National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for leeward sheltered side

  1. Rapid deployment shelter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2006-10-10

    A shelter for the protection of for the protection of persons, animals, equipment, materials, property, and similar things of value from potentially damaging environmental conditions is disclosed. Various embodiments include the use of a frame structure and hinged panels which are unfolded to create the walls of the structure. Optionally flexible surfaces may be added to the ends of the shelter to at least partially close the end of the shelter.

  2. Earth shelter goes international

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1983-06-01

    Since the mid-1970's earth sheltered buildings in the US have become more numerous and important as a contemporary passive building concept. Further, an intense international interest has now developed, as evidenced by a number of important activities. One of these events is the 1983 International Conference on Energy Efficient Buildings with Earth Shelter Protection to be conducted during 1-6 August in Sydney, Australia. A review of past activities leading up to this event, as well as a brief review of the conference program, is the subject of this discussion.

  3. Earth sheltered housing phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1981-06-21

    Both national and international attention has recently been focused on earth sheltered construction as an emerging energy alternative. This is especially true for the High Plains region of the central United States. Traditionally, inhabitants of this region have been sensitized to the need for windstorm protection. However, the dramatic potentials for energy savings have served as a strong secondary inducement to the burgeoning construction activity in what is now viewed as a contemporary dwelling concept. The typical characteristics of such dwellings are reviewed as well as the educational challenge awaiting professional input to this developing boom in earth sheltered construction. 12 refs.

  4. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  5. Earth-sheltered apartments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germer, J.

    1984-12-01

    Earth-sheltered apartments for students at St. Johns University, Collegeville, MN are described. The intent was to provide energy-efficient, low maintenance housing in a neighborhood environment for the students. Students would learn about energy-conscious architecture from living in the buildings. The buildings have had few problems, but energy performance has not been up to expectations. The consumption of electricity exceeded predictions by 49%. The most likely answer to the problem is deviation from design. Several items of energy-efficient design were specified but deleted in order to cut costs.

  6. Earth sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    The earth shelter concept has been utilized successfully around the world for thousands of years, but its use with contemporary mechanically conditioned buildings dates only from the oil embargo of the mid-1970s. This is an architectural innovation and a growing and viable response to the energy imperative. Most of the technical problems of earth shelters have been effectively addressed, but a systems design approach could further enhance overall energy savings. Although occupant lifestyle seems to be at a high level, areas that require further attention include site design, daylighting, and refined thermal design. The proper integration of passive solar heating and disaster protection represent opportunities for improved multifunctional aspects. With proper design, annual heating and cooling energy use reductions on the order of 80% can be anticipated. Research on energy design refinements and occupancy aspects necessary to achieve such levels of savings is presently under way at Oklahoma State University, the University of Minnesota, and other study centers throughout the nation and the world.

  7. Wood panel earth shelter construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, J.R.; Loveless, J.G.; Senkow, W.

    1986-05-27

    An earth sheltered building is described including an arch structure, the structure including footings, a floor extending between the footings and arch means extending between the footings and having a base having lower ends on the footings for defining an enclosure which is covered with earth and open at opposite ends. The arch structure consists of: joined, curved wooden panel sections arranged in tandem in adjacent rows with more than two panel sections in a row, each of the sections including circumferentially extending wooden side members; wooden sheathing sections overlying the top skins of panel sections, the sheathing including a plurality of plywood sheets lapped over the joints between the panel sections and treated with a preservative; an adhesive joining the panel sections together within each row and to adjacent rows; waterproofing means on the sheathing for waterproofing the exterior surface of the arch means; connecting means engaging the base of the arch means at the footings and within the floor for tying the base together at its lower ends; and end walls and fastener means for joining the end walls to lateral edges of the arch means, the end walls dimensioned to extend above the arch means to retain earth placed on the arch means.

  8. Florida's Emergency Shelters Go Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida has its fair share of dangerous weather conditions including hurricanes, tornados and floods. Florida legislature passed various laws and made revisions addressing disaster planning which required that the Department of Education, in consultation with school boards and county and state emergency management offices, develop design standards for public shelters to be incorporated into State Requirements for Educational Facilities.

  9. Constructing earth sheltered housing with concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This manual provides a state - of - the - art review of the design and construction of an earth - sheltered house using cast - in - place concrete, precast concrete, and concrete masonry. Based on a literature survey, theoretical work, and discussions with researchers and engineers in the concrete industry, the text is designed for use by architects, engineers, and homebuilders. The features of concrete construction that are current accepted practice for the concrete products discussed are shown to be applicable with reasonable care to building a safe, dry, and comfortable earth - sheltered house. The main considerations underlying the recommendations were the use of the earth's mass and passive solar effects to minimize energy needs, the structural capacity of the separate concrete products and their construction methods, and drainage principles and waterproofing details. Shelter ranging from those with at least 2 feet of earth cover to those with an uncovered roof of usual construction are included. To be considered an earth - sheltered residential building, at least half of the exterior wall and roof area that is in direct contact with the conditioned living space must be sheltered from the environment by earth berm or earthfill. Siting considerations, the fundamentals of passive solar heating, planning considerations, and structural considerations are discussed. Detailed guidelines are provided on concrete masonry construction, joint details in walls and floors, waterproofing, formwork and form removal, concrete construction practices, concrete masonry, and surface finishes. Numerous illustrations, tables, and a list of 32 references are provided. (Author abstract modified).

  10. Rapid Deployment Shelter System, Application | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Rapid Deployment Shelter ... Rapid Deployment Shelter System, Application The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 3:30 min. The RDSS provides humanitarian and disaster relief first responders with a versatile portable shelter that is rapidly deployed under adverse conditions

  11. Efficient Earth-Sheltered Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design » Types of Homes » Efficient Earth-Sheltered Homes Efficient Earth-Sheltered Homes This house in Tempe, Arizona, uses earth-sheltered construction methods to help decrease cooling costs. | Photo by Pamm McFadden This house in Tempe, Arizona, uses earth-sheltered construction methods to help decrease cooling costs. | Photo by Pamm McFadden If you are looking for a home with energy-efficient features that will provide a comfortable, tranquil, weather-resistant dwelling, an earth-sheltered

  12. Earth sheltered housing performance: a summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.; Fitzgerald, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma and the surrounding interior plains region is being studied with respect to the extensive development of earth sheltered housing. An understanding of the occupant responses to this rediscovered dwelling concept is being determined through extended questionnaires and telephone interviews. Statistical evaluation of these responses should suggest regional relationships between the interior human environment and the exterior environment as expressed by earth sheltered architecture. Habitability and passive energy design are the main topics of interest being investigated at Oklahoma State University. Initial results indicate that occupants are generally satisfied with such attributes as structural safety, thermal comfort, and acoustic environment; but have some reservations concerning daylighting, site design, privacy of family members, and energy design and performance. Despite reservations on energy performance, owners have still achieved significant savings in comparison to their previous homes. A most promising fact is that these savings have been realized with little decrease and often an increase in comfort and habitability aspects.

  13. Zoning for earth sheltered buildings. A guide for Minnesota communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Background information on earth sheltered buildings and the zoning issues related to this construction techniques is provided. Ways to develop goals and policies on earth sheltering and integrate them into existing planning documents are outlined. Ways to eliminate prohibitions and barriers to earth-sheltered buildings from zoning language are explained. Subdivision and planned unit development (PUD) regulations designed to facilitate and encourage new developments of earth sheltered homes are considered. Model language on planning, zoning, and subdivisions and planned unit developments and a summary of the various recommendations made throughout the guidebook are included. (MHR)

  14. Rapid Deployment Shelter System | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid Deployment Shelter ... Rapid Deployment Shelter System The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 5:03 min. Originally designed as a mobile surgical suite, the RDSS can also be converted and used for a command, control, logisitics, or operations center

  15. Two earth sheltered passive solar residences with photovoltaic electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S.J.; Osten, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design and construction of two earth sheltered passive solar residence with photovoltaic electricity are described. The sizing and design of the P.V. system as well as the module fabrication and array integration are also discussed.

  16. Efficient Earth-Sheltered Homes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to be limited because of the position of the home's windows, and courtyard drainage and snow removal should be carefully thought through during design. Bermed Earth-Sheltered Homes...

  17. Habitability and energy performance of earth sheltered dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.

    1980-12-01

    The High Plains region of the central United States has become host to an emerging dwelling concept which incorporates the use of earth shelter technologies. Traditionally, inhabitants of this region have been sensitized to the need for windstorm protection. More recently, dramatic potentials for energy savings have served as a strong secondary inducement to the exploration of earth sheltered housing as an energy alternative. Habitability and passive energy design of earth sheltered structures are key focal elements being investigated at Oklahoma State University. Habitability aspects have received little treatment elsewhere, and existing passive energy design strategies have generally not considered the passive cooling benefits of earth sheltered construction. Extended questionnaires were used to obtain earth sheltered occupant responses to both habitability and energy design aspects including measured energy usage. Preliminary analysis has been completed on about 80 (eighty) projects in the State of Oklahoma, and the study is being extended to 8 (eight) additional surrounding states. Initial results indicate that occupants are generally satisfied with such attributes as structural safety, thermal comfort, and acoustical environment; but have some reservations concerning daylighting, site design, and energy design and performance. Energy usage patterns tend to indicate that, in fact, sizeable savings are being realized by owners of current generation earth shelters. However, it is anticipated that with optimized passive systems design, the presently realized savings could be further increased by perhaps a factor of two. An appropriate design balance must be realized between passive heating and passive cooling needs.

  18. Suitable thin shell structural configurations for earth sheltered housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    An earth sheltered house is one whose building envelope is substantially in contact with soil, without necessarily being totally underground. Hence, it can provide the commonly sought attributes of a residence, including natural light, exterior views, and curb appeal. It also exhibits strong energy performance, lower maintenance, and good storm protection. Despite the longer-term life cycle cost advantages of earth sheltered buildings, a current hindrance to the mass market acceptance of earth sheltered housing is higher initial cost which is caused, in part, by the inability of conventional rectilinear structural systems to support economically the massive soil loads imposed on earth covered buildings. In deference to the premise that technical suitability is no guarantee of innovation acceptance in the housing industry, a survey of the nontechnical impediments to housing innovation was first undertaken. These impediment areas include: market inhibition; builder trepidations; industry constraints; and financing problems. As a result of an architectural design program written under contract for the Department of Energy, it was possible to include a rather extensive (but necessarily subjective) evaluation of the architectural potential for earth sheltered shell structures. Engineering suitability dimensions included structural effectiveness, constructability, and economy of construction for single- and double-curvature thin shell structures. Overall engineering suitability and architectural potential are deemed to be adequate, although non-engineering impediments to housing innovation appear to raise significant questions regarding the potential for mass market implementation of thin shell stuctures in earth sheltered housing.

  19. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  20. Two-dimensional heat transfer from earth-sheltered buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krarti, M. (Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)); Claridge, D.E. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    This paper describes use of the interzone temperature profile estimation (or ITPE) technique, an analytical calculation procedure to predict heat transfer within earth in contact with a structure. The solutions governing steady-state and steady-periodic heat conduction are derived for rectangular earth-sheltered buildings. The procedure accepts continuously variable values of geometric dimensions, insulation levels, and constant soil thermal characteristics and considers the presence of a finite water table level. Soil temperature profiles are shown for both steady-state and steady periodic conditions. The effects of insulation and water table depth on the heat losses from an earth-sheltered building envelope are discussed.

  1. Objective and subjective perceptions of energy efficiency: the case of earth sheltered homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Consumer perceptions of earth sheltered homes are compared with perceptions of more traditional, nonsheltered homes. Despite general perceptions of earth sheltered homes as energy efficient with lower costs of maintenance and greater privacy, consumers do not favorably evaluate earth sheltered homes in terms of overall liking. Only a moderate amount of sheltering, as in bermed houses is preferred. Differences are particularly significant for male and female respondents. 8 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  2. Sheltering in Place | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheltering in Place Emergency Information Emergency Information Home Public Notifications Emergency Vocabulary Sheltering in Place Evacuation ISC Home Sheltering in Place Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page If you are advised to shelter-in-place by local news or our website, please follow these instructions: Bring everyone inside (including pets). Close all doors and windows. Turn off and close all ventilation systems, including: Air conditioning Attic & exhaust fans Furnaces Fireplace

  3. Earth sheltered housing in the south central United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grondzik, W.T. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater); Grondzik, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of identified, occupied earth sheltered residences in the south central United States has been conducted by the Oklahoma State University. Selected results from this investigation of more than 150 residences in the states of Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas are presented, focusing upon the issues of habitability and energy performance of such structures.

  4. Civil defense shelters: a state-of-the-art assessment - 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1986-12-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. The principal technical barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose blast shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per space, depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. The risk area population requiring blast protection is approximately 160 million. The very-low-cost options open to the U.S. Government, with its present civil defense budget, remain: (1) maintain the inventory on fallout shelter and identify space with some blast protection potential; (2) plan for crisis upgrading to improve existing space in a crisis, and (3) plan for construction of expedient shelter in a crisis. Fallout shelters might be mandated in appropriate new construction outside risk areas at little cost to the government. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include: (1) requiring modified limestone-mining practices, where appropriate, to generate useable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings, and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction.

  5. Architecture earth-sheltered buildings. Design manual 1. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Design guidance is presented for use by experienced engineers and architects. The types of buildings within the scope of this manual include slab-on-grade, partially-buried (bermed) or fully-buried, and large (single-story or multistory) structures. New criteria unique to earth-sheltered design are included for the following disciplines: Planning, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural, Structural, Mechanical (criteria include below-grade heat flux calculation procedures), and Electrical.

  6. Energy-efficient buildings with earth-shelter protection. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.; Sterling, R.L.; Baggs, S.A. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Climate and proximity to the equator as well as acceptance of the concept made Australia a logical place for an international conference on the energy-efficiency opportunities of earth-sheltered buildings. Papers presented at the conference are grouped under 10 general topics: earth environment, landscape/site, passive solar integration, hazard protection, design process, livability/acceptance, interior environment, energy conservation, performance simulation, and structural variations. Sixty-two papers were separately abstracted for the Department of Energy's Data Base.

  7. Siding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Siding Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Siding Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSiding&oldid267193...

  8. Civil defense shelters: A state-of-the-art assessment, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1987-02-01

    The literature on the design, construction, testing, and cost of blast and fallout shelters was reviewed, and a bibliography of over 1000 documents was assembled. It was found that nuclear weapon effects and shelter design are well understood. An important barrier to construction of permanent shelters is cost. Single-purpose shelters cost in the high hundreds to low thousands of dollars per occupant (or per space), depending on size, hardness, location, and whether the shelter is part of new construction or retrofit. Multiplied by a risk area population of approximately 160 million, the cost of a blast shelter construction program would rival that of a major strategic weapon system. Options in the mid-range of expense, a few tens to a few hundreds of dollars per space include (1) requiring modified limestone mining practices, where appropriate, to generate usable shelter space near cities; (2) encouraging the construction of earth-sheltered housing and other buildings; and (3) requiring and/or subsidizing the construction of dual-use basement shelter in new construction. A program using this approach would require an annual expenditure of approximately 1% of the annual defense budget for 10 or more years. 950 refs., 68 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Narrative on history of demonstration unit concept of E3 Corporation earth sheltered homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-06

    Problems and other experience involved in the building of earth sheltered homes are detailed. A design summary and final cost sheet of the demonstration home are presented. (MHR)

  10. Solar greenhouse as an integral part of an earth-sheltered home: the first two years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malott, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The construction of a solar greenhouse as an integral part of an earth-sheltered home is discussed. The problems of building such a home are described.

  11. Ferrocement: a technique for passive solar earth sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impson, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    A system of construction is discussed which allows for the least cost with the most return yet noted in any of the current publications. This system utilizes commonly available and relatively inexpensive materials. The use of unskilled labor is possible, thereby expanding one's labor pool. This system also allows more design freedom than do any of the other construction techniques now widely practiced. This system of construction is ferrocement, a technique which has been in use intermittently since 1847. A method of insulating Earth Shelters is also discussed, as well as air flow characteristics of domes.

  12. Earth-sheltered construction: thoughts on public policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    A number of public-policy issues related to the use of the subsurface have come to light as interest in underground-space development has grown. Issues of national importance include energy, urban transportation, defense, and natural resources. Many underground proponents are convinced of the economic and environmental benefits that can result from a lower consumption of hydrocarbon fuels through earth-sheltered, energy-efficient buildings. Public-policy issues of local significance include public demand, building regulation aesthetics, and public utilities. Those interested in underground development must articulate policy issues and responses that demonstrate its value and foster public interest in using the subsurface. 10 references.

  13. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public.

  14. Earth-sheltered building yields energy savings for University of Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The design and energy efficiency of the Civil/Mineral Engineering Building at the University of Minnesota is discussed. The building combines relatively common energy-efficient surface building practices with earth-sheltered techniques already proven on the University Campus and innovative deep-earth sheltering.

  15. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  16. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  17. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a national capital region nuclear detonation scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-12-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kT detonation in the National Capital Region. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at one exemplary point. For most Washington, DC neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  18. Analysis of transient heat loss in earth-sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1980-09-01

    The two-dimensional transient Fourier heat conduction equation has been solved in cartesian coordinates using an alternating direction implicit finite difference technique for several earth sheltered building configurations. The model has been computer coded and verified by comparing results with data taken from an instrumented conventional residence basement. The present model considers variable soil properties, different types of below grade configurations, and various types, thicknesses, and locations of insulation. The model has been used to analyze the thermal impact of varying levels of interior and exterior insulation on conventional basements, earth bermed walls, and earth covered structures. Local and integrated heat transfer through the exterior building envelope versus time of year are given as functions of construction materials, insulation, and soil geometry. Temperature distributions within the building envelope material and in the surrounding soil are presented versus time of year. An economic analysis is also given to indicate the cost effectiveness of the insulation levels analyzed.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  20. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  1. Construction details of an earth-sheltered passive solar thermosiphon air house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashelman, R.B.; Hagen, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Construction details are presented for Sunrise, a passive solar, earth-sheltered house in eastern West Virginia. Particular attention is paid to the thermosiphon air system, as well as structural, waterproofing and insulation details.

  2. Earth-sheltered housing: the what and the why. Special report 100

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, J.W.; Brubaker, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Four basic styles of earth-sheltered structures are illustrated and described. Benefits of earth-sheltered homes are cited, including energy savings potential, protection from natural elements and intruders, privacy, and owner pride. Construction-related considerations discussed include: layout, site, construction materials, moisture control systems, insulation, and building codes. Finally, the aspects of life-cycle costs and insurance costs and financing are discussed briefly. (LEW)

  3. Computer simulation of heat transfer from earth sheltered structures: A comparison of varying levels of earth sheltering in five different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meixel, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    Computer predictions of the HVAC energy consumption for single story office buildings with varying levels of earth-sheltering indicate that significant energy savings are possible with fully-bermed and bermed-and-covered configurations. As shown by the computer analysis, increased earth-sheltering reduced uncontrolled infiltration; improved the thermal performance of the walls, roof, and floor; and located the windows for more favorable passive solar gain. For example, 50% reductions in winter heating energy for Boston occurred with the fully-bermed and the bermed-and-covered configuration. Earth-sheltering also significantly reduced the predicted peak heating and cooling loads. The Boston heating season showed the most favorable response with the fully-covered office building having a peak heating load only 35% of that for the above-grade configuration. In Manila the predicted peak cooling load for the fully-covered building is 63% of that for the slab-on-grade configuration. Details of the impact of earth-sheltering on the single story office building model are presented for each of the five locations.

  4. Needs assessment for remote systems technology at the Chornobyl Unit 4 shelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carteret, B.A.; Holliday, M.A.; Jones, E.D.

    1997-12-01

    The accident at Chornobyl Unit 4 on April 26, 1986, resulted in a series of unprecedented scientific and technical challenges. The reactor building was damaged extensively. Following the accident, immediate action was needed to seal off the gaping crater created by the accident, which was a continuing source of airborne contamination. Under extreme conditions, a structure called the {open_quotes}Shelter{close_quotes} was built over the remains of the reactor building. The Shelter, which was quickly completed in November 1986, was meant to provide immediate but temporary containment. Now, 11 years later, there are significant concerns about its structural integrity and projected life expectancy. The United States and other participating G-7 countries are supporting nuclear safety upgrade efforts in Eastern Europe with a primary focus on placing the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Shelter in a stable and environmentally acceptable condition. Application of remote systems technologies will play an important part in achieving the goals of this program. The G-7 nations have agreed to support these efforts, including the identification and development of remote system technologies for fuel removal. However at this time they have taken a firm stance against funding actual fuel removal activities. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology requested that a needs assessment be performed to evaluate the requirements for applying remote systems, including robotics, at the Shelter. This document is intended to be used to identify remote systems needs and requirements at the Shelter and to provide general information on the conditions in the Shelter that could impact the use of remote systems. This document is intended as a source of information to assist those who will be implementing the Shelter Implementation Plan tasks. The document provides background information and general guidance on the application of remote systems.

  5. Improved structural systems for earth sheltered housing. Structural supplement to the design program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.

    1981-10-01

    Additional engineering information is provided with regard to the structural analysis and design of thin shell concrete structures. The design program has tentatively demonstrated the overall architectural and marketing feasibility of curved, thin shell structural systems for earth sheltered housing. This supplement will address the structural feasibility question by presenting a complete manual analysis and structural design of an earth sheltered dome/tension ring/wall structural system, and also by presenting the results of a parametric sensitivity study of the dome/ring/wall configuration with respect to variations in span and rise for a three foot soil loading condition. Double curvature dome configurations are emphasized in this structural supplement because their analysis is not extensively addressed in earth sheltered housing literature.

  6. Earth sheltering: the form of energy and the energy of form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenette, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Winners in a national competition illustrate the state of the art in earth-sheltered construction. The winners were chosen from student and professional entries in four categories: single-family residential, multi-family residential, non-residential, and research. The book presents architectural details, including construction plans, floor plans, landscaping ideas, and photographs of the 50 examples. The three research examples include a regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate, biotechnical earth-support systems, and evaluation of free-span earth-sheltered structure and its method of production. 199 figures. (DCK)

  7. Earth-sheltered compromise home saves on heating, cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankhauser, T.

    1985-02-01

    Building a home into the side of a hill to take advantage of the earth's temperature-neutralizing qualities and facing it to the south will reduce heating and cooling costs. A home in North Dakota based on these principles has never had two unheated rooms freeze and needs no air conditioning. Mutli-zoned thermostats are located in the south-facing rooms. Other features are a five-foot overhang, lower ceilings, aluminum foil deflectors beneath carpets and above the plasterboard in the ceiling, and extra insulation. By eliminating an earth covering that would require sturdier support, construction costs were competitive with regular frame construction.

  8. The consumer's guide to earth sheltered housing: A step-by-step workbook for prospective owners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollwagen, M.

    1985-01-01

    Earth sheltered homes have captured the imagination of many homeowners seeking the cost and energy savings features they offer. This book provides the discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of such homes and includes illustrations showing interiors and exteriors with advise to owners on dealine with architects and contractors.

  9. The future potential of earth sheltered structures: cost, acceptability and planning considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, R.L.; Carmody, J.

    1980-12-01

    Earth sheltered structures have received an increasing amount of attention over the past few years. This has been primarily due to their typically low requirements for both heating and cooling energy. Their potential; however, not only lies in their energy performance but also in their ability to deal with a number of planning and design issues that must be faced in many locations. These issues include: noise protection, storm protection, saving a usable land area above the building and providing a minimum impact on the environment and ecology of a site. Against this promising potential must be weighed the factors which have made such structures undesirable from a designer's and user's point of view in the past. In addition, there are also a few new constraints which have arisen as the use of this building form has grown. This paper examines these issues and discusses the current acceptability and possible future potential of earth sheltered structures.

  10. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven useful in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.

  11. Step-by-step cost-estimation guide for residential earth-shelter construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Designers and builders of earth-sheltered structures will find this guide to be a basic outline for estimating construction costs. It considers, besides the basic materials and costs of any construction project, the regional, experience, and other variables that affect underground construction costs. The guide format permits the user to tally individual estimates and derive a simple cost per square foot. Space is also provided to tally actual costs for comparison. (DCK)

  12. Earth sheltered bee wintering and solar honey house. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The construction and operation of an indoor wintering facility and a passive solar honey house are discussed. Goals for the project included both energy savings and financial savings for the beekeeping industry. The underground winter shelter provided a control temperature of approximately 46/sup 0/F in order to decrease both mortality rates and honey consumption rates of the bees. Three hundred square feet of glazing combined with wall insulation maintained comfortable work space temperatures for the ground level storage of honey. (BCS)

  13. AmeriFlux US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anderson, Ray [USDA-Agricultural Research Service, United States Salinity Laboratory, Contaminant Fate and Transport Unit; Wang, Dong [USDA - Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Water Management Research Unit

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SuS Maui Sugarcane Lee/Sheltered. Site Description - Continuous, irrigated, sugarcane cultivation for >100 years. Practice is to grow plant sugarcane for 2 years, drydown, burn leaves, harvest cane, and then till and replant very shortly after harvest. First cycle of observations were from July 2011 to November 2012. Second cycle was from April 2013 to December 2013. Site differs from Sugarcane Windy and Sugarcane Middle in soil type and meteorology.

  14. Consumer attitudes concerning construction features of an earth-sheltered dwelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKown, C. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock); Stewart, K.K.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer responses to construction features of earth-sheltered houses were collected from a volunteer sampling of visitors to an ''open house'' in South Carolina. Consumers reported they had not expected the exposed-front elevation, that skylights are needed in some of the darker areas, and that they were favorably impressed with the solar heating for space and water, the energy efficiency, and the low cost of construction and utilities. Savings of $3000 in initial costs and $300 in annual utility costs were specified as requirements for purchase by the majority. Responses were generally favorable, although only five percent had visted an earth-insulated or underground home before.

  15. Earth sheltered homes plans and designs: Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, D.; Ellison, T.; Sterling, R.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed construction information, plans, and energy data for 23 successful earth-sheltered homes throughout the US and Europe illustrate that such homes can be aesthetically pleasing as well as ecologically sound. Gross area, materials for construction, type of earth cover, method of insulation, and waterproofing techniques are all included in data sheets and charts that accompany a full description of each house. Comprehensive plans and over 250 photographs of both interior and exterior views demonstrate how attractive and comfortable the houses can be.

  16. Instrumented performance study of a passive solar heated earth sheltered residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarnell, R.C.; Yarnell, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a one year effort to gather performance data on an earth sheltered, passive solar house located in Carson City, Nevada. Automatic equipment logged insolation and temperature data for a one (1) year period commencing shortly after completion of construction of the structure and its occupancy by the owners. The use of a recording micrologger reflects an effort to obtain unbiased, factual data on the performance of the house and to reduce the impact of subjective perceptions of the occupants' comfort on the report. Raw data was gathered continuously. A pyranometer measured the amount of whole sky solar radiation. Results were recorded as Btu's per square foot. Thermistors measured temperatures of: (a) outdoor ambient air, (b) indoor living room ambient air, (c) indoor greenhouse ambient air, (d) dining room mass wall, (e) greenhouse mass wall, (f) perimeter earth-sheltered wall, and (g) solar heated DHW storage tank. An event counter recorded user operated insulating adjustments (raising and lowering of insulating of curtains) and auxiliary heating (building or stoking a fire in the wood burning stove).

  17. An analysis of different insulation strategies for earth-sheltered buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forowicz, T.Z. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Architecture; [Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Fundamental Technological Research; [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Joint Center for Energy Management

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the energy performance of various insulation configurations for earth-sheltered buildings. It discusses the effectiveness of each insulation configuration in reducing the heating and cooling load. The long-term unsteady thermal processes between the building and the surrounding soil are considered. The mathematical model of the problem consists of a heat conduction equation with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. The variations in outside air temperature are driven by a harmonic function. The set of algebraic equations obtained by balancing the elementary heat flows into control elements is solved by an explicit scheme. The simulation program enables a two-dimensional thermal analysis in two cross sections for an underground building of any size situated at any depth. It predicts the heat flow between the building and the surrounding soil and through the ground`s surface. Internal building surface and soil temperatures are also calculated.

  18. Brushless machine having ferromagnetic side plates and side magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-10-23

    An apparatus is provided having a cylindrical stator and a rotor that is spaced from a stator to define an annular primary air gap that receives AC flux from the stator. The rotor has a plurality of longitudinal pole portions disposed parallel to the axis of rotation and alternating in polarity around a circumference of the rotor. Each longitudinal pole portion includes portions of permanent magnet (PM) material and at least one of the longitudinal pole portions has a first end and an opposing second end and a side magnet is disposed adjacent the first end and a side pole is disposed adjacent the second end.

  19. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  20. Passive energy design and habitability aspects of earth-sheltered housing in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.; Grondzik, W.T.; Weber, M.J.

    1980-05-01

    Identified earth-sheltered houses in Oklahoma were examined through a detailed questionnaire during the first phase of a long-range funded project. Preliminary results of energy and habitability aspects are presented here. Saving energy is reported to be the primary incentive for building such structures. Habitability aspects have generally not received much study until recently. The results indicate that although a majority of the respondents feel their energy-savings expectations have been reached, over 40% feel that their energy consumption is much higher than they expected. Preliminary energy performance studies indicate that in a majority of the projects, the potential thermal mass of the structure has been decoupled by insulation and furred interior surface treatments. This situation can lead to a significant reduction in the amount of free earth cooling available during the summer months. Other factors, not yet studied, undoubtedly contribute additional adverse effects. The substantial energy savings that are realized have been achieved with little decrease, and often an increase, in comfort and habitability aspects. Most occupants are particularly satisfied with the safety of the structure and the arrangement of the rooms, which in most cases were custom designed by or for the occupants. However, daylighting and privacy of family members, for example, were not as highly rated. A number of other parameters are identified from the survey that present implications for design enhancement in this contemporary type of residential structure. 14 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Financing earth-sheltered housing: a report on a project to facilitate the loan process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The problem of financing innovative energy-conserving dwellings is exacerbated by two key factors. The first is that borrowers (potential homebuilders) do not understand the mortgage process and needs of the lenders and are therefore unable to communicate effectively the various issues of interest to lenders. The second is that lenders do not have a familiarity with the concept and are therefore unable to evaluate the potential marketability should the borrower default. This situation is compounded by the fact that there are, in general, few or no earth-sheltered comparables on which to verify the market value. This borrower's guide is presented to explore the situation and with the help of financial agencies, to develop means to mitigate the problems. Information is presented on options available for short- and long-term financing; lenders' obligations and concerns; criteria lenders' use in deciding eligibility for a loan; shopping for a lending institution; and making the presentation to a lending institution for an earth-covered building. (MCW)

  2. Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities Between the United States and Canada President Obama and Prime Minister Harper ...

  3. Data from one-, two-, and three-dimensional temperature fields in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bligh, T.P.; Knoth, T.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents data from one-, two-, and three-dimensional temperature fields in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered house. The construction and installation of the temperature sensors is discussed, and the sources of error are evaluated. The precision of the measured temperatures is shown to be + or - 0.12/sup 0/C. Twenty-four hours of data from the one-dimensional temperature field in the roof soil are presented in the form of tautochrones. Data from cross-sections of the two- and three-dimensional temperature fields are presented as isotherms taken at approximately one-month intervals during winter and spring. The data show that extended roof insulation impedes heat flow to the ground surface in winter but allows heat to flow to the cool soil depths in summer.

  4. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Fact sheet provides an overview of side stream ...

  5. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  6. Back-side readout semiconductor photomultiplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2014-05-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to semiconductor photomultipliers. In one aspect, a device includes a p-type semiconductor substrate, the p-type semiconductor substrate having a first side and a second side, the first side of the p-type semiconductor substrate defining a recess, and the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate being doped with n-type ions. A conductive material is disposed in the recess. A p-type epitaxial layer is disposed on the second side of the p-type semiconductor substrate. The p-type epitaxial layer includes a first region proximate the p-type semiconductor substrate, the first region being implanted with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the p-type epitaxial layer, and a second region disposed on the first region, the second region being doped with p-type ions at a higher doping level than the first region.

  7. "Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission Facilities between the United States and Canada" Now Available | Department of Energy "Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities between the United States and Canada" Now Available "Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities between the United States and Canada" Now Available July 14, 2015 - 1:49pm Addthis The Office of Electricity Delivery and

  8. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  9. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  10. Barriers and incentives to the adoption of innovative, energy-efficient housing: Passive and active solar and earth-sheltered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine intermediaries perceptions of barriers and incentives to innovative, energy-efficient housing in Iowa. Data were collected by two surveys. The questionnaire for the first survey collected data from 102 communities. The second questionnaire surveyed housing intermediaries drawn from the 102 communities included in the first survey. The sample consisted of 481 builders, building inspectors, realtors, lenders, and solar suppliers. Intermediary groups differed in their perceptions of barriers and incentives to innovative, energy-efficient housing. Significant differences were found among the intermediaries for whether state-mandated solar standards would reduce the risk of inspection of solar-energy houses and whether risky resale potential acts as a barrier to building solar energy housing. The major barriers were the first costs associated with building active solar and earth-sheltered housing and the lack of skills among subcontractors to build these types. There was not significant relationship between rate of adoption among communities and their location in the state. There was, however, a significant relationship between category of building official and rate of adoption among communities.

  11. Dual-sided coded-aperture imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter

    2009-09-22

    In a vehicle, a single detector plane simultaneously measures radiation coming through two coded-aperture masks, one on either side of the detector. To determine which side of the vehicle a source is, the two shadow masks are inverses of each other, i.e., one is a mask and the other is the anti-mask. All of the data that is collected is processed through two versions of an image reconstruction algorithm. One treats the data as if it were obtained through the mask, the other as though the data is obtained through the anti-mask.

  12. Probing the Proton's Weak Side | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing the Proton's Weak Side Probing the Proton's Weak Side Scientists know that the sun gets its shine through the actions of a little-understood fundamental force of nature called the weak force. But there's a lot that they don't know about the weak force. So for the first time, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab are trying to precisely measure the weak force's grasp on the ubiquitous proton. The weak force is one of four fundamental forces, which include

  13. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

  14. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-03-29

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of LSC (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2CoO.sub.3) and lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1).

  15. Solar cell with back side contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  16. BTO Connected Thermostats Peer Review Side Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On April 7, 2016, the Building Technologies Office (BTO) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hosted a Connected Thermostat Side Session in Falls Church, Virginia; the work session was held in conjunction with the 2016 BTO Program Peer Review.

  17. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory | Department of Energy Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Document provides an in-depth look at side stream filtration at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Download the Side Stream Filtration evaluation document. (1.48 MB) More Documents & Publications Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling

  18. Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Demand-Side Resources Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called ...

  19. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement ...

  20. Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous Hall effect Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Scattering universality classes of side jump in the anomalous ...

  1. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Document provides ...

  2. Cathode side hardware for carbonate fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Gengfu; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2011-04-05

    Carbonate fuel cathode side hardware having a thin coating of a conductive ceramic formed from one of Perovskite AMeO.sub.3, wherein A is at least one of lanthanum and a combination of lanthanum and strontium and Me is one or more of transition metals, lithiated NiO (Li.sub.xNiO, where x is 0.1 to 1) and X-doped LiMeO.sub.2, wherein X is one of Mg, Ca, and Co.

  3. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  4. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Nuclear Materials Contained in High-Activity Waste Arising from the Operations at the 'SHELTER' Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherkas, Dmytro

    2011-10-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, the explosion dispeesed nuclear materials contained in the nuclear fuel of the reactor core over the destroyed facilities at Unit No. 4 and over the territory immediately adjacent to the destroyed unit. The debris was buried under the Cascade Wall. Nuclear materials at the SHELTER can be characterized as spent nuclear fuel, fresh fuel assemblies (including fuel assemblies with damaged geometry and integrity, and individual fuel elements), core fragments of the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4, finely-dispersed fuel (powder/dust), uranium and plutonium compounds in water solutions, and lava-like nuclear fuel-containing masses. The new safe confinement (NSC) is a facility designed to enclose the Chernobyl NPP Unit No. 4 destroyed by the accident. Construction of the NSC involves excavating operations, which are continuously monitored including for the level of radiation. The findings of such monitoring at the SHELTER site will allow us to characterize the recovered radioactive waste. When a process material categorized as high activity waste (HAW) is detected the following HLW management operations should be involved: HLW collection; HLW fragmentation (if appropriate); loading HAW into the primary package KT-0.2; loading the primary package filled with HAW into the transportation cask KTZV-0.2; and storing the cask in temporary storage facilities for high-level solid waste. The CDAS system is a system of 3He tubes for neutron coincidence counting, and is designed to measure the percentage ratio of specific nuclear materials in a 200-liter drum containing nuclear material intermixed with a matrix. The CDAS consists of panels with helium counter tubes and a polyethylene moderator. The panels are configured to allow one to position a waste-containing drum and a drum manipulator. The system operates on the ‘add a source’ basis using a small Cf-252 source to identify irregularities in the matrix during an assay

  6. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Demand-Side Resources Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called demand-side resources), some for more than two decades. According to one source, U.S. electric utilities spent $14.7 billion on DSM programs between 1989 and 1999, an average of $1.3 billion per year. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources (265.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources Draft Ch

  7. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  8. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  9. Philippine Islands: a tectonic railroad siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, J.J. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    In 1976, significant quantities of oil were discovered offshore northwest of Palawan Island by a Philippine-American consortium led by Philippines-Cities Service Inc. This was the first commercial oil found in the Philippine Islands. Other exploration companies had decided that there was no commercial oil in the Philippines. They fell prey to a situation Wallace E. Pratt, who began his career in 1909 in the Philippines, later described: There are many instances where our knowledge, supported in some cases by elaborate and detailed studies has convinced us that no petroleum resources were present in areas which subsequently became sites of important oil fields. Some explorers are blinded by the negative implications of the same knowledge that successful explorers use to find important oil fields. The Palawan discoveries are examples of successful use of knowledge. Recognition that the Philippine Islands are a tectonic railroad siding may be the key to future exploration success. These islands are continental fragments, each with its own individual geologic characteristics, that have moved from elsewhere to their present positions along a major strike-slip zone. Play concepts can be developed in the Philippines for continental fragments in each of the three major present-day tectono-stratigraphic systems that are dominated by strike-slip, but include subduction and extension tectonics, with both carbonate and clastic sediments.

  10. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Report assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings and provide information about specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This report provides an overview of the characterization of

  11. Double sided circuit board and a method for its manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindenmeyer, C.W.

    1988-04-14

    Conductance between the sides of a large double sided printed circuit board is provided using a method which eliminates the need for chemical immersion or photographic exposure of the entire large board. A plurality of through-holes are drilled or punched in a substratum according to the desired pattern, conductive laminae are made to adhere to both sides of the substratum covering the holes and the laminae are pressed together and permanently joined within the holes, providing conductive paths. 4 figs.

  12. Double sided circuit board and a method for its manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindenmeyer, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    Conductance between the sides of a large double sided printed circuit board is provided using a method which eliminates the need for chemical immersion or photographic exposure of the entire large board. A plurality of through-holes are drilled or punched in a substratum according to the desired pattern, conductive laminae are made to adhere to both sides of the substratum covering the holes and the laminae are pressed together and permanently joined within the holes, providing conductive paths.

  13. COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    COP 18 Side Event: Advancing Collaborative Action for Low Emissions Development Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing...

  14. Network-Driven Demand Side Management Website | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentnetwork-driven-demand-side-management Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  15. COP 18 Side Event General Information | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Side Event General Information Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission development around the...

  16. COP 18 Side Event Agenda | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    COP 18 Side Event Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission development around the world...

  17. Building America Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Projected energy cost savings: 170year Insulated siding has been available in the marketplace since 1997; both ASHRAE 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code qualify ...

  18. Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new ...

  19. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have ...

  20. South Korea-ANL Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Side...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is part of a team that assists the Korean government in analyzing the economic and environmental benefits of distributed resources and demand side management (DSM). DSM has...

  1. U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels.

  2. Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities Between the United States and Canada

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Regulatory Side-by-Side Governing Permitting of Cross-Border Electricity Transmission Facilities document presents a series of side-by-side tables that describe the U.S. and Canadian regulatory and statutory requirements necessary to site, permit, and construct transmission facilities at the U.S. - Canada border. It is intended to function as a reference document that can be used by government officials, potential developers, and other stakeholders as a means to understand the permitting requirements in both countries.

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  4. TEE-0067 - In the Matter of North Side Coal & Oil Co., Inc. ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 - In the Matter of North Side Coal & Oil Co., Inc. TEE-0067 - In the Matter of North Side Coal & Oil Co., Inc. On December 2, 2009, North Side Coal & Oil Co., Inc. (North Side) ...

  5. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  6. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Template agreement between a federal agency and a utility company for the implementation of energy conservation measures and demand side management services. A detailed description of the template is also available below.

  7. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  8. Single Sided Messaging v. 0.6.6

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-11-20

    Single-Sided Messaging (SSM) is a portable, multitransport networking library that enables applications to leverage potential one-sided capabilities of underlying network transports. It also provides desirable semantics that services for highperformance, massively parallel computers can leverage, such as an explicit cancel operation for pending transmissions, as well as enhanced matching semantics favoring large numbers of buffers attached to a single match entry. This release supports TCP/IP, shared memory, and Infiniband.

  9. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnes, P.

    2016-03-16

    Here, nuclear recoil events produced by neutron scatters form one of the most important classes of background in WIMP direct detection experiments, as they may produce nuclear recoils that look exactly like WIMP interactions. In DarkSide-50, we both actively suppress and measure the rate of neutron-induced background events using our neutron veto, composed of a boron-loaded liquid scintillator detector within a water Cherenkov detector. This paper is devoted to the description of the neutron veto system of DarkSide-50, including the detector structure, the fundamentals of event reconstruction and data analysis, and basic performance parameters.

  11. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Scrivner, Christine M.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  12. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  13. A first walk on the DarkSide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davini, S.; Agnes, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; et al

    2016-05-31

    DarkSide-50 (DS-50) at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a TPC with liquid argon. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. Here, the DS-50 detector performances and the results of the first physics run are reviewed in this proceeding.

  14. $xy$ Position Reconstruction in DarkSide-50

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Jason Philip

    2015-01-01

    The DarkSide-50 experiment seeks to directly detect dark matter in a liquid argon time projection chamber. In this dissertation, I present an algorithm of my design that determines the position of particle interactions with the liquid argon. This position reconstruction algorithm will be used by DarkSide-50 to reject backgrounds, particularly backgrounds from radioactive elements on the detector surface. The position reconstruction algorithm functions by constructing light response functions (LRFs) that map locations in the detector to the expected distribution of signal in DarkSide-50's 38 photomultiplier tubes. Accurate LRFs cannot be produced by simulations of DarkSide-50's optics because such simulations are known to be awed. Instead, this algorithm constructs LRFs using an iterative process driven by data. Initial, awed LRFs are produced using simulated events but then used to produce new LRFs from data events. Multiple generations of LRFs are created from data with each generation driven to better satisfy a known feature of the detector: the dominant argon-39 background is uniformly distributed. I also discuss a method of discriminating against surface background as an alternative to the common approach of ducialization. This method considers the di erence in goodnessof- t between the best- t reconstructed position and the best- t position at the detector's surface. I conclude by presenting results on the performance and validity of this algorithm, including some discussion of reconstruction errors.

  15. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    blend in its Efficient, Affordable, Solar, Innovation--or EASI--House. Learn More AGGIE SOL The University of California, Davis, has strong pedigrees in both sustainable projects...

  16. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and energy demand even as housing density increases. Learn More STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor...

  17. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Random | Alphabetical | Rating (High to Low) | Rating (Low to High) STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor...

  18. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by embracing the city's sense of expansive greenery. Learn More STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor...

  19. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    acronym for Diverse, Urban, Resilient, and Adaptable. Learn More STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor...

  20. SHELTER3 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sep_eecbg_reporting_guidance_faqs_06242011.pdf (29.52 KB) More Documents & Publications Letter to EECBG Recipients on Changes to Reporting Requirements Letter to SEP Recipients on Changes to Reporting Requirements Reporting Pre-guidance Announcement 06-02-2011

    Allocation of Power (in kilowatts) * Big Rivers Electric Cooperative 178,000 * East Kentucky Power Cooperative 170,000 * City of Henderson, Kentucky 12,000 * MEAM (8 municipal members) 30,000 * Southern Illinois Power Cooperative

  1. Electrical-assisted double side incremental forming and processes thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2014-06-03

    A process for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component is provided. The process can include providing a double side incremental forming machine, the machine operable to perform a plurality of double side incremental deformations on the sheet metal component and also apply an electric direct current to the sheet metal component during at least part of the forming. The direct current can be applied before or after the forming has started and/or be terminated before or after the forming has stopped. The direct current can be applied to any portion of the sheet metal. The electrical assistance can reduce the magnitude of force required to produce a given amount of deformation, increase the amount of deformation exhibited before failure and/or reduce any springback typically exhibited by the sheet metal component.

  2. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  3. Paying for demand-side response at the wholesale level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falk, Jonathan

    2010-11-15

    The recent FERC Notice of Public Rulemaking regarding the payment to demand-side resources in wholesale markets has engendered a great deal of comments including FERC's obligation to ensure just and reasonable rates in the wholesale market and criteria for what FERC should do (on grounds of economic efficiency) without any real focus on what that commitment would really mean if FERC actually pursued it. (author)

  4. Primary side stress corrosion cracking and remedial measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theus, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Primary side stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Alloy 600 stream generator tubing in some recirculating pressurized water reactor steam generators has usually occurred in two locations: at the roll transition and expansion locations within the tube-sheets and at the apex and tangent areas of the tight radius U bends. Occasionally, other highly stressed areas have also suffered primary side SCC: at support plate tube intersections where secondary side denting has occurred and at the steam generator tube transition areas of explosively installed mini-sleeves. Laboratory data and operating performances of Alloy 600 tubing indicate that the factors affecting the susceptibility to this type of SSC, in decreasing order of importance, are high stresses, material microstructures, and operating temperatures. Remedial measures to correct these problems in newer plants include changing design and fabrication procedures, thus avoiding highly stressed areas of tubing, and changing tube manufacturing heat treating requirements, thus improving the microstructures. Alternate tube materials, such as Alloy 800, Monel 400, or austenitic stainless steels, have not suffered this type of failure.

  5. Side stream separator for boiler particulate emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skiven, D.A.; Sortor, C.J.; Tessier, R.J.

    1982-02-09

    A device is disclosed for controlling the particulate emission from coal-fired boilers. A cyclone type primary separator between the boiler and the stack and a bag filter is coupled in side stream relation to the cyclone separator such as to shunt and departiculatize up to about 20% of the gas stream entering the cyclone. The shunted gas is drawn from below the tube sheet of the cyclone separator, filtered through the bags and returned to the stack. Means are provided to control the temperature of the shunted gas within defined limits corresponding to the acid dew point of the gas and the thermal degradation temperature of the filter media.

  6. Oscillating side-branch enhancements of thermoacoustic heat exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-13

    A regenerator-based engine or refrigerator has a regenerator with two ends at two different temperatures, through which a gas oscillates at a first oscillating volumetric flow rate in the direction between the two ends and in which the pressure of the gas oscillates, and first and second heat exchangers, each of which is at one of the two different temperatures. A dead-end side branch into which the gas oscillates has compliance and is connected adjacent to one of the ends of the regenerator to form a second oscillating gas flow rate additive with the first oscillating volumetric flow rate, the compliance having a volume effective to provide a selected total oscillating gas volumetric flow rate through the first heat exchanger. This configuration enables the first heat exchanger to be configured and located to better enhance the performance of the heat exchanger rather than being confined to the location and configuration of the regenerator.

  7. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Gregory R; Wilgen, John B; Bigelow, Tim S; Diem, Stephanie J

    2010-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, ELM density transients, and as a L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side (LFS) reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  8. Optimization studies of the ITER low field side reflectometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diem, S. J.; Wilgen, J. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; Hanson, G. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.

    2010-10-15

    Microwave reflectometry will be used on ITER to measure the electron density profile, density fluctuations due to MHD/turbulence, edge localized mode (ELM) density transients, and as an L-H transition monitor. The ITER low field side reflectometer system will measure both core and edge quantities using multiple antenna arrays spanning frequency ranges of 15-155 GHz for the O-mode system and 55-220 GHz for the X-mode system. Optimization studies using the GENRAY ray-tracing code have been done for edge and core measurements. The reflectometer launchers will utilize the HE11 mode launched from circular corrugated waveguide. The launched beams are assumed to be Gaussian with a beam waist diameter of 0.643 times the waveguide diameter. Optimum launcher size and placement are investigated by computing the antenna coupling between launchers, assuming the launched and received beams have a Gaussian beam pattern.

  9. Direct search for dark matter with DarkSide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-11-16

    Here, the DarkSide experiment is designed for the direct detection of Dark Matter with a double phase liquid Argon TPC operating underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The TPC is placed inside a 30 tons liquid organic scintillator sphere, acting as a neutron veto, which is in turn installed inside a 1 kt water Cherenkov detector. The current detector is running since November 2013 with a 50 kg atmospheric Argon fill and we report here the first null results of a Dark Matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kg.d exposure. This result correspond to a 90% CL uppermore » limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 6.1 × 10-44 cm2 (for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2) and it's currently the most sensitive limit obtained with an Argon target.« less

  10. Send-side matching of data communications messages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-07-01

    Send-side matching of data communications messages includes a plurality of compute nodes organized for collective operations, including: issuing by a receiving node to source nodes a receive message that specifies receipt of a single message to be sent from any source node, the receive message including message matching information, a specification of a hardware-level mutual exclusion device, and an identification of a receive buffer; matching by two or more of the source nodes the receive message with pending send messages in the two or more source nodes; operating by one of the source nodes having a matching send message the mutual exclusion device, excluding messages from other source nodes with matching send messages and identifying to the receiving node the source node operating the mutual exclusion device; and sending to the receiving node from the source node operating the mutual exclusion device a matched pending message.

  11. Direct search for dark matter with DarkSide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-11-16

    Here, the DarkSide experiment is designed for the direct detection of Dark Matter with a double phase liquid Argon TPC operating underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The TPC is placed inside a 30 tons liquid organic scintillator sphere, acting as a neutron veto, which is in turn installed inside a 1 kt water Cherenkov detector. The current detector is running since November 2013 with a 50 kg atmospheric Argon fill and we report here the first null results of a Dark Matter search for a (1422 ± 67) kg.d exposure. This result correspond to a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon cross section of 6.1 × 10-44 cm2 (for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c2) and it's currently the most sensitive limit obtained with an Argon target.

  12. The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The veto system of the DarkSide-50 experiment Nuclear recoil events produced by neutron ...

  13. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a ...

  14. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2008-06-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection

  15. Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-08-01

    This technology evaluation was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory on behalf of the Federal Energy Management Program. The objective was to quantify the benefits side stream filtration provides to a cooling tower system. The evaluation assessed the performance of an existing side stream filtration system at a cooling tower system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source research facility. This location was selected because it offered the opportunity for a side-by-side comparison of a system featuring side stream filtration and an unfiltered system.

  16. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  17. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  18. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er: YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Charles E.; Furu, Laurence H.

    1997-01-01

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 .mu.m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 .mu.m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 .mu.m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 .mu.m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems.

  19. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  20. A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moya, Christian; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2014-06-02

    With large-scale plans to integrate renewable generation, more resources will be needed to compensate for the uncertainty associated with intermittent generation resources. Under such conditions, performing frequency control using only supply-side resources become not only prohibitively expensive but also technically difficult. It is therefore important to explore how a sufficient proportion of the loads could assume a routine role in frequency control to maintain the stability of the system at an acceptable cost. In this paper, a novel hierarchical decentralized framework for frequency based load control is proposed. The framework involves two decision layers. The top decision layer determines the optimal droop gain required from the aggregated load response on each bus using a robust decentralized control approach. The second layer consists of a large number of devices, which switch probabilistically during contingencies so that the aggregated power change matches the desired droop amount according to the updated gains. The proposed framework is based on the classical nonlinear multi-machine power system model, and can deal with timevarying system operating conditions while respecting the physical constraints of individual devices. Realistic simulation results based on a 68-bus system are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  1. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  2. Understanding the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the effect of side groups in ionic liquids on carbon-capture properties: a combined experimental and theoretical effort Previous Next List Fangyong Yan, Michael Lartey, Krishnan...

  3. Solvation thermodynamics of amino acid side chains on a short peptide backbone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajari, Timir; Vegt, Nico F. A. van der

    2015-04-14

    The hydration process of side chain analogue molecules differs from that of the actual amino acid side chains in peptides and proteins owing to the effects of the peptide backbone on the aqueous solvent environment. A recent molecular simulation study has provided evidence that all nonpolar side chains, attached to a short peptide backbone, are considerably less hydrophobic than the free side chain analogue molecules. In contrast to this, the hydrophilicity of the polar side chains is hardly affected by the backbone. To analyze the origin of these observations, we here present a molecular simulation study on temperature dependent solvation free energies of nonpolar and polar side chains attached to a short peptide backbone. The estimated solvation entropies and enthalpies of the various amino acid side chains are compared with existing side chain analogue data. The solvation entropies and enthalpies of the polar side chains are negative, but in absolute magnitude smaller compared with the corresponding analogue data. The observed differences are large; however, owing to a nearly perfect enthalpy-entropy compensation, the solvation free energies of polar side chains remain largely unaffected by the peptide backbone. We find that a similar compensation does not apply to the nonpolar side chains; while the backbone greatly reduces the unfavorable solvation entropies, the solvation enthalpies are either more favorable or only marginally affected. This results in a very small unfavorable free energy cost, or even free energy gain, of solvating the nonpolar side chains in strong contrast to solvation of small hydrophobic or nonpolar molecules in bulk water. The solvation free energies of nonpolar side chains have been furthermore decomposed into a repulsive cavity formation contribution and an attractive dispersion free energy contribution. We find that cavity formation next to the peptide backbone is entropically favored over formation of similar sized nonpolar side

  4. Theoretical investigation of resonant frequencies of unstrapped magnetron with arbitrary side resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Song; Zhang, Zhao-chuan; Gao, Dong-ping

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, a sector steps approximation method is proposed to investigate the resonant frequencies of magnetrons with arbitrary side resonators. The arbitrary side resonator is substituted with a series of sector steps, in which the spatial harmonics of electromagnetic field are also considered. By using the method of admittance matching between adjacent steps, as well as field continuity conditions between side resonators and interaction regions, the dispersion equation of magnetron with arbitrary side resonators is derived. Resonant frequencies of magnetrons with five common kinds of side resonators are calculated with sector steps approximation method and computer simulation softwares, in which the results have a good agreement. The relative error is less than 2%, which verifies the validity of sector steps approximation method.

  5. Two-Sided Pyramid Wavefront Sensor in the Direct Phase Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillion, D; Baker, K

    2006-04-12

    The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor has been extensively simulated in the direct phase mode using a wave optics code. The two-sided pyramid divides the focal plane so that each half of the core only interferes with the speckles in its half of the focal plane. A relayed image of the pupil plane is formed at the CCD camera for each half. Antipodal speckle pairs are separated so that a pure phase variation causes amplitude variations in the two images. The phase is reconstructed from the difference of the two amplitudes by transforming cosine waves into sine waves using the Hilbert transform. There are also other corrections which have to be applied in Fourier space. The two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor performs extremely well: After two or three iterations, the phase error varies purely in y. The two-sided pyramid pair enables the phase to be completely reconstructed. Its performance has been modeled closed loop with atmospheric turbulence and wind. Both photon noise and read noise were included. The three-sided and four-sided pyramid wavefront sensors have also been studied in direct phase mode. Neither performs nearly as well as does the two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.

  6. Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos Lab to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform slope-side cleanup near Smith's Marketplace The Lab is performing a high-angle canyon-side cleanup on U.S. Department of Energy property just south of the new Smith's Marketplace. May 1, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory To complete cleanup activities at one of the few remaining legacy sites along Los Alamos Canyon, crews are using a specialized spider excavator to remove a small

  7. B Decay and CP Violation: CKM Angles and Sides at the BABAR and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: B Decay and CP Violation: CKM Angles and Sides at the BABAR and BELLE B-Factories Citation Details In-Document Search Title: B Decay and CP Violation: CKM Angles and ...

  8. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  9. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  10. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  11. An image quality comparison of standard and dual-side read CR systems for pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monnin, P.; Holzer, Z.; Wolf, R.; Neitzel, U.; Vock, P.; Gudinchet, F.; Verdun, F.R.

    2006-02-15

    An objective analysis of image quality parameters was performed for a computed radiography (CR) system using both standard single-side and prototype dual-side read plates. The pre-sampled modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the systems were determined at three different beam qualities representative of pediatric chest radiography, at an entrance detector air kerma of 5 {mu}Gy. The NPS and DQE measurements were realized under clinically relevant x-ray spectra for pediatric radiology, including x-ray scatter radiations. Compared to the standard single-side read system, the MTF for the dual-side read system is reduced, but this is offset by a significant decrease in image noise, resulting in a marked increase in DQE (+40%) in the low spatial frequency range. Thus, for the same image quality, the new technology permits the CR system to be used at a reduced dose level.

  12. EM’s Los Alamos Site Completes Canyon-Side Cleanup of Mercury-Contaminated Soil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – EM’s Los Alamos Field Office recently completed a steep canyon-side cleanup of mercury-contaminated soil on DOE property just south of a shopping center here.

  13. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Understanding Side Reactions in K-O2 Batteries for Improved Cycle Life: a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined DFT and Experimental Study - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research November 12, 2014, Research Highlights Understanding Side Reactions in K-O2 Batteries for Improved Cycle Life: a Combined DFT and Experimental Study Combined experimental and DFT study have identified the main side reactions in a K-O2 battery, which are likely driven by the interaction of potassium with ether molecules and the crossover of O2 from the cathode. Scientific Achievement First comprehensive study of

  15. Earth shelter performance and evaluation proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Papers from 16 states, plus New South Wales, Australia, Alberta, Canada, and the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were presented in the conference. About one-third of the papers are authored by architects, nearly one-half by engineers, and the remainder are mainly by building contractors. Slightly over half of the authors are associated with universities, of which 13 are represented. The scale of the projects discussed varies from domestic, to commercial, to institutional; with an increased emphasis on passive solar inputs and earth cooling. Of the 32 papers presented, 19 were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (JMT)

  16. Proceedings: earth sheltered building design innovations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for 22 papers presented at the conference. One paper has previously appeared in the appropriate DOE Energy Data Base. (MCW)

  17. Diagnosing the Causes and Severity of One-sided Message Contention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; van Dam, Hubertus; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2015-02-11

    Two trends suggest network contention for one-sided messages is poised to become a performance problem that concerns application developers: an increased interest in one-sided programming models and a rising ratio of hardware threads to network injection bandwidth. Unfortunately, it is difficult to reason about network contention and one-sided messages because one-sided tasks can either decrease or increase contention. We present effective and portable techniques for diagnosing the causes and severity of one-sided message contention. To detect that a message is affected by contention, we maintain statistics representing instantaneous (non-local) network resource demand. Using lightweight measurement and modeling, we identify the portion of a message's latency that is due to contention and whether contention occurs at the initiator or target. We attribute these metrics to program statements in their full static and dynamic context. We characterize contention for an important computational chemistry benchmark on InfiniBand, Cray Aries, and IBM Blue Gene/Q interconnects. We pinpoint the sources of contention, estimate their severity, and show that when message delivery time deviates from an ideal model, there are other messages contending for the same network links. With a small change to the benchmark, we reduce contention up to 50% and improve total runtime as much as 20%.

  18. Linear rheology and structure of molecular bottlebrushes with short side chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R. Brant, Patrick; Crowther, Donna J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the microstructure and linear viscoelasticity of model molecular bottlebrushes (BBs) using rheological and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Our polymers have short atactic polypropylene (aPP) side chains of molecular weight ranging from 119 g/mol to 259 g/mol and narrow molecular weight distribution (M{sub w}/M{sub n} 1.02–1.05). The side chain molecular weights are a small fraction of the entanglement molecular weight of the corresponding linear polymer (M{sub e,aPP}= 7.05 kg/mol), and as such, they are unentangled. The morphology of the aPP BBs is characterized as semiflexible thick chains with small side chain interdigitation. Their dynamic master curves, obtained by time-temperature superposition, reveal two sequential relaxation processes corresponding to the segmental relaxation and the relaxation of the BB backbone. Due to the short length of the side chains, their fast relaxation could not be distinguished from the glassy relaxation. The fractional free volume is an increasing function of the side chain length (N{sub SC}). Therefore, the glassy behavior of these polymers as well as their molecular friction and dynamic properties are influenced by their N{sub SC} values. The apparent flow activation energies are a decreasing function of N{sub SC}, and their values explain the differences in zero-shear viscosity measured at different temperatures.

  19. An early look of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): Breathtaker or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Hui, Man-To

    2014-06-01

    The dynamically new comet, C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), is to make a close approach to Mars on 2014 October 19 at 18:30 UT at a distance of 40 1 Martian radii. Such an extremely rare event offers a precious opportunity for the spacecrafts on Mars to closely study a dynamically new comet itself as well as the planet-comet interaction. Meanwhile, the high-speed meteoroids released from C/Siding Spring also pose a threat to physically damage the spacecrafts. Here we present our observations and modeling results of C/Siding Spring to characterize the comet and assess the risk posed to the spacecrafts on Mars. We find that the optical tail of C/Siding Spring is dominated by larger particles at the time of the observation. Synchrone simulation suggests that the comet was already active in late 2012 when it was more than 7 AU from the Sun. By parameterizing the dust activity with a semi-analytic model, we find that the ejection speed of C/Siding Spring is comparable to comets such as the target of the Rosetta mission, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Under a nominal situation, the simulated dust cone will miss the planet by about 20 Martian radii. At the extreme ends of uncertainties, the simulated dust cone will engulf Mars, but the meteoric influx at Mars is still comparable to the nominal sporadic influx, seemly indicating that an intense and enduring meteoroid bombardment due to C/Siding Spring is unlikely. Further simulation also suggests that gravitational disruption of the dust tail may be significant enough to be observable at Earth.

  20. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  1. Synthesis of Uniformly Distributed Single- and Double-sided Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanocombs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Liu, Yuzi; Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-11-15

    Uniformly distributed single- and double-sided zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomb structures have been prepared by a vapor-liquid-solid technique from a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanoplatelets. The ZnO seed nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple precipitation method. The structure of the ZnO nanocombs could easily be controlled by tuning the carrier-gas flow rate during growth. Higher flow rate resulted in the formation of uniformly-distributed single-sided comb structures with nanonail-shaped teeth, as a result of the self-catalysis effect of the catalytically active Zn-terminated polar (0001) surface. Lower gas flow rate was favorable for production of double-sided comb structures with the two sets of teeth at an angle of similar to 110 degrees to each other along the comb ribbon, which was attributed to the formation of a bicrystal nanocomb ribbon. The formation of such a double-sided structure with nanonail-shaped teeth has not previously been reported.

  2. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D.

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  3. Summary of Characteristics and Energy Efficiency Demand-side Management Programs in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatt, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    This report is the first in a series that seeks to characterize energy supply and industrial sector energy consumption, and summarize successful industrial demand-side management (DSM) programs within each of the eight North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) regions.

  4. R and D opportunities in gas-side fouling. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report provides an overview of five research reports that were generated for the Fouling and Corrosion Program. In addition, a listing of research and development opportunities in gas-side fouling is provided. R and D opportunities are designated as technology transfer, basic research, or applied research opportunities.

  5. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  6. Dual chamber system providing simultaneous etch and deposition on opposing substrate sides for growing low defect density epitaxial layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S. (Knoxville, TN); Kasica, Richard J. (Ashburn, VA) ,

    2011-03-08

    A dual-chamber reactor can include a housing enclosing a volume having a divider therein, where the divider defines a first chamber and a second chamber. The divider can include a substrate holder that supports at least one substrate and exposes a first side of the substrate to the first chamber and a second side of the substrate to the second chamber. The first chamber can include an inlet for delivering at least one reagent to the first chamber for forming a film on the first side of the substrate, and the second chamber can include a removal device for removing material from the second side of the substrate.

  7. Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Chandra, S.

    1994-01-14

    Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.

  8. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrone, Babetta L.; Simpson, Daniel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Whaley, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  9. Optical probe for the cytochrome P-450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrone, Babetta L.; Simpson, Daniel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Whaley, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    An optical probe enables the study of enzyme activity by absorbance spectroscopy or by sensitive fluorescence methods. In particular, the probe provides the ability to monitor the activity of cytochrome P-450.sub.scc enzyme, the rate limiting enzyme for steroid biosynthesis. Located on the inner mitochondrial membrane, P-450.sub.scc catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocapraldehyde by sequential oxidations of the cholesterol side chain. The fluorogenic probe includes a cholesterol-like steroid linked to a chromophore through a linking group. The chromophore is selected to have little optical response when linked to the steroid substrate and an enhanced optical response when cleaved from the substrate and linking group. Thus, a fluorescent anion that can be optically detected is generated by the side-chain cleavage reaction during steroidogenesis.

  10. Diode-laser-side-pumped Nd:YAG Q-switch TEM{sub 00} laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Weimin; Yang Chenglong; Tang Chun; Cheng Jinyan; Yang Senlin; Liao Yinyan

    1996-12-31

    The diode laser side pumped E-O Q-switch Nd:YAG laser was described that produced energy 0.36-mJ/pulse, 7-ns pulse width, pulse repetition rates 50-Hz, TEM{sub 00} mode. The laser has a zigzag slab geometry, side pumped with a quasi-CW 15W diode bar. The authors used a 1.1% Nd:YAG Brewster-cut seven-bounce thin trapezoidal slab that was 1.2mm thick. Using a cylindrical lens (f = 1.6mm), it made the diode laser couple in the slab. The laser resonator was a plane-concave cavity, radius of mirror curvature was 3m. The cavity length was about 20cm. The plane output mirror transitivity was T = 0.1. They decided to the beam quality M{sup 2} = 1.1. Q-switch laser slope efficiency was 19%.

  11. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid: Information Processing for the Power Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; LI, Xiao; Wang, Zhifang; Scagilone, Anna; Melton, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    In this article we discuss the most recent developments in the area of load management, and consider possible interaction schemes of novel architectures with distributed energy resources (DER). In order to handle the challenges faced by tomorrow’s smart grid, which are caused by volatile load and generation profiles (from the large number of plug-in EVs and from renewable integration), the conventional grid operating principle of load-following needs to be changed into load-shaping or generation-following. Demand Side Management will be a most promising and powerful solution to the above challenges. However, many other issues such as load forecasting, pricing structure, market policy, renewable integration interface, and even the AC/DC implementation at the distribution side, need to be taken into the design in order to search for the most effective and applicable solution.

  12. Matching a statistical pressure snake to a four-sided polygon and estimating the polygon corners.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaub, Hanspeter; Wilson, Chris C.

    2004-05-01

    Given a video image source, a statistical pressure snake is able to track a color target in real time. This report presents an algorithm that exploits the one-dimensional nature of the visual snake target outline. If the target resembles a four-sided polygon, then the four polygon sides are identified by mapping all image snake point coordinates into Hough space where lines become points. After establishing that four dominant lines are present in snake contour, the polygon corner points are estimated. The computation burden of this algorithm is of the N logN type. The advantage of this method is that it can provide real-time target corner estimates, even if the corners themselves might be occluded.

  13. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a

  14. Associated particle technique in single-sided geometry for detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Tushar Kashyap, Yogesh; Shukla, Mayank; Agrawal, Ashish; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

    2015-03-23

    Associated particle technique (APT) for detection of explosives is well established but has been implemented mostly for fixed portal systems. In certain situations, a portable system is required where the suspect object cannot be moved from site. This paper discusses the development of a portable APT system in single-sided geometry which can be transported to site and requires only one-sided access to the object. The system comprised D-T neutron source and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors fixed on a portable module. Different aspects of the system have been discussed such as background contribution, time selection, and elemental signatures. The system was used to detect benign samples and explosive simulants under laboratory condition. The elemental ratios obtained by analyzing the gamma spectra show good match with the theoretical ratios.

  15. Front contact solar cell with formed electrically conducting layers on the front side and backside

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John

    2012-06-26

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by a silicon substrate and a first doped layer of a first dopant type on the backside of the solar cell. A second doped layer of a second dopant type makes an electrical connection to the substrate from the front side of the solar cell. A first metal contact of a first electrical polarity electrically connects to the first doped layer on the backside of the solar cell, and a second metal contact of a second electrical polarity electrically connects to the second doped layer on the front side of the solar cell. An external electrical circuit may be electrically connected to the first and second metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell.

  16. Power module packaging with double sided planar interconnection and heat exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Zhenxian; Marlino, Laura D.; Ning, Puqi; Wang, Fei

    2015-05-26

    A double sided cooled power module package having a single phase leg topology includes two IGBT and two diode semiconductor dies. Each IGBT die is spaced apart from a diode semiconductor die, forming a switch unit. Two switch units are placed in a planar face-up and face-down configuration. A pair of DBC or other insulated metallic substrates is affixed to each side of the planar phase leg semiconductor dies to form a sandwich structure. Attachment layers are disposed on outer surfaces of the substrates and two heat exchangers are affixed to the substrates by rigid bond layers. The heat exchangers, made of copper or aluminum, have passages for carrying coolant. The power package is manufactured in a two-step assembly and heating process where direct bonds are formed for all bond layers by soldering, sintering, solid diffusion bonding or transient liquid diffusion bonding, with a specially designed jig and fixture.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  18. The Demand Side: Behavioral Patterns and Unpicked Low-Hanging Fruit

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The Demand Side: Behavioral Patterns and Unpicked Low-Hanging Fruit James Sweeney Stanford University Director Precourt Energy Efficiency Center (Née: Precourt Institute for Energy Efficiency) Professor, Management Science and Engineering 6 Source: McKinsey & Co. Increased commercial space Gasoline Price Controls Compact Fluorescent Penetration LED: Traffic Lights, Task Lighting Appliance Energy Labeling Gasoline Rationing Much Incandescent Lighting Congestion Pricing Personal Computer

  19. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  20. Effect of Side Permanent Magnets for Reluctance Interior Permanent Magnet Reluctance Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S; Lee, Seong T; Wiles, Randy H; Coomer, Chester; Lowe, Kirk T

    2007-01-01

    A traditional electric machine uses two dimensional magnetic flux paths in its rotor. This paper presents the development work on the utilization of the third dimension of a rotor. As an example, the air gap flux of a radial gap interior permanent magnet motor can be significantly enhanced by additional permanent magnets (PM) mounted at the sides of the rotor. A prototype motor built with this concept provided higher efficiency and required a shorter stator core length for the same power output as the Toyota/Prius traction drive motor.

  1. Demand-side management program evaluation and the EPA Conservation Verification Protocols. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willems, P.; Ciraulo, J.; Smith, B.

    1993-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conservation Verification Protocols (CVPs) are a set of step-by-step procedures for impact monitoring and evaluation of electric utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. The EPA developed these protocols as part of its mission to implement the Acid Rain Program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990. This report provides an overview of the CVPs and how they can be used by electric utilities in DSM program monitoring and evaluation. Both the CVPs Monitoring Path and Stipulated Path procedures are summarized and reviewed. Several examples are provided to illustrate how to calculate DSM program energy savings using the CVPSs.

  2. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  3. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting demand-side management (DSM), the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them are the subjects of this paper.

  4. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting DSM--demand-side management, the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them--these are the subjects of this paper.

  5. Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1994-04-19

    A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts. 3 figures.

  6. RECURRENT TWO-SIDED LOOP-TYPE JETS DUE TO A BIPOLE EMERGING BELOW TRANSEQUATORIAL LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yunchun; Bi, Yi; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ruisheng

    2013-10-01

    We report four successive two-sided loop-type jets centered around a small bipole emerging below transequatorial interconnecting loops (TILs). They occurred at the very first emerging stage of the bipole in a short recurrent period of only 12 minutes. During this term, the emerging flux consisted of a main bipole, but showed a mixed-polarity field morphology with the appearance and then disappearance of a small magnetic feature in its interior. However, no associated cancellation of the bipole with the nearby flux was observed in this process. In multi-wavelength EUV images, the jets started nearly simultaneously and were similar in appearance. Each jet consisted of a pair of components that connected to two bright footpoints around the bipole and were ejected from the emergence location to opposite directions. While the two bright footpoints were separated by a gap and had consistent evolution with that of the bipole, the jet base region covering them accordingly showed four episodes of emission enhancement that peaked approximately at the jet start times. Compatible with the magnetic-reconnection jet mechanism, the recurrent two-sided loop-type jets are explained as a result of reconnection between the emerging bipole and the overlying TILs.

  7. Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts.

  8. Why industry demand-side management programs should be self-directed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchett, T.; Moody, L. ); Brubaker, M. )

    1993-11-01

    U.S. industry believes in DSM. But it does not believe in the way DSM is being implemented, with its emphasis on mandatory utility surcharge/rebate programs. Self-directed industrial DSM programs would be better for industry - and for utilities as well. Industrial demand-side management, as it is currently practiced, relies heavily on command-and-control-style programs. The authors believe that all parties would benefit if utilities and state public service commissions encouraged the implementation of [open quotes]self-directed[close quotes] industrial DSM programs as an alternative to these mandatory surcharge/rebate-type programs. Here the authors outline industrial experience with existing demand-side management programs, and offer alternative approaches for DSM in large manufacturing facilities. Self-directed industrial programs have numerous advantages over mandatory utility-funded and sponsored DSM programs. Self-directed programs allow an industrial facility to use its own funds to meet its own specific goals, whether they are set on the basis of demand reduction, energy use reduction, spending levels for DSM and environmental activities, or some combination of these or other readily measurable criteria. This flexibility fosters a higher level of cost effectiveness, a more focused and effective approach for optimizing energy usage, larger emission reductions per dollar of expenditure, and more competitive industrial electric rates.

  9. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  10. Ultrasonic probe system for the bore-side inspection of tubes and welds therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, K. Von; Koerner, Dan W.; Cunningham, Jr., Robert A.; Murrin, Jr., Horace T.

    1977-07-26

    A probe system is provided for the bore-side inspection of tube-to-header welds and the like for small diameter tubes. The probe head of the system includes an ultrasonic transmitter-receiver transducer, a separate ultrasonic receiver, a reflector associated with the transducer to properly orient the ultrasonic signal with respect to a tube wall, a baffle to isolate the receiver from the transducer, and means for maintaining the probe head against the tube wall under investigation. Since the probe head must rotate to inspect along a helical path, special ultrasonic signal connections are employed. Through the use of the probe, flaws at either the inner or outer surfaces may be detected.

  11. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  12. Table 8.13 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs, 1989-2010 Year Actual Peakload Reductions 1 Energy Savings Electric Utility Costs 4 Energy Efficiency 2 Load Management 3 Total Megawatts Million Kilowatthours Thousand Dollars 5 1989 NA NA 12,463 14,672 872,935 1990 NA NA 13,704 20,458 1,177,457 1991 NA NA 15,619 24,848 1,803,773 1992 7,890 9,314 17,204 35,563 2,348,094 1993 10,368 12,701 23,069 45,294 2,743,533 1994 11,662 13,340 25,001 52,483 2,715,657 1995 13,212 16,347 29,561 57,421

  13. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick Gmez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Torres, Pedro

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  15. Development of a Thin-Wall Magnesium side door Inner Panel for Automobiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jekl, J.; Auld, J.; Sweet, C.; Carter, Jon; Resch, Steve; Klarner, A.; Brevick, J.; Luo, A.

    2015-05-17

    Cast magnesium side door inner panels can provide a good combination of weight, functional, manufacturing and economical requirements. However, several challenges exist including casting technology for thin-wall part design, multi-material incompatibility and relatively low strength vs steel. A project has been initiated, supported by the US Department of Energy, to design and develop a lightweight frame-under-glass door having a thin-wall, full die-cast, magnesium inner panel. This development project is the first of its kind within North America. Phase I of the project is now complete and the 2.0mm magnesium design, through casting process enablers, has met or exceeded all stiffness requirements, with significant mass reduction and part consolidation. In addition, a corrosion mitigation strategy has been established using industry-accepted galvanic isolation methods and coating technologies.

  16. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J. (U. of Texas-SMED)

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  17. Next Generation Solvent (NGS): Development for Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction of Cesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Birdwell, Jr, Joseph F.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C.; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G.; Lee, Denise L.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Roach, Benjamin D.; Szczygiel, Patricia L.; Frederick V. Sloop, Jr.; Stoner, Erica L.; Williams, Neil J.

    2014-03-01

    This report summarizes the FY 2010 and 2011 accomplishments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in developing the Next Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process, referred to commonly as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS), under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), Office of Technology Innovation and Development. The primary product of this effort is a process solvent and preliminary flowsheet capable of meeting a target decontamination factor (DF) of 40,000 for worst-case Savannah River Site (SRS) waste with a concentration factor of 15 or higher in the 18-stage equipment configuration of the SRS Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). In addition, the NG-CSSX process may be readily adapted for use in the SRS Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) or in supplemental tank-waste treatment at Hanford upon appropriate solvent or flowsheet modifications. Efforts in FY 2010 focused on developing a solvent composition and process flowsheet for MCU implementation. In FY 2011 accomplishments at ORNL involved a wide array of chemical-development activities and testing up through single-stage hydraulic and mass-transfer tests in 5-cm centrifugal contactors. Under subcontract from ORNL, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) designed a preliminary flowsheet using ORNL cesium distribution data, and Tennessee Technological University confirmed a chemical model for cesium distribution ratios (DCs) as a function of feed composition. Interlaboratory efforts were coordinated with complementary engineering tests carried out (and reported separately) by personnel at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) with helpful advice by Parsons Engineering and General Atomics on aspects of possible SWPF implementation.

  18. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report: DSM opportunity report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. 10 figs., 55 tabs.

  19. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 1: Building prototype analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of, and the baseline assumptions and simulation results for, the building prototype simulations conducted for the building types designated in the Work Plan for Demand-side Management Assessment of Hawaii`s Demand-Side Resources (HES-4, Phase 2). This report represents the second revision to the initial building prototype description report provided to DBEDT early in the project. Modifications and revisions to the prototypes, based on further calibration efforts and on comments received from DBEDT Staff have been incorporated into this final version. These baseline prototypes form the basis upon which the DSM measure impact estimates and the DSM measure data base were developed for this project. This report presents detailed information for each of the 17 different building prototypes developed for use with the DOE-21E program (23 buildings in total, including resorts and hotels defined separately for each island) to estimate the impact of the building technologies and measures included in this project. The remainder of this section presents some nomenclature and terminology utilized in the reports, tables, and data bases developed from this project to denote building type and vintage. Section 2 contains a more detailed discussion of the data sources, the definition of the residential sector building prototypes, and results of the DOE-2 analysis. Section 3 provides a similar discussion for the commercial sector. The prototype and baseline simulation results are presented in a separate section for each building type. Where possible, comparison of the baseline simulation results with benchmark data from the ENERGY 2020 model or other demand forecasting models specific to Hawaii is included for each building. Appendix A contains a detailed listing of the commercial sector baseline indoor lighting technologies included in the existing and new prototypes by building type.

  20. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Algorithms and Discrete Mathematics Dept.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  1. Abnormal macropore formation during double-sided gas tungsten arc welding of magnesium AZ91D alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Jun You Guoqiang; Long Siyuan; Pan Fusheng

    2008-08-15

    One of the major concerns during gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of cast magnesium alloys is the presence of large macroporosity in weldments, normally thought to occur from the presence of gas in the castings. In this study, a double-sided GTA welding process was adopted to join wrought magnesium AZ91D alloy plates. Micropores were formed in the weld zone of the first side that was welded, due to precipitation of H{sub 2} as the mushy zone freezes. When the reverse side was welded, the heat generated caused the mushy zone in the initial weld to reform. The micropores in the initial weld then coalesced and expanded to form macropores by means of gas expansion through small holes that are present at the grain boundaries in the partially melted zone. Macropores in the partially melted zone increase with increased heat input, so that when a filler metal is used the macropores are smaller in number and in size.

  2. Low Radioactivity Argon Dark Matter Search Results from the DarkSide-50 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-10-02

    Our DarkSide-50 dark matter search reports the first results obtained using a target of lowradioactivity argon extracted from underground sources. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and uses a two-phase time projection chamber as a detector. A total of 155 kg of low radioactivity argon has been obtained, and we have determined that underground argon is depleted in 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ±0.2) x 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The underground argon was also found to contain (2.05 ± 0.13)mBq=kg of 85Kr. We also found no evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs in 70.9 live-days of data with a fiducial mass of (36.9 ± 0.6) kg. When combined with our preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, we set a 90% C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (8.6 x 10-44 cm2, 8.0 x 10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV=c2 (1TeV=c2, 10TeV=c2).

  3. Fan-beam multiplexed Compton scatter tomography for single-sided noninvasive inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, B.L.

    1999-04-01

    Multiplexed Compton Scatter Tomography (MCST) is explored as a method of nondestructively generating cross-sectional images of a sample's electron density. MCST is viable when access is available to only one side of the sample because it registers scattered gamma radiation. Multiplexing in scattered photon energy and in detector position allows simultaneous interrogation of many voxels with comparatively wide collimation. Primary components include a radioisotope source, fan beam collimators, and energy-discriminating detectors. The application of MCST to inspecting aluminum airframes for corrosion is considered. This application requires source gammas near 100 keV where the scattered gamma energy is severely broadened by the momentum of electrons in the target. A deterministic system model is developed to map the sample's voxel densities to the instrument's measurements. The model incorporates advanced features to avoid using a detector response function. Two image reconstruction methods are developed and investigated: filtered backprojection and iterative reconstruction. A demonstration MCST system is assembled from components available commercially. It is used to image several aluminum phantoms and to validate the system model and iterative image reconstruction algorithm. A next-generation MCST system is modeled. Issues are considered such as efficiency, counting time, and contrast recovery in various samples.

  4. Inline Monitors for Measuring Cs-137 in the SRS Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2006-04-24

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, a portion of dissolved saltcake waste will be processed through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The MCU employs the CSSX process, a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. Of primary concern is Cs-137 which makes the solution highly radioactive. Since the MCU does not have the capacity to wait for sample results while continuing to operate, the Waste Acceptance Strategy is to perform inline analyses. Gamma-ray monitors are used to: measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) before entering the DSS Hold Tank; measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent (SE) before entering the SE Hold Tank; and verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process. Since this gamma ray monitoring system application is unique, specially designed shielding was developed and software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling the monitor hardware and communicating with the host Distributed Control System. This paper presents the design, fabrication and implementation of this monitoring system.

  5. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  6. Springback Reduction in Stamping of Front Side Member with a Response Surface Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jung-Han; Huh, Hoon; Kim, Se-Ho; Park, Sung-Ho

    2005-08-05

    Springback is a common phenomenon in sheet metal forming since the elastic recovery of the internal stresses is induced after removal of the tooling. The numerical analysis of springback is a complicated time-consuming job and its result is greatly effected by a type of the yield function, finite elements used and the constraint condition for eliminating a rigid body motion. In this paper, optimization of the draw-bead force is carried out utilizing the response surface method in order to reduce springback and improve shape accuracy of a deep drawn product. In the optimization process, the tendency of springback is evaluated qualitatively without springback simulation usually done with the implicit solving scheme. Instead of springback simulation, the amount of stress deviation along the thickness direction in the deep drawn product is used as an indicator of springback. The stamping process is analyzed for a front side member formed with advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets such as DP60. The analysis procedure fully covers the binder-wrap, stamping, trimming and springback processes with the commercial elasto-plastic finite element code LS-DYNA 3D. The effect of the restraining force of draw-beads is confirmed with the decreased stress deviation. The analysis result shown in the final springback simulation demonstrates that the present analysis provides a guideline for controlling the evolution of springback based on the finite element simulation of complicated auto-body members.

  7. Anthropometry for WorldSID, a World-Harmonized Midsize Male Side Impact Crash Dummy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Moss; Z. Wang; M. Salloum; M. Reed; M. Van Ratingen; D. Cesari; R. Scherer; T. Uchimura; M. Beusenberg

    2000-06-19

    The WorldSID project is a global effort to design a new generation side impact crash test dummy under the direction of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The first WorldSID crash dummy will represent a world-harmonized mid-size adult male. This paper discusses the research and rationale undertaken to define the anthropometry of a world standard midsize male in the typical automotive seated posture. Various anthropometry databases are compared region by region and in terms of the key dimensions needed for crash dummy design. The Anthropometry for Motor Vehicle Occupants (AMVO) dataset, as established by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), is selected as the basis for the WorldSID mid-size male, updated to include revisions to the pelvis bone location. The proposed mass of the dummy is 77.3kg with full arms. The rationale for the selected mass is discussed. The joint location and surface landmark database is appended to this paper.

  8. Life Extension Program for the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit at Savannah River Site - 13179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi, Azadeh

    2013-07-01

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. Currently, the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the CSSX process are deployed in the (ARP)/Modular CSSX Unit (MCU), to process salt waste for permanent disposition. The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. The original plant was permitted for a three year design life; however, given the successful operation of the plant, a life extension program was completed to continue operations. The program included detailed engineering analyses of the life-expectancy of passive and active components, resulting in component replacement and/or maintenance and monitoring program improvements. The program also included a review of the operations and resulted in a series of operational improvements. Since the improvements have been made, an accelerated processing rate has been demonstrated. In addition, plans for instituting a next-generation solvent are in place and will enhance the decontamination factors. (author)

  9. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations'' is outside the area of DSM/C RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western's customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western's customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western's power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  10. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report ``Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations`` is outside the area of DSM/C&RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C&RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western`s customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C&RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western`s customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western`s power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  11. Recommended Guanidine Suppressor for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Duncan, Nathan C; Ensor, Dale; Hill, Talon G; Lee, Denise L; Roach, Benjamin D; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Williams, Neil J

    2013-01-01

    The guanidine recommended for the Next-Generation Caustic-Side is N,N ,N -tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). Systematic testing has shown that it is significantly more lipophilic than the previously recommended guanidine DCiTG, the active extractant in the commercial guanidine product LIX -79, while not otherwise changing the solvent performance. Previous testing indicated that the extent of partitioning of the DCiTG suppressor to the aqueous strip solution is significantly greater than expected, potentially leading to rapid depletion of the suppressor from the solvent and unwanted organic concentrations in process effluents. Five candidate guanidines were tested as potential replacements for DCiTG. The tests included batch extraction with simulated waste and flowsheet solutions, third-phase formation, emulsion formation, and partition ratios of the guanidine between the solvent and aqueous strip solution. Preliminary results of a thermal stability test of the TiDG solvent at one month duration indicated performance approximately equivalent to DCiTG. Two of the guanidines proved adequate in all respects, and the choice of TiDG was deemed slightly preferable vs the next best guanidine BiTABG.

  12. Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Poly(meth)acrylates with Bent-Core Mesogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of side-chain liquid crystalline (LC) poly(meth)acrylates with end-on bent-core liquid crystalline (BCLC) mesogens. Both conventional free radical polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization have been used to synthesize these liquid crystalline polymers (LCP). The resulting polymers exhibit thermotropic LC behavior. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermopolarized light microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering were used to characterize the LC structure of both monomers and polymers. The electro-optic (EO) measurement was carried out by applying a triangular wave and measuring the LC EO response. SmCP (Smectic C indicates the LC molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal; P denotes polar ordering) phases were observed for both monomers and polymers. In LC monomers, typical antiferroelectric switching was observed. In the ground state, SmCP{sub A} (A denotes antiferroelectric) was observed which switched to SmCP{sub F} (F denotes ferroelectric) upon applying an electric field. In the corresponding LCP, a unique bilayer structure was observed, which is different from the reported BCLC bilayer SmCG (G denotes generated) phase. Most of the LCPs did not switch upon applying electric field while weak AF switching was observed in a low molecular weight poly{l_brace}3'-[4-(4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoyloxy]-4-(12-acryloyloxydodecyloxy)benzoyloxybiphenyl{r_brace} sample.

  13. Industrial demand-side management programs: What`s happened, what works, what`s needed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J.A.; Nadel, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    In order to analyze experience to date with industrial demand-side management (DSM), a survey of utilities was conducted and a database of industrial DSM programs was prepared. More than eighty utilities and third-party organizations were interviewed. Data were collected via phone, fax, and/or mail from the utilities and entered into a database. In order to limit the scope of this study, the database contains incentive-based, energy-saving programs and not load management or information-only programs (including technical assistance programs). Programs in the database were divided into four categories: two ``prescriptive rebate`` categories and two ``custom rebate`` categories. The database contains 31 incentive-based, energy-saving industrial DSM programs offered by 17 utilities. The appendix to this report summarizes the results approximately 60 industrial DSM programs. Most of the programs included in the appendix, but not in the database, are either C&I programs for which commercial and industrial data were not disaggregated or new industrial DSM programs for which data are not yet available.

  14. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  15. Developing and Testing an Alkaline-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Technetium Separation from Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Conner, Cliff; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    1998-11-01

    Engineering development and testing of the SRTALK solvent extraction process are discussed in this paper. This process provides a way to carry out alkaline-side removal and recovery of technetium in the form of pertechnetate anion from nuclear waste tanks within the DOE complex. The SRTALK extractant consists of a crown ether, bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6, in a modifier, tributyl phosphate, and a diluent, Isopar-L. The SRTALK flowsheet given here separates technetium form the waste and concentrates it by a factor of ten to minimize the load on downstream evaporator for the technetium effluent. In this work, we initially generated and correlated the technetium extraction data, measured the dispersion number for various processing conditions, and determined hydraulic performance in a single-stage 2-cm centrifugal contactor. Then we used extraction-factor analysis, single-stage contactor tests, and stage-to-stage process calculations to develop a SRTALK flowsheet . Key features of the flowsheet are (1) a low organic-to-aqueous (O/A) flow ratio in the extraction section and a high O/A flow ratio in the strip section to concentrate the technetium and (2) the use of a scrub section to reduce the salt load in the concentrated technetium effluent. Finally, the SRTALK process was evaluated in a multistage test using a synthetic tank waste. This test was very successful. Initial batch tests with actual waste from the Hanford nuclear waste tanks show the same technetium extractability as determined with the synthetic waste feed. Therefore, technetium removal from actual tank wastes should also work well using the SRTALK process.

  16. Geomorphology and failure history of the earthquake-induced Farmington Siding landslide complex, Davis County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, M.; Harty, K.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The Farmington Siding landslide complex covers an area of 19.5 km[sup 2] in central Davis County. First identified and mapped in the 1970s, the feature was classified by previous researchers as a liquefaction-induced lateral spread based on surface geomorphology and exposures on the landslide complex. This was the first landslide in Utah to be attributed to earthquake-induced liquefaction. Geomorphic and geologic evidence indicate that the Farmington Sliding landslide complex likely consists of liquefaction-induced landslides that failed by means of both flow failure and lateral spreading. The landslide complex is located in an area underlain primarily by fine-grained deposits of Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Holocene Great Salt Lake. Geomorphic features of the landslide complex include main and minor scarps, hummocks, closed depressions, and transverse lineaments. The main scarp consists mostly of a series of arcuate scallops near the left flank of the landslide, but it is a relatively linear, single scarp near the right flank of the landslide. Hummocks and closed depressions are most common near the head region of the landslide complex. Failure of the Farmington Sliding landslide complex has occurred at least twice. The older, distal portion of the landslide complex is cut by the Gilbert shoreline of the Bonneville lake cycle, indicating that landsliding occurred more than 10,000 years ago. In the younger portion of the landslide complex, landsliding has disrupted the Gilbert shoreline. Radiocarbon age estimates from trenches on a hummock near the main scarp of the younger landslide indicate that slope failure occurred sometime between about 2,730 [+-] 370 cal. yr B.P. and 4,530 [+-] 300 cal. yr B.P., possibly during the penultimate or antepenultimate surface-faulting earthquake on the Weber segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

  17. Influence of uplift on oil migration: Tulare heavy oil accumulations, west side San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, E.R.; Madrid, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    Shallow (2000 ft), heavy (11/sup 0/-14/sup 0/ API) oil accumulations within the Pleistocene, nonmarine, Tulare sands along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley represent major thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) objectives. These low-pressure reservoirs display a variety of petrophysical characteristics indicating a complex history of oil migration resulting from uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the regional ground-water table (RGT). In the Cymric-McKittrick area, it is possible to correlate Tulare outcrops with subsurface log data and determine the relationship between oil saturation, structural elevation, and proximity to the present RGT. The observed relationship is that economic oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 30-75%) occur in structural lows and grade updip to reduced oil saturations (S/sub 0/ = 0-30%). The equivalent sands above the RGT exhibit formation density log-compensated neutron log (FDC/CNL) cross-over. Basinward, as the entire Tulare reservoir dips below the RGT, it exhibits characteristics of conventional reservoirs, such as high water saturations in structural lows, grading upward to increased oil saturations in structural highs. The authors present the following model to explain these observations. (1) Oil migrated into Tulare sands and originally filled all stratigraphic/structural traps below the paleo-RGT. (2) Subsequent uplift of the Tulare reservoirs above the paleo-RGT resulted in gravity drainage of original accumulations into structural lows. (3) Washing of the oils by repeated ground-water fluctuations along with biodegradation resulted in the essentially immobile Tulare heavy oil accumulations observed today.

  18. TUNGSTEN SHIELDS FOR CS-137 INLINE MONITORS IN THE CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V; Mark Hogue, M; Javier Reyes-Jimenez, J; Paul Filpus-Luyckx, P; Timothy Riley, T; Fred Ogden, F; Donald Pak, D

    2007-05-10

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The CSSX process is a continuous process that uses a novel solvent to extract cesium from highly radioactive waste and concentrate it in dilute nitric acid. In-line analyses are performed with gamma-ray monitors to measure the C-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and in the strip effluent (SE). Sodium iodide (NaI) monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration before the DSS Hold Tank, while Geiger-Mueller (GM) monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the SE hold tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to provide the needed reduction of the process background radiation at the detector positions. A one-inch tungsten cylindrical shield reduced the background radiation by a factor of fifty that was adequate for the GM detectors, while a three-and-one-half-inch tungsten cylindrical shield was required for the NaI detectors. Testing of the NaI shield was performed at the SRS Instrument Calibration Facility. Based on this testing, the as-built shield is predicted to be able to detect the MCU DSS stream at concentrations above 0.003 Ci/gal under the ''worst case'' field conditions with a MCU feed solution of 1.1 Ci/gal and all of the process tanks completely full. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, testing and implementation of the tungsten shields in the MCU facility.

  19. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  20. Lessons learned in implementing a demand side management contract at the Presidio of San Francisco

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartor, D.; Munn, M.

    1998-06-01

    The National Park Service (NSP) recently completed the implementation phase of its Power Saving Partners (PSP) Demand Side Management (DSM) contract with the local utility, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). Through the DSM contract, NPS will receive approximately $4.1 million over eight years in payment for saving 61 kW of electrical demand, 179,000 km of electricity per year, and 1.1 million therms of natural gas per year. These payments are for two projects: the installation of high-efficiency lighting systems at the Thoreau Center for Sustainability and the replacement of an old central boiler plant with new, distributed boilers. Although these savings and payments are substantial, the electrical savings and contract payments fall well short of the projected 1,700 kW of electrical demand, 8 million kwh of annual electricity savings, and $11 million in payments, anticipated at the project's onset. Natural gas savings exceeded the initial forecast of 800,000 therms per year. The DSM contract payments did not meet expectations for a variety of reasons which fall into two broad categories: first, many anticipated projects were not constructed, and second, some of the projects that were constructed were not included in the program because the cost of implementing the DSM program's measurement and verification (M&V) requirements outweighed anticipated payments. This paper discusses the projects implemented, and examines the decisions made to withdraw some of them from the DSM contract. It also presents the savings that were realized and documented through M&V efforts. Finally, it makes suggestions relative to M&V protocols to encourage all efficiency measures, not just those that are easy to measure.

  1. Tuning the electronic coupling in a low-bandgap donor-acceptor copolymer via the placement of side-chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberhumer, Philipp M.; Huang, Ya-Shih; Massip, Sylvain; Albert-Seifried, Sebastian; Greenham, Neil C.; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Friend, Richard H. [Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); James, David T.; Kim, Ji-Seon [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Tu Guoli; Huck, Wilhelm T. S. [Melville Laboratory for Polymer Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jerome [Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons, Place du Parc, 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2011-03-21

    We present a spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of the effect of the presence and position of hexyl side-chains in the novel low-bandgap alternating donor-acceptor copolymer poly[bis-N,N-(4-octylphenyl)-bis-N,N-phenyl-1, 4-phenylenediamine-alt-5,5'-4',7',-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (T8TBT). We use electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopic measurements supported by calculations of chain conformation, electronic transitions, and Raman modes. Using these tools, we find that sterically demanding side-chain configurations induce twisting in the electronic acceptor unit and reduce the electronic interaction with the donor. This leads to a blue-shifted and weakened (partial) charge-transfer absorption band together with a higher photoluminescence efficiency. On the other hand, sterically relaxed side-chain configurations promote coupling between donor and acceptor units and exhibit enhanced absorption at the expense of luminescence efficiency. The possibility of tuning the donor-acceptor character of conjugated polymers by varying the placement of side-chains has very important ramifications for light emitting diode, Laser, display, and photovoltaic device optimization.

  2. Amphiphilic Surface Active Triblock Copolymers with Mixed Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Side Chains for Tuned Marine Fouling-Release Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, D.; Weinman, C; Finlay, J; Fletcher, B; Paik, M; Sundaram, H; Dimitriou, M; Sohn, K; Callow, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Two series of amphiphilic triblock surface active block copolymers (SABCs) were prepared through chemical modification of two polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene ABC triblock copolymer precursors. The methyl ether of poly(ethylene glycol) [M{sub n} {approx} 550 g/mol (PEG550)] and a semifluorinated alcohol (CF{sub 3}(CF{sub 2}){sub 9}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}OH) [F10H10] were attached at different molar ratios to impart both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups to the isoprene segment. Coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC deposited on a thicker layer of an ABA polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with algae. Dynamic water contact angle analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements were utilized to characterize the surfaces. Clear differences in surface structure were realized as the composition of attached side chains was varied. In biofouling assays, the settlement (attachment) of zoospores of the green alga Ulva was higher for surfaces incorporating a large proportion of the hydrophobic F10H10 side chains, while surfaces with a large proportion of the PEG550 side chains inhibited settlement. The trend in attachment strength of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva did not show such an obvious pattern. However, amphiphilic SABCs incorporating a mixture of PEG550 and F10H10 side chains performed the best. The number of cells of the diatom Navicula attached after exposure to flow decreased as the content of PEG550 to F10H10 side chains increased.

  3. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  4. Caustic-Side Solvent-Extraction Modeling for Hanford Interim Pretreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Birdwell, J.F.; Delmau, L. H.; McFarlane, J.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for the removal of cesium from Hanford tank-waste supernatant solutions in support of the Hanford Interim Pretreatment System (IPS). The Hanford waste types are more challenging than those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in that they contain significantly higher levels of potassium, the chief competing ion in the extraction of cesium. It was confirmed by use of the CSSX model that the higher levels of potassium depress the cesium distribution ratio (DCs), as validated by measurement of DCs values for four of eight specified Hanford waste-simulant compositions. The model predictions were good to an apparent standard error of 11%. It is concluded from batch distribution experiments, physical-property measurements, equilibrium modeling, flowsheet calculations, and contactor sizing that the CSSX process as currently employed for cesium removal from alkaline salt waste at the SRS is capable of treating similar Hanford tank feeds. For the most challenging waste composition, 41 stages would be required to provide a cesium decontamination factor (DF) of 5000 and a concentration factor (CF) of 5. Commercial contacting equipment with rotor diameters of 10 in. for extraction and 5 in. for stripping should have the capacity to meet throughput requirements, but testing will be required to confirm that the needed efficiency and hydraulic performance are actually obtainable. Markedly improved flowsheet performance was calculated for a new solvent formulation employing the more soluble cesium extractant BEHBCalixC6 used with alternative scrub and strip solutions, respectively 0.1 M NaOH and 10 mM boric acid. The improved system can meet minimum requirements (DF = 5000 and CF = 5) with 17 stages or more ambitious goals (DF = 40,000 and CF = 15) with 19 stages. Potential benefits of further research and development are identified that would lead to reduced costs, greater

  5. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Örbom, Anders Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik; Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Hauge, Håvard; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  6. Characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography based on irradiation side sampling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivetti, Stefano; Lanconelli, Nico; Bertolini, Marco; Nitrosi, Andrea; Burani, Aldo

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography (FUJIFILM FDR D-EVO) is presented. This system is based on the irradiation side sampling (ISS) technology and can be equipped with two different scintillators: one traditional gadolinium-oxysulphide phosphor (GOS) and a needle structured cesium iodide (CsI) phosphor panel.Methods: The characterization was achieved in terms of response curve, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and psychophysical parameters (contrast-detail analysis with an automatic reading of CDRAD images). For both scintillation screens the authors accomplished the measurements with four standard beam conditions: RAQ3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9.Results: At the Nyquist frequency (3.33 lp/mm) the MTF is about 35% and 25% for CsI and GOS detectors, respectively. The CsI scintillator has better noise properties than the GOS screen in almost all the conditions. This is particularly true for low-energy beams, where the noise for the GOS system can go up to a factor 2 greater than that found for CsI. The DQE of the CsI detector reaches a peak of 60%, 60%, 58%, and 50% for the RQA3, RQA5, RQA7, and RQA9 beams, respectively, whereas for the GOS screen the maximum DQE is 40%, 44%, 44%, and 35%. The contrast-detail analysis confirms that in the majority of cases the CsI scintillator is able to provide improved outcomes to those obtained with the GOS screen.Conclusions: The limited diffusion of light produced by the ISS reading makes possible the achievement of very good spatial resolution. In fact, the MTF of the unit with the CsI panel is only slightly lower to that achieved with direct conversion detectors. The combination of very good spatial resolution, together with the good noise properties reached with the CsI screen, allows achieving DQE on average about 1.5 times greater than that obtained with GOS. In fact, the DQE of unit equipped with CsI is comparable to the best

  7. Impacts of pellets injected from the low-field side on plasma in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisitsorasak, A.; Onjun, T.

    2011-01-15

    Impacts of pellets injected from the low-field side (LFS) on plasma in ITER are investigated using the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the pellet ablation is described using the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model. The pellet ablation model is coupled with the plasma core transport model, which is a combination of the MMM95 anomalous transport model and NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The boundary conditions are assumed to be at the top of the pedestal, in which the pedestal parameters are predicted using a pedestal model based on the theoretical-based pedestal width scaling (either magnetic and flow shear stabilization width scaling, or flow shear stabilization width scaling, or normalized poloidal pressure width scaling) and the infinite-n ballooning mode pressure gradient limit. These pedestal models depend sensitively on the density at the top of the pedestal, which can be strongly influenced by the injection of pellets. The combination of the MMM95 and NCLASS models, together with the pedestal and NGS models, is used to simulate the time evolution of the plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type-I ELMy H-mode discharges during the injection of LFS pellets. It is found that the injection of pellets results in a complicated plasma scenario, especially in the outer region of the plasma and the plasma conditions at the boundary in which the pellet has an impact on increasing the plasma edge density, but reducing the plasma edge temperature. The LFS pellet has a stronger impact on the edge as compared to the center. For fusion performance, the pellet can result in either enhancement or degradation, depending sensitively on the pellet parameters; such as the pellet size, pellet velocity, and pellet frequency. For example, when a series of deuterium pellets with a size of 0.5 cm, velocity of 1 km/s, and frequency of 2 Hz are injected into the ITER plasma from the LFS, the

  8. Life extension program for the modular caustic side solvent extraction unit at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samadi-Dezfouli, Azadeh

    2012-11-14

    Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) is currently used at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) for removal of cesium from the high-level salt-wastes stored in underground tanks. At SRS, the CSSX process is deployed in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). The CSSX technology utilizes a multi-component organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract cesium from alkaline salt waste. Coalescers and decanters process the Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS) and Strip Effluent (SE) streams to allow recovery and reuse of the organic solvent and to limit the quantity of solvent transferred to the downstream facilities. MCU is operated in series with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) which removes strontium and actinides from salt waste utilizing monosodium titanate. ARP and MCU were developed and implemented as interim salt processing until future processing technology, the CSSX-based Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), is operational. SWPF is slated to come on-line in October 2014. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU process, however, was reached in April 2011. Nevertheless, most of the individual process components are capable of operating longer. An evaluation determined ARP/MCU can operate until 2015 before major equipment failure is expected. The three year design life of the ARP/MCU Life Extension (ARP/MCU LE) program will bridge the gap between current ARP/MCU operations and the start of SWPF operation. The ARP/MCU LE program introduces no new technologies. As a portion of this program, a Next Generation Solvent (NGS) and corresponding flowsheet are being developed to provide a major performance enhancement at MCU. This paper discusses all the modifications performed in the facility to support the ARP/MCU Life Extension. It will also discuss the next generation chemistry, including NGS and new stripping chemistry, which will increase cesium removal efficiency in MCU. Possible implementation of the NGS chemistry in MCU

  9. STEAM-SIDE OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION BEHAVIOR IN SUPERHEATERS AND REHEATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Shingledecker, John P.; Wright, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in materials for power plants include not only new materials with higher-temperature capabilities, but also the use of current materials at increasingly higher temperatures. This latter activity builds on extensive experience of the performance of the various alloys, and provides a basis for identifying changes in alloy behavior with increasing temperature as well as understanding the factors that ultimately determine the maximum use temperatures of the different alloy classes. This paper presents results from an effort to model the exfoliation processes of steam-side oxide scales in a manner that describes as accurately as possible the evolution of strains in oxides growing inside small-diameter tubes subjected to large thermal gradients and to thermal transients typical of normal steam boiler operation. One way of portraying the results of such calculations is by plotting the evolving strains in a given oxide scale on an Exfoliation Diagram (of the type pioneered by Manning et al. of the British Central Electricity Research Laboratory) to determine the earliest time at which the trajectory of these strains intersects a criterion for scale failure. Understanding of how such strain trajectories differ among different alloys and are affected by the major variables associated with boiler operation has the potential to suggest boiler operating strategies to manage scale exfoliation, as well as to highlight the mode of scale failure and the limitations of each alloy. Preliminary results are presented of the strain trajectories calculated for alloys T22, T91, and TP347 subjected to the conditions experienced by superheaters under assumed boiler operating scenarios. For all three alloys the earliest predicted scale failures were associated with the increased strains developed during a boiler shut-down event; indeed, in the cases considered it appeared unlikely that scale failure would occur in any practically meaningful time due to strains accumulated during

  10. Palladium nanoparticle decorated silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with side-gates for hydrogen gas detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Yun, Jeonghoon; Park, Inkyu; KI for the NanoCentury, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701; Mobile Sensor and IT Convergence Center, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 ; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2014-01-06

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) with local side-gates and Pd surface decoration is demonstrated for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) detection. The SiNW FETs are fabricated by top-down method and functionalized with palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) through electron beam evaporation for H{sub 2} detection. The drain current of the PdNP-decorated device reversibly responds to H{sub 2} at different concentrations. The local side-gates allow individual addressing of each sensor and enhance the sensitivity by adjusting the working region to the subthreshold regime. A control experiment using a non-functionalized device verifies that the hydrogen-sensitivity is originated from the PdNPs functionalized on the SiNW surface.

  11. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate, New Paltz, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  12. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi Xu, Jian-Qun; Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You

    2014-07-28

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  13. Full counting statistics as a probe of quantum coherence in a side-coupled double quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Hai-Bin

    2013-12-15

    We study theoretically the full counting statistics of electron transport through side-coupled double quantum dot (QD) based on an efficient particle-number-resolved master equation. It is demonstrated that the high-order cumulants of transport current are more sensitive to the quantum coherence than the average current, which can be used to probe the quantum coherence of the considered double QD system. Especially, quantum coherence plays a crucial role in determining whether the super-Poissonian noise occurs in the weak inter-dot hopping coupling regime depending on the corresponding QD-lead coupling, and the corresponding values of super-Poissonian noise can be relatively enhanced when considering the spins of conduction electrons. Moreover, this super-Poissonian noise bias range depends on the singly-occupied eigenstates of the system, which thus suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device. The occurrence-mechanism of super-Poissonian noise can be understood in terms of the interplay of quantum coherence and effective competition between fast-and-slow transport channels. -- Highlights: The FCS can be used to probe the quantum coherence of side-coupled double QD system. Probing quantum coherence using FCS may permit experimental tests in the near future. The current noise characteristics depend on the quantum coherence of this QD system. The super-Poissonian noise can be enhanced when considering conduction electron spin. The side-coupled double QD system suggests a tunable super-Poissonian noise device.

  14. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nauru Island Effect Study - Installation and Preliminary Data K. B. Widener and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Abstract A limited suite of instrumentation was installed on the windward side of Nauru to help in understanding the effect the island has on downwind development of clouds. This is of specific interest since the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmosphere Radiation and Cloud Station-2 (ARCS-2) site is on the leeward side of the island. This

  15. MHK Projects/Shelter Island Tidal Energy Project | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization Natural Currents Energy Services Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesRED HAWK Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys <<...

  16. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER...

  17. Earth-sheltered industrial utility park. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The potential to develop the Cumberland (Wisconsin) industrial park site using earth-integrated techniques is discussed. The concept feasibility study concerned the site, the land-use plan, and building types. An assessment of energy use in the Cumberland community for 1979 and 1980 was made by compiling sales data from the various suppliers of gasoline, diesel, electricity, natural gas, and other fuels. A resource and technology assessment of biomass feedstocks for a possible community scale bioenergy facility was made. Details of each element of the study are presented and conclusions are summarized. (MCW)

  18. Earth sheltered industrial/utility park. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A proposed industrial park in Cumberland, Wisconsin is discussed. Planners identified 4 land use elements for the site. A concept feasibility study for the earth-covered industrial park, an analysis of energy flows within the Cumberland community, and a resource and technology assessment of biomass feedstocks for a possible community scale bioenergy facility are discussed. (MCW)

  19. Thermal performance of an earth-sheltered passive solar residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVigne, A.B. (Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA); Schuldt, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the measured thermal performance of a direct gain, passive solar residence in the Pacific Northwest. The east, west, and north exterior walls of the house are bermed to within 12 inches (30 cm) of the ceiling; sliding interior insulated panels cover the double glazed, south facing windows when appropriate. The cost of the house construction was kept modest.

  20. Earth shelter 2. 1979-1980 USC Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for 22 papers presented at the conference and exhibition. One paper had previously appeared in the appropriate DOE Energy Data Base. (MCW)

  1. ORISE: Operating Public Shelters in a Radiation Emergency | How...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The guide will be promoted during the Public Health Preparedness Summit in Atlanta, Ga., April 14-17. How ORISE is Making a Difference The project began with a series of workshops ...

  2. Sheltering in Place | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    everyone inside (including pets). Close all doors and windows. Turn off and close all ventilation systems, including: Air conditioning Attic & exhaust fans Furnaces Fireplace...

  3. Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of Arizona and the House of Refuge Sunnyslope are partnering to install solar hot water systems at five Phoenix-area housing sites for homeless men.

  4. Employee Giving Campaign proceeds will help support animal shelters and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Concerns Tracking System, PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Employee Concerns Tracking System, PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Employee Concerns Tracking System, PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Employee Concerns Tracking System, PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (225.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Electronic Document Management System PIA, BechtelJacobs Company, LLC Dosimetry Records System PIA, bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel

  5. All-acrylic multigraft copolymers: Effect of side chain molecular weight and volume fraction on mechanical behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Weiyu; Kang, Nam -Goo; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-08-21

    We present in this paper the synthesis of poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PnBA-g-PMMA) multigraft copolymers via a grafting-through (macromonomer) approach. The synthesis was performed using two controlled polymerization techniques. The PMMA macromonomer was obtained by high-vacuum anionic polymerization followed by the copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate and PMMA macromonomer using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to yield the desired all-acrylic multigraft structures. The PnBA-g-PMMA multigraft structures exhibit randomly spaced branch points with various PMMA contents, ranging from 15 to 40 vol %, allowing an investigation into how physical properties vary with differences in the number of branch points and molecular weight of grafted side chains. The determination of molecular weight and polydispersity indices of both the PMMA macromonomer and the graft copolymers was carried out using size exclusion chromatography with triple detection, and the structural characteristics of both the macromonomer and PnBA-g-PMMA graft materials were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for monitoring the macromonomer synthesis. Thermal characteristics of the materials were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical performance of the graft materials was characterized by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing that samples with PMMA content of 25–40 vol % exhibit superior elastomeric properties as compared to materials containing short PMMA side chains or <25 vol % PMMA. In conclusion, atomic force microscopy showed a varying degree of microphase separation between the glassy and rubbery components that is strongly dependent on PMMA side chain molecular weight.

  6. All-acrylic multigraft copolymers: Effect of side chain molecular weight and volume fraction on mechanical behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Goodwin, Andrew; Wang, Weiyu; Kang, Nam -Goo; Wang, Yangyang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-08-21

    We present in this paper the synthesis of poly(n-butyl acrylate)-g-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PnBA-g-PMMA) multigraft copolymers via a grafting-through (macromonomer) approach. The synthesis was performed using two controlled polymerization techniques. The PMMA macromonomer was obtained by high-vacuum anionic polymerization followed by the copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate and PMMA macromonomer using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to yield the desired all-acrylic multigraft structures. The PnBA-g-PMMA multigraft structures exhibit randomly spaced branch points with various PMMA contents, ranging from 15 to 40 vol %, allowing an investigation into how physical properties vary with differences in the number of branch points and molecular weightmore » of grafted side chains. The determination of molecular weight and polydispersity indices of both the PMMA macromonomer and the graft copolymers was carried out using size exclusion chromatography with triple detection, and the structural characteristics of both the macromonomer and PnBA-g-PMMA graft materials were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for monitoring the macromonomer synthesis. Thermal characteristics of the materials were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical performance of the graft materials was characterized by rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis, revealing that samples with PMMA content of 25–40 vol % exhibit superior elastomeric properties as compared to materials containing short PMMA side chains or <25 vol % PMMA. In conclusion, atomic force microscopy showed a varying degree of microphase separation between the glassy and rubbery components that is strongly dependent on PMMA side chain molecular weight.« less

  7. Mitigation of rotational instability of high-beta field-reversed configuration by double-sided magnetized plasmoid injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itagaki, H.; Inomoto, M.; Asai, T.; Takahashi, Ts.

    2014-03-15

    Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.

  8. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  9. Impact of the Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program structure on the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Dixon, D.R.; Elliott, D.B.

    1994-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) analyzed the cost-effective energy efficiency potential of Fort Drum, a customer of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in Watertown, New York. Significant cost-effective investments were identified, even without any demand-side management (DSM) incentives from NMPC. Three NMPC DSM programs were then examined to determine the impact of participation on the cost-effective efficiency potential at the Fort. The following three utility programs were analyzed: (1) utility rebates to be paid back through surcharges, (2) a demand reduction program offered in conjunction with an energy services company, and (3) utility financing. Ultimately, utility rebates and financing were found to be the best programs for the Fort. This paper examines the influence that specific characteristics of the DSM programs had on the decision-making process of one customer. Fort Drum represents a significant demand-side resource, whose decisions regarding energy efficiency investments are based on life-cycle cost analysis subject to stringent capital constraints. The structures of the DSM programs offered by NMPC affect the cost-effectiveness of potential efficiency investments and the ability of the Fort to obtain sufficient capital to implement the projects. This paper compares the magnitude of the cost-effective resource available under each program, and the resulting level of energy and demand savings. The results of this analysis can be used to examine how DSM program structures impact the decision-making process of federal and large commercial customers.

  10. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.