual stresses contribution in the structure of deformed glass lenses after forming.

  5. Computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-22

    A computerized method and system for designing an aerodynamic focusing lens stack, using input from a designer related to, for example, particle size range to be considered, characteristics of the gas to be flowed through the system, the upstream temperature and pressure at the top of a first focusing lens, the flow rate through the aerodynamic focusing lens stack equivalent at atmosphere pressure; and a Stokes number range. Based on the design parameters, the method and system determines the total number of focusing lenses and their respective orifice diameters required to focus the particle size range to be considered, by first calculating for the orifice diameter of the first focusing lens in the Stokes formula, and then using that value to determine, in iterative fashion, intermediate flow values which are themselves used to determine the orifice diameters of each succeeding focusing lens in the stack design, with the results being output to a designer. In addition, the Reynolds numbers associated with each focusing lens as well as exit nozzle size may also be determined to enhance the stack design.

  6. Space Warps II. New Gravitational Lens Candidates from the CFHTLS Discovered through Citizen Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Phil; More, Surhud; Baeten, Elisabeth; Wilcox, Julianne; Macmillan, Christine; Cornen, Claude; Kapadia, Amit; Parrish, Michael; Snyder, Chris; Davis, Chris; Gavazzi, Raphael; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Miller, David; Smith, Arfon M; Paget, Edward; Saha, Prasenjit; Kueng, Rafael; Collett, Tom; Tecza, Matthias; Baumer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 28 promising and a total of 58 new lens candidates from the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) based on about 11 million classifications performed by citizen scientists as part of the first Space Warps lens search. The goal of the blind lens search was to identify lenses missed by lens finding robots (the RingFinder on galaxy scales and ArcFinder on group/cluster scales), which have been previously used to mine the CFHTLS for lenses. We compare some properties of lens samples detected by these algorithms to the SpaceWarps sample and found that they are broadly similar. The image separation distribution calculated from the SpaceWarps discovered sample shows that our previous constraints on the average density profile of the lens population are robust. Space Warps recovers about 60% of the known sample and the new candidates show a richer variety compared to the lenses found by the two robots. We find that analyzing only those classifications which are performed by the high power volunteers,...

  7. LENS repair and modification of metal NW components:materials and applications guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smugeresky, John E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Gill, David Dennis; Oberhaus, Jason (BWXT Y-12); Adams, Thad (Savannah River National Laboratory); VanCamp, Chad (Kansas City Plant)

    2006-11-01

    Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) is a unique, layer additive, metal manufacturing technique that offers the ability to create fully dense metal features and components directly from a computer solid model. LENS offers opportunities to repair and modify components by adding features to existing geometry, refilling holes, repairing weld lips, and many other potential applications. The material deposited has good mechanical properties with strengths typically slightly higher that wrought material due to grain refinement from a quickly cooling weld pool. The result is a material with properties similar to cold worked material, but without the loss in ductility traditionally seen with such treatments. Furthermore, 304L LENS material exhibits good corrosion resistance and hydrogen compatibility. This report gives a background of the LENS process including materials analysis addressing the requirements of a number of different applications. Suggestions are given to aid both the product engineer and the process engineer in the successful utilization of LENS for their applications. The results of testing on interface strength, machinability, weldability, corrosion resistance, geometric effects, heat treatment, and repair strategy testing are all included. Finally, the qualification of the LENS process is briefly discussed to give the user confidence in selecting LENS as the process of choice for high rigor applications. The testing showed LENS components to have capability in repair/modification applications requiring complex castings (W80-3 D-Bottle bracket), thin wall parts requiring metal to be rebuilt onto the part (W87 Firing Set Housing and Y-12 Test Rings), the filling of counterbores for use in reservoir reclamation welding (SRNL hydrogen compatibility study) and the repair of surface defects on pressure vessels (SRNL gas bottle repair). The material is machinable, as testing has shown that LENS deposited material machines similar to that of welded metal. Tool wear is slightly higher in LENS material than in wrought material, but not so much that one would be concerned with increased tooling cost. The LENS process achieved process qualification for the AY1E0125 D-Bottle Bracket from the W80-3 LEP program, and in the effort, also underwent testing in weapons environments. These tests included structural dynamic response testing and drop testing. The LENS deposited parts were compared in these tests with conventionally machined parts and showed equivalency to such an extent that the parts were accepted for use in parallel path subsystem-level weapon environment testing. The evaluation of LENS has shown that the process can be a viable option when either complete metal parts are needed or existing metal parts require modification or repair. The LENS Qualification Technology Investment team successfully investigated new applications for the LENS process and showed that it has great applicability across the Nuclear Weapons Complex as well as in other high rigor applications.

  8. Redshifted formaldehyde from the gravitational lens B0218+357

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jethava, N; Menten, K M; Carilli, C L; Reid, M J

    2007-01-01

    The gravitational lens toward B0218+357 offers the unique possibility to study cool moderately dense gas with high sensitivity and angular resolution in a cloud that existed half a Hubble time ago. Observations of the radio continuum and six formaldehyde (H2CO) lines were carried out with the VLA, the Plateau de Bure interferometer, and the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. Three radio continuum maps indicate a flux density ratio between the two main images, A and B, of ~ 3.4 +/- 0.2. Within the errors the ratio is the same at 8.6, 14.1, and 43 GHz. The 1_{01}-0_{00} line of para-H2CO is shown to absorb the continuum of image A. Large Velocity Gradient radiative transfer calculations are performed to reproduce the optical depths of the observed two cm-wave "K-doublet" and four mm-wave rotational lines. These calculations also account for a likely frequency-dependent continuum cloud coverage. Confirming the diffuse nature of the cloud, an n(H2) density of < 1000 cm^{-3} is derived, with the best fit suggesting n(...

  9. The E-lens test bench for RHIC beam-beam compensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu X.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Aronson, J.; Beebe, E. et al

    2012-05-20

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are fabricating two electron lenses that we plan to install at RHIC IR10. Before installing the e-lenses, we are setting-up the e-lens test bench to test the electron gun, collector, GS1 coil, modulator, partial control system, some instrumentation, and the application software. Some e-lens power supplies, the electronics for current measurement will also be qualified on test bench. The test bench also was designed for measuring the properties of the cathode and the profile of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the layout and elements of the e-lens test bench; and we discuss its present status towards the end of this paper.

  10. 44.3 / S. Valyukh 44.3: A Liquid Crystal Lens with Non-uniform Anchoring Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the anchoring energy is a good alternative for other known methods applied for liquid crystal lenses. 144.3 / S. Valyukh 44.3: A Liquid Crystal Lens with Non-uniform Anchoring Energy Sergiy Valyukh and non-uniform anchoring energy was done. Optimal parameters of such a lens were found and discussed. We

  11. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2004 1063 Microplastic Lens Array Fabricated by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    to possible defects on the mold inserts. In practice, the resist reflow process can control the lens height process is used to fabricate the high-aspect-ratio nickel mold insert that has circular hole patterns and height of the lens are controllable when the same mold insert is used. The optical properties

  12. Trade-offs between lens complexity and real estate utilization in a free-space multichip global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Trade-offs between lens complexity and real estate utilization in a free-space multichip global December 16, 2005; posted January 26, 2006 (Doc. ID 64394) The FAST-Net (Free-space Accelerator and the wide field of view of the imaging optics. We then analyzed trade-offs between lens com- plexity

  13. Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan, and Shin-Tson Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan May 2003; accepted 27 June 2003 An electrically tunable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using by voltage. The major advantages of such a Fresnel lens are simple fabrication, large aperture size

  14. Hydro-geologic Investigation of the Fresh Water lens in a Small Rock Principle Investigators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Hydro-geologic Investigation of the Fresh Water lens in a Small Rock Principle Investigators Daniel W. Urish #12;Abstract Rose Island is a small rock island located in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island Island is a small 18.5 acre rock island located in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island (Fig. 1

  15. SHARP - III: First Use Of Adaptive Optics Imaging To Constrain Cosmology With Gravitational Lens Time Delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Geoff C F; Wong, Kenneth C; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Chiueh, Tzihong; Halkola, Aleksi; Hu, I Shing; Auger, Matthew W; Koopmans, Leon V E; Lagattuta, David J; McKean, John P; Vegetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and precise measurements of the Hubble constant are critical for testing our current standard cosmological model and revealing possibly new physics. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging, each strong gravitational lens system with measured time delays can allow one to determine the Hubble constant with an uncertainty of $\\sim 7\\%$. Since HST will not last forever, we explore adaptive-optics (AO) imaging as an alternative that can provide higher angular resolution than HST imaging but has a less stable point spread function (PSF) due to atmospheric distortion. To make AO imaging useful for time-delay-lens cosmography, we develop a method to extract the unknown PSF directly from the imaging of strongly lensed quasars. In a blind test with two mock data sets created with different PSFs, we are able to recover the important cosmological parameters (time-delay distance, external shear, lens mass profile slope, and total Einstein radius). Our analysis of the Keck AO image of the strong lens system RXJ1...

  16. The giant luminous arc Statistics. II. spherical lens models based on ROSAT HRI data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohji Molikawa; Makoto Hattori; Jean-Paul Kneib; Kazuyuki Yamashita

    1999-09-10

    We present ROSAT HRI X-ray observations of all the galaxy clusters in the Le F\\`evre et al. arc survey sample in order to study the spatial distribution of the intra-cluster medium, and examine the expected number of giant luminous arcs for the sample using two spherically symmetric lens models constrained by our X-ray data.

  17. Algorithmic Mechanism Design Through the lens of Multi-unit auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiat, Amos

    Algorithmic Mechanism Design Through the lens of Multi-unit auctions Noam Nisan January 21, 2014 Abstract Mechanism Design is a sub-field of game theory that aims to design games whose equilibria have desired properties such as achieving high efficiency or high revenue. Algorithmic Mechanism Design

  18. The relationship between lens transmission and opsin gene expression in cichlids from Lake Malawi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carleton, Karen L.

    ). Several adaptive benefits for blocking UV light have been pro- posed. High-energy UV light has a c t The lens plays an important role in regulating the wavelengths of light that reach the retina trans- mission and SWS1 (UV) opsin gene expression, suggesting that UV transmitting lenses are adaptive

  19. Neutrino and Photon Lensing by Black Holes: Radiative Lens Equations and Post-Newtonian Contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudio Coriano; Antonio Costantini; Marta Dell'Atti; Luigi Delle Rose

    2015-07-11

    We extend a previous phenomenological analysis of photon lensing in an external gravitational background to the case of a massless neutrino, and propose a method to incorporate radiative effects in the classical lens equations of neutrinos and photons. The study is performed for a Schwarzschild metric, generated by a point-like source, and expanded in the Newtonian potential at first order. We use a semiclassical approach, where the perturbative corrections to neutrino scattering, evaluated at one-loop in the Standard Model, are compared with the Einstein formula for the deflection using an impact parameter formulation. For this purpose, we use the renormalized expression of the graviton/fermion/fermion vertex presented in previous studies. We show the agreement between the classical and the semiclassical formulations, for values of the impact parameter $b_h$ of the neutrinos of the order of $b_h\\sim 20$, measured in units of the Schwarzschild radius. The analysis is then extended with the inclusion of the post Newtonian corrections in the external gravity field, showing that this extension finds application in the case of the scattering of a neutrino/photon off a primordial black hole. The energy dependence of the deflection, generated by the quantum corrections, is then combined with the standard formulation of the classical lens equations. We illustrate our approach by detailed numerical studies, using as a reference both the thin lens and the nonlinear Virbhadra-Ellis lens.

  20. A Post-Perovskite Lens and D Heat Flux Beneath the Central Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnero, Ed

    A Post-Perovskite Lens and Dµ Heat Flux Beneath the Central Pacific Thorne Lay,1 * John Hernlund,2 are attributed to a phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite and then back to perovskite as the temperature increases with depth. Iron enrichment could explain the occurrence of post-perovskite several

  1. Folding, stability and aggregation of the long-lived eye lens protein human gamma D crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flaugh, Shannon L

    2006-01-01

    Human [gamma]D crystallin (H[gamma]D-Crys) is a monomeric, two domain, primarily P-sheet protein found in high concentrations in the human eye lens. H[gamma]D-Crys and other crystallins are found in insoluble protein ...

  2. ANL-HEP-CP-99-29 TI-IEDESIGN OFA LIQUID LITHIUM LENS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    . We describe beam optics, the liquid lithium pressure vessel, pumping, power supplies, as well vessel is constrained by a pressure pulse doe to the sudden ohmic heating, and the stress on the w window = 1 m for testing as part of the MUCOOL experiment[2] 2 THE PRESSURE PULSE Thelithium lens is powered

  3. An analysis of humor orientation on Facebook: A lens model approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennington, Natalie; Hall, Jeffrey A.

    2014-02-01

    This article presents the results of a mixed method analysis of the use and perception of humor orientation (HO) on Facebook (FB) profiles (N?=?100). Results of the lens model analysis suggest that a variety of profile cues, not just those directly...

  4. SIAM J. CONTROL AND OIrI'IMIZATION Vol. 25, No. 6, November 1987

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soner, Halil Mete

    and Applied Mathematics 008 AN OPTIMAL STOCHASTIC PRODUCTION PLANNING PROBLEM WITH RANDOMLY FLUCTUATING DEMAND stochastic production planning problem with demand assumed to be a continuous-time Markov chain. The problems with control (production) and state (inventory) constraints are treated. It is shown that a unique optimal

  5. Sustainable Sediment Management of ine oirs considering ecological and economical aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    management in alpine reservoirs. The partnership consists of State Authorities, hydro power companies

  6. Design and development of a high-concentration and high-efficiency photovoltaic concentrator using a curved Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharlack, R.S.; Moffat, A.

    1983-08-01

    Thermo Electron has designed a high concentration photovoltaic module that uses a domed, point-focus Fresnel lens. Their design, design optimization process, and results from lens and receiver tests are described in this report. A complete module has not been fabricated and probably will not be fabricated in the future; however, Thermo Electron's optical design, analysis, and testing of both secondary optical units and domed Fresnel lenses have made a significant contribution to our project. Tooling errors prevented the lens from reaching its potential efficiency by the end of the contract, and resolution of these tooling problems is currently being attempted with a follow-on contract, No. 68-9463.

  7. Characterization of an aerodynamic lens for transmitting particles greater than 1 micrometer in diameter into the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, L. R.

    We have designed and characterized a new inlet and aerodynamic lens for the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) that transmits particles between 80 nm and more than 3 ?m in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. The design of ...

  8. Pitx3, its role in lens development and application as a midbrain dopaminergic neuron reporter in embryonic stem cell differentiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Hsin-Yi

    The homeobox gene Pitx3 has been implicated as a key regulator for lens development because homozygous mutant aphakia mice, which are hypomorph for Pitx3, fail to develop lenses. One aim of my thesis is to investigate the ...

  9. Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Lee

    2014-07-02

    This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) that impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords potential for translational development of molecular biodosimetry instrumentation to assess human exposure to mixed radiation fields.

  10. Diffraction limited focusing and routing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dennis, Brian S.; Czaplewski, David A.; Haftel, Michael I.; Lopez, Daniel; Blumberg, Girsh; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2015-08-12

    Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and routing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron- and focused-ion- beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported on in detail. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by sampling out-coupled light with a microscope. The measured focal distance and full-width-half-maximum spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon polariton propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-couplermore »slits.« less

  11. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Macrander, Albert; Maser, Jorg; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Harder, Ross; et al

    2015-05-04

    We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. These results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. We anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers andmore »enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.« less

  12. Two-lens, anamorphic, Brewster-angle, Fourier-transform relay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    A two-lens system provides a simple and versatile means to relay a laser beam. The pair of lenses can provide true volume imaging, reproducing both amplitude and phase of the input beam. By using cylindrical lenses it is possible to change the aspect ratio of the beam. By adjusting the cylindrical curvatures, it is possible to minimize reflections by tilting the lenses at the Brewster angle.

  13. Chandra Observations of the QSO Pair Q2345+007: Binary Quasar or Massive Dark Lens?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul J. Green; Chris Kochanek; Aneta Siemiginowska; Dong-Woo Kim; Maxim Markevitch; John Silverman; Anil Dosaj; Buell T. Jannuzi; Chris Smith

    2002-02-04

    The components of the wide (7.3") separation quasar pair Q2345+007A,B (z=2.15) have the most strikingly similar optical spectra seen to date (Steidel & Sargent 1991) yet no detected lensing mass, making this system the best candidate known for a massive (1e14 Msun) dark matter lens system. Here we present results from a 65ksec Chandra observation designed to investigate whether it is a binary quasar or a gravitational lens. We find no X-ray evidence for a lensing cluster to a (0.5-2keV) flux limit of 2e-15 cgs, which is consistent with lensing only for a reduced baryon fraction. Using the Chandra X-ray observations of the quasars themselves, together with new and published optical measurements, we use the observed emission properties of the quasars for further tests between the lens and binary hypotheses. Assuming similar line-of-sight absorption to the images, we find that their X-ray continuum slopes are inconsistent (Gamma_A=2.30 and Gamma_B=0.83) as are their X-ray to optical flux ratios. The probability that B suffers absorption sufficient to account for these spectral differences is negligible. We present new optical evidence that the flux ratio of the pair is variable, so the time-delay in a lens scenario could cause some of the discrepancies. However, adequately large variations in overall spectral energy distribution are rare in individual QSOs. All new evidence here weighs strongly toward the binary interpretation. Q2345+007 thus may represent the highest redshift example known of interaction-triggered but as-yet unmerged luminous AGN.

  14. Photovoltaic generator with a spherical imaging lens for use with a paraboloidal solar reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, Roger P

    2013-01-08

    The invention is a generator for photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight into electricity. A generator according to the invention incorporates a plurality of photovoltaic cells and is intended for operation near the focus of a large paraboloidal reflector pointed at the sun. Within the generator, the entering concentrated light is relayed by secondary optics to the cells arranged in a compact, concave array. The light is delivered to the cells at high concentration, consistent with high photovoltaic conversion efficiency and low cell cost per unit power output. Light enters the generator, preferably first through a sealing window, and passes through a field lens, preferably in the form of a full sphere or ball lens centered on the paraboloid focus. This lens forms a concentric, concave and wide-angle image of the primary reflector, where the intensity of the concentrated light is stabilized against changes in the position of concentrated light entering the generator. Receiving the stabilized light are flat photovoltaic cells made in different shapes and sizes and configured in a concave array corresponding to the concave image of a given primary reflector. Photovoltaic cells in a generator are also sized and interconnected so as to provide a single electrical output that remains high and stable, despite aberrations in the light delivered to the generator caused by, for example, mispointing or bending of the primary reflector. In some embodiments, the cells are set back from the image formed by the ball lens, and part of the light is reflected onto each cell small secondary reflectors in the form of mirrors set around its perimeter.

  15. HIGH-CURRENT COLD CATHODE FIELD EMISSION ARRAY FOR ELECTRON LENS APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-12-28

    During Phase I, the following goals were achieved: (1) design and fabrication of a novel, nano-dimensional CNT field emitter assembly for high current density application, with high durability; (2) fabrication of a ceramic based micro channel plate (MCP) and characterization of its secondary electron emission; and (3) characterizing the CNT/MCP cathode for high field emission and durability. As a result of these achievements, a relatively high current density of ~ 1.2 A/cm2 from a CNT cathode and single channel MCP were measured. The emission current was also extremely stable with a peak-to-peak variation of only 1.8%. The emission current could be further enhanced to meet requirements for electron lens applications by increasing the number of MCP channels. A calculation for maximum possible current density with a 1200 channel/cm2 MCP, placed over a cathode with 1200 uniformly functioning CNTs, would be ~1.46 kA/cm2, neglecting space charge limitations. Clearly this level of emission is far greater than what is needed for the electron lens application, but it does offer a highly comforting margin to account for sub-standard emitters and/or to allow the lesser challenge of building a cathode with fewer channels/cm2. A satisfactory goal for the electron lens application would be a controllable emission of 2-4 mA per channel in an ensemble of 800-1200 uniformly-functioning channels/cm2, and a cathode with overall area of about 1 cm2.

  16. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  17. All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-03-03

    We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1–6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz–18?GHz)

  18. Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Heidi A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-03

    It has been my experience that behavioral science practitioners, including myself, often 'back into' action research. That is, we start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way - generalizable knowledge - that seems worthwhile to share with our community of practice. What if, instead of looking at these projects from the point of view of practitioners, we looked at them as research from the outset? Would that change the outcome or generate additional knowledge? This paper compares and contrasts process improvement and action research methods, and illustrates how use of a research 'lens' can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them.

  19. Generation of High Efficiency Longitudinally Polarized Beam using High NA Lens Axicon and Dedicated Phase Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajesh, K. B.; Mohankumar, R.; Prathibajanet, C. Amala; Pillai, T. V. S. [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli (India); Jaroszewicz, Z. [Institute of Applied Optics, Department of Physical Optics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-10-20

    We propose to use pure phase filter in combination with high NA lens axicon to achieve high efficient longitudinally polarized beam with a subwavelength spot size and large depth of focus using hyper geometric Gaussian beam. Using this system, the spot size is reduced to 0.392 {lambda} and the depth of focus is increased to 7 {lambda}. The efficiency of such system is found to be 87%. This high efficient longitudinally polarized beam generated by hyper geometric Gaussian beam is useful for most of the near-field optics applications.

  20. Gravitational lens optical scalars in terms of energy-momentum distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel Gallo; Osvaldo M. Moreschi

    2011-05-09

    This is a general work on gravitational lensing. We present new expressions for the optical scalars and the deflection angle in terms of the energy-momentum tensor components of matter distributions. Our work generalizes standard references in the literature where normally stringent assumptions are made on the sources. The new expressions are manifestly gauge invariant, since they are presented in terms of curvature components. We also present a method of approximation for solving the lens equations, that can be applied to any order.

  1. Dual-frequency terahertz emission from splitting filaments induced by lens tilting in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhelin; Chen, Yanping Yang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Feng; Chen, Min; Xu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Zhengming

    2014-09-08

    Dual-frequency terahertz radiation from air-plasma filaments produced with two-color lasers in air has been demonstrated experimentally. When a focusing lens is tilted for a few degrees, it is shown that the laser filament evolves from a single one to two sub-filaments. Two independent terahertz sources emitted from the sub-filaments with different frequencies and polarizations are identified, where the frequency of terahertz waves from the trailing sub-filament is higher than that from the leading sub-filament.

  2. Wavelength-Scale Imaging of Trapped Ions using a Phase Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Jechow; E. W. Streed; B. G. Norton; M. J. Petrasiunas; D. Kielpinski

    2011-01-24

    A microfabricated phase Fresnel lens was used to image ytterbium ions trapped in a radio frequency Paul trap. The ions were laser cooled close to the Doppler limit on the 369.5 nm transition, reducing the ion motion so that each ion formed a near point source. By detecting the ion fluorescence on the same transition, near diffraction limited imaging with spot sizes of below 440 nm (FWHM) was achieved. This is the first demonstration of imaging trapped ions with a resolution on the order of the transition wavelength.

  3. Contact lens wear with the USAF protective integrated hood/mask chemical defense ensemble

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, R.J.; Miller, R.E. II; Peterson, R.D.; Jackson, W.G. Jr. (USAF, Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX (United States))

    1992-07-01

    The Protective Integrated Hood/Mask (PIHM) chemical defense aircrew ensemble blows air from the mask's plenum across the visor at a rate of approximately 15 L/min in order to prevent fogging of the visor and to cool the aircrew member's face. This study was designed to determine the effect of the PIHM airflow on soft contact lens (SCL) dehydration, contact lens comfort, and corneal integrity. There were 26 subjects who participated in this study: 15 SCL wearers, six rigid gas-permeable (RGP) wearers, and five nonspectacle wearing controls. Contrast acuity with the three Regan charts, subjective comfort, and relative humidity (RH) and temperature readings under the PIHM mask were monitored every 0.5 h during 6-h laboratory rides. Slit-lamp examinations and SCL water content measurements with a hand-held Abbe refractometer were made before and after the rides. High RH under the mask may have accounted for the moderate SCL dehydration (8.3 percent), no decrease in contrast acuity for any group, and lack of corneal stress. Although all groups experienced some inferior, epithelial, punctate keratopathy, RGP wearers had the most significant effects. SCLs performed relatively well in the PIHM mask environment. Testing with other parameter designs is necessary before recommending RGPs with the PIHM system. 19 refs.

  4. An investigation of gravitational lens determinations of H_o in quintessence cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-06-25

    There is growing evidence that the majority of the energy density of the universe is not baryonic or dark matter, rather it resides in an exotic component with negative pressure. The nature of this `quintessence' influences our view of the universe, modifying angular diameter and luminosity distances. Here, we examine the influence of a quintessence component upon gravitational lens time delays. As well as a static quintessence component, an evolving equation of state is also considered. It is found that the equation of state of the quintessence component and its evolution influence the value of the Hubble's constant derived from gravitational lenses. However, the differences between evolving and non-evolving cosmologies are relatively small. We undertake a suite of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the potential constraints that can be placed on the universal equation of state from the monitoring of gravitational lens system, and demonstrate that at least an order of magnitude more lenses than currently known will have to be discovered and analysed to accurately probe any quintessence component.

  5. An alternative parameterisation for binary-lens caustic-crossing events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Cassan

    2008-10-15

    Microlensing events are being discovered and alerted by the two survey teams OGLE and MOA at an increasing rate. Around ten percent of these events involve binary lenses. Such events potentially contain much information on the physical properties of the observed binary systems, which can then be used for e.g. statistical studies on binary objects in the Galactic disk or bulge. However, such events are usually not straightforward to study, because the model equations are strongly non-linear and there are many local minima that can fool the search for the best solution if the parameter space is not inspected with great care. In this work an alternative parameterisation for the binary lens fitting problem is proposed, in which the parameters involved are defined to represent as closely as possible the caustic-crossing features observed in most binary lens light curves. Furthermore, we work out an extension of the method in order to make use of the straight line fold caustic approximation, when the latter applies for both the caustic entry and exit. We introduce an alternative parameterisation in order to confine the exploration of the parameter space to regions where the models only involve caustic crossing at the dates seen in the light curve. We find that the proposed parameterisation provides more robustness to the light curve fitting process, in particular in avoiding a code to get stuck in false minima.

  6. Detecting an extended light source through a lens This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, Timothy J.

    Detecting an extended light source through a lens This article has been downloaded from IOPscience to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP.1088/0143-0807/32/4/023 Detecting an extended light source through a lens E T Litaker, J R Machacek1 and T J Gay Department

  7. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. III Constraints on Dark Energy From The Third Data Release Quasar Lens Catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguri, M; Inada, N; Strauss, M A; Kochanek, C S; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Becker, R H; Fukugita, M; Gregg, M D; Hall, P B; Hennawi, J F; Johnston, D E; Kayo, I; Keeton, C R; Pindor, B; Shin, M; Turner, E; White, R L; York, D G; Anderson, S F; Bahcall, N A; Brunner, R J; Burles, S; Castander, F J; Chiu, K; Clocchiatti, A; Einsenstein, D; Frieman, J; Kawano, Y; Lupton, R; Morokuma, T; Rix, H; Scranton, R; Sheldon, E S

    2007-09-12

    We present cosmological results from the statistics of lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Lens Search. By taking proper account of the selection function, we compute the expected number of quasars lensed by early-type galaxies and their image separation distribution assuming a flat universe, which is then compared with 7 lenses found in the SDSS Data Release 3 to derive constraints on dark energy under strictly controlled criteria. For a cosmological constant model (w = -1) we obtain {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.74{sub -0.15}{sup +0.11}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.13}(syst.). Allowing w to be a free parameter we find {Omega}{sub M} = 0.26{sub -0.06}{sup +0.07}(stat.){sub -0.05}{sup +0.03}(syst.) and w = -1.1 {+-} 0.6(stat.){sub -0.5}{sup +0.3}(syst.) when combined with the constraint from the measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations in the SDSS luminous red galaxy sample. Our results are in good agreement with earlier lensing constraints obtained using radio lenses, and provide additional confirmation of the presence of dark energy consistent with a cosmological constant, derived independently of type Ia supernovae.

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 041402 (2011) Ice-lens formation and geometrical supercooling in soils and other colloidal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    2011-01-01

    the growth of an ice-filled crack in a freezing soil. At low temperatures, ice in the crack exerts large 2011) We present a physically intuitive model of ice-lens formation and growth during the freezing pressures on the crack walls that will eventually cause the crack to split open. We show that the crack

  9. Nanoengineering of a negative-index binary-staircase lens for the optics B. D. F. Casse,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    materials. The holy grail of manufacturing these artificial photonic metamaterials structures. Three-dimensional 3D finite-difference time-domain FDTD simulations have been used to further study beamNanoengineering of a negative-index binary-staircase lens for the optics regime B. D. F. Casse,1 R

  10. ILLINOIS TECH. DIFFERENT. For 125 years, Illinois Tech students have been looking at the world through a different lens--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    something new. Just ask anyone who is active in one of Illinois Tech's 100 plus student organizations. Ask#12;ILLINOIS TECH. DIFFERENT. For 125 years, Illinois Tech students have been looking at the world through a different lens-- inventing new products, testing new solutions for tough problems, pushing

  11. ILLINOIS TECH. DIFFERENT. For nearly 125 years, Illinois Tech students have been looking at the world through a different lens--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;ILLINOIS TECH. DIFFERENT. For nearly 125 years, Illinois Tech students have been looking at the world through a different lens-- inventing new products, testing new solutions for tough problems, pushing the envelope, and using new technologies to do things better, smarter, and faster. Our students

  12. Adaptive lens using liquid crystal concentration redistribution Hongwen Ren, Yi-Hsin Lin, and Shin-Tson Wua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    , to be fabricated. Compared with prior adaptive LC lenses,4­6 which bear strong astigmatism, dis- tortion, or light reorientation is involved during light modulation. Based on this unique operation mechanism, other adaptiveAdaptive lens using liquid crystal concentration redistribution Hongwen Ren, Yi-Hsin Lin, and Shin

  13. Echelle grating multi-order imaging spectrometer utilizing a catadioptric lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P; Bowers, Joel M

    2014-05-27

    A cryogenically cooled imaging spectrometer that includes a spectrometer housing having a first side and a second side opposite the first side. An entrance slit is on the first side of the spectrometer housing and directs light to a cross-disperser grating. An echelle immersions grating and a catadioptric lens are positioned in the housing to receive the light. A cryogenically cooled detector is located in the housing on the second side of the spectrometer housing. Light from the entrance slit is directed to the cross-disperser grating. The light is directed from the cross-disperser grating to the echelle immersions grating. The light is directed from the echelle immersions grating to the cryogenically cooled detector on the second side of the spectrometer housing.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPACT PHOTO-INJECTOR WITH RFFOCUSING LENS FOR SHORT PULSE ELECTRON SOURCE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabenhofer, Alexander; Eaton, Douglas W.

    2013-09-01

    For development of compact ultrafast electron source system, we are currently designing a short-pulse RF-gun with RF focusing structure by means of a series of comprehensive modeling analysis processes. EM design of a 2.5 cell resonant cavity with input coupler, acceleration dynamics of photo-emitted electron bunch, EM design of RF-lens with input coupler, and phasespace analysis of focused electron bunch are systematically examined with multi-physics simulators. All the features of the 2.856 GHz cavity geometry were precisely engineered for acceleration energies ranging from 100 keV to 500 keV (safety limited) to be powered by our 5 MW S-band klystron. The klystron (Thales TH2163) and modulator system (ScandiNova K1 turnkey system) were successfully installed and tested. Performance tests of the klystron system show peak output power > 5 MW, as per operation specifications. At the quasi-relativistic energies, the electron source is capable of generating 100fC – 1 pC electron bunch with pulse duration close to 30 fs – 1 ps and transverse size of a few hundred microns. PIC simulations have shown that the electron bunch undergoes fast RF acceleration, rapidly reaching the desired energies, which can be controlled by tuning RF injection phase and input driving power. It has been shown that it is possible to also focus/compress the bunch longitudinally using a RF-lens, which would allow us to control the temporal resolution of the system as well. While our primary analysis has been performed on a 2.5 cell design, we are also looking into half-cell (single cavity) design that is expected to provide the same range of beam energy with a simple configuration.

  15. The characterization of human [gamma]D-crystallin mutants and their differential interactions with the lens chaperone [alpha]B-crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Kate L. (Kate Lauren)

    2011-01-01

    Cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, is the opacification of the eye lens. In.age-related cataract, as well as roughly one half of congenital cataract cases, aggregation or precipitation of crystallin proteins ...

  16. Self-organized Nano-lens Arrays by Intensified Dewetting of Electron Beam Modified Polymer Thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2011-09-18

    Sub-100 nm polymeric spherical plano-convex nano-lens arrays are fabricated using short electron beam exposures to selectively modify the ultrathin (beam locally modifies the polymer chains to effectively change the viscosity of the film in small domains, thus bringing in the dynamical dewetting contrast in the film that produces aligned and ordered dewetted nanostructures. Both negative and positive e-beam tone polymers are thus used to produce array of nano-lenses. The intensified self-organized dewetting under a water-organic solvent mixture overcomes the limitations on surface tension and dewetting force and thus facilitates the formation of sub-100 nm diameter polymer nanolenses of tunable curvature. By varying the extent of e-beam exposure, various configurations from isolated to connected nano-lens arrays can be fabricated.

  17. Effect of particle size on the thermo-optic properties of gold nanofluids – A thermal lens study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Basheer, N. Shemeena; Kurian, Achamma [Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta (India); George, Sajan D., E-mail: sajan.george@manipal.edu [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-28

    Spherical gold nanoparticles having particle size in the range 30 to 50 nm are prepared using citrate reduction of gold chloride trihydrate in water. The influence of particle size on the thermal diffusivity value of gold nanofluid is measured using dual beam thermal lens technique. The present study shows that the particle size influences the effective thermal diffusivity value of the nanofluid substantially and the value decreases with decrease in particle size for the investigated samples.

  18. Cosmic Shear Results from the Deep Lens Survey - II: Full Cosmological Parameter Constraints from Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jee, M James; Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Michael D; Schmidt, Samuel; Wittman, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a tomographic cosmic shear study from the Deep Lens Survey (DLS), which, providing a limiting magnitude r_{lim}~27 (5 sigma), is designed as a pre-cursor Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) survey with an emphasis on depth. Using five tomographic redshift bins, we study their auto- and cross-correlations to constrain cosmological parameters. We use a luminosity-dependent nonlinear model to account for the astrophysical systematics originating from intrinsic alignments of galaxy shapes. We find that the cosmological leverage of the DLS is among the highest among existing >10 sq. deg cosmic shear surveys. Combining the DLS tomography with the 9-year results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP9) gives Omega_m=0.293_{-0.014}^{+0.012}, sigma_8=0.833_{-0.018}^{+0.011}, H_0=68.6_{-1.2}^{+1.4} km/s/Mpc, and Omega_b=0.0475+-0.0012 for LCDM, reducing the uncertainties of the WMAP9-only constraints by ~50%. When we do not assume flatness for LCDM, we obtain the curvature constraint Omega_k=-0...

  19. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 ?m bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (?17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 ?m magnification factor (?{sub 880}) is ?1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (?{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ?2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  20. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-09

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 ?s duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of amore »12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. In addition, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.« less

  1. A 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator for the Tevatron Electron Lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on a 6 kV modulator built and installed at Fermilab to drive the electron gun anode for the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL). The TEL was built with the intention of shifting the individual (anti)proton bunch tunes to even out the tune spread among all 36 bunches with the desire of improving Tevatron integrated luminosity. This modulator is essentially a 6 kV arbitrary waveform generator that enables the TEL to define the electron beam intensity on a bunch-by-bunch basis. A voltage waveform is constructed having a 7 {micro}s duration that corresponds to the tune shift requirements of a 12-bunch (anti)proton beam pulse train. This waveform is played out for any one or all three bunch trains in the Tevatron. The programmed waveform voltages transition to different levels at time intervals corresponding to the 395 ns bunch spacing. Thus, complex voltage waveforms can be played out at a sustained rate of 143 kHz over the full 6 kV output range. This paper describes the novel design of the inductive adder topology employing five transformers. It describes the design aspects that minimize switching losses for this multi-kilovolt, high repetition rate and high duty factor application.

  2. NORTHWEST RUSSIA AS A LENS FOR CHANGE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seward, Amy M.

    2009-04-18

    The region of Northwest Russia – encompassing the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic seas to its north – offers a lens through which to view the political, economic, ecological and cultural change occurring in the Russian Federation (RF) today. Amidst the upheaval that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union, this region was left to address the legacy of a Cold War history in which it was home to the Soviet (and now Russian) Navy’s Northern Fleet. This paper addresses the naval nuclear legacy from an ecological and environmental and perspective, first addressing the situation of radioactive contamination of the region. The focus then turns to one of the largest problems facing the RF today: the management and disposal of SNF and RW, much of which was produced by the Northern Fleet. Through the international programs to address these issues, and Russia's development of a national infrastructure to support spent nuclear fuel and waste management, the author discusses political, economic, environmental and cultural change in Russia.

  3. GALAXY-MASS CORRELATIONS ON 10 Mpc SCALES IN THE DEEP LENS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.; Tyson, J. A.; Morrison, C. B.; Jee, M. J.; Schmidt, S. J.; Wittman, D. M. [Physics Department, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Margoniner, V. E., E-mail: choi@roe.ac.uk [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We examine the projected correlation of galaxies with mass from small scales (Lens Survey, we use photometric redshifts and stacked weak gravitational lensing shear tomography out to radial scales of 1 Degree-Sign from the centers of foreground galaxies. We detect correlated mass density from multiple halos and large-scale structure at radii larger than the virial radius and find the first observational evidence for growth in the galaxy-mass correlation on 10 Mpc scales with decreasing redshift and fixed range of luminosity. For a fixed range of redshift, we find a scaling of projected halo mass with rest-frame luminosity similar to previous studies at lower redshift. We control systematic errors in shape measurement and photometric redshift, enforce volume completeness through absolute magnitude cuts, and explore residual sample selection effects via simulations.

  4. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  5. Long-term monitoring, time delay, and microlensing in the gravitational lens system Q0142-100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oscoz, A.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C. Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Muñoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100-Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-12-20

    We present 12 yr of monitoring of the gravitational lens Q0142-100 from the Teide Observatory. The data, taken from 1999 to 2010, comprise 105 observing nights with the IAC80 Telescope. The application of the ?{sup 2} method to the dataset leads to a value for the time delay between both components of the system of 72 ± 22 days (68% confidence level), consistent within uncertainties with the most recent results. With this value in mind a possible microlensing event is detected in Q0142-100.

  6. Design, assembly, and testing of a high-resolution relay lens used for holography with operation at both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, Danny S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pazuchanics, Peter D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Robert M [NSTEC; Cox, Brian C [NSTEC; Frogget, Brent C [NSTEC; Kaufman, Morris I [NSTEC; Capelle, Gene A [NSTEC/SB; Grover, M [NSTEC/SB; Stevens, Gerald D [NSTEC/SB; Turley, William D [NSTEC/SB

    2009-01-01

    The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 1p/mm resolution at a 355-nm wavelength (ultraviolet) has been completed. By adding a doublet to this lens system, operation at a 532-nm wavelength (green) with > 1100 1p/mm resolution is achieved. This lens is used with high-power laser light to record holograms of fast-moving ejecta particles from a shocked metal surface located inside a test package. Part of the lens and the entire test package are under vacuum with a 1-cm air gap separation. Holograms have been recorded with both doubled and tripled Nd:YAG laser light. The UV operation is very sensitive to the package window's tilt. If this window is tilted by more than 0.1 degrees, the green operation performs with better resolution than that of the UV operation. The setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording can be done with either UV light or green light. A resolution plate can be temporarily placed inside the test package so that a television microscope located beyond the hologram position can archive images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires., interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens are presented. Resolution variation across the 12-mm field of view and throughout the 5-mm depth of field is discussed for both wavelengths.

  7. The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: Analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birrer, Simon; Refregier, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    We present extended modeling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. We focus on the accuracy and reliability of the source reconstruction scale and lens model assumptions and its implication on time-delay cosmography. We map out the mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider and Sluse (2013) using the source reconstruction scale. In a second step, we fold in velocity dispersion and external convergence measurements. We then infer angular diameter distance relations for the time-delays without cosmological priors. For a flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, these constraints lead to constraints of the Hubble constant $H_0$ as a function of the matter density $\\Omega_m$ in the form of $H_0 = H_0^*/[1 + 0.5(\\Omega_m-\\Omega_m^*)] \\pm 5\\%$ with $H_0^*= 71.7^{+3.6}_{-3.6}$ km s$^{-1}$Mpc$^{-1}$ being the value for $H_0$ at $\\Omega_m^*=0.3$. This is a significant imp...

  8. The Neutron Energy Spectrum Study from the Phase II Solid Methane Moderator at the LENS Neutron Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yunchang Shin; W. Mike Snow; Christopher M. Lavelle; David V. Baxter; Xin Tong; Haiyang Yan; Mark Leuschner

    2007-11-19

    Neutron energy spectrum measurements from a solid methane moderator were performed at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) to verify our neutron scattering model of solid methane. The time-of-flight method was used to measure the energy spectrum of the moderator in the energy range of 0.1$meV\\sim$ 1$eV$. Neutrons were counted with a high efficiency $^{3}{He}$ detector. The solid methane moderator was operated in phase II temperature and the energy spectra were measured at the temperatures of 20K and 4K. We have also tested our newly-developed scattering kernels for phase II solid methane by calculating the neutron spectral intensity expected from the methane moderator at the LENS neutron source using MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle Transport Code). Within the expected accuracy of our approximate approach, our model predicts both the neutron spectral intensity and the optimal thickness of the moderator at both temperatures. The predictions are compared to the measured energy spectra. The simulations agree with the measurement data at both temperatures.

  9. Formaldehyde Anti-Inversion at z=0.68 in the Gravitational Lens B0218+357

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiger, Benjamin; 10.1088/0004-637X/709/1/386

    2010-01-01

    We report new observations of the 110-111 (6 cm) and 211-212 (2 cm) transitions of ortho-formaldehyde (o-H2CO) in absorption at z=0.68466 toward the gravitational lens system B0218+357. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that both transitions are anti-inverted relative to the 4.6 K cosmic microwave background (CMB), regardless of the source covering factor, with excitation temperatures of ~1 K and 1.5-2 K for the 110-111 and 211-212 lines, respectively. Using these observations and a large velocity gradient radiative transfer model that assumes a gradient of 1 km s^-1 pc^-1, we obtain a molecular hydrogen number density of 2x10^3 cm^-3 < n(H2) < 1x10^4 cm^-3 and a column density of 2.5x10^13 cm^-2 < N(o-H2CO) < 8.9x10^13 cm^-2, where the allowed ranges conservatively include the range of possible source covering factors in both lines. The measurements suggest that H2CO excitation in the absorbing clouds in the B0218+357 lens is analogous to that in Galactic molecular clouds: it would show H2CO ...

  10. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. VI. Constraints on Dark Energy and the Evolution of Massive Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguri, Masamune; et al.

    2012-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the final lens sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search (SQLS). The number distribution of a complete subsample of 19 lensed quasars selected from 50,836 source quasars is compared with theoretical expectations, with particular attention to the selection function. Assuming that the velocity function of galaxies does not evolve with redshift, the SQLS sample constrains the cosmological constant to \\Omega_\\Lambda=0.79^{+0.06}_{-0.07}(stat.)^{+0.06}_{-0.06}(syst.) for a flat universe. The dark energy equation of state is found to be consistent with w=-1 when the SQLS is combined with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements or results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). We also obtain simultaneous constraints on cosmological parameters and redshift evolution of the galaxy velocity function, finding no evidence for redshift evolution at z<1 in any combinations of constraints. For instance, number density evolution quantified as \

  11. Numerical Simulations of Transverse Beam Diffusion Enhancement by the Use of Electron Lens in the Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Previtali, V.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    Transverse beam diffusion for the Tevatron machine has been calculated using the Lifetrac code. The following effects were included: random noise (representing residual gas scattering, voltage noise in the accelerating cavities) lattice nonlinearities and beam-beam interactions. The time evolution of particle distributions with different initial amplitudes in Hamiltonian action has been simulated for 6 million turns, corresponding to a time of about 2 minutes. For each particle distribution, several cases have been considered: a single beam in storage ring mode, the collider case and the effects of a hollow electron beam collimator. The diffusion coefficient for some representative points in the amplitude space has been calculated by fitting the time evolution of delta-like particle distributions using the diffusion equation, for different machine conditions. The results confirm a strong efficiency of the electron lens as an halo diffusive enhancer, leading to diffusion coefficients which are at least a factor 10K higher than the values obtained for the collision case. This result is confirmed by the Frequency Map Analysis, which shows a clear intensification of resonance lines for particle amplitudes larger than the electron lens inner radius. If compared with past experiments, the simulations successfully reproduce the diffusion coefficients for the beam core, but still present a large discrepancy for halo particles, still under investigation.

  12. Study on a prototype of the large dimensional refractive lens for the future large field-of-view IACT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, T L; Gao, Q; Liu, C; Zhang, Y; Hu, H B; Cai, H; Zhang, X Y; Yang, H Y; Shi, Y; Danzengluobu,; Liu, M Y; Feng, Z Y; Feng, Y L; Guo, Y Q; Gou, Q B; Tian, Z; Xiao, Y X

    2015-01-01

    In gamma ray astronomy, the energy range from sub-100GeV to TeV is crucial due to where there is a gap between space experiments and ground-based ones. In addition, observations in this energy range are expected to provide more details about the high energy emission from GRBs,and thus to understand EBL. Based on the observation results and the related knowledge, scientists may be able to unveil the mysteries of galaxy formation and the evolution of early universe. One of the principal issues for next generation Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) is to achieve larger field of view (FoV). In this work, we report a refractive water convex lens as light collector to test the feasibility of a new generation of IACT, and some preliminary test results on the optical properties (the focal length, spot size, transmittance, etc.) of a 0.9 m diameter water lens, the photodetectors and DAQ system of a prototype are presented and discussed.

  13. University of Bath Ashbed Plantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    CLAVERTO N HILL Lake El Sub Sta 2241 Bushey Norwood Sports Training Village 8700 W ard Bdy CLAVERTON HILL Start Track Facility 0019 FW Bushey Norwood Ward Bdy FF FW Path (um) FW FW Bushey Norwood 173.7m BM 174 158.2m LB NO RTH LAN E Wo odla nd Pla ce Wood Hill Place Uplands 1 2 1 Woodhill Mews Lodge WID COM

  14. MAGNETIC DESIGN OF E-LENS SOLENOID AND CORRECTOR SYSTEM , M. Anerella, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, X. Gu, A. Ghosh, A. Jain, P. Kovach, A. Marone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ramesh

    MAGNETIC DESIGN OF E-LENS SOLENOID AND CORRECTOR SYSTEM FOR RHIC* R. Gupta# , M. Anerella, W of the main solenoid are listed in Table 1. The design was optimized to use many existing magnet components. Fischer, G. Ganetis, X. Gu, A. Ghosh, A. Jain, P. Kovach, A. Marone, S. Plate, A. Pikin, and P. Wanderer

  15. Translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask grating mark used in a linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Zicheng; Wang Xiangzhao; Bi Qunyu; Yuan Qiongyan; Peng Bo; Duan Lifeng

    2009-07-01

    A linear measurement model of lithographic projection lens aberrations is studied numerically based on the Hopkins theory of partially-coherent imaging and positive resist optical lithography (PROLITH) simulation. In this linearity model, the correlation between the mark's structure and its sensitivities to aberrations is analyzed. A method to design a mark with high sensitivity is proved and declared. By use of this method, a translational-symmetry alternating phase shifting mask (Alt-PSM) grating mark is redesigned with all of the even orders, {+-}3rd and {+-}5th order diffraction light missing. In the evaluation simulation, the measurement accuracies of aberrations prove to be enhanced apparently by use of the redesigned mark instead of the old ones.

  16. Pathway to the Galactic Distribution of Planets: Combined Spitzer and Ground-Based Microlens Parallax Measurements of 21 Single-Lens Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novati, S Calchi; Udalski, A; Menzies, J W; Bond, I A; Shvartzvald, Y; Street, R A; Hundertmark, M; Beichman, C A; Yee, J C; Carey, S; Poleski, R; Skowron, J; Kozlowski, S; Mroz, P; Pietrukowicz, P; Pietrzynski, G; Szymanski, M K; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J P; Caldwell, J A R; Cassan, A; Coutures, C; Danielski, C; Prester, D Dominis; Donatowicz, J; Lonvcaric, K; McDougall, A; Morales, J C; Ranc, C; Zhu, W; Abe, F; Barry, R K; Bennett, D P; Bhattacharya, A; Fukunaga, D; Inayama, K; Koshimoto, N; Namba, S; Sumi, T; Suzuki, D; Tristram, P J; Wakiyama, Y; Yonehara, A; Maoz, D; Kaspi, S; Friedmann, M; Bachelet, E; Jaimes, R Figuera; Bramich, D M; Tsapras, Y; Horne, K; Snodgrass, C; Wambsganss, J; Steele, I A; Kains, N; Bozza, V; Dominik, M; Jorgensen, U G; Alsubai, K A; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Haugbolle, T; Hessman, F V; Hinse, T C; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Skottfelt, J; Southworth, J; Starkey, D; Surdej, J; Wertz, O; Zarucki, M; Gaudi, B S; Pogge, R W; DePoy, D L

    2014-01-01

    We present microlens parallax measurements for 21 (apparently) isolated lenses observed toward the Galactic bulge that were imaged simultaneously from Earth and Spitzer, which was ~1 AU West of Earth in projection. We combine these measurements with a kinematic model of the Galaxy to derive distance estimates for each lens, with error bars that are small compared to the Sun's Galactocentric distance. The ensemble therefore yields a well-defined cumulative distribution of lens distances. In principle it is possible to compare this distribution against a set of planets detected in the same experiment in order to measure the Galactic distribution of planets. Since these Spitzer observations yielded only one planet, this is not yet possible in practice. However, it will become possible as larger samples are accumulated.

  17. Probing the dark matter radial profile in lens galaxies and the size of X-ray emitting region in quasars with microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiménez-Vicente, J; Kochanek, C S; Muñoz, J A

    2015-01-01

    We use X-ray and optical microlensing measurements of 47 image pairs in 18 lens systems to study the shape of the dark matter density profile in the lens galaxies and the size of the (soft) X-ray emission region. We show that single epoch X-ray microlensing is sensitive to the source size. Our results, in good agreement with previous estimates, show that the X-ray size scales roughly linearly with the black hole mass, with a half light radius of $R_{1/2}\\simeq(20\\pm12) r_g$ (for $r_g=GM_{BH}/c^2$). This corresponds to a size of $\\sim$ 1 light day for a black hole mass of $M_{BH}=10^9 M_\\sun$. We simultaneously estimated the fraction of the local surface mass density in stars, finding that the stellar mass fraction is $\\alpha=0.20\\pm0.05$ at an average radius of $\\sim 1.9 R_{e}$, where $R_e$ is the effective radius of the lens. This stellar mass fraction is insensitive to the X-ray source size and in excellent agreement with our earlier results based on optical data. By combining the X-ray and optical microlen...

  18. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Changzhou (China); Chen, Zhigang, E-mail: ziyou1900@gmail.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China) [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, 215009 Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ? A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ? The biomorphic CeO{sub 2} fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ? The CeO{sub 2} microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO{sub 2} crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO{sub 2} fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO{sub 2}. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  19. THE SLOAN LENS ACS SURVEY. X. STELLAR, DYNAMICAL, AND TOTAL MASS CORRELATIONS OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Bolton, A. S.; Gavazzi, R.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Moustakas, L. A.

    2010-11-20

    We use stellar masses, surface photometry, strong-lensing masses, and stellar velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub e/2}) to investigate empirical correlations for the definitive sample of 73 early-type galaxies (ETGs) that are strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey. The traditional correlations (fundamental plane (FP) and its projections) are consistent with those found for non-lens galaxies, supporting the thesis that SLACS lens galaxies are representative of massive ETGs (dimensional mass M{sub dim} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} M{sub sun}). The addition of high-precision strong-lensing estimates of the total mass allows us to gain further insights into their internal structure: (1) the average slope of the total mass-density profile ({rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r{sup -}{gamma}') is ({gamma}') = 2.078 {+-} 0.027 with an intrinsic scatter of 0.16 {+-} 0.02; (2) {gamma}' correlates with effective radius (r{sub e}) and central mass density, in the sense that denser galaxies have steeper profiles; (3) the dark matter (DM) fraction within r{sub e} /2 is a monotonically increasing function of galaxy mass and size (due to a mass-dependent central cold DM distribution or due to baryonic DM-stellar remnants or low-mass stars-if the initial mass function is non-universal and its normalization increases with mass); (4) the dimensional mass M{sub dim} {identical_to} 5r{sub e} {sigma}{sup 2}{sub e/2}/G is proportional to the total (lensing) mass M{sub r{sub e/2}}, and both increase more rapidly than stellar mass M{sub *} (M{sub *{proportional_to}}M{sub r{sub e/2}{sup 0.8}); (5) the mass plane (MP), obtained by replacing surface brightness with surface mass density in the FP, is found to be tighter and closer to the virial relation than the FP and the M{sub *}P, indicating that the scatter of those relations is dominated by stellar population effects; (6) we construct the fundamental hyper-plane by adding stellar masses to the MP and find the M{sub *} coefficient to be consistent with zero and no residual intrinsic scatter. Our results demonstrate that the dynamical structure of ETGs is not scale invariant and that it is fully specified by M{sub r{sub e/2}}, r{sub e} , and {sigma}{sub e/2}. Although the basic trends can be explained qualitatively in terms of varying star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass and as the result of dry and wet mergers, reproducing quantitatively the observed correlations and their tightness may be a significant challenge for galaxy formation models.

  20. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Lemze, Doron; Ford, Holland [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Umetsu, Keiichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Nonino, Mario [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Merten, Julian; Mroczkowski, Tony [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Donahue, Megan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Waizmann, Jean-Claude; Meneghetti, Massimo [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universit'a di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton; Coe, Dan; Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Molino, Alberto [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Melchior, Peter [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2013-11-01

    The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5?{sub ?}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ? (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ?}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ?CDM, representing only a ?2? departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.

  1. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, Daniel; Stancari, Giulio

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  2. Lens culinaris (Cultivated) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    light [6]. In Figure 9, Steve May?s use of a throw pattern in Butterflies in the Rain enhanced the atmosphere of the inside of a piano [15]. Artificially produced smoke and fog affect the quality of light. Fog desaturates color. Contrast is also reduced... because dark tones are lightened. Fog can aid in the illusion of depth in a scene as the desaturation of color and reduction of contrast occurs for objects within fog and as depth increases like at the horizon line. II.4. Live-action vs. digital lighting...

  3. On a mechanical lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the dynamics of a heavy homogeneous ball moving under the influence of dry friction on a fixed horizontal plane. We assume the ball to slide without rolling. We demonstrate that the plane may be divided into two regions, each characterized by a distinct coefficient of friction, so that balls with equal initial linear and angular velocity will converge upon the same point from different initial locations along a certain segment. We construct the boundary between the two regions explicitly and discuss possible applications to real physical systems.

  4. Metamaterial lens of specifiable frequency-dependent focus and adjustable aperture for electron cyclotron emission in the DIII-D tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, K C; Massidda, S D; Volpe, F A

    2014-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) of different frequencies originates at different locations in non-uniformly magnetized plasmas. For simultaneous observation of multiple ECE frequencies from the outside edge of a toroidal plasma confinement device (e.g. a tokamak), the focal length of the collecting optics should increase with the frequency to maximize the resolution on a line of sight along the magnetic field gradient. Here we present the design and numerical study of a zoned metamaterial lens with such characteristics, for possible deployment with the 83-130 GHz ECE radiometer in the DIII-D tokamak. The lens consists of a concentric array of miniaturized element phase-shifters. These were reverse-engineered starting from the desired Gaussian beam waist locations and further optimized to account for diffraction and finite-aperture effects that tend to displace the waist. At the same time we imposed high and uniform transmittance, averaged over all phase-shifters. The focal length is shown to increase from 1...

  5. Enhanced Self-organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Films under Water-organic Solutions: Fabrication of Sub-micron Spherical Lens Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ankur Verma; Ashutosh Sharma

    2010-09-25

    Field-induced self-organized patterning in ultrathin (energy penalty for the surface deformations on small scales. We propose here a very simple but versatile method to fabricate sub-micron (~100 nm) ordered and tunable polymeric structures by self-organized room temperature dewetting of ultrathin polystyrene films by minimizing the surface tension limitation. We illustrate this technique by fabricating sub-micron lens arrays of tunable curvature. This is achieved by switching to controlled room temperature dewetting under an optimal mix of water, acetone and methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK). Organic solvents used decrease the glass transition temperature, greatly decrease the interfacial tension, intensify the field and increase the contact angle/aspect ratio of the resulting tunable nano-structures, without a concurrent solubilization of PS owing to water being the majority phase in the outside mixture.

  6. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass reconstruction of the lensing cluster Abell 2744 from frontier field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X; Huang, K; Treu, T; Bradac, M; Schmidt, K B; Brammer, G B; Vulcani, B; Jones, T A; Ryan, R; Amorin, R; Castellano, M; Fontana, A; Merlin, E; Trenti, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep \\emph{Hubble Frontier Field} (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the \\emph{Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space} (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using GLASS spectra, we obtain 5 secure spectroscopic redshifts and 2 tentative ones. We confirm 1 strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all 3 multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photo-z estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectrosco...

  7. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggen, David L. (Rte. 1, Box 257, Moose Lake, MN 55767)

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester.

  8. Apparatus and method for harvesting woody plantations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggen, D.L.

    1988-11-15

    A tree harvester for harvesting felled trees includes a wheel mounted wood chipper which moves toward the butt ends of the tree stems to be processed. The harvester includes a plurality of rotating alignment discs in front of the chipper. These discs align the tree stems to be processed with the mouth of the chipper. A chipper infeed cylinder is rotatably mounted between the discs and the front end of the chipper, and lifts the tree stem butts up from the ground into alignment with the chipper inlet port. The chips discharge from the chipper and go into a chip hopper which moves with the tree harvester. 8 figs.

  9. Ultra-bright and efficient single photon generation based on N-V centres in nanodiamonds on a solid immersion lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schröder, Tim; Banholzer, Moritz Julian; Benson, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Single photons are fundamental elements for quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum information storage and optical quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond have proven to be stable single photon sources and thus essential components for reliable and integrated quantum information technology. A key requirement for such applications is a large photon flux and a high efficiency. Paying tribute to various attempts to maximise the single photon flux we show that collection efficiencies of photons from colour centres can be increased with a rather simple experimental setup. To do so we spin-coated nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen-vacancy colour centres on the flat surface of a ZrO2 solid immersion lens. We found stable single photon count rates of up to 853 kcts/s at saturation under continuous wave excitation while having excess to more than 100 defect centres with count rates from 400 kcts/s to 500 kcts/s. For a blinking defect centre we found count rates up to 2.4 Mcts/...

  10. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). III. A census of Ly\\alpha\\ Emission at $z\\gtrsim$7 from HST Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, K B; Brada?, M; Vulcani, B; Huang, K -H; Hoag, A; Maseda, M; Guaita, L; Pentericci, L; Brammer, G B; Dijkstra, M; Dressler, A; Fontana, A; Henry, A L; Jones, T A; Mason, C; Trenti, M; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    [abbreviated] We present a census of Ly\\alpha\\ emission at $z\\gtrsim7$ utilizing deep near infrared HST grism spectroscopy from the first six completed clusters of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). In 24/159 photometrically selected galaxies we detect emission lines consistent with Ly\\alpha\\ in the GLASS spectra. Based on the distribution of signal-to-noise ratios and on simulations we expect the completeness and the purity of the sample to be 40-100% and 60-90%, respectively. For the objects without detected emission lines we show that the observed (not corrected for lensing magnification) 1$\\sigma$ flux limits reaches $5\\times10^{-18}$erg/s/cm$^{2}$ per position angle over the full wavelength range of GLASS (0.8-1.7$\\mu$m). Based on the conditional probability of Ly\\alpha\\ emission measured from the ground at $z\\sim7$ we would have expected 12-18 Ly\\alpha\\ emitters. This is consistent with the number of detections, within the uncertainties, confirming the drop in Ly\\alpha\\ emission with re...

  11. Enhanced optical power of GaN-based light-emitting diode with compound photonic crystals by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Xiong, Zhuo; Shang, Liang; Tian, Yingdong; Zhao, Yun; Zhou, Pengyu; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [Semiconductor Lighting Technology Research and Development Center, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-07

    The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with single, twin, triple, and quadruple photonic crystals (PCs) on p-GaN are fabricated by multiple-exposure nanosphere-lens lithography (MENLL) process utilizing the focusing behavior of polystyrene spheres. Such a technique is easy and economical for use in fabricating compound nano-patterns. The optimized tilted angle is decided to be 26.6° through mathematic calculation to try to avoid the overlay of patterns. The results of scanning electron microscopy and simulations reveal that the pattern produced by MENLL is a combination of multiple ovals. Compared to planar-LED, the light output power of LEDs with single, twin, triple, and quadruple PCs is increased by 14.78%, 36.03%, 53.68%, and 44.85% under a drive current 350?mA, respectively. Furthermore, all PC-structures result in no degradation of the electrical properties. The stimulated results indicate that the highest light extraction efficiency of LED with the clover-shape triple PC is due to the largest scattering effect on propagation of light from GaN into air.

  12. Nanospherical-lens lithographical Ag nanodisk arrays embedded in p-GaN for localized surface plasmon-enhanced blue light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Wu, Kui; Sun, Bo; Zhang, Yonghui; Chen, Yu; Huo, Ziqiang; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Junxi; Zeng, Yiping; Li, Jinmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid-State Lighting, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083 (China); Lan, Ding [National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Large-scale Ag nanodisks (NDs) arrays fabricated using nanospherical-lens lithography (NLL) are embedded in p-GaN layer of an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) for generating localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling with the radiating dipoles in the quantum-well (QWs). Based on the Ag NDs with the controlled surface coverage, LSP leads to the improved crystalline quality of regrowth p-GaN, increased photoluminescence (PL) intensity, reduced PL decay time, and enhanced output power of LED. Compared with the LED without Ag NDs, the optical output power at a current of 350 mA of the LSP-enhanced LEDs with Ag NDs having a distance of 20 and 35 nm to QWs is increased by 26.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The electrical characteristics and optical properties of LEDs with embedded Ag NPs are dependent on the distance of between Ag NPs and QWs region. The LED with Ag NDs array structure is also found to exhibit reduced emission divergence, compared to that without Ag NDs.

  13. Ultra-bright and efficient single photon generation based on N-V centres in nanodiamonds on a solid immersion lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Schröder; Friedemann Gädeke; Moritz Julian Banholzer; Oliver Benson

    2010-11-08

    Single photons are fundamental elements for quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum information storage and optical quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond have proven to be stable single photon sources and thus essential components for reliable and integrated quantum information technology. A key requirement for such applications is a large photon flux and a high efficiency. Paying tribute to various attempts to maximise the single photon flux we show that collection efficiencies of photons from colour centres can be increased with a rather simple experimental setup. To do so we spin-coated nanodiamonds containing single nitrogen-vacancy colour centres on the flat surface of a ZrO2 solid immersion lens. We found stable single photon count rates of up to 853 kcts/s at saturation under continuous wave excitation while having excess to more than 100 defect centres with count rates from 400 kcts/s to 500 kcts/s. For a blinking defect centre we found count rates up to 2.4 Mcts/s for time intervals of several ten seconds. It seems to be a general feature that very high rates are accompanied by a blinking behaviour. The overall collection efficiency of our setup of up to 4.2% is the highest yet reported for N-V defect centres in diamond. Under pulsed excitation of a stable emitter of 10 MHz, 2.2% of all pulses caused a click on the detector adding to 221 kcts/s thus opening the way towards diamond based on-demand single photon sources for quantum applications.

  14. Aspherical lens design and imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian E. Gutierrez; Ahmad Sabra

    2015-07-29

    We design freeform lenses refracting an arbitrarily given incident field into a given fixed direction. In the near field case, we study the existence of lenses refracting a given bright object into a predefined image. We also analyze the existence of systems of mirrors that solve the near field and the far field problems for reflection.

  15. The Girl Len Left Behind 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    ............................................................................................29 4.3.1 Camera Structure, Viewing Frustum.................................................29 4.3.2 Background Color, Image and Skybox .............................................31 4.3.3 Fog..............................................................................86 F.1 Camera Structure....................................................................................86 F.2 Fog State Structure.................................................................................87 F.3 Window Structure...

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. United States Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy, Office of Legacy Management." Letter to Barbara McNeal Lloyd from Alexander C. Morris, FOIA Officer, OIR (April 30, 2015). On April 30, 2015, OIR issued a determination...

  18. Piano della performance di Sapienza Universit di Roma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    predisposto dall'Organismo di Indirizzo e Raccordo (OIR)1 denominato "Misura della consistenza e dell'efficienza

  19. Biomass Plantation Inergy Systems and Sustainable DevelD~ment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -usingtechnologIesare . Total= 2+7exaioules Oil n.. la 1 22- billi WORLD relativelyinefficient:thus,bio- cupu non=. on Total.)Furthermore, mostbiomassenergy Such \\isions of large contributions by biomass ro global today comes from natural forest}'S,if the production and conversionof biomassis ly and economically competitive \\virh fossil fuel alrernarives

  20. Evaluating ecosystem processes in willow short rotation coppice bioenergy plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and alternative land-uses: arable and set-aside (agricultural land taken out of production). We deployed litter cultivation of biomass for biofuels (trans- port fuels) and bioenergy (heat and power) has pro- voked much of the northern hemisphere, how- ever, a small, but growing proportion of biomass crops consist of tree species

  1. Cover crops for erosion control in bioenergy hardwood plantations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with complete competition control. Small berms were built to direct runoff to a sediment fence installed at the down slope ends of each plot. Soil erosion is measured by...

  2. The Mepkin Abbey shipwreck: diving into Mepkin Plantation's past 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezeau, Susan Lynn

    2004-11-15

    Laurens. This thesis includes a description of the field research, drawings of the vessel, a scantling list, and a discussion of the artifacts recovered from the site which provided clues dating the vessel to the second quarter of the 19th century...

  3. Sienna Plantation, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity for LowInformationShoshone County,SiCorporateSiemens Jump

  4. Plantation Mobile Home Park, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | OpenBethlehemPlainsboro Center,Planned

  5. On a Deterministic Property of the Category of $k$-almost Primes: A Deterministic Structure Based on a Linear Function for Redefining the $k$-almost Primes ($\\exists n\\in {\\rm N} $, $1{\\le} k {\\le}n$) in Certain Intervals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramin Zahedi

    2014-12-28

    In this paper based on a sort of linear function, a deterministic and simple algorithm with an algebraic structure is presented for calculating all (and only) $k$-almost primes ($where$ $\\exists n\\in {\\rm N} $, $1{\\le} k {\\le}n$) in certain interval. A theorem has been proven showing a new deterministic property of the category of $k$-almost primes. Through a linear function that we obtain, an equivalent redefinition of the $k$-almost primes with an algebraic characteristic is identified. Moreover, as an outcome of our function's property some relations which contain new information about the $k$-almost primes (including primes) are presented.

  6. Exploring ENRON Email with NetLens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    (Low medium high) #12;Multiple email search capabilities 1- Keyword Search Here a search on "California list" (with Doug Oard's team) #12;Social network analysis: - Number of neighbors - Connectance Summaries -List of emails in same thread -Access to thread -Access to thread summary With Bonnie Dorr

  7. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  8. Lens x block : World as construction kit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Jay (Jay Saul)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose and meaning of the physical world can be re-assigned and re-made by individuals as they go rather than being pre-fixed by people who came before them. But this mindset is more rare than it should be if we want an ...

  9. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2011-01-01

    the separation of cathodic arc plasma and macroparticles infor filtered cathodic arc plasma deposition [8-9]; and theoptics [10]. An image of arc plasma transport in a curved

  10. len Jr. Bl!ukr.'.lrd NV

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of its trunsmission and distribution networks, the replacement of substation electromechanical relays with microprocessor relays, and the installation of digital fault...

  11. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  12. Magnetized black hole as a gravitational lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya

    2006-11-19

    We use the Ernst-Schwarzschild solution for a black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field to estimate corrections to the bending angle and time delay due-to presence of weak magnetic fields in galaxies and between galaxies, and also due-to influence of strong magnetic field near supermassive black holes. The magnetic field creates a kind of confinement in space, that leads to increasing of the bending angle and time delay for a ray of light propagating in the equatorial plane.

  13. len Jr. Bl!ukr.'.lrd NV

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherizeeEnergyMonumentWest Plume)SuitePRESERVE THE

  14. United States Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to conduct a search for responsive documents. Interim Response Letter from Alexander Morris, OIR, to Jillian Melchior, National Review (April 6, 2015) (Response Letter 1). In a...

  15. United States Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    denying the request for expedited processing. Interim Response from Alexander C. Morris, FOIA Officer, OIR, to Jillian Melchior, National Review (May 6, 2015). On May 29,...

  16. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe MaximumReport) |SciTech

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical Lens

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)FeedbackProperties ofThe MaximumReport) |SciTechSample from the Fifth

  18. Biodiversity And Livelihoods In Southwestern Ethiopia: Forest Loss And Prospects For Conservation In Shade Coffee Agroecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshete, Getachew Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus). and large- scale coffee, Eucalyptus and tea plantations asto local informants, Eucalyptus plantations grew mainly

  19. Managing watershed services of tropical forests and plantations: can meta-analyses help?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is also relevant to reservoirs for drinking water or hydroelectricity production (Guo et al., 2000). Over

  20. Author's personal copy Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noormets, Asko

    forest managements and land conversions on ecosystem services including energy partitioning (Gholz are more interested in water and carbon balances, quantifying forest energy balance offers insights to how Accepted 9 September 2009 Keywords: Energy balance Evapotranspiration Forest albedo Forest hydrology

  1. Genotype environment interactions in selected loblolly and slash pine plantations in the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    L.) and slash pine (P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliotttii). Efficient operational deployment silvicultural intensity. While loblolly performance was similar whether deployed in mixtures or pure family blocks ( p = 0.0754 for aboveground biomass). # 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Pinus taeda

  2. Gray squirrel usage of hardwood ravines within pine plantations in east Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Robert William

    1977-01-01

    lHag nakia v~g~ana Mpaa agf v~ca TOTALS 667 167 222 278 11l 111 ill 111 ill 56 56 2001 30. 59 10. 28 5. 97 3. 47 5. 23 2. 52 2. 37 1. 26 1. 05 0. 63 0. 86 64. 23 33. 3 8. 4 11. 1 13. 9 5. 5 5. 5 5. 5 5. 5 5. 5 2. 9...

  3. Climate benefits from alternative energy uses of biomass plantations in Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    to the grid. High electricity prices, frequent power outages, and high line losses pose hurdles to increasing UNIQUE Forestry Consultants Ltd, Schnewlinstraße 10, 79098 Freiburg, Germany a r t i c l e i n f o electricity sources and unsustainable forest use. The study evaluates the greenhouse gas benefits that could

  4. Response of ecosystem carbon fluxes to drought events in a poplar plantation in Northern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    c , Ying Jin a , Asko Noormets d a Key Laboratory of Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Society, 2003), play a vital role in timber production, bioenergy, urban greening, desertification control

  5. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015

  6. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE

  7. Beyond the lens : communicating context through sensing, video, and visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dublon, Gershon

    2011-01-01

    Responding to rapid growth in sensor network deployments that outpaces research efforts to understand or relate the new data streams, this thesis presents a collection of interfaces to sensor network data that encourage ...

  8. Bio-inspired fluidic lens for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shang-Feng (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    laparoscope under the same LED lighting conditions. To matchLighting 940 nm IR-LED lighting ~35um Figure 4.10 Comparisonlighting) and 940 nm IR-LED lighting. USAF target is placed

  9. LOCAL LENS RIGIDITY WITH INCOMPLETE DATA FOR A CLASS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-30

    proved generic s-injectivity for a class of non-simple manifolds described below. Within that class, the boundary is not necessarily strictly convex, we might have ...

  10. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  11. Extragalactic foreground contamination in temperature-based CMB lens reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, Stephen J.; Hanson, Duncan; Doré, Olivier E-mail: dhanson@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the effect of unresolved point source contamination on estimates of the CMB lensing potential, from components such as the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, radio point sources, and the Cosmic Infrared Background. We classify the possible trispectra associated with such source populations, and construct estimators for the amplitude and scale-dependence of several of the major trispectra. We show how to propagate analytical models for these source trispectra to biases for lensing. We also construct a ''source-hardened'' lensing estimator which experiences significantly smaller biases when exposed to unresolved point sources than the standard quadratic lensing estimator. We demonstrate these ideas in practice using the sky simulations of Sehgal et al., for cosmic-variance limited experiments designed to mimic ACT, SPT, and Planck. We find that for radio sources and SZ the bias is significantly reduced, but for CIB it is essentially unchanged. However, by using the high-frequency, all-sky CIB measurements from Planck and Herschel it may be possible to suppress this contribution.

  12. Revising Philosophy Through the Wide-Angle Lens of Feminism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cudd, Ann E.

    2003-01-01

    . Some non-feminist philosophers may attempt to drag their feet, and backlash is certainly not unknown, but as Anita Superson, (chair of and organizer of the panel for which this paper was written), has put it elsewhere, “The tide is coming.”20 Endnotes 1...-45. The panel was held at the American Philosophical Association Pacific Division Meeting, April 7, 2000. 20. Anita Superson, “Welcome to the Boys’ Club: Male Socialization and the Backlash against Feminism in Tenure Decisions,” in Theorizing Backlash...

  13. Bio-inspired fluidic lens for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shang-Feng (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    lighting) and 940 nm IR-LED lighting. USAF target is placedlaparoscope under the same LED lighting conditions. To matchLighting 940 nm IR-LED lighting ~35um Figure 4.10 Comparison

  14. Achromatic miniature lens system for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Richa; Balu, Mihaela; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Potma, Eric O.

    2013-01-01

    OPTICS EXPRESS 2197 design criteria of a lightweight andimaging applications. The design criteria for miniaturizingResults The primary design criteria for the miniature CRS

  15. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  16. Examining Obesogenic Behavior Through the Lens of the Food Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolstein, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    SH, Wolstein J, Diamant AL. Food Environments Near Home andto Consumption of Soda and Fast Food. Los Angeles, CA: UCLAin Access to Healthy  Foods in the U.S.  American Journal 

  17. Len M. VAN ZYL1 , Teresa A. COUTINHO1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , caused by Coniothyrium zuluense, is a serious stem canker disease of Eucalyptus in subtropical parts. This was further confirmed when all Coniothyrium isolates associated with stem cankers on Eucalyptus spp. grouped Eucalyptus stem canker pathogen outside South Africa. INTRODUCTION Eucalyptus species are native to Australia

  18. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian

    2011-01-01

    Journal of microelectromechanical systems, vol. 12, no. 3,actuators,” Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, vol.Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 15, no. 6,

  19. Application of optical coherence tomography to automated contact lens metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Jennifer K.

    dentures made with different molding techniques for defects. OCT was used by Yang et al.12 to acquire

  20. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian

    2011-01-01

    actuators,” Journal of microelectromechanical systems, vol.thermal actuators,” Microelectromechanical Systems, JournalSensors,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol.

  1. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian

    2011-01-01

    Chen, and P. -Z. Chang, “A MEMS micromirror fabricated usingand M. R. Douglass, “A MEMS-based projection display,”L. . Law, and A. Goldenberg, “MEMS optical switches,” IEEE

  2. Lens-array PDV Probe Using a Pyramid Prism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R. M., Kaufman, M. I., Cox, B., Romero, V., Cata B., Sorenson, D. Pazuchanics, P.

    2011-11-01

    A bug eye probe is shown using a pyramid prism, and its advantages and disadvantages are enumerated. Also shown is abug eye imaging probe, with its advantages and disadvantages enumerated.

  3. MEMS Lens Scanners for Free-Space Optical Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian

    2011-01-01

    high frequency mechanical vibrations expected in computerone-dimensional mechanical vibration between the transmitterrange for typical mechanical vibration within an office or

  4. Viewing paleontology through a geochemical lens: 2 case studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Brendan Matthew

    2013-08-31

    exceptional preservation of non-biomineralized tissues occurs throughout the Phanerozoic by the creation and analysis of a database of Phanerozoic Konservat-Lagerstatten. Potential controls examined include the influence of marine geochemistry...

  5. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Lens Search. IV. Statistical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full Text DOI: 10.10880004-62561402403 Select the DOI to obtain a copy of this journal article from the publisher....

  6. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A Dominant Agro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    plantations of Eucalyptus and Acacia auriculiformis.plantations of either Eucalyptus or Acacia auriculiformis.the plantations are of Eucalyptus species and have not been

  7. United States Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and to the NNSA, which has oversight responsibility for LANL. Letter from Alexander Morris, OIR, to Greg Marlowe (April 22, 2015). On May 1, 2015, the NNSA issued a...

  8. FIA-13-0039- In the Matter of Avery R. Webster

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 17, 2013, OHA issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a FOIA determination issued by the Office of Information Resources (OIR).  The Appellant had filed a FOIA request seeking...

  9. FIA-13-0040- In the Matter of DeShonne E. Massey Sr.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 17, 2013, OHA issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a FOIA determination issued by the Office of Information Resources (OIR).  The Appellant filed a two-part request under the...

  10. NEASC Accreditation Resources Std 5-Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    OIR Website http://vm.uconn.edu/~wwwoir/facev.html X 5 REP 3 S5.4 Alumni Survey Results (see paper copies in REP 3 S10.47) OIR Website http://vm.uconn.edu/~wwwoir/alumsuvy.html 5 A 5.1 X Provost Report University Strategic Plan Website http://www.uc2000.uconn.edu/strategicplan/reports/program_assessment.html

  11. The End of the Plantations and the Transformation of Indigenous Society in Highland Chiapas, Mexico, 1974-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rus, III, Jan

    2010-01-01

    down to the operators of popsicle carts – had been largelyinformal sector – pushing a popsicle cart, for example, orcorrespond- ing to the male popsicle and artisan sellers (by

  12. Linking tree biodiversity to belowground process in a young tropical plantation: Impacts on soil CO2 flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potvin, Catherine

    ,e a Department of Geography, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2K6 b, Quebec, Canada Received 4 June 2007; received in revised form 2 January 2008; accepted 9 January 2008, 2000; Rayner et al., 2005). In particular, where there are high rates of land-use change, both

  13. The aftermath of abandonment: Secondary succession in Cocos nucifera plantations on the island of Moorea, French Polynesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagayama, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    the  1800s,  and  as  coconut  production  became  less The  meat  of  the  coconut  was  also  harvested  and was  pressed  to  make  coconut  oil.   In  the  1850s  the 

  14. Shallow Seismic Investigation of Hydrogeologic Problems in the Brazos River Alluvium, Texas A&M Plantation, Burleson County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrayer, M.A.

    1966-01-01

    Twenty-two shallow, reversed, seismic refraction profiles were conducted in the Brazos River floodplain to test the feasibility of using seismic methods to provide hydrogeologic information in this province. The specific objectives were to map...

  15. Plantation states : region, race, and sexuality in the cultural memory of the U.S. South, 1900-1945

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steeby, Elizabeth Anna

    2008-01-01

    part of a performance genealogy, with modes of what JosephPress, 2001). critical genealogy of prison literaturepositions himself in the genealogy of a racialized American

  16. Pruning wounds and occlusion: A long-standing conundrum in forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hara, Kevin L.

    2007-01-01

    decay in plantation-grown Eucalyptus nitens. Can. J. For.in plantation-grown Eucalyptus regnans in New Zealand. Newreported decay problems in Eucalyptus regnans (F. Mueller)

  17. China's Presence in Rwanda and Africa, through the Lens of the Product Life Cycle Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sofiani, Lily

    2013-01-01

    by trading in oil and natural resources. I cannot make mycountries rich in resources like oil benefit more from thethe oil, energy, water and many other natural resources its

  18. THE MARS HAND LENS IMAGER (MAHLI) FOR THE 2009 MARS SCIENCE LABORATORY. K. S. Edgett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieber, Juergen

    , and stratigraphy. Also, help determine rock type, history/sequence, depositional, diagenetic, and weathering of rover hardware with fines, plus stratigraphy, textures, mineralogy, and depositional processes. 3

  19. The Metropolis in Masquerade: Melbourne ‘through the Looking-Glass’ Lens of Fashion Photography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Jess

    2012-01-01

    a location where the production and consumption of fashionare focused on production and consumption, Melbourne hasthe systems of production and consumption that have thrived

  20. Venture Capitalists' Decision to Withdraw: The Role of Portfolio Configuration From a Real Options Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yong; Chi, Tailan

    2012-01-01

    When does a venture capital firm withdraw from an investment project prior to its completion? This study offers a real options view on this decision by examining the contingent effects of portfolio configuration. We explore ...

  1. Globecom 2012, Anaheim, California, USA, December 2012 Hemispherical Lens Based Imaging Receiver for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    density is also calculated to show the received optical power distributions for the case of four LED.Sekercioglu, Jean.Armstrong}@monash.edu Abstract--White lighting LED based systems are emerging as an important form significant spatial diversity for typical MIMO visible light scenarios. Numerical results are provided

  2. Development of a single lens dual-aperture stereo imaging for an application in stereo endoscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Youngsam

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Electronics, Control, Instrumentation, and Automation (Industrial Electronics, Control, Instrumentation, and Automation (

  3. Spectroscopic Gravitational Lens Candidates in the CNOC2 Field Galaxy Redshift Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Hall; H. K. C. Yee; Huan Lin; Simon L. Morris; Michael D. Gladders; R. G. Carlberg; David R. Patton; Marcin Sawicki; Charles W. Shepherd; Gregory D. Wirth

    2000-06-29

    We present five candidate gravitational lenses discovered spectroscopically in the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (CNOC2), along with one found in followup observations. Each has a secure redshift based on several features, plus a discrepant emission line which does not match any known or plausible feature and is visible in multiple direct spectral images. We identify these lines as Lyman-alpha or [OII] emission from galaxies lensed by, or projected onto, the CNOC2 target galaxies. Einstein radii estimated from the candidate deflector galaxy luminosities indicate that for two candidates the lines are probably [OII] from projected z3 galaxies. We estimate that only 1.9+-0.7 [OII]-emitting galaxies are expected to project onto target galaxies in the original CNOC2 sample, consistent with three or four of the six candidates being true gravitational lenses.

  4. Calibration of a Saccadic Camera System to Adapt to Lens Distortions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornsey, Richard

    " is an electronic image sensor used in multiple modes of resolution. We use a subwindow set at high resolution an empirical distortion model of the image formation process. This allows the saccadic camera to dynamically, to compensate for low acuity, distorted, or occluded visual data. Jakobson reported on studies of a subject

  5. Enhancing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awad, Christina

    2012-01-01

    1 mM KCl. Each tube was then vortex mixed to re-suspend theKCl solution by vortex mixing. The tubes were then re-spun

  6. Re-imagining Modern Dance as Transnational Phenomenon Through the Lens of Yoga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Kara

    2015-01-01

    Press. January 2010. Starbucks. “Pocket Yoga: Pracitcepress. 218-219. cl Ibid. Starbucks. “Pocket Yoga: Pracitce

  7. Approximate magnifying perfect lens with positive refraction Tomas Tyc and Martin Sarbort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyc, Tomas

    space perfectly, which he called fish eye. More than 150 years later, U. Leonhardt and T. Philbin showed that Maxwell's fish eye provides perfect imaging not only in terms of geometrical optics also in the full's fish eye and a new re- fractive index profile. This profile equipped with a spher- ical mirror can work

  8. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometera

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ? 0.075 arc seconds. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount behind the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, andmore »wavelength calibration.« less

  9. "NUMERICAL APERTURE INCREASING LENS MICROSCOPY FOR QUANTUM DOT AND INTEGRATED CIRCUIT IMAGING"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -to-noise ratio is beneficial. Specifically, we are building a Hanbury-Brown Twiss (HBT) interferometer to do both

  10. "Indigenous" -- "Vernacular" : negotiating an American history for modernism through the lens of the architectural exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmlow, Rebecca Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    After modernism was conceptualized as the "International Style" at the Museum of Modern Art in 1932, historians and critics sought to legitimate American architecture through the construction of a linear ancestry which ...

  11. A STUDY OF GRAVITATIONAL LENS CHROMATICITY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz, J. A.; Mosquera, A. M.; Mediavilla, E.; Kochanek, C. S.; Falco, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    We report Hubble Space Telescope observations of six gravitational lenses with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We measured the flux ratios between the lensed images in seven filters from 8140 #Angstrom# to 2200 #Angstrom#. In three of the systems, HE0512-3329, B1600+434, and H1413+117, we were able to construct UV extinction curves partially overlapping the 2175 #Angstrom# feature and characterize the properties of the dust relative to the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. In HE1104-1804, we detect chromatic microlensing and use it to study the physical properties of the quasar accretion disk. For a Gaussian model of the disk exp (- r{sup 2}/2r{sup 2}{sub s}), scaling with wavelength as r{sub s} {proportional_to}{lambda}{sup p}, we estimate r{sub s} ({lambda}3363) = 4{sup +4}{sub -2} (7 {+-} 4) light days and p = 1.1 {+-} 0.6 (1.0 {+-} 0.6) for a logarithmic (linear) prior on r{sub s} . The remaining two systems, FBQ0951+2635 and SBS1520+530, yielded no useful estimates of extinction or chromatic microlensing.

  12. Optics design for J-TEXT ECE imaging with field curvature adjustment lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, W. D.; Xie, J., E-mail: jlxie@ustc.edu.cn [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Chen, M.; Ren, X. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zhuang, G.; Yang, Z. [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas. Of particular importance has been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) for imaging T{sub e} fluctuations. Key to the success of ECEI is a large Gaussian optics system constituting a major portion of the focusing of the microwave radiation from the plasma to the detector array. Both the spatial resolution and observation range are dependent upon the imaging optics system performance. In particular, it is critical that the field curvature on the image plane is reduced to decrease crosstalk between vertical channels. The receiver optics systems for two ECEI on the J-TEXT device have been designed to ameliorate these problems and provide good performance with additional field curvature adjustment lenses with a meniscus shape to correct the aberrations from several spherical surfaces.

  13. Metabolism in Chlamydomonas Grossman et al. Novel metabolism in Chlamydomonas through the lens of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a member of the green algal green chloroplast that retains the capacity to perform oxygenic photosynthesis when illuminated the distribution of excitation energy (state transitions) or dissipation of excess absorbed light energy (non

  14. The Collaborative Lens: Robert de Boron’s Overshadowing of Chrétien de Troyes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hackney, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Wood, Juliette. “ The Holy Grail: From Romance Motif toRomances. “The Story of the Grail (Perceval). ” Trans.Joseph. The Virgin and the Grail. New Haven, CT: Yale UP,

  15. An eye for vulgarity : how MoMA saw color through Wild Bill's lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kivlan, Anna Karrer

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of the 1976 Museum of Modern Art exhibition of color photographs by William Eggleston-the second one-man show of color photography in the museum's history- with particular attention to the ...

  16. Optimization of composite tubes for a thermal optical lens housing design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Gonzalez, Hector Camerino

    2004-09-30

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 1. Midspan de ections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 2. Noise ltering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 3. Statistical analysis of [0=90]4 specimens . . . . . . . . 79 B. Analytical results... : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 27 14 Loading ring and end caps de ne the boundary conditions in FEA model 28 15 Test article and xture dimensions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 29 16 Final mesh : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 17 [0=90]4 uy...

  17. Design and performance of a 30 KV electron gun with ten independent cathodes & a magnetic lens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren

    2006-08-01

    Measurements on a 30 kV electron gun with ten independent cathodes, operating in a 6.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field are presented. An earlier paper covered the design of this electron gun [1]. Experimental results are compared to model predictions. Beam current is compared to theoretical space charge limited flow.

  18. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ? 0.075 arc seconds. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount behind the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  19. Development and Operation of High-throughput Accurate-wavelength Lens-based Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Ronald E

    2014-07-01

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy < 0.075 arc seconds. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount behind the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  20. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2014-11-15

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400–820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm{sup ?1} grating is matched with fast f/1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ?0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount at the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  1. Design, fabrication, and testing of a variable focusing micromirror array lens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Gyoungil

    2005-08-29

    of electrostatically actuated micromirrors. The suspension spring, pedestal and electrodes are located under the mirror to maximize the optical efficiency. The micromirror translation and rotation are plotted versus the applied voltage. Relations are provided...

  2. WSi2/Si Multilayer Sectioning by Reactive Ion Etching for Multilayer Laue Lens Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, N.; Conley, R.; Biancarosaa, J.; Divanc, R.; Macrander, A. T.

    2010-08-01

    SPIE Conference paper/talk presentation: Introduction: Reactive ion etching (RIE) has been employed in a wide range of fields such as semiconductor fabrication, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and refractive x-ray optics with a large investment put towards the development of deep RIE. Due to the intrinsic differing chemistries related to reactivity, ion bombardment, and passivation of materials, the development of recipes for new materials or material systems can require intense effort and resources. For silicon in particular, methods have been developed to provide reliable anisotropic profiles with good dimensional control and high aspect ratios1,2,3, high etch rates, and excellent material to mask etch selectivity...

  3. Light emitting diode package element with internal meniscus for bubble free lens placement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarsa, Eric; Yuan, Thomas C.; Becerra, Maryanne; Yadev, Praveen

    2010-09-28

    A method for fabricating a light emitting diode (LED) package comprising providing an LED chip and covering at least part of the LED chip with a liquid encapsulant having a radius of curvature. An optical element is provided having a bottom surface with at least a portion having a radius of curvature larger than the liquid encapsulant. The larger radius of curvature portion of the optical element is brought into contact with the liquid encapsulant. The optical element is then moved closer to the LED chip, growing the contact area between said optical element and said liquid encapsulant. The liquid encapsulant is then cured. A light emitting diode comprising a substrate with an LED chip mounted to it. A meniscus ring is on the substrate around the LED chip with the meniscus ring having a meniscus holding feature. An inner encapsulant is provided over the LED chip with the inner encapsulant having a contacting surface on the substrate, with the meniscus holding feature which defines the edge of the contacting surface. An optical element is included having a bottom surface with at least a portion that is concave. The optical element is arranged on the substrate with the concave portion over the LED chip. A contacting encapsulant is included between the inner encapsulant and optical element.

  4. Segmentation of Crystalline Lens in Photorefraction Video Mark Wendt and Shishir K. Shah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of infrared light emitting diodes (IR-LED) is located on this occlud- ing device. The system of video camera

  5. Application of optical lens of a CD writer for detecting the blood glucose semi-invasively

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshram, N. D., E-mail: meshramnileshsd@gmail.com [Mathuradas Mohota College of Sciences, Nagpur-440009 (India); Dahikar, P. B., E-mail: pbdahikar@rediffmail.com [Kamla Nehru Mahavidyalaya, Sakkardara Square, Nagpur-440009 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Recent technological advancements in the photonics industry have led to a resurgence of interest in optical glucose sensing and to realistic progress toward the development of an optical glucose sensor. Such a sensor has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for the estimated 16 million diabetics in this country by making routine glucose measurements more convenient. Currently over 100 small companies and universities are working to develop noninvasive or minimally invasive glucose sensing technologies, and optical methods play a large role in these efforts. It has become overwhelmingly clear that frequent monitoring and tight control of blood sugar levels are requisite for effective management of Diabetes mellitus and reduction of the complications associated with this disease. The pain and trouble associated with current “finger-stick” methods for blood glucose monitoring result in decreased patient compliance and a failure to control blood sugar levels. Thus, the development of a convenient noninvasive blood glucose monitor holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with Diabetes. A method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose concentration based on transilluminated laser beam via the Index Finger has been reported in this paper. This method depends on photodiode based laser operating at 632.8 nm wavelength. During measurement, the index finger is inserted into the glucose sensing unit, the transilluminated optical signal is converted into an electrical signal, compared with the reference electrical signal, and the obtained difference signal is processed by signal processing unit which presents the results in the form of blood glucose concentration. This method would enable the monitoring blood glucose level of the diabetic patient continuously, safely and noninvasively.

  6. Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    renewed interest in the develop- ment of new methods of determining the thermal properties of materials in the context of the rapid advances in materials technology and the many new applications of materials under very severe environ- mental conditions. Thermal diffusivity of a material is a very important parameter

  7. The military lens : doctrinal differences, misperception, and deterrence failure in Sino-American relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twomey, Christopher P

    2005-01-01

    Nations, because of their different strategic situations, histories, and military cultures can have dramatically different beliefs about the nature of effective military doctrine, strategy, and capabilities. This dissertation ...

  8. Development of a single lens dual-aperture stereo imaging for an application in stereo endoscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Youngsam

    2012-01-01

    bandpass filters,” New Tech Report 47420, Jet Propulsionbandpass filters,” New Tech Report 47420, Jet Propulsionbandpass filters,” New Tech Report 47420, Jet Propulsion

  9. Near-infrared thermal lens spectrometer based on an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    configuration in which, instead of the diffracted light, the transmitted light was used. The heat generated transmission measurements. Its application in the sensitive determination of nucleotides adenosine, cytidine through four sheets of paper with this spectrophotometer.1 Unfortunately, like other transmission

  10. Polymeric-lens-embedded 2D/3D switchable display with dramatically reduced crosstalk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    OCIS codes: (110.1080) Active or adaptive optics; (110.0110) Imaging systems; (100.6890) Three and mobile displays. A critical element in the 2D/3D switchable display is the adaptive liquid crystal (LC optimization by modifying the layout of light blocking components [21], and us- ing triplet structures

  11. Optical Properties of Plasmonic Zone Plate Lens, SERS-active Substrate and Infrared Dipole Antenna 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun Chul

    2010-10-12

    Nowadays plasmonics is rapidly developing areas from fundamental studies to more application driven research. This dissertation contains three different research topics on plasmonics. In the first research topic, by ...

  12. Design of an endoscope lens shielding device for use in laparoscopic procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Emily Faith

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgical tools and techniques have revolutionized many gynecological and abdominal procedures, leading to dramatic reductions in recovery time and scarring for the patient. While techniques and instruments for ...

  13. Nonmetric Lens Distortion Calibration: Closed-form Solutions, Robust Estimation and Model Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    Moumen T. El-Melegy Electrical Engineering. Dept. Assiut University Assiut, Egypt mmelegy@aun.edu.eg Aly

  14. Sub-/10 spot size in semiconductor solid immersion lens microscopy Mohamadreza G. Banaee a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm in which each particle represents a potential solution in a multi- dimensional space. A candidate solution in PSO gradually moves-objective PSO algorithm. Fig. 1 shows the schematics of the beam apodization approach in a SIL microscope. 2

  15. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  16. A Closer Evaluation of Capital Punishment: Viewing Executions through the Lens of Former Prison Employees 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Athena Renee'

    2014-09-03

    . Sorenson’s “Implicit Theory of Race” assisted with insight to how the participants in this study had come to enforce laws that upheld racism and other forms of social exclusion for the State of Texas. And George Ritzer’s “McDondalization Theory” provided...

  17. A Strong-Lens Survey in AEGIS: the influence of large scale structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Extended Groth Strip (EGS). In addition to a previously-the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) is particularly well-suitedtheir behavior. The DEEP2-EGS ?eld is a 120×30 arcmin strip,

  18. High Cost/High Risk Components to Chalcogenide Molded Lens Model: Molding Preforms and Mold Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-10-05

    This brief report contains a critique of two key components of FiveFocal's cost model for glass compression molding of chalcogenide lenses for infrared applications. Molding preforms and mold technology have the greatest influence on the ultimate cost of the product and help determine the volumes needed to select glass molding over conventional single-point diamond turning or grinding and polishing. This brief report highlights key areas of both technologies with recommendations for further study.

  19. *Contact lens wearers must be aware of additional hazards due to dusty or chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    , grinding, machining, drilling, chiseling, riveting, sanding, masonry, chainsaw work Requires side protection For severe exposure HEAT Furnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, cutting, welding

  20. Stochastic Boundary, Diffusion, Emittance Growth and Lifetime calculation for the RHIC e-lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.P.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2009-01-20

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy electron beam with proper Gaussian transverse profiles was proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, using a modified version of SixTrack [1], we investigate stability of the single particle in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. The Lyapunov exponent and action diffusion are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation for two different working points and various bunch intensities. Using the action diffusion results the emittance growth rate and lifetime of the proton beam is also estimated for the different scenarios.

  1. A Look at the Consequences of Internet Censorship Through an ISP Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Vern

    blocking; Video streaming; Porn; 1. INTRODUCTION Nation-level censorship affects the activities of hundreds traces collected before and after the porn and YouTube censorship e

  2. Internal plasma potential measurements of a Hall thruster using plasma lens focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnell, Jesse A.; Gallimore, Alec D. [Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1919 Green Road, Room B107, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Magnetic field topology has been found to be a central design concern for high-efficiency Hall thrusters. For future improvements in Hall thruster design, it is necessary to better understand the effects that magnetic field topology has on the internal plasma structure. The Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory's High-speed Axial Reciprocating Probe system is used in conjunction with a floating emissive probe to map the internal plasma potential structure of the NASA-173Mv1 Hall thruster [R. R. Hofer, R. S. Jankovsky, and A. D. Gallimore, J. Propul. Power 22, 721 (2006); 22, 732 (2006)]. Measurements are taken at 300 and 500 V with a xenon propellant. Electron temperature and electric field are also measured and reported. The acceleration zone and equipotential lines are found to be strongly linked to the magnetic field lines. Moreover, in some cases the ions are accelerated strongly toward the center of the discharge channel. The agreement between magnetic field lines and equipotential lines is best for high-voltage operation. These results have strong implications on the performance and lifetime optimization of Hall thrusters.

  3. Electrical Conductivity, Near-Infrared Absorption, and Thermal Lens Spectroscopic Studies of Percolation of Microemulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    ] to [surfactant] (W0 ) [water]/ [surfactant]), the concentration of the micellar phase or the temperature) leads) as a function of water concentration. These results seem to indicate that the AOT microemulsions consist charged (dodecylmethylbutylammonium bromide and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride) surfactants were

  4. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometera)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, USA

    2014-11-01

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400-820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm-1 grating is matched with fast f /1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy < 0.075 arc seconds. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount behind the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  5. Why farm the city? Theorizing urban agriculture through a lens of metabolic rift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South. The spike in oil and food prices in late 2007 and early 2008 and the shocks of the current in UA should come as no surprise. Historically, urban food production in the US and Britain has

  6. Three-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained tissue using a GRIN lens endoscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaffer, Chris B.

    with unstained mouse lung at 5.9 mW average power. These results demonstrate the feasibility of three-photon GRIN. Tromberg, and Z. Chen, "Design and implementation of fiber-based multiphoton endoscopy(10), 106014 (2011). 14. I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, "Wavelength dependent

  7. Enhancing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awad, Christina

    2012-01-01

    energy beyond the free energy of the sun. In considering theadditional source of energy aside from the sun, that it is

  8. First Interview with Professor Len Sealy: Early Years and the Faculty - 15 February 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Bates; Lesley, Dingle

    2013-08-08

    brother and my own kids and their girlfriends came, so I had to pitch this lecture at a level which everyone would make sense of - whether I did or not, I don’t know. But by curious coincidence, I discovered that one of my suits had the label Berwin... on the inside of it, so I challenged the partners of Berwins in London about this and they said, “Oh, yes, it was a well-established clothing firm based in Leeds20 and is still going strong under the directorship of Stanley’s brother.” Well, I put this suit...

  9. FIA-14-0082 - In the Matter of Len Latkovski | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLfor InnovativeProcessing22,673,list7.pdf More Documents &3,Office

  10. RECENT EXPERIENCE WITH ELECTRON LENS BEAM-BEAM COMPENSATION AT THE TEVATRON*

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding FINAL Progress Report Project

  11. Vice-President, Research Office of International Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Xuhua

    Vice-President, Research Office of International Research Université d'Ottawa | University of Ottawa #12;Mandate Redefined in early 2011, the mandate of the Office of International Research (OIR and by enhancing international collaborations to achieve our strategic research priorities. Office of International

  12. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  13. FIA-12-0045- In the Matter of National Security Archive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy’s Richland Operations Office (ROO). The National Security Archive, the Appellant, requested copies of a specific report dealing with a methodology for the production of plutonium from Department’s Office of Information Resources (OIR).

  14. Abstract Plantations of Pinus spp. constitute approximately 50% of the South African forestry industry. The first aim of this study was to develop a reliable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industry. The first aim of this study was to develop a reliable inoculation technique to screen Pinus spp. Kietzka Mondi Business Paper, P.O. Box 179, Pietermaritzburg, KZN, South Africa 123 New Forests DOI 10 African forestry industry is crucially important for the continued sustainability of this important

  15. First Documentation of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in a Longhorned Beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambyicidae) of the Primitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    , woody shrubs, and vines in forests, orchards, plantations, and urban landscapes (Solomon 1995). Although

  16. HERRING FISHERY OF THE U. S. PASSAMAQUODDY REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Forest plantations · Hydroelectric power facilities · Water transfer schemes · Sea wall construction #12

  17. Kynurenine inhibits fibroblast growth factor 2-mediated expression of crystallins and MIP26 in lens epithelial cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cells and KYN- modified proteins and furthermore exhibited dense nuclear cataract. In a subsequent study cycle arrest [13]. FGF2 plays an important role in LEC proliferation and differenti- ation [14,15]. At low concentrations, FGF2 induces LEC proliferation, while at higher concentrations, it induces

  18. 2982 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 59, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010 Detecting External Disturbances on the Camera Lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alippi, Cesare

    2982 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 59, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010 Detecting@elet.polimi.it). Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online at http

  19. PIER Through a Critical Lens: An Evaluation of a Student-Initiated, Student-Run Outreach Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saelua, Natasha Autasi

    2012-01-01

    March 15, 2012. demonstrates PISA’s intervention into higherprimary outreach vehicle for PISA until May 1997, when theStudents Association (PISA) and Pacific Islander Education

  20. THE FAINTEST RADIO SOURCE YET: EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS SDSS J1004+4112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, N.

    2011-09-20

    We present new radio observations of the large-separation gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1004+4112, taken in a total of 6 hr of observations with the Expanded Very Large Array. The maps reach a thermal noise level of approximately 4 {mu}Jy. We detect four of the five lensed images at the 15-35 {mu}Jy level, representing a source of intrinsic flux density, after allowing for lensing magnification, of about 1 {mu}Jy, intrinsically probably the faintest radio source yet detected. This reinforces the utility of gravitational lensing in potentially allowing us to study nJy-level sources before the advent of the Square Kilometre Array. In an optical observation taken three months after the radio observation, image C is the brightest image, whereas the radio map shows flux density ratios consistent with previous optical observations. Future observations separated by a time delay will give the intrinsic flux ratios of the images in this source.

  1. A review of "The Correspondence of John Cotton Junior" by Sheila McIntryre and Len Travers, ed. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheik, William

    2010-01-01

    desirous to testify more fully for him, & yet afraid to doe it, because I could not say (sana conscientia) that his carriage & demeanore had bin all along suitable to his condition? (Michael G. Hall, The Last American Puritan [1988], 64). 38 seventeenth... in their ?Introduction? are not faithful to the texts that follow it. That is a small defect compared to each reviews 39 meticulously introduced, edited and footnoted letter. This book does more than merely illuminate a previously obscure life; this work also...

  2. Genetic Analysis of Bread Making Quality Stability in Wheat using a Halberd X Len Recombinant Inbred Line Population 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poudel, Ashima

    2012-07-16

    Wheat grain quality has a complex genetic architecture heavily influenced by the growing environment. Consistency in wheat quality not only affects the efficiency of milling and baking but also the quality of end-use ...

  3. A Phenomenological Look at Adult English-Language Development Through the Lens of Students' Sense-Making Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segade, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    they  don’t  have  a  computer  right?    How  they  .  Gabriela:    Right  so   with   computers—   Tae-­woo:  —saying  they  used  computers  .  right?     Carolina:    

  4. A crossfield literature review of the HIV and AIDS impacts on the Ugandan workforce through the HRD lens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Debra Mayes

    2005-02-17

    Museveni, editorials, foundation 9 and corporate reports and multi-NPS entities (INGO, NGO, CBO, and FBO) as ?the method of discovery to gain insight and understanding? (Merriam, 1998) into the impacts of HIV and AIDS on the Ugandan workforce and how... HRD impacts can help improve workforce and decrease HIV and AIDS incidence and prevalence. Collection of Data Procedures for synthesizing data are through the analysis of volumes of text data (Bogdan and Biklen, 2003), focusing upon the impacts...

  5. Examining Montessori Middle School through a Self- Determination Theory Lens : : A Mixed Methods Study of the Lived Experiences of Adolescents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casquejo Johnston, Luz

    2013-01-01

    in Educational Leadership by Luz Casquejo Johnston CommitteeHuie Hofstetter Copyright Luz Casquejo Johnston, 2013 AllPAGE The Dissertation of Luz Casquejo Johnston is approved,

  6. An Explanation for the Lack of a Dilute Freshwater Lens in Unconfined Tropical Coastal Aquifers: Yucatan Example

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoessell, Ronald K.

    or the base of the thermocline (in open sinkholes). The salt content increases approaching the coasts or base of the thermocline (in open sinkholes). The process continues along the coastward flow path. This is a region of karst topography with numerous sinkholes and few surface streams or lakes (Back and Hanshaw

  7. GRIN lens rod based probe for endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography with fast dynamic focus tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Chen, Zhongping; Mukai, David; Brenner, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt.tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt.of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt.

  8. Proceedings ol'tlie 1999 Particle Accelerator Conl'erencc,New York, 1999 THE DESIGN OF A IJQUID LITHIUM LENS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    , the liquid lithium prcssurc vessel, pump options, power supplies, as well as tlie overall optimization minimizing emitkincc growth. llic mcclianical design 111 the lithium vessel is constmined by a pressure pulse & 20 T, I. = I m liir testing as part of the MUCOOL cxpcriiiicnt[21 r . 2 THE PRESSURE PULSE l

  9. BP: Beyond Petroleum? Published by GlobaLens, a division of the William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    . By assuming the duties of CEO, Dudley was walking into the top position of a company that was reeling from one as an oil company at the forefront of environmental issues had completely changed. This brand value had. Should BP reinvest in building its progressive brand or focus on being a pure oil company

  10. The Journey from Classical to Quantum Thinking: An Analysis of Student Understanding Through the Lens of Atomic Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Sandhya Kolla

    2012-01-01

    it  would  be  the  right  energy  to   change  it  from  to  have  just   the  right  energy  to  keep  it  in  have  like  just   the  right  energy,  it  will  go  to  

  11. Overview of animal detection and animal warning systems in North America and Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huijser, Marcel P.; McGowen, Patrick T.

    2003-01-01

    or snow may cause the lens to fog up. The distance betweenventilation in box (fog on lens) Frost, low temperatures

  12. The investigation of the Caney Creek shipwreck archaeological site 41MG32 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedrick, David Layne

    1998-01-01

    provided inland communication for plantations along its balks, which were some of the wealthiest sugarcane producers in the Texas. These plantations helped provide the southern states with essential supplies (sugar cane, cotton, cattle, etc.) during...

  13. Feeding on Phytoestrogens: Implications of Estrogenic Plants for Primate Ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wasserman, Michael David

    2011-01-01

    howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) plantations in Tabasco, Mexico: HabitatErythrina abyssinica   Eucalyptus grandis   Fagara

  14. Forest Certification in Brazil Peter H. May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    scheme (CERFLOR) was recognized in 2002 by the PEFC. Over one million hectares in plantations and natural

  15. Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, pages 362367, Baltimore, Maryland USA, June 2627, 2014. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the reference length len(R), using this equation: BP(T, R) = min 1.0, exp 1 - len(R) len(T) (4) 2.2 Smoothing

  16. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light image Image Space lens Can we create the image without a lens? Angular Space Math Q 4p sin(q) l Lensless Imaging Sample Space Scattering Space sample light image lens...

  17. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    from Portable Kerosene-Fired Space Heaters. Environmentalfrom Portable Kerosene-Fired Space Heaters. Environmental

  18. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    other cleaner burning fuels (biogas or LPG) for cooking andstove with improved stove or biogas can be suggested, if thegaseous-burning-fuel stove (biogas, liquefied petroleum gas,

  19. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves, and two healthand kerosene compared with LPG stove in Nepal. Its chaptercompared with kerosene and LPG stoves. By contrast, the

  20. In vitro interactions of the small heat shock protein chaperone human [alpha]B-crystallin with its physiological substrates in the lens [gamma]-crystallins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acosta-Sampson, Ligia I

    2010-01-01

    The passive chaperone a-crystallin, a small heat shock protein, is one of the ubiquitous crystallins in vertebrate lenses, along with the [beta][gamma]-crystallins. It is composed of two subunits (~ 20 kDa) aA- and ...

  1. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    kerosene combustion include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,combustion releases a complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds, such as fine particulates (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (

  2. The Highest Resolution Mass Map of Galaxy Cluster Substructure To Date Without Assuming Light Traces Mass: LensPerfect Analysis of Abell 1689

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Moustakas, Leonidas; Ford, Holland

    2010-01-01

    We present a strong lensing mass model of Abell 1689 which resolves substructures ~25 kpc across (including about ten individual galaxy subhalos) within the central ~400 kpc diameter. We achieve this resolution by perfectly reproducing the observed (strongly lensed) input positions of 168 multiple images of 55 knots residing within 135 images of 42 galaxies. Our model makes no assumptions about light tracing mass, yet we reproduce the brightest visible structures with some slight deviations. A1689 remains one of the strongest known lenses on the sky, with an Einstein radius of RE = 47.0" +/- 1.2" (143 +3/-4 kpc) for a lensed source at zs = 2. We find a single NFW or Sersic prole yields a good fit simultaneously (with only slight tension) to both our strong lensing (SL) mass model and published weak lensing (WL) measurements at larger radius (out to the virial radius). According to this NFW fit, A1689 has a mass of Mvir = 2.0 +0.5/-0.3 x 10^15 Msun / h70 (M200 = 1.8 +0.4/-0.3 x 10^15 Msun / h70) within the vir...

  3. Comment on: Investigation of the thermal lens effect of the TGG crystal in high-power frequency-doubled laser with single frequency operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eismann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In their article, the authors of [Opt. Express 23, 4981 (2015)] observe step-like behavior and hysteresis of the output power of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO 4-laser as a function of pump power. While claiming that this behavior is a proof of thermal lensing in the intra-cavity TGG, no direct evidence is given. We will discuss here the validity of their statement, and propose an experimental proof.

  4. Characterization of Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility in UXO Electromagnetic Todd Meglich*, Yaoguo Li, Colorado School of Mines, Len Pasion, Douglas Oldenburg, University of British

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Summary Soils at many locations that have their origin in volcanic parent material and have undergone approximately 70% of the anomalies were caused by non-hazardous metal objects and 27% were caused by geology. The locations of the four soil pits relative to the Grid 2E are shown on Figure 1. Figure 1 ­ Site condition

  5. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    groups American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal,Exposures. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal,

  6. Lamellar corneal transplantation: comparison of a simplified technique utilizing a contact lens splint supported by tissue adhesives with a standard suture graft procedure. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Playter, Robert Franklin

    1974-01-01

    changes and estrus cycle. Available from Keeler Optical Products, Philadelphia. Penn. Kodacolor II, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. r Depo Medrol, Upjohn Co. , Kalamazoo, Mich. 26 At the end of the 90 day observation period the eyes were...

  7. Through the Lens of Parent Leaders : : A Case Study Examining the Role of Applied Critical Leadership in Promoting Latino Parent Engagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil, Patricia Magaña

    Educational Leadership, 40- Saldana, J. (2009). The codingvalidity to the findings (Saldaña 2009). Data Analysis. The

  8. Lens galaxies in the Illustris simulation: power-law models and the bias of the Hubble constant from time-delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Dandan; Schneider, Peter; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The combination of dynamical and strong gravitational lensing studies of massive galaxies shows that their total density profile in the central region (i.e. up to a few half-light radius) can be described by a power law, $\\rho(r)\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$. Therefore, such a power-law model is employed for a large number of strong-lensing applications, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant $H_0$. However, since the radial scale at which strong lensing features are formed (i.e., the Einstein radius) corresponds to the transition from the dominance of baryonic matter to dark matter, there is no known reason why galaxies should follow a power law in density. The assumption of a power law artificially breaks the mass-sheet degeneracy, a well-known invariance transformation in gravitational lensing which affects the product of Hubble constant and time delay and can therefore cause a bias in the determination of $H_0$ from the time-delay technique. In this paper, we use the Illustr...

  9. General contractor’s project of projects – a meta-project: understanding the new paradigm and its implications through the lens of entropy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Solis, Jose; Rybkowski, Zofia K.; Xiao, Chao; Lü , Xiaoshu; Chae, Lee Seok

    2015-02-08

    diligence, and O&M teams), architect (and the design team), general contractor (and its subcontractor team) create, transmit, process, manage and use information. The boundary between information (creation and transmission) and physical production is where... level; for example, when information is transferred from the team that does programing, to the design team, to the general contractor team, and finally, to the subcontractors for action. In addition, three macro-reasons at the strategic, logistic...

  10. Sense of Place - Alberta, Canada by Beverly Sandalack, Ann Davis, Len Novak and Bob Sandford [EDRA/Places Awards 2006 -- Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    agriculture is part of Alberta’s longstanding heritage.Sense of Place—Alberta, Canada Beverly Sandalack, Ann Davis,by twenty years of growth in Alberta’s oil and natural gas

  11. IS THE SUN LIGHTER THAN THE EARTH? ISOTOPIC CO IN THE PHOTOSPHERE, VIEWED THROUGH THE LENS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRUM SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Lyons, J. R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Wedemeyer-Boehm, S.

    2013-03-01

    We consider the formation of solar infrared (2-6 {mu}m) rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO5BOLD 3D convection models, with the aim of refining abundances of the heavy isotopes of carbon ({sup 13}C) and oxygen ({sup 18}O, {sup 17}O), to compare with direct capture measurements of solar wind light ions by the Genesis Discovery Mission. We find that previous, mainly 1D, analyses were systematically biased toward lower isotopic ratios (e.g., R {sub 23} {identical_to} {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C), suggesting an isotopically 'heavy' Sun contrary to accepted fractionation processes that were thought to have operated in the primitive solar nebula. The new 3D ratios for {sup 13}C and {sup 18}O are R {sub 23} = 91.4 {+-} 1.3 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 89.2) and R {sub 68} = 511 {+-} 10 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 499), where the uncertainties are 1{sigma} and 'optimistic'. We also obtained R {sub 67} = 2738 {+-} 118 (R {sub Circled-Plus} = 2632), but we caution that the observed {sup 12}C{sup 17}O features are extremely weak. The new solar ratios for the oxygen isotopes fall between the terrestrial values and those reported by Genesis (R {sub 68} = 530, R {sub 67} = 2798), although including both within 2{sigma} error flags, and go in the direction favoring recent theories for the oxygen isotope composition of Ca-Al inclusions in primitive meteorites. While not a major focus of this work, we derive an oxygen abundance, {epsilon}{sub O} {approx} 603 {+-} 9 ppm (relative to hydrogen; log {epsilon} {approx} 8.78 on the H = 12 scale). The fact that the Sun is likely lighter than the Earth, isotopically speaking, removes the necessity of invoking exotic fractionation processes during the early construction of the inner solar system.

  12. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    flues and promotion of semi-gasifier or gaseous stove, couldstoves, such as semi-gasifier stoves or other cleanerbiomass stoves, such as semi-gasifier stoves, or those with

  13. Environmental Literacy and Sustainability Values: A Content Analysis of National EE Frameworks and State Standards through the Lens of the Earth Charter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singleton, Julie

    2012-02-14

    concerned with ethics or values and more concerned with an ecological, scientific approach to environmental education. With the current political climate, international sustainability values as expressed by the Earth Charter would not pass through policy...

  14. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and acutekerosene fuel combustion Indoor air pollution from biomasscombustion emits naphthalene [44, 46, 83, 84] and formaldehyde [42, 45, 85]. In the indoor air pollution

  15. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    fuels (biogas or LPG) for cooking and heating, and promotionBiogas and LPG stoves 0 and 20 years 3.3.8 Main heating and11.2%), and biogas (1.9%). We created a heating fuel

  16. Pre-clinical Measures of Eye Damage (Lens Opacity), Case-control Study of Tuberculosis, and Indicators of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Smoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokhrel, Amod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratoryTuberculosis and Indoor Biomass and Kerosene Use in Nepal: AR.D. Retherford, and K.R. Smith, Biomass cooking fuels and

  17. Einfhrung in PROLOG IV Beispiele fr Listen in PROLOG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Liste hat die Länge 1 + len(R ), wobei len(R ) die Länge ihres Rumpfes ist. Diese Definition liefert uns

  18. Fast Correction Optics to Reduce Chromatic Aberrations in Longitudinally Compressed Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidia, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    FAST CORRECTION OPTICS TO REDUCE CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS INrecent work on fast correction optics that remove the time-EINZEL LENS CORRECTION OPTIC An electrostatic, Einzel lens [

  19. Forestry in Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dykstra, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Forest types and plantations, and associated forest industries are described. Forests occupy 47% of the total land area, mostly open miombo woodland dominated by Julbernardia and Brachystegia, with small areas of tropical high forest, mangroves and plantations. About 97% of the total roundwood consumed is used as fuelwood or for charcoal. Early results from village forestry programmes (partially financed by SIDA), the less successful communal village plantations, and agroforestry practices are described briefly. Education, training and the importance of wildlife are discussed.

  20. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. The final product will be a system...

  1. Teratosphaeria (Mycosphaerella) nubilosa, the causal agent of Mycosphaerella leaf disease (MLD),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -use of these plantations is in the pulp and paper industry, which is growing rapidly in Uruguay. More than 100 species

  2. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In Khammam District Of India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    were considered for Eucalyptus clonal plantations. FieldAgroforestry, mitigation, Eucalyptus, above ground biomass,area in these mandals. Eucalyptus and Luceana leucocephala

  3. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A Case Study Of Kolar District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    activities (such as eucalyptus plantation, fruit orchards offruit orchard and low for Eucalyptus and Tectona grandis +Species opted by the community Eucalyptus spp. , Acacia spp.

  4. Creating an American Property Law: Alienability and Its Limits in American History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priest, Claire

    2006-01-01

    plantation slavery in Barbados to the “Anglo-Saxon or ‘A Comparison of Brazil and Barbados in the Seventeenthwere exempt from arrest in Barbados until the marshall had

  5. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intercropped...

  6. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations Feedstock Supply and Logistics: Biomass as a Commodity Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a Commodity...

  7. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. auburnprojectabstract1.pdf More Documents &...

  8. Regional Management of Mediterranean Ecosystems in Spain1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the "maquis" appears, a closed underbush of rockrose (Cistus) with "len- tiscos" (Pistacia) and strawberry

  9. A Low-Cost Quantitative Absorption Spectrophotometer Daniel R. Albert, Michael A. Todt, H. Floyd Davis*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H. Floyd

    is constructed using Lego® blocks, a light emitting diode, and optical elements including a lens, slide

  10. Elec 331 -Sensors & Statistics Sensing Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    shift, etc. Example · Interfering / Modifying ­ Dirt on the lens ­ Coughing ­ Work boots ­ Bent needle

  11. Approximate String Joins in a Database (Almost) for Free Luis Gravano Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis H. V. Jagadish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND R 2 A j Q.P os ­ R 1 A i Q.P os # k AND LEN(R 1 .A i ) ­ LEN(R 2 .A j ) # k AND LEN(R 2 .A j ) ­ LEN(R

  12. "code_support' for CLIFFORD, Bigebra, Octonion, GTP, Cliplus, Octonion in Maple 8 `Copyright 1995-2003 by Rafal Ablamowicz (*) and Bertfried Fauser ($)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablamowicz, Rafal

    . > split:=proc(pat,str) local a_seq,a1,x,pos,len,n; ############################################### options:=length(a1); pos:=1; while(SearchText(pat,a1,pos..len) 0) do n:=SearchText(pat,a1,pos..len); x:=substring(a1,pos..n-1); a_seq:=a_seq,x; a1:=substring(a1,n+length(pat)..len); len:=length(a1); od: a

  13. "code_support' for CLIFFORD, Bigebra, Octonion, GTP, Cliplus, Octonion in `Copyright 1995-2004 by Rafal Ablamowicz (*) and Bertfried Fauser ($)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablamowicz, Rafal

    . > split:=proc(pat,str) local a_seq,a1,x,pos,len,n; ############################################### options:=length(a1); pos:=1; while(SearchText(pat,a1,pos..len) 0) do n:=SearchText(pat,a1,pos..len); x:=substring(a1,pos..n-1); a_seq:=a_seq,x; a1:=substring(a1,n+length(pat)..len); len:=length(a1); od: a

  14. Modest carbon price could save Borneo forests: study Reuters, 4 June 2009 -Tropical forests in Borneo under threat of conversion to palm oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Borneo under threat of conversion to palm oil plantations could be more profitable left standing threat of being converted to oil palm plantations. "They are not meant to be clearing forest for palm oil development. It's pretty clear that forests are being felled for oil palm," said Venter, a conservation

  15. Z .Geoderma 105 2002 2148 www.elsevier.comrlocatergeoderma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    production and nutrient cycling in the ecosystem. Sequential extraction and 31 P nuclear magnetic Z surface soils 0­10 cm of natural forest, tea plantations and cultivated fields Z .25 years at Wushwush and from Podocarpus dominated natural forest, Cupressus plantations Z . Z .and cultivated fields 30 years

  16. Endophytic and canker-associated Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on non-native Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endophytic and canker-associated Botryosphaeriaceae occurring on non-native Eucalyptus and native associated with stem cankers on plantation-grown Eucalyptus globulus. Howev- er, very little is known their relationship is to those species infecting Eucalyptus in plantations. The objectives of this study were

  17. Author's personal copy Neighborhood uniformity increases growth of individual Eucalyptus trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    Author's personal copy Neighborhood uniformity increases growth of individual Eucalyptus trees modeled growth of 8800 focal clonal trees in a 9 ha operational, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x uniform, operational plantation of clonal Eucalyptus has substantial variance in tree sizes and growth

  18. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  19. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  20. Approximate String Joins in a Database (Almost) for Free Luis Gravano Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis H. V. Jagadish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravano, Luis

    1AiQ.Pos - R2AjQ.Pos k AND R2AjQ.Pos - R1AiQ.Pos k AND LEN(R1.Ai) - LEN(R2.Aj) k AND LEN(R2.Aj) - LEN(R1.Ai) k GROUP BY R1.A0, R2.A0, R1.Ai, R2.Aj HAVING COUNT(*) LEN(R1.Ai)+q-1 - k*q AND COUNT(*) LEN(R2.Aj)+q-1 - k*q AND edit distance(R1.A

  1. Final Report to DOE’s Office of Science (BER) submitted by Ram Oren (PI) of DE-FG02-00ER63015 (ended on 09/14/2009) entitled “Controls of Net Ecosystem Exchange at an Old Field, a Pine Plantation, & a Hardwood Forest under Identical Climatic & Edaphic Conditions”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oren, Ram; Oishi, AC; Palmroth, Sari; Butnor, JR; Johnsen, KH

    2014-03-17

    The project yielded papers on fluxes (energy, water and carbon dioxide)between each ecosystem and the atmosphere, and explained the temporal dynamics of fluxes based on intrinsic (physiology, canopy leaf area and structure) and extrinsic (atmospheric and edaphic conditions). Comparisons between any two of the ecosystems, and among all three followed, attributing differences in behavior to different patterns of phenology and differential sensitivities to soil and atmospheric humidity. Finally, data from one-to-three of the ecosystems (incorporated into FluxNet data archive) were used in syntheses across AmeriFlux sites and even more broadly across FluxNet sites.

  2. Image Synthesis using Adjoint Photons R. Keith Morley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Peter

    over a curved, specular reflector in a fog bank), both the geometric and optical complex- ity can. #12;sensor plane 752nm 540nm 585nm Photons lens light 420nm Adjoint Photons lens sensor (weighting

  3. An Oral Antioxidant Formulation Delaying and Potentially Reversing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, David; Fitchie, Angus; Colitz, Carmen

    2015-02-24

    of lens opacification documented photographically using a Genesis D fundus camera at +10D. Time to progression of lens opacification was documented and compared between the OcuGLO™ group and the placebo group, using Kaplan Meier survival curve statistics...

  4. Responsabilidad Civil Extracontractual en Paraguay: un enfoque económico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez Talia, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    forma – siempre siguiendo la tesis de C OOTER y U LEN – essiguiendo nuevamente la tesis de P INDYCK Y R UBINFELD ,estos casos. Siguiendo la tesis de C OOTER y U LEN , podemos

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - 4_JOHN_BALLARD_MARY_MCCDONNELL_NRC DOE...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Len Myers Special Requests (301) 903-2180 Len.Myers@nnsa.doe.gov Patricia Smith NRC Reconciliation (301) 903-6860 PatriciaR.Smith@nnsa.doe.gov Reasons to Call NMMSS -...

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7_MARY_MCCDONNELL_JOHN_BALLARD_Tips for...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Len Myers Special Requests (301) 903-2180 Len.Myers@nnsa.doe.gov Patricia Smith NRC Reconciliation (301) 903-6860 PatriciaR.Smith@nnsa.doe.gov Tips for Success ...

  7. COGS 101A: Sensation and Perception Virginia R. de Sa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Sa, Virginia

    - transparent fluid between lens and cornea - helps keep cornea round vitreous humor-jelly like substance;13 The Eye cornea ­ modified (transparent) forward surface of the sclera, provides 70-80of the eye lens

  8. Studienordnung fr den Bachelor-Teilstudiengang Geschichte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Hochschu- len des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Landeshochschulgesetz ­ LHG M-V) vom 5. Juli 2002 (GVOBl

  9. Studienordnung fr den Masterstudiengang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    Hochschu- len des Landes Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Landeshochschulgesetz ­ LHG M-V) vom 5. Juli 2002 (GVOBl

  10. Ability Engineering Technology Inc February 7th, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He/H2 Heat Exchanger Module Products & Services for ORNL On-Site Installation Lens Moderator Proto-type

  11. High-precision structural analysis of subnuclear complexes in fixed and live cells via spatially modulated illumination (SMI) microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rippe, Karsten

    interface LED light-emitting diode OL oil-immersion objective lens OTF optical transfer function PSF point

  12. Meandering of liquid rivulets on partially wetting inclines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daerr, Adrian - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7

    at the point where the light rays emanating from a light emitting diode are focussed by the lens. The minimal

  13. Mechanics of nonlinear biomembranes: application to ophthalmology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Fredegusto Guido

    2007-04-25

    on porcine lens capsule data ??... 17 2.4 Choi-Vito material parameters based on porcine lens capsule data ... 19 2.5 Fung model stress-strain simulations ????????????. 21 2.6 Pseudo-Krag uniaxial stretch simulation ?.?????????... 21 2... quantification of the regional, multiaxial, anisotropic behavior of the lens capsule. Krag et al. (1996, 1999, 2003) conducted studies on the mechanical properties of the lens capsule, but their work has been largely based on uniaxial tests on thin strips cut...

  14. Yields of ten and eleven year-old hybrid poplars in the north central United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzer, D.; Tolsted, D.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this research is to determine commercially attainable biomass yields given the best site tending possible under the constraints of this extensive network. Biomass yields are reported from the best clones planted in one acre blocks on 8 sites over the four states. Biomass yields are presented of short rotation intensively cultured poplar plantations established in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North and South Dakota during 1987--88. It was reported at that time that the mean annual increment had not peaked in the plantations. Growth measurements were continued through the 1997 growing season when the plantations had completed their 10th and 11th growing season.

  15. A comparison of the determinism of Mark Twain and Theodore Dreiser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Startzman, Patricia Karen

    1968-01-01

    ~5 horeefter cited in the teaGt co CO. BJ. cis ~'~Br'G Pl;cain llni ii+3 iG'0 Qcan1 Iiowolla ~ ~aelcctcjj JBZar" ciGI ' s ~bjr' " "' '8 ~ ' &813nczau' 0 pc' J. h' 20113Gnalp press cf 7&a-vur4 . Univero~ty Prese, 7~CVp, p iy' ? hor8. 1=ter oktcl as LBB... as bonitos StLbssgluent, Citation!8 frOIR TWGinhs WorZBh With the 8%Co@Cion Qf Nhat XB h anl, and Xt&tters noh' t'aie, h 8 "th ~ ~'8 s--ota 'ht:. a!t7la~. again in I I3/Q or IQGG (XIIair X1 I 52) Xf this ig true ~ it is apXIarent that Twain'B XIeggimd...

  16. Regmi Research Series ,Year 6, December 1, 1974

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regmi, Mahesh C

    1974-01-01

    ­ tu1"'ti3,' bt=.forc the.; .. llIo;1!iV,. H~: 1hpl..lyej tll:: ' 5t'm~ p':l rsevlOir<.lnca 60.1 1d i ­ c<. t '\\on 1~ '1ef <:ln_iill6 th..: init::fo ".-.:j.::nca of Ik'pa1 V£llley as irithvi h.lr~y8n Sh:l.h · s~olotl.d in- oO.aQullring 1~ N;)i 1.hcr th... : Oecemb2r 1, 1 ~J7 4. Regmi Research Series Cu mu l ative !.mlcx tor Y

  17. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. (Palo Alto, CA); Chou, Ching H. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  18. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  19. Biomedical Text Disambiguation using UMLS Wessam Gad El-Rab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    patients. b) A simple solution to lens fogging during robotic and laparoscopic surgery. In the first by the ambiguity of natural language, in which words can have multiple meanings. For instance the word "lens" has [14]. a) Lens cadmium, lead, and serum vitamins C, E, and beta carotene in cataractous smoking

  20. Image Sensor Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    ; #12; #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 and Statistics #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 Expose 2 and Statistics #12; Image Sensor Lens Metadata Actions Flash ... Application Processor Con gure 1 Expose 2

  1. Biogeochemistry of the Western Gulf Coastal Plain as Impacted by Forest Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foote, Julie

    2014-01-29

    Plantation forestry is central to supplying the global demand for forest products and sustainable production will rely on information regarding the effects of disturbance on soil biogeochemistry. The extent of ecosystem disturbance will dictate...

  2. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

  3. Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale and total Al concentrations showed a significant decrease after planting S. cumini plantation onto the shale

  4. Detection of human hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in the livers of adult immunodeficient mice by an optimized flow cytometric method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varga, Nicole L.; Bárcena, Alicia; Fomin, Marina E.; Muench, Marcus O.

    2010-01-01

    CD19 + CD34 + cells, indicating that the full range of humanfull Figure 9. Detection of human B-lymphoid cells in mousefull lymph- oid reconstitution 229 days after FBM trans- plantation are shown in Figure 10. T-cells

  5. DOE'S ENERGY DATA BASE (EDB) VERSUS OTHER ENERGY-RELATED DATA BASES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    PLANTATIONS FIGURE 2 BIOGAS PROCESS TL'BIOGAS _ANAERQBICf o r Other Data Bases >BIOGAS/TI,DE,ID BIO(W)GAS/TI,DE,IDSEARCHES Methane (or Biogas) Production from Agricultural

  6. CHEMICAL ECOLOGY OF WOOD-BORING INSECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    insect pests worldwide, damaging and killing trees in natural and urban forests, plantations, and orchards, as well as degrading lumber and wooden structures (Solomon 1995). In addition to the damage

  7. Response and potential of agroforestry crops under global change C. Calfapietra a,*, B. Gielen b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for pulp, paper, construction wood or fodder (Weih, 2004). SRF plantations usually have a rotation cycle introduced with the aim of producing biomass for energy and industry both in the USA (Hohenstein and Wright

  8. Status and Cultivation of Sandalwood in India1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    traded with other countries. The heartwood yields fragrant oil, which is used mainly in the perfume of sandalwood in India. Nursery and plantation techniques for growing sandalwood from seeds are given. Cur- rent

  9. Breaking news: Biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus to be released in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Africa The Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) based at FABI has milestone in terms of ensuring sustainable plantation forestry in South Africa was safe to release in South Africa as a biological control agent

  10. Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus leaf diseases and stem cankers in Uruguay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae associated with Eucalyptus leaf diseases and stem cankers represent one of the most important impediments to Eucalyptus plantation forestry. Yet they have been resulting from surveys in all major Eucalyptus growing areas of the country. Species identification

  11. The Evolving Southern Gothic: Traditions of Racial, Gender, and Sexual Horror in the Imagined American South 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cothren, Claire Renae

    2015-05-20

    ............................................................................................... 74 The Sound and the Fury ....................................................................................... 78 Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Baby Doll .................................................................. 88 Lancelot... ................................................................................. 224 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................... 231 vii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Baby Doll’s plantation nursery...

  12. Proofs for Tech. Literature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Interpreting slavery can be a difficult and controversial task. Recent literature has shown that the majority of plantation museums and historic sites, which historically enslaved African-Americans, are currently ignoring the institution of slavery...

  13. The Red Squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) in relation to its food resource 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tittensor, Andrew M

    1. A study of the ecology of the native red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris leucorus) was carried out in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation in East Scotland. 2. The aims of this study were:- 1)To determine the ...

  14. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    in the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry. Berkeley, CA: Lawrenceand pulp and paper industries. Area b 2030 production (Mt) aPlantation Products and Paper Industry Council,

  15. Print news -IPS Inter Press Service Inter Press Service News Agency Tuesday, November 11, 2008 18:17 GMT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the European Biodiesel Board and carmakers Volvo and Volkswagen. Environmental campaigners are perturbed to make way for biofuel plantations. In a recent report, it cited UN estimates that 60 million indigenous

  16. Remote sensing for continuous cover forestry: quantifying spatial structure and canopy gap distribution. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaulton, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of UK even-aged conifer plantations to continuous cover forestry (CCF), a form of forest management that maintains forest cover over time and avoids clear-cutting, requires more frequent and spatially ...

  17. Effects of site preparation for afforestation on soil properties and greenhouse gas emission 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojeremane, Witness

    2009-01-01

    Forest plantations in the UK are often established on seasonally waterlogged peaty gley soils which often require site preparation (drainage and mounding) to lower the water table and prepare planting positions. Substantial ...

  18. Rethinking Bondage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Aisha; Chatterjee, Piya

    2013-01-01

    indentureship – for example on tea plantations in India –another. In the case of Indian tea estates, three entwinedfilm The Bitter Taste Of Tea http://leafboxtea.com/285/is-

  19. The rhetorical structure of the southern lady: an analysis of the myth of southern womanhood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Vonda Ka

    1994-01-01

    examined. Analysis looks at the use of upper-class white southern women in films, with special focus on Gone wi th the Wind, its characterization of Scarlett O' Hara, and the characterization of women in subsequent plantation-story films. It is argued...-1993. 113 Plantation-Story Films: 1940-1993. Mythological Implications. . . . . . . . . Final Thoughts. 122 154 164 CONCLUSION: THE MYTH OF SOUTHERN WOMANHOOD FROM THE NINETEENTH TO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY 167 Beyond the Twentieth Century 169...

  20. Biomass fuel from woody crops for electric power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.; Wright, L.L.; Huston, M.A.; Schramm, W.E.

    1995-06-22

    This report discusses the biologic, environmental, economic, and operational issues associated with growing wood crops in managed plantations. Information on plantation productivity, environmental issues and impacts, and costs is drawn from DOE`s Biofuels Feedstock Development as well as commercial operations in the US and elsewhere. The particular experiences of three countries--Brazil, the Philippines, and Hawaii (US)--are discussed in considerable detail.

  1. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, W.S.

    1993-12-07

    A device is described for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid there between and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data. 2 figures.

  2. Light absorption cell combining variable path and length pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prather, William S. (2419 Dickey Rd., Augusta, GA 30906)

    1993-01-01

    A device for use in making spectrophotometric measurements of fluid samples. In particular, the device is a measurement cell containing a movable and a fixed lens with a sample of the fluid therebetween and through which light shines. The cell is connected to a source of light and a spectrophotometer via optic fibers. Movement of the lens varies the path length and also pumps the fluid into and out of the cell. Unidirectional inlet and exit valves cooperate with the movable lens to assure a one-way flow of fluid through the cell. A linear stepper motor controls the movement of the lens and cycles it from a first position closer to the fixed lens and a second position farther from the fixed lens, preferably at least 10 times per minute for a nearly continuous stream of absorption spectrum data.

  3. Institute of Applied Physics University of Mnster, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwins, Hans-Georg

    by a Stirling cooler (down to 77 K) and coupled with an ICCD camera by means of a relay lens. (d) Near-IR camera cell Visible camera with lens input ..by relay lens coupling ..by fiber optical (FO) coupling III...Selected Test 10 mm 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Outputintensity,a.u. Time, ns Time

  4. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  5. X-ray micromodulated luminescence tomography in dual-cone ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-07-01

    Jul 16, 2014 ... source, a polycapillary lens, and an electron multiplying charge coupled device ... sources generate x-rays by accelerating electrons into high-z.

  6. What Does a Scattering Pattern Tell US?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scattering Space sample light image Image Space lens Angular Space Q 4p sin(q) l Fourier Transform Scattering Pattern Fourier Transform Phase Problem Scattering Pattern...

  7. 1 Making the Case for a Miniature Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    -assembled, electrostatic-lens elements. The goal is to develop miniaturized vacuum components, such as low-leakage micro-valves

  8. Shanghai in contemporary Chinese film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    with a Chinese Face: Cinematic Doubles, Odeipal Triangles,Critical Intervention, Cinematic Reconfiguration, and theothers. Therefore, when the cinematic lens extends to the

  9. Method of holding optical elements without deformation during their fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hed, P. Paul (80 Milaw Ct., San Ramon, CA 94583)

    1997-01-01

    An improved method for securing and removing an optical element to and from a blocking tool without causing deformation of the optical element. A lens tissue is placed on the top surface of the blocking tool. Dots of UV cement are applied to the lens tissue without any of the dots contacting each other. An optical element is placed on top of the blocking tool with the lens tissue sandwiched therebetween. The UV cement is then cured. After subsequent fabrication steps, the bonded blocking tool, lens tissue, and optical element are placed in a debonding solution to soften the UV cement. The optical element is then removed from the blocking tool.

  10. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 91, 032927 (2015) Instabilities and relaxation to equilibrium in long-range oscillator chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauxois, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    of Physics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala, Cameroon 4 Laboratoire de Physique de l'ENS Lyon

  11. Computers & Geosciences 31 (2005) 649659 Textural identification of carbonate rocks by image processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longo, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    with a hand lens of ffi10 Â as well as in thin section. In sedimentology the most widely used and simplest

  12. Ultrafast Control of Magnetism in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors via Photoexcited Transient Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotoros, Ingrid A.

    2009-01-01

    are sent onto a two–mirror periscope to raise them to theback through the lens and periscope, ending up in the same

  13. Leonard D. Berkovitz obituary - - Purdue University - West Lafayette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $author.value

    2009-10-15

    Oct 15, 2009 ... From 1951 to 1952, Len was an Atomic Energy Commission Postdoctoral Fellow at Stanford University. From 1952 to 1954, he was a Research ...

  14. BES Science Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2011-01-01

    30-ft wide by 8- ft high Powerwall for data exploration andwith which to operate the Powerwall and manage multimediadelivery to the EVEREST Powerwall. ORNL also provides Lens,

  15. Advanced Materials for Lightweight Valve Train Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reflectionscatter has same polarization as incident; because the polarized detection optics ("object lens") is aligned in the cross-polarized direction relative to the incident,...

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2_JIM_CRABTREE_NMMSS_2014 NMMSS staff...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Staff AT THE MEETING 6 Len Myers Special Reports , Financial Reports, Data Analysis Pat Smith Reporting and reconciliation for NRC facilities Karen Antizzo NMMSS daily operations:...

  17. Graphene-based tunable hyperbolic metamaterials and enhanced near-field absorption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Mohamed A K; Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    and M. Hanbucken, “A graphene electron lens,” Appl. Phys.based on plasmonic resonant graphene sheets,” J. Appl. Phys.polaritons in monolayer graphene sheet arrays,” Phys. Rev.

  18. Computing the Stretch of an Embedded Graph Sergio Cabello

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabello, Sergio

    . GIG/11/E023. 1 #12;Here, len() denotes the number of edges in and a cycle is a closed walk in a graph

  19. Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1-D: The Pitch Renewable, Non-Toxic and Cost Competitive Solvents and Plasticizers Len Rand, Chief Executive Officer, Chairman, xF Technologies

  20. Supporting Information Reiling et al. 10.1073/pnas.1018098108

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    DNA construct used for len- tivirus production. Flag-MFSD2AC and Flag-MFSD2AKKRQ [endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Aldrich; 16% para- formaldehyde so

  1. 2.71 Optics, Fall 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbastathis, George

    Introduction to optical science with elementary engineering applications. Geometrical optics: ray-tracing, aberrations, lens design, apertures and stops, radiometry and photometry. Wave optics: basic electrodynamics, ...

  2. Velocity Effects on the Deflection of Light by Gravitational Microlenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Heyrovsky

    2004-10-07

    We study the influence of general lens and source velocities on the gravitational deflection of light by single and two-point-mass microlenses with general axis orientation. We demonstrate that in all cases the lens equation preserves its form exactly. However, its parameters -- the Einstein radius and the binary-lens separation -- are influenced by the lens velocity. In Galactic microlensing settings the velocity mainly affects the inferred separation for wide binary-star or star+planet microlenses oriented close to the line of sight. We briefly discuss the case of lenses moving with highly relativistic velocities.

  3. Epson Original LCD Prism technology Front / rear / ceiling mount

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    ) Lens Shift N/A Keystone Correction Electronic +/-30 degrees Brightness (typical) 3000 ANSI lumens, USB, Input Terminal: Remote Control: Stereo mini jack Remote Control Features Keystone, picture

  4. Page 198 Music Sonoma State University 2015-2016 Catalog DEPARTMENT OFFICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    John Palmer, Musicology Dave Len Scott, American Music History, and Jazz Laxmi G. Tewari, Ethnomusicology Performing Ensembles - Vocal Laxmi G. Tewari, Indian Singing Ensemble Lynne Morrow, Opera

  5. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  6. Depositional environment of upper Cretaceous woodbine sandstones, Kurten field, Brazos County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, John Mark

    1982-01-01

    lens builds up above the sea floor so that it comes in contact with wave action and final; y, tidal flow. This would cause the upper part of each lens to become cl caner than the 1 ower part, as seen in these ba r s. The increase upward...

  7. ACM Reference Format Raskar, R., Agrawal, A., Wilson, C., Veeraraghavan, A. 2008. Glare Aware Photography: 4D Ray Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumder, Aditi

    the camera's body and lens optics and reduces image contrast. While previous approaches have analyzed glare without a hood, removes the effect of lens smudges and reduces loss of contrast due to camera body Photography: 4D Ray Sampling for Reducing Glare Effects of Camera Lenses. ACM Trans. Graph. 27, 3, Article 56

  8. Low Temperature Molding for High Space Coverage Microlens Arrays Kerwin Wang, Karl F. Bhringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important to achieve metrology-grade molding and lens reproduction without shrinkage. A comparisonLow Temperature Molding for High Space Coverage Microlens Arrays Kerwin Wang, Karl F. Böhringer presents SF6/O2 plasma lens-mold- etching and low-temperature-molding to produce 100% coverage microlens

  9. Wave optics and image formation in gravitational lensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasusada Nambu

    2012-07-30

    We discuss image formation in gravitational lensing systems using wave optics. Applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula to waves scattered by a gravitational potential of a lens object, we demonstrate how images of source objects are obtained directly from wave functions without using a lens equation for gravitational lensing.

  10. Passive Millimeter-Wave Ranging Using Discrete Lenses with Wave-Front Coding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    of a receiving discrete lens with modulated amplitude and/or phase response. The result is a set of image pat on a relatively small (100-element) discrete lens antenna array with a cosinusoidal amplitude mask and half curve around 94 GHz. Waves in this fre- quency range penetrate through dust, fog and smoke

  11. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui (Yorktown, VA); Michelle D. Shinn (Newport News, VA)

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  12. Struktur und Implementierung von Programmiersprachen II6. November 2006 4/1 Heterogenes Typaggregat: Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passau, Universität

    /5 Speicherabbildung ndimensionaler Arrays (a) LENr=UBr-LBr1 (b) LEN_PRODUCTk = el_size r=k1 n LENr (c) zeroth_element, LEN_PRODUCTk (1 k n)) BoundChecking (LBr , LENr ) (1 r n) #12;Struktur und Implementierung von

  13. FUNDP: Fortran 90 107 Proc'edures intrins`eques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    and J which must have the same kind type parameter. IBCLR(I,POS) Elemental function Returns integer with bit in integer I given by POS cleared to zero. IBITS(I,POS,LEN) Elemental function Returns integer corresponding to the ex­ traction of a sequence of bits of length LEN, starting at POS, in integer I. IBSET(I,POS

  14. Nanosecond plasma-mediated electrosurgery with elongated electrodes Alexander Vankova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    - cise depth of cutting leading to excessive collateral damage, nicked vessels, etc. Dielectric breakdown of dissecting the reti- nal tissue, as well as epiretinal membranes, lens capsule, and lens cortex. However, extensive testing of this device12 has revealed the following limitations: 1 An i

  15. Characterization of the unfolding, refolding, and aggregation pathways of two protein implicated in cataractogenesis : human gamma D and human gamma S crystallin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosinski-Collins, Melissa Sue, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Human [gamma]D crystallin (H[gamma]D-Crys) and human [gamma]S crystallin (H[gamma]S-Crys), are major proteins of the human eye lens and are components of cataracts. H[gamma]D-Crys is expressed early in life in the lens ...

  16. Menu Structuring for Mobile Devices Katrin Sauerwein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @sfu.ca, alexander.de.luca@ifi.lmu.de Abstract: This project sets a discussion about possible improvements for mobile images. The Manhattan Lens Stairs approach is based on human spatial memory abilities. It uses the Manhattan Lens to differ between important and unimportant items. Finally the Dynamic Neighbors ap- proach

  17. The effects of the RHIC E-lenses magnetic structure layout on the proton beam trajectory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Luo, Y.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.

    2011-03-28

    We are designing two electron lenses (E-lens) to compensate for the large beam-beam tune spread from proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). They will be installed in RHIC IR10. First, the layout of these two E-lenses is introduced. Then the effects of e-lenses on proton beam are discussed. For example, the transverse fields of the e-lens bending solenoids and the fringe field of the main solenoids will shift the proton beam. For the effects of the e-lens on proton beam trajectory, we calculate the transverse kicks that the proton beam receives in the electron lens via Opera at first. Then, after incorporating the simplified E-lens lattice in the RHIC lattice, we obtain the closed orbit effect with the Simtrack Code.

  18. MACHO Mass Determination Based on Space Telescope Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mareki Honma

    1999-03-24

    We investigate the possibility of lens mass determination for a caustic crossing microlensing event based on a space telescope observation. We demonstrate that the parallax due to the orbital motion of a space telescope causes a periodic fluctuation of the light curve, from which the lens distance can be derived. Since the proper motion of the lens relative to the source is also measurable for a caustic crossing event, one can find a full solution for microlensing properties of the event, including the lens mass. To determine the lens mass with sufficient accuracy, the light curve near the caustic crossing should be observed within uncertainty of $\\sim$ 1%. We argue that the Hubble Space Telescope observation of the caustic crossing supplied with ground-based observations of the full light curve will enable us to determine the mass of MACHOs, which is crucial for understanding the nature of MACHOs.

  19. Three Gravitational Lenses for the Price of One: Enhanced Strong Lensing Through Galaxy Clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassnacht, Chris D.; McKean, J.P.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Treu, T.; Blandford, R.D.; Auger, M.W.; Jeltema, T.E.; Lubin, L.M.; Margoniner, V.E.; Wittman, D.; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-03

    We report the serendipitous discovery of two strong gravitational lens candidates (ACS J160919+6532 and ACS J160910+6532) in deep images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, each less than 40'' from the previously known gravitational lens system CLASS B1608+656. The redshifts of both lens galaxies have been measured with Keck and Gemini: one is a member of a small galaxy group at z {approx} 0.63, which also includes the lensing galaxy in the B1608+656 system, and the second is a member of a foreground group at z {approx} 0.43. By measuring the effective radii and surface brightnesses of the two lens galaxies, we infer their velocity dispersions based on the passively evolving Fundamental Plane (FP) relation. Elliptical isothermal lens mass models are able to explain their image configurations within the lens hypothesis, with a velocity dispersion compatible with that estimated from the FP for a reasonable source-redshift range. Based on the large number of massive early-type galaxies in the field and the number-density of faint blue galaxies, the presence of two additional lens systems around CLASS B1608+656 is not unlikely in hindsight. Gravitational lens galaxies are predominantly early-type galaxies, which are clustered, and the lensed quasar host galaxies are also clustered. Therefore, obtaining deep high-resolution images of the fields around known strong lens systems is an excellent method of enhancing the probability of finding additional strong gravitational lens systems.

  20. DOI: 10.1126/science.1117926 , 1947 (2005);310Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    .sciencemag.orgDownloadedfrom #12;data are available from second-rotation planta- tions, these effects would likely be exacerbated after harvesting, owing to the export of cations and other nutrients off site. In the framework described above, the potential positive and negative benefits of plantations for salinity are predictable