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Sample records for lebanon pu guinea-bissau

  1. Guinea-Bissau: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Guinea-Bissau Population 1,345,479 GDP 870,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.01 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code GW 3-letter ISO code GNB Numeric ISO...

  2. Lebanon County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype A. Energy Generation Facilities in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania Lebanon Methane Recovery Biomass Facility Places in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania Annville,...

  3. Guinea-Bissau: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Area(km) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m 116 1990 NREL Solar Potential 93,662,158 MWhyear 132 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas...

  4. Lebanon, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Lebanon, Ohio OnPower Inc Ultimate Best Buy LLC References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division...

  5. Lebanon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Lebanon Population 4,965,914 GDP 44,967,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code LB 3-letter ISO code LBN Numeric ISO...

  6. Lebanon, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lebanon, New Hampshire: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.6422934, -72.2517569 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  7. Lebanon, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Jersey's 7th congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Lebanon, New Jersey MAK Technologies References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor...

  8. New Lebanon, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. New Lebanon is a village in Montgomery County, Ohio. It falls under Ohio's 3rd congressional district.12 References ...

  9. Pu-238 Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Determination for Pu-238 Production Radioisotope power systems enable space exploration and national security missions. T he Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have pro- vided radioisotope power systems that have safely enabled deep space exploration and national security missions for five decades. Radioisotope power systems (RPSs) convert the heat from the decay of the plutonium-238 (Pu-238) isotope into electricity. RPSs are capable of producing heat and electricity under the

  10. Pu Qian | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pu Qian Pu Qian placeholder image Pu Qian Postdoctoral Associate E-mail: p.qian@sheffield.ac.uk Postdoctoral Associates

  11. Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A

    2010-01-05

    We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.

  12. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  13. Economical Production of Pu-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

    2013-02-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  14. Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and aging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and aging...

  15. Pu-bearing materials - from fundamental science to storage standards.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tam, S. W.; Liu, Y.; Decision and Information Sciences; Michigan Technical Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of plutonium (Pu) oxides in the presence of water/moisture in a confined space and the associated issues of hydrogen and oxygen generation due to radiolysis have important implications for the storage and transportation of Pu-bearing materials. This paper reviews the results of recent studies of gas generation in the Pu-O-H system, including the determination of release rates via engineering-scale measurement. The observations of the significant differences in gas generation behavior between 'pure' Pu-bearing materials and those that contain salt impurities are addressed. In conjunction with the discussion of these empirical observations, the work also addresses recent scientific advances in the investigations of the Pu-O-H system using state-of-the-art ab initio electronic structure calculations, as well as advanced synchrotron techniques to determine the electronic structure of the various Pu-containing phases. The role of oxidizing species such as the hydroxyl radical from the radiolysis of water is examined. Discussed also is the challenge in the predictive ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure of the Pu-H-O system, due to the nature of the 5f valence electrons in Pu. Coupled with the continuing material surveillance program, it is anticipated that this work may help determine the electronic structure of the various Pu-containing phases and the role of impurity salts on gas generation and the long-term stability of oxygen/hydrogen-containing plutonium oxides beyond PuO{sub 2}.

  16. A=3n (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: There is no experimental evidence for either bound states or narrow resonances of the three neutron system. Theoretical studies in the 3n system using the Faddeev method and fairly realistic two-body interactions have been carried out for complex energies looking for evidence of resonances; see (1999WI08, 2002HE25). The conclusion in each case is that such resonances probably do not exist close to the physical region. However, a similar study reported in (1996CS02) concluded

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Fingerprint of element found by LANL/Japanese team. May 29, 2012 How would the detonation of a nuclear energy source afffect an incoming asteroid? Georgios Koutroulakis and H. Yasuoka in the condensed-matter NMR lab at Los Alamos National Laboratory after having observed the magnetic resonance signal of Pu 239 for the first time. Get Expertise Scientist Eric Bauer Condensed

  18. Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with Microscopic and Nanoscopic Samples at NSLSII Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Report on the Feasibility of...

  19. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

  20. A=3H (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+ μ = 2.978960 ± 0.000001 μN Mass Excess, M - A = 14.9498060 ± 0.0000023 MeV T1/2 = 12.32 ± 0.02 y = 4500 ± 8 days Decay Mode: β- decay Binding Energy, EB = 8.481798 ± 0.000002 MeV Neutron Separation Energy, Sn = 6.257233 ± 0.000002 MeV The ground state wave functions for 3H and 3He consist mainly of a spatially symmetric S state (about 90%), a mixed symmetry S' state (about 1%), a D state (about 9%) and a small P state (less than 0.1%). Some

  1. A=3He (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010PU04) GENERAL: Ground State: Jπ = 1/2+ μ = -2.127497718 ± 0.000000025 μN Mass Excess, M - A = 14.93121475 ± 0.00000242 MeV Decay Mode: stable Binding Energy, EB = 7.718043 ± 0.000002 MeV Proton Separation Energy, Sp = 5.493478 ± 0.000002 MeV A topic of interest in connection with the mass 3 nuclei is the difference in binding energies of 3H and 3He and the relationship of this difference to charge symmetry breaking (CSB). The binding energy of 3H is larger than that of 3He by a little

  2. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  3. Discovery of Pu-based superconductors and relation to other classes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovery of Pu-based superconductors and relation to other classes of unconventional superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery of Pu-based ...

  4. 239Pu Resonance Evaluation for Thermal Benchmark System Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, Luiz C; Noguere, G; De Saint Jean, C; Kahler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of thermal plutonium solution critical benchmark systems have indicated a deciency in the 239Pu resonance evaluation. To investigate possible solutions to this issue, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party for Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) established Subgroup 34 to focus on the reevaluation of the 239Pu resolved resonance parameters. In addition, the impacts of the prompt neutron multiplication (nubar) and the prompt neutron ssion spectrum (PFNS) have been investigated. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the 239Pu resolved resonance evaluation eort.

  5. Elastic properties of gamma-Pu by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Despite intense experimental and theoretical work on Pu, there is still little understanding of the strange properties of this metal. We used resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method to investigate the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline Pu at high temperatures. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli of the {gamma}-phase of Pu were determined simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth linear and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. We calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519K to 0.252 at 571K.

  6. Ferro- and antiferro-magnetism in (Np, Pu)BC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimczuk, T.; Kozub, A. L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Colineau, E.; Wastin, F.; Falmbigl, M.; Rogl, P.

    2015-04-01

    Two new transuranium metal boron carbides, NpBC and PuBC, have been synthesized. Rietveld refinements of powder XRD patterns of (Np,Pu)BC confirmed in both cases isotypism with the structure type of UBC. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal antiferromagnetic ordering for PuBC below T{sub N} = 44 K, whereas ferromagnetic ordering was found for NpBC below T{sub C} = 61 K. Heat capacity measurements prove the bulk character of the observed magnetic transition for both compounds. The total energy electronic band structure calculations support formation of the ferromagnetic ground state for NpBC and the antiferromagnetic ground state for PuBC.

  7. Probing Actinide Electronic Structure through Pu Cluster Calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryzhkov, Mickhail V.; Mirmelstein, Alexei; Yu, Sung-Woo; Chung, Brandon W.; Tobin, James G.

    2013-02-26

    The calculations for the electronic structure of clusters of plutonium have been performed, within the framework of the relativistic discrete-variational method. Moreover, these theoretical results and those calculated earlier for related systems have been compared to spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including photoelectron spectroscopy. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size provides powerful insight for aspects of bulk Pu electronic structure.

  8. Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and aging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and aging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elasticity of Pu -a window into fundamental understanding and aging No abstract prepared. Authors: Migliori, Albert [1] ; Saleh, Tarik A. [1] ; Freibert, Franz J. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2012-06-06 OSTI Identifier: 1043024 Report Number(s): LA-UR-12-21957 TRN: US201213%%51 DOE Contract Number:

  9. Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with Microscopic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Nanoscopic Samples at NSLSII (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with Microscopic and Nanoscopic Samples at NSLSII Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with Microscopic and Nanoscopic Samples at NSLSII Authors: Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2012-09-11 OSTI Identifier: 1053685 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-582213 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type:

  10. Status of Pu-239 Evaluations (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Status of Pu-239 Evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Status of Pu-239 Evaluations Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] ; Talou, Patrick [1] ; Chadwick, Mark B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-12-06 OSTI Identifier: 1110310 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-29265 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: NEMEA-7/CIELO, International Collaboration on Nuclear

  11. The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three Dimensionality (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to Three Dimensionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to Three Dimensionality Authors: Tobin, J G ; Yu, S W ; Chung, B W ; Ryzhkov, M V ; Mirmelstein, A V Publication Date: 2013-07-18 OSTI Identifier: 1149047 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-642076 DOE Contract Number:

  12. The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Three Dimensionality (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to Three Dimensionality Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity to Three Dimensionality × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  13. USAID West Africa Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western...

  14. Average Structure Evolution of ?-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Alice Iulia; Page, Katharine L.; Gourdon, Olivier; Siewenie, Joan E.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc ?-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  15. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR PU-238 AQUEOUS RECOVERY PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. PANSOY-HJELVIK; M. REIMUS; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    Aqueous processing is necessary for the removal of impurities from {sup 238}Pu dioxide ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2}) fuel due to unacceptable levels of {sup 234}U and other non-actinide impurities in the scrap fuel. Impurities at levels above General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel specifications may impair the performance.of the heat sources. Efforts at Los Alamos have focused on developing the bench scale methodology for the aqueous process steps which includes comminution, dissolution, ion exchange, precipitation, and calcination. Recently, work has been performed to qualify the bench scale methodology, to show that the developed process produces pure {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} meeting GPHS fuel specifications. In addition, this work has enabled us to determine how waste volumes may be minimized during full-scale processing. Results of process qualification for the bench scale aqueous recovery operation and waste minimization efforts are presented.

  16. Transuranic concentrations in reef and pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands. [/sup 239/Pu, /sup 240/Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.

    1980-09-01

    Concentrations of /sup 239 + 240/Pu are reported in tissues of several species of reef and pelagic fish caught at 14 different atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Several regularities that are species dependent are evident in the distribution of /sup 239 + 240/Pu among different body tissues. Concentrations in liver always exceeded those in bone and concentrations were lowest in the muscle of all fish analyzed. A progressive discrimination against /sup 239 + 240/Pu was observed at successive trophic levels at all atolls except Bikini and Enewetak, where it was difficult to conclude if any real difference exists between the average concentration factor for /sup 239 + 240/Pu among all fish, which include bottom feeding and grazing herbivores, bottom feeding carnivores, and pelagic carnivores from different atoll locations. The average concentration of /sup 239 + 240/Pu in the muscle of surgeonfish from Bikini and Enewetak was not significantly different from the average concentrations determined in these fish at the other, lesser contaminated atolls. Concentrations among all 3rd, 4th, and 5th trophic level species are highest at Bikini where higher environmental concentrations are found. The reasons for the anomalously low concentrations in herbivores from Bikini and Enewetak are not known.

  17. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using ...

  18. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host Citation ... Title: First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host ...

  19. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and 238U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U, and...

  20. Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Summary of Pu u O o - Kupaianaha Eruption,...

  1. Atomic Structure and Phase Transformations in Pu Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Cynn, H; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Moore, K T; Evans, W J; Farber, D L; Jeffries, J R; Massalski, T B

    2008-04-28

    Plutonium and plutonium-based alloys containing Al or Ga exhibit numerous phases with crystal structures ranging from simple monoclinic to face-centered cubic. Only recently, however, has there been increased convergence in the actinides community on the details of the equilibrium form of the phase diagrams. Practically speaking, while the phase diagrams that represent the stability of the fcc {delta}-phase field at room temperature are generally applicable, it is also recognized that Pu and its alloys are never truly in thermodynamic equilibrium because of self-irradiation effects, primarily from the alpha decay of Pu isotopes. This article covers past and current research on several properties of Pu and Pu-(Al or Ga) alloys and their connections to the crystal structure and the microstructure. We review the consequences of radioactive decay, the recent advances in understanding the electronic structure, the current research on phase transformations and their relations to phase diagrams and phase stability, the nature of the isothermal martensitic {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation, and the pressure-induced transformations in the {delta}-phase alloys. New data are also presented on the structures and phase transformations observed in these materials following the application of pressure, including the formation of transition phases.

  2. Characterization of Pu-238 Heat Source Granule Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Paul Dean II; Sanchez, Joey Leo; Wall, Angelique Dinorah; Chavarria, Rene

    2015-02-11

    The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Themoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. Essentially these are nuclear batteries that convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of 238Pu, in the form of 238PuO2 granules. The granules are contained by 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the 238PuO2 granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. An outer layer of Hastalloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this 238PuO2 containment system. Any compromise in the strength member seen during destructive testing required by the RTG surveillance program is characterized. The T-111 strength member is characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in the Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of microphotographs. SEM mat further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

  3. Selection and Evaluation of a new Pu Density Measurement Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziewinska, Krystyna; Peters, Michael A; Martinez, Patrick P; Dziewinski, Jacek J; Pugmire, David L; Trujillo, Stephen M; La Verne, Jake A; Rajesh, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts leading to selection of a new fluid for the determination of the density of large Pu parts. Based on an extended literature search, perfluorotributylamine (FC-43) was chosen for an experimental study. Plutonium coupon corrosion studies were performed by exposing Pu to deaerated and aerated solutions and measuring corrosion gravimetrically. Corrosion rates were determined. Samples of deaerated and aerated perfuluorotributylamine (FC-43) were also irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays (96 Gy/min) to various doses. The samples were extracted with NaOH and analyzed by IC and showed the presence of F and Cl{sup -}. The G-values were established. In surface study experiments Pu coupons were exposed to deaerated and aerated solutions of FC-43 and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS data indicate that there is no detectable surface effect caused by the new fluid. In conclusion the FC-43 was determined to be a very effective and practical fluid for Pu density measurements.

  4. Type B Accident Investigation on the August 5, 2003, Pu-238 Multiple Uptake

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Event at the Pu Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory | Department of Energy on the August 5, 2003, Pu-238 Multiple Uptake Event at the Pu Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation on the August 5, 2003, Pu-238 Multiple Uptake Event at the Pu Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory December 1, 2003 On August 5, 2003, a release of plutonium-238 occurred in a storage room at the Plutonium Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, resulting in radiation doses to

  5. Characterization of Pu-238 heat source granule containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson Ii, P D; Thronas, D L; Romero, J P; Sandoval, F E; Neuman, A D; Duncan, W S

    2008-01-01

    The Milliwatt Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) provides power for permissive-action links. These nuclear batteries convert thermal energy to electrical energy using a doped silicon-germanium thermopile. The thermal energy is provided by a heat source made of {sup 238}Pu, in the form of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules. The granules are contained in 3 layers of encapsulation. A thin T-111 liner surrounds the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} granules and protects the second layer (strength member) from exposure to the fuel granules. The T-111 strength member contains the fuel under impact condition. An outer clad of Hastelloy-C protects the T-111 from oxygen embrittlement. The T-111 strength member is considered the critical component in this {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} containment system. Any compromise in the strength member is something that needs to be characterized. Consequently, the T-111 strength member is characterized upon it's decommissioning through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Metallography. SEM is used in Secondary Electron mode to reveal possible grain boundary deformation and/or cracking in the region of the strength member weld. Deformation and cracking uncovered by SEM are further characterized by Metallography. Metallography sections are mounted and polished, observed using optical microscopy, then documented in the form of photomicrographs. SEM may further be used to examine polished Metallography mounts to characterize elements using the SEM mode of Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). This paper describes the characterization of the metallurgical condition of decommissioned RTG heat sources.

  6. Slow Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Transmission Studies Of Pu

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Havens, W. W. Jr.; Melkonian, E.; Rainwater, L. J.; Levin, M.

    1951-05-28

    The slow neutron transmission of several samples of Pu has been investigated with the Columbia Neutron Velocity Spectrometer. Data are presented in two groups, those covering the energy region from 0 to 6 ev, and those covering the region above 6 ev. Below 6 ev the resolution was relatively good, and a detailed study of the cross section variation was made. Work above 6 ev consisted of merely locating levels and obtaining a rough idea of their strengths.

  7. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95C using a 610 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.050.2 M KF and 02 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling to 95 C reduced the oxidation rate of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). For 8.1 M HNO{sub 3} simulated dissolution solutions, at near boiling conditions >35% Pu(VI) was present in 50 h while at 95 C <10% Pu(VI) was present at 50 h. At near boiling temperatures, eliminating the presence of Cr and varying the HNO{sub 3} concentration in the range of 78.5 M had little effect on the rate of conversion of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). HNO{sub 3} oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) in a pure solution has been reported previously. Based on simulated dissolution experiments, this study concluded that dissolving Pu metal at 95C using a 6 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solution 0.050.2 M KF and 02 g/L B could reduce the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. To demonstrate this flowsheet, two small-scale experiments were performed dissolving Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L. No Pu-containing residues were observed in the solutions after cooling. Using Pu metal dissolution rates measured during the experiments and a correlation developed by Holcomb, the time required to completely dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver using this flowsheet was estimated to require nearly 5 days (120 h). This value is reasonably consistent with an estimate based on the Batch 2 and 3 dissolution times in the 6.1D dissolver and Pu metal dissolution rates measured in this study and by Rudisill et al. Data from the present and previous studies show that the Pu metal dissolution rate decreases by a factor of approximately two when the temperature decreased from boiling (112 to 116C) to 95C. Therefore, the time required to dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver at 95C would likely double (from 36 to 54 h) and require 72 to 108 h depending on the surface area of the Pu metal. Based on the experimental studies, a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet utilizing 610 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.050.2 M KF (with 02 g/L B) at 95C is recommended to reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. The time required to completely di

  8. Neutron Resonance Parameters and Covariance Matrix of 239Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2008-08-01

    In order to obtain the resonance parameters in a single energy range and the corresponding covariance matrix, a reevaluation of 239Pu was performed with the code SAMMY. The most recent experimental data were analyzed or reanalyzed in the energy range thermal to 2.5 keV. The normalization of the fission cross section data was reconsidered by taking into account the most recent measurements of Weston et al. and Wagemans et al. A full resonance parameter covariance matrix was generated. The method used to obtain realistic uncertainties on the average cross section calculated by SAMMY or other processing codes was examined.

  9. Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Site | Department of Energy Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download PDF icon Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at Savannah River Site PDF icon Summary - Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River Site More Documents & Publications EIS-0283-S2: Interim Action Determination EIS-0283-S2:

  10. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  11. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Pope, Chad L.; Andrus, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in themore » model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F).« less

  12. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-25

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-raymore » multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.« less

  13. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  14. Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range Effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Force (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range Effective Force Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range Effective Force Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations of hot fission in {sup 240}Pu have been performed with a newly-implemented code that uses the D1S finite-range effective interaction. The hot-scission line is identified in the

  15. Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the 239Pu(nth,f)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reaction (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the 239Pu(nth,f) Reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the 239Pu(nth,f) Reaction We calculate the total kinetic and excitation energies of fragments produced in the thermal-induced fission of {sup 239}Pu. This result is a proof-of-principle demonstration for a microscopic approach to the calculation of fission-fragment

  16. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los Alamos, McGuire AFB, Mayak, and Rocky Flats Friday, June 26, 2015 X-ray fluorescence maps of (clockwise from upper right) Ga, U, Ca, Pu, Ti, and K in a 350 micron PuO2-UO2 composite particle produced by the fire that consumed a nuclear armed BOMARC missile at McGuire AFB in 1960, measured with the two micron focused x-ray beam at SSRL. EST June 2,

  17. ZPR-6 assembly 7 high {sup 240} PU core : a cylindrical assemby with mixed (PU, U)-oxide fuel and a central high {sup 240} PU zone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2007-10-01

    Over a period of 30 years more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. The term 'benchmark' in a ZPR program connotes a particularly simple loading aimed at gaining basic reactor physics insight, as opposed to studying a reactor design. In fact, the ZPR-6/7 Benchmark Assembly (Reference 1) had a very simple core unit cell assembled from plates of depleted uranium, sodium, iron oxide, U3O8, and plutonium. The ZPR-6/7 core cell-average composition is typical of the interior region of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) of the era. It was one part of the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program,a which provided integral experiments characterizing the important features of demonstration-size LMFBRs. As a benchmark, ZPR-6/7 was devoid of many 'real' reactor features, such as simulated control rods and multiple enrichment zones, in its reference form. Those kinds of features were investigated experimentally in variants of the reference ZPR-6/7 or in other critical assemblies in the Demonstration Reactor Benchmark Program.

  18. RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.

    2010-06-23

    A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  19. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Detection and quantification of the aquo ions of Pu in 1 MHClO4 was carried out using a 1-meter liquid core waveguide (LCW) coupledto a fiber optic UV-Vis spectrometer. Detection ...

  20. Thermophysical properties of ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}: A new potential model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnay, S. D. Akdere, .; Ta?seven, .; Akgen, B.

    2013-12-16

    ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an important material among plutonium based materials in nuclear industry. Pure plutonium surfaces quickly oxidizes into ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PuO{sub 2} which are in the form of layers one on another. Here we have investigated thermal properties of ??Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} by molecular dynamics simulation by using a partially ionic semi-empirical rigid ion potential. Mechanical properties, thermal expansion, and heat capacity are calculated. Results were compared with available experimental data and quantum calculation [2]. Due to the experimental limitations such as toxicity and radiation effects, studying the physical properties of such materials from molecular dynamics simulations have vital importance.

  1. Characterization of high-fired PuO/sub 2/ as a certified reference material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legeled, M.A.; Cacic, C.G.; Crawford, D.W.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1984-07-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), U.S. Department of Energy, has certified a plutonium dioxide reference material, CRM 122, for plutonium assay and isotopic composition. The PuO/sub 2/ standard, one of several certified Pu reference materials currently being developed at NBL for use in instrumentation calibration and measurement control for safeguards, establishes traceability to the national measurement base. This plutonium reference material in the oxide form provides more directly demonstrable traceability than metal because it undergoes the same chemical treatment for dissolution as PuO/sub 2/ fuel materials. Various tests for achieving a constant weight and for dissolving CRM 122 high-fired PuO/sub 2/ were conducted. Results of these tests as well as the certification data generated by controlled-potential coulometry for plutonium assay and by thermal ionization mass spectrometry for isotopic composition will also be presented and discussed.

  2. Mass transport properties of Pu/DT mixtures from orbital free molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, Joel David; Ticknor, Christopher; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-09-16

    Mass transport properties (shear viscosity and diffusion coefficients) for Pu/DT mixtures were calculated with Orbital Free Molecular Dynamics (OFMD). The results were fitted to simple functions of mass density (for ρ=10.4 to 62.4 g/cm3) and temperature (for T=100 up to 3,000 eV) for Pu/DT mixtures consisting of 100/0, 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25 by number.

  3. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS TO ADDRESS PU-FE EUTECTICISSUE IN 3013 STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N; Allen Smith, A

    2007-03-06

    On November 22, 2005, the Manager of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in Richland, WA issued an Occurrence Report involving a potential Pu-Fe eutectic failure mechanism for the stainless steel (SS) 3013 cans containing plutonium (Pu) metal. Four additional reports addressed nuclear safety concerns about the integrity of stainless steel containers holding plutonium during fire scenarios. The reports expressed a belief that the probability and consequences of container failure due to the formation of a plutonium-iron eutectic alloy had been overlooked. Simplified thermal model to address the Pu-Fe eutectic concerns using axisymmetric model similar to the models used in the 9975 SARP were performed. The model uses Rocky Flats configuration with 2 stacked Pu buttons inside a 3013 assembly. The assembly has an outer can, an inner can, and a convenience can, all stainless steel. The boundary conditions are similar to the regulatory 30 minutes HAC fire analyses. Computer simulations of the HAC fire transients lasting 4 hours of burn time show that the interface between the primary containment vessel and the Pu metal in the 9975 package will not reach Pu-Fe eutectic temperature of 400 C.

  4. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad Pope; Jason Andrus

    2014-09-01

    This paper estimates the temperature of high Pu content ZPPR fuel while in storage to determine the probablilty of fuel damage during storage. The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) is an experimental reactor which has been decomissioned. It ran only at extremely low power, for testing nuclear reactor designs and was operated as a criticality facility from April 18, 1969 until decommissioned in 1990. Its fuel was manufactured in 1967 and has been in storage since the reactor was decomissioned. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible fuel damage. Any damage to the cladding would be expected to lead to the fuel hydriding and oxidizing over a long period of storage as was described in the analysis of the damage to the ZPPR uranium fuel resulting in the fuel becoming unuseable and a large potential source of contamination. (Ref. Solbrig, 1994). A series of computer runs were made to scope out the range of temperatures that can occur in the ZPPR fuel in storage. The maximum calculated conservative fuel temperature is high (292 degrees C [558 degrees F]) in spite of the fact that the fuel element heat generation rates seem quite low, between 35 and 10 W for containers (called clamshells) full of fuel. However, the ZPPR storage bins, built for safeguards, are very effective insulators. The calculated clamshells and the cavity doors temperatures are also high. No record exists of people receiving skin burns by touching the cavity doors or clamshells, which indicates the computed temperatures may be higher than actual. (Note, gloves are worn when handling hotter clamshells.) Given the high calculated temperatures, a cursory measurement program was conducted to calibrate the calculated results. The measurement of bin doors, cavity doors, and clamshell temperatures would be easy to make if it were not for regulations resulting from security and potential contamination. Due to conservative assumptions in the model like high heat transfer contact resistance between contact surfaces (such as between the fuel and the clamshell), the calculated temperatures are intended to be overestimated. The temperatures of the stored fuel in a particular clamshell are dependent, among other parameters, on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel in the clamshell (parallel or perpendicular to the door). The distribution of fuel in this analysis was selected to give higher temperatures than actual distributions might give. Due to possible contamination and security concerns, fuel temperatures could not be measured but the bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and clamshell temperatures could be and were measured. The comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are higher than the actual temperatures. This implies that the calculated fuel temperatures are higher than actual also. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions (292 degrees C, (558 degrees F)) is significantly below the no fuel failure criterion of 600 degrees C (1,112 degrees F). Some fuel failures have occurred but these results indicate that the failures are not due to high temperatures encountered in fuel storage.

  5. Am phases in the matrix of a UPuZr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.; OHolleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ?-(U, Pu) and the Zr content in ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 is lower than that in ?-UZr2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.

  6. Measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio using a transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter for total decay energy spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoover, Andrew S.; Bond, Evelyn M.; Croce, Mark P.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Kunde, Gerd J.; Rabin, Michael W.; Wolfsberg, Laura E.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Hays-Wehle, James P.; Schmidt, Dan R.; et al

    2015-02-27

    In this study, we have developed a new category of sensor for measurement of the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio from aqueous solution samples with advantages over existing methods. Aqueous solution plutonium samples were evaporated and encapsulated inside of a gold foil absorber, and a superconducting transition-edge-sensor microcalorimeter detector was used to measure the total reaction energy (Q-value) of nuclear decays via heat generated when the energy is thermalized. Since all of the decay energy is contained in the absorber, we measure a single spectral peak for each isotope, resulting in a simple spectral analysis problem with minimal peak overlap. We foundmore » that mechanical kneading of the absorber dramatically improves spectral quality by reducing the size of radioactive inclusions within the absorber to scales below 50 nm such that decay products primarily interact with atoms of the host material. Due to the low noise performance of the microcalorimeter detector, energy resolution values of 1 keV fwhm (full width at half-maximum) at 5.5 MeV have been achieved, an order of magnitude improvement over α-spectroscopy with conventional silicon detectors. We measured the 240Pu/239Pu mass ratio of two samples and confirmed the results by comparison to mass spectrometry values. These results have implications for future measurements of trace samples of nuclear material.« less

  7. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  8. Category:Economic Community of West African States | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total. B Benin Burkina Faso C Cape Verde G Gambia Ghana G cont. Guinea Guinea-Bissau I Ivory Coast L Liberia M Mali N Niger Nigeria...

  9. EIS-0299: Proposed Production of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) for Use in Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for Space Missions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS is for the proposed production of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) using one or more DOE research reactors and facilities.

  10. Modeling and production of 240Am by deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, Erin C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Wittman, Richard S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Woods, Vincent T.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.

    2015-02-01

    A novel reaction pathway for production of 240Am is reported. Models of reaction cross-sections in EMPIRE II suggests that deuteron-induced activation of a 240Pu target produces maximum yields of 240Am from 11.5 MeV incident deuterons. This activation had not been previously reported in the literature. A 240Pu target was activated under the modeled optimum conditions to produce 240Am. The modeled cross-section for the 240Pu(d, 2n)240Am reaction is on the order of 20-30 mbarn, but the experimentally estimated value is 5.3 0.2 mbarn. We discuss reasons for the discrepancy as well as production of other Am isotopes that contaminate the final product.

  11. Comprehensive appraisal of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils around Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litaor, M.I.; Allen, L.; Ellerbroek, D.

    1995-12-01

    Plutonium contamination of soils around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site, near Golden, Colorado, resulted from past outdoor storage practices and subsequent remobilization due to inadequate cleanup practices. Until now human-health risk assessment has not been performed because of a lack of sufficient information regarding the spatial extent of {sup 239+240}Pu in soils. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the extent of plutonium contamination in surface soils, and to assess the uncertainty associated with the spatial distribution of {sup 239+240}Pu around Rocky Flats Environmental & Technology Site.

  12. He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys Authors: Jeffries, J R ; Wall, M A ; Moore, K T ; Schwartz, A J Publication Date: 2010-09-29 OSTI Identifier: 1124957 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-458076 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal

  13. Recovery of UO[sub 2]/PuO[sub 2] in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-10-18

    A process is described for converting PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to metals while converting Li metal to Li[sub 2]O. Li[sub 2]O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O[sub 2] out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li[sub 2]O to disassociate to O[sub 2] and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl[sub 2].

  14. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated withmore » the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.« less

  15. Recovery of UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a process for converting PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO{sub 2} and U0{sub 2} with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the U0{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} to metals while converting Li metal to Li{sub 2}O. Li{sub 2}O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting 0{sub 2} out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li{sub 2}O to disassociate to 0{sub 2} and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl{sub 2}.

  16. Recovery of UO.sub.2 /Pu O.sub.2 in IFR electrorefining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO.sub.2 and PuO.sub.2 to metals while converting Li metal to Li.sub.2 O. Li.sub.2 O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O.sub.2 out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li.sub.2 O to disassociate to O.sub.2 and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl.sub.2.

  17. Understanding oxygen adsorption on 9.375 at. % Ga-stabilized ?-Pu (111) surface: A DFT study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Sarah C.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-08-30

    Plutonium (Pu) metal reacts rapidly in the presence of oxygen (O), resulting in an oxide layer that will eventually have an olive green rust appearance over time. Recent experimental work suggested that the incorporation of gallium (Ga) as an alloying impurity to stabilize the highly symmetric high temperature ?-phase lattice may also provide resistance against corrosion/oxidation of plutonium. In this paper, we modeled a 9.375 at. % Ga stabilized ?-Pu (111) surface and investigated adsorption of atomic O using all-electron density functional theory. Key findings revealed that the O bonded strongly to a Pu-rich threefold hollow fcc site with a chemisorption energy of 5.06 eV. Migration of the O atom to a Pu-rich environment was also highly sensitive to the surface chemistry of the PuGa surface; when the initial on-surface O adsorption site included a bond to a nearest neighboring Ga atom, the O atom relaxed to a Ga deficient environment, thus affirming the O preference for Pu. Only one calculated final on-surface O adsorption site included a Ga-O bond, but this chemisorption energy was energetically unfavorable. Chemisorption energies for interstitial adsorption sites that included a Pu or Pu-Ga environment suggested that over-coordination of the O atom was energetically unfavorable as well. Electronic structure properties of the on-surface sites, illustrated by the partial density of states, implied that the Ga 4p states indirectly but strongly influenced the Pu 6d states strongly to hybridize with the O 2p states, while also weakly influenced the Pu 5f states to hybridize with the O 2p states, even though Ga was not participating in bonding with O.

  18. Understanding oxygen adsorption on 9.375 at. % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface: A DFT study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hernandez, Sarah C.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-08-30

    Plutonium (Pu) metal reacts rapidly in the presence of oxygen (O), resulting in an oxide layer that will eventually have an olive green rust appearance over time. Recent experimental work suggested that the incorporation of gallium (Ga) as an alloying impurity to stabilize the highly symmetric high temperature δ-phase lattice may also provide resistance against corrosion/oxidation of plutonium. In this paper, we modeled a 9.375 at. % Ga stabilized δ-Pu (111) surface and investigated adsorption of atomic O using all-electron density functional theory. Key findings revealed that the O bonded strongly to a Pu-rich threefold hollow fcc site with amore » chemisorption energy of –5.06 eV. Migration of the O atom to a Pu-rich environment was also highly sensitive to the surface chemistry of the Pu–Ga surface; when the initial on-surface O adsorption site included a bond to a nearest neighboring Ga atom, the O atom relaxed to a Ga deficient environment, thus affirming the O preference for Pu. Only one calculated final on-surface O adsorption site included a Ga-O bond, but this chemisorption energy was energetically unfavorable. Chemisorption energies for interstitial adsorption sites that included a Pu or Pu-Ga environment suggested that over-coordination of the O atom was energetically unfavorable as well. Electronic structure properties of the on-surface sites, illustrated by the partial density of states, implied that the Ga 4p states indirectly but strongly influenced the Pu 6d states strongly to hybridize with the O 2p states, while also weakly influenced the Pu 5f states to hybridize with the O 2p states, even though Ga was not participating in bonding with O.« less

  19. Use of PuBe source to simulate neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normand, E.; Wert, J.L.; Doherty, W.R.; Oberg, D.L.; Measel, P.R.; Criswell, T.L.

    1988-12-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets were measured in static memory devices using a 10 curie PuBe source. The PuBe source conservatively overestimates the spectrum of fast neutrons emitted by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). For the 93L422, the neutron-induced upset rate compared favorably with calculated values derived using the burst generation concept. By accounting for the production of the ionizing particles by the PuBe and RTG neutron spectra, convenient upper bound SEU upset rates for memory devices near an RTG can be derived.

  20. Ostwald Ripening and Its Effect on PuO2 Particle Size in Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-09-29

    Between 1944 and 1989, the Hanford Site produced 60 percent (54.5 metric tons) of the United States weapons plutonium and produced an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuels-grade plutonium. High activity wastes, including plutonium lost from the separations processes used to isolate the plutonium, were discharged to underground storage tanks during these operations. Plutonium in the Hanford tank farms is estimated to be {approx}700 kg but may be up to {approx}1000 kg. Despite these apparent large quantities, the average plutonium concentration in the {approx}200 million liter tank waste volume is only about 0.003 grams per liter ({approx}0.0002 wt%). The plutonium is largely associated with low solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through Ostwald ripening in the alkaline tank waste to potentially be separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. It was found that plutonium that entered the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution is initially present as 2- to 3-nm (0.002- to 0.003-{mu}m) scale PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O crystallite particles and grows from that point at exceedingly slow rates, posing no risk to physical segregation. These conclusions are reached by both general considerations of Ostwald ripening and specific observations of the behaviors of PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O upon aging in alkaline solution.

  1. The reduction of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) by organic chelating agents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, D.T.; Aase, S.B.; Banaszak, J.E.

    1998-03-19

    The reduction of NpO{sup 2+} and PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by oxalate. citrate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was investigated in low ionic strength media and brines. This was done to help establish the stability of the An(VI) oxidation state in the presence of organic complexants. The stability of the An(VI) oxidation state depended on the pH and relative strength of the various oxidation state-specific complexes. At low ionic strength and pH 6, NpO{sub 2}O{sup 2+} was rapidly reduced to form NpO{sub 2}{sup +} organic complexes. At longer times, Np(IV) organic complexes were observed in the presence of citrate. PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was predominantly reduced to Pu{sup 4+}, resulting in the formation of organic complexes or polymeric/hydrolytic precipitates. The relative rates of reduction to the An(V) complex were EDTA > citrate > oxalate. Subsequent reduction to An(IV) complexes, however, occurred in the following order: citrate > EDTA > oxalate because of the stability of the An(V)-EDTA complex. The presence of organic complexants led to the rapid reduction of NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and PuO{sub 2}P{sup 2+} in G-seep brine at pHs 5 and 7. At pHs 8 and 10 in ERDA-6 brine, carbonate and hydrolytic complexes predominated and slowed down or prevented the reduction of An(VI) by the organics present.

  2. 6th US-Russian Pu Science Workshop Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US-Russian Pu Science Workshop Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory University of California, Livermore, California July 14 and 15, 2006 Local Chairs: Michael Fluss, James Tobin, Adam Schwartz LLNL, Livermore, USA Alexander V. Petrovtsev, RFNC * VNIITF, Snezhinsk, Russia Boris A. Nadykto, RFNC * VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia Lidia F. Timofeeva, VNIINM, Moscow, Russia Siegfried S. Hecker, (Luis Morales POC) LANL, Los Alamos, USA Valentin E. Arkhipov, IMP, Ural Branch of RAS, Yekaterinburg, Russia This

  3. Separate effects identification via casting process modeling for experimental measurement of UPuZr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Crapps; D. S. DeCroix; J. D. Galloway; D. A. Korzekwa; R. Aikin; R. Fielding; R. Kennedy; C. Unal

    2013-11-01

    Computational simulations of gravity casting processes for metallic UPuZr nuclear fuel rods have been performed using a design-of-experiments technique to determine the fluid flow, liquid heat transfer, and solid heat transfer parameters which most strongly influence the process solidification speed and fuel rod porosity. The results are used to make recommendations for the best investment of experimental time and effort to measure process parameters.

  4. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  5. Microsoft Word - Template_SLAC Proprietary Use Agreement_PU 11_14_13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PU 11/14/2013 1 The Department of Energy has opted to utilize the following agreement for Designated Proprietary User Facilities transactions. Because these transactions are widespread across Departmental facilities, uniformity in agreement terms is desirable. Except for the *** provisions, minor modifications to the terms of this agreement may be made by CONTRACTOR, but any changes to the *** provisions or substantive changes to the non *** provisons will require approval by the DOE Contracting

  6. NMIS With Gamma Spectrometry for Attributes of Pu and HEU, Explosives and Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Mattingly, J. K.; Mullens, J. A.; Neal, J. S.

    2002-05-10

    The concept for the system described herein is an active/passive Nuclear Materials Identification System{sup 2} (NMIS) that incorporates gamma ray spectrometry{sup 3}. This incorporation of gamma ray spectrometry would add existing capability into this system. This Multiple Attribute System can determine a wide variety of attributes for Pu and highly enriched uranium (HEU) of which a selected subset could be chosen. This system can be built using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components. NMIS systems are at All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) and Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Technical Physics, (VNIITF) and measurements with Pu have been performed at VNIIEF and analyzed successfully for mass and thickness of Pu. NMIS systems are being used successfully for HEU at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The use of active gamma ray spectrometry for high explosive HE and chemical agent detection is a well known activation analysis technique, and it is incorporated here. This report describes the system, explains the attribute determination methods for fissile materials, discusses technical issues to be resolved, discusses additional development needs, presents a schedule for building from COTS components, and assembly with existing components, and discusses implementation issues such as lack of need for facility modification and low radiation exposure.

  7. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.

    2015-04-23

    Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.

  8. Ground-state wave function of plutonium in PuSb as determined via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Janoschek, M.; Haskel, D.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Rebizant, J.; Lander, G. H.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2015-01-14

    Measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Pu M₄,₅ edges of the ferromagnet PuSb are reported. Using bulk magnetization measurements and a sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra, we determine the individual orbital [μL = 2.8(1)μB/Pu] and spin moments [μS = –2.0(1)μB/Pu] of the Pu 5f electrons for the first time. Atomic multiplet calculations of the XMCD and XANES spectra reproduce well the experimental data and are consistent with the experimental value of the spin moment. These measurements of Lz and Sz are in excellent agreement with the values thatmore » have been extracted from neutron magnetic form factor measurements, and confirm the local character of the 5f electrons in PuSb. We demonstrate that a split M₅ as well as a narrow M₄ XMCD signal may serve as a signature of 5f electron localization in actinide compounds.« less

  9. Ground-state wave function of plutonium in PuSb as determined via x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janoschek, M.; Haskel, D.; Fernandez-Rodriguez, J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Rebizant, J.; Lander, G. H.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.; Bauer, E. D.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Pu M?,? edges of the ferromagnet PuSb are reported. Using bulk magnetization measurements and a sum rule analysis of the XMCD spectra, we determine the individual orbital [?L = 2.8(1)?B/Pu] and spin moments [?S = ?2.0(1)?B/Pu] of the Pu 5f electrons for the first time. Atomic multiplet calculations of the XMCD and XANES spectra reproduce well the experimental data and are consistent with the experimental value of the spin moment. These measurements of ?Lz? and ?Sz? are in excellent agreement with the values that have been extracted from neutron magnetic form factor measurements, and confirm the local character of the 5f electrons in PuSb. Finally, we demonstrate that a split M? as well as a narrow M? XMCD signal may serve as a signature of 5f electron localization in actinide compounds.

  10. Validation of MCNP6.1 for Criticality Safety of Pu-Metal, -Solution, and -Oxide Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Kahler, III, Albert C.; Kersting, Alyssa R.; Parsons, Donald K.; Walker, Jessie L.

    2014-05-13

    Guidance is offered to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Criticality Safety division towards developing an Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) for MCNP6.1 calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data for three classes of problems: Pu-metal, -solution, and -oxide systems. A benchmark suite containing 1,086 benchmarks is prepared, and a sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) method with a generalized linear least squares (GLLS) data adjustment is used to reject outliers, bringing the total to 959 usable benchmarks. For each class of problem, S/U methods are used to select relevant experimental benchmarks, and the calculational margin is computed using extreme value theory. A portion of the margin of sub criticality is defined considering both a detection limit for errors in codes and data and uncertainty/variability in the nuclear data library. The latter employs S/U methods with a GLLS data adjustment to find representative nuclear data covariances constrained by integral experiments, which are then used to compute uncertainties in keff from nuclear data. The USLs for the classes of problems are as follows: Pu metal, 0.980; Pu solutions, 0.973; dry Pu oxides, 0.978; dilute Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.970; and intermediate-spectrum Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.953.

  11. First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.

    2015-04-23

    Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantummore » Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.« less

  12. Stability constants important to the understanding of plutonium in environmental waters, hydroxy and carbonate complexation of PuO{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D A

    1990-04-20

    The formation constants for the reactions PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + H{sub 2}O = PuO{sub 2}(OH) + H{sup +} and PuO{sub 2}{sup +} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2} = PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sup {minus}} were determined in aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The molar absorptivity of the PuO{sub 2}{sup +} band at 569 nm decreased with increasing hydroxide concentration. Similarly, spectral changes occurred between 540 and 580 nm as the carbonate concentration was increased. The absorption data were analyzed by the non-linear least-squares program SQUAD to yield complexation constants. Using the specific ion interaction theory, both complexation constants were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. These thermodynamic complexation constants were combined with the oxidation-reduction potentials of Pu to obtain Eh versus pH diagrams. 120 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Improved laboratory assays of Pu and U for SRP purification and finishing processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, M K; Dorsett, R S

    1986-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in routine assay techniques for uranium and plutonium as part of an effort to improve accountability at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Emphasis was placed on input/output accountability points and key physical inventory tanks associated with purification and finishing processes. Improvements were made in existing assay methods; new methods were implemented; and the application of these methods was greatly expanded. Prior to assays, samples were validated via density measurements. Digital density meters precise to four, five, and six decimal places were used to meet specific requirements. Improved plutonium assay techniques are now in routine use: controlled-potential coulometry, ion-exchange coulometry, and Pu(III) diode-array spectrophotometry. A new state-of-the-art coulometer was fabricated and used to ensure maximum accuracy in verifying standards and in measuring plutonium in product streams. The diode-array spectrophotometer for Pu(III) measurements was modified with fiber optics to facilitate remote measurements; rapid, precise measurements made the technique ideally suited for high-throughput assays. For uranium assays, the isotope-dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method was converted to a gravimetric basis. The IDMS method and the existing Davies-Gray titration (gravimetric basis) have met accountability requirements for uranium. More recently, a Pu(VI) diode-array spectrophotometric method was used on a test basis to measure plutonium in shielded-cell input accountability samples. In addition, tests to measure uranium via diode-array spectrophotometry were initiated. This rapid, precise method will replace IDMS for certain key sample points.

  14. Post-Irradiation Examination of 237Np Targets for 238Pu Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Baldwin, Charles A [ORNL; Hobbs, Randy W [ORNL; Schmidlin, Joshua E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is recovering the US 238Pu production capability and the first step in the process has been to evaluate the performance of a 237Np target cermet pellet encased in an aluminum clad. The process proceeded in 3 steps; the first step was to irradiate capsules of single pellets composed of NpO2 and aluminum power to examine their shrinkage and gas release. These pellets were formed by compressing sintered NpO2 and aluminum powder in a die at high pressure followed by sintering in a vacuum furnace. Three temperatures were chosen for sintering the solution precipitated NpO2 power used for pellet fabrication. The second step was to irradiate partial targets composed of 8 pellets in a semi-prototypical arrangement at the two best performing sintering temperatures to determine which temperature gave a pellet that performed the best under the actual planned irradiation conditions. The third step was to irradiate ~50 pellets in an actual target configuration at design irradiation conditions to assess pellet shrinkage and gas release, target heat transfer, and dimensional stability. The higher sintering temperature appeared to offer the best performance after one cycle of irradiation by having the least shrinkage, thus keeping the heat transfer gap between the pellets and clad small minimizing the pellet operating temperature. The final result of the testing was a target that can meet the initial production goals, satisfy the reactor safety requirements, and can be fabricated in production quantities. The current focus of the program is to verify that the target can be remotely dissembled, the pellets dissolved, and the 238Pu recovered. Tests are being conducted to examine these concerns and to compare results to code predictions. Once the performance of the full length targets has been quantified, the pellet 237Np loading will be revisited to determine if it can be increased to increase 238Pu production.

  15. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.; Hayes, S. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Nuclear Engineering Division; INL

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  16. Possible experimental evidence for the presence of double octupole states in {sup 240}Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascu, S.; Spieker, M.; Bucurescu, D.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Skalacki, S.; Weber, S.; Wirth, H. F.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zilges, A.

    2012-10-20

    Excited states in the {sup 240}Pu nucleus have been studied by means of the (p,t) reaction using the Q3D spectrometer and the focal plane detector from Munich. The comparison between experimental angular distributions and the DWBA calculations allowed the extraction of relative two-neutron transfer strengths. These observables may reveal important information about the structure of different states. The experimental two neutron strength for the 0{sup +}{sub 2} and 0{sup +}{sub 3} states is found in good agreement with the predictions of the IBA model, confirming the double octupole nature for the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state proposed in the previous studies.

  17. DOE plutonium disposition study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document Volume 2, provides a discussion of: Plutonium Fuel Cycle; Technology Needs; Regulatory Considerations; Cost and Schedule Estimates; and Deployment Strategy.

  18. Llr. Norgnn of the St. Louis office tolepbonod Dr. ;PuAuff mcently

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Llr. Norgnn of the St. Louis office tolepbonod Dr. ;PuAuff mcently rtxpeetlng pemlasion to !wu mpmaentatfoee of Uallinckrodt visit 03% to review rare earth smparatlon tmkniquas. Their lntsmst In purev binstrIal In that they hop to indsti- preilnotlon '- emparntlon of thssae elwnts., Dr. %odnUf oheckad ritli Paul -1. : '/I .._ ,,,. . . w!w was will- to ao"rrlon~vit~~'thoir,Pisiffirg.~e Laboratory sliax he did not feel that it lzpliad 8.pmferentia.l tmabmnt of KalllncJwodt. Subsquently, Dr.

  19. Study on reduction and back extraction of Pu(IV) by urea derivatives in nitric acid conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, G.A.; Xiao, S.T.; Yan, T.H.; Lin, R.S.; Zhu, Z.W.

    2013-07-01

    The reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) by hydroxyl-semicarbazide (HSC), hydroxyurea (HU) and di-hydroxyurea (DHU) in nitric acid solutions were investigated separately with adequate kinetic equations. In addition, counter-current cascade experiments were conducted for Pu split from U in nitric acid media using three kinds of reductant, respectively. The results show that urea derivatives as a kind of novel salt-free reductant can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) rapidly in the nitric acid solutions. The stripping experimental results showed that Pu(IV) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by the urea derivatives, and the separation factors of plutonium /uranium can reach more than 10{sup 4}. This indicates that urea derivatives is a kind of promising salt-free agent for uranium/plutonium separation. In addition, the complexing effect of HSC with Np(IV) was revealed, and Np(IV) can be back-extracted by HSC with a separation factor of about 20.

  20. Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 Authors: Booth, C H ; Bauer, E D ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-06-12 OSTI Identifier: 1149554 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-657137 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language:

  1. Radioecologycal study of {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula: Determination of {sup 239/240}Pu in marine sediment and seawater as part of baseline data collecting for sitting of candidates of first Indonesia NPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suseno, Heny; Wisnubroto, Djarot S.

    2014-03-24

    Radioisotope Pu-239/240 are alpha emitting nuclides important indicators of radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Global fallout is the main source of plutonium in the marine environment. There are very limited study on {sup 239/240}Pu in Indonesia coastal environments. The data of this radioisotopes is needed for baseline data of nuclear power plant (NPP) site candidates both in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. Bottom sediments play an important role in radioecological studies of the marine environment because a large proportion of radioactive substances entering the sea is adsorbed over time onto suspended particulate matter and deposited in sediments. Plutonium is particle reactive and deposited in marine sediment. Radioisotope {sup 239/240}Pu was determinated by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical procedure that was performed in both water and marine sediment from Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula. The sediment baseline of concentration {sup 239/240}Pu in Bangka Island and Muria Peninsula were range from 0.013 to 0.021 Bq.kg{sup ?1} and 0.018 to 0.024 Bq.kg{sup ?1} respectively. The water baseline concentration this isotope were range from 2.73 to 4.05 mBq.m{sup ?3} and 2.98 to 4.50 mBq.m{sup ?3}.

  2. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-05-25

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.

  3. DOE Plutonium Disposition Study: Pu consumption in ALWRs. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) to provide information on the capability of ABB-CE`s System 80 + Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) to transform, through reactor burnup, 100 metric tonnes (MT) of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) into a form which is not readily useable in weapons. This information is being developed as part of DOE`s Plutonium Disposition Study, initiated by DOE in response to Congressional action. This document, Volume 1, presents a technical description of the various elements of the System 80 + Standard Plant Design upon which the Plutonium Disposition Study was based. The System 80 + Standard Design is fully developed and directly suited to meeting the mission objectives for plutonium disposal. The bass U0{sub 2} plant design is discussed here.

  4. Review of Calculations on Point Defect Properties in Delta-Pu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, P. G.; Wolfer, W. G.

    2015-09-08

    The results of theoretical predictions of properties for vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIA) in δ-Pu are presented and reviewed. Three methods have been used for these predictions, namely the modified embedded atom method (MEAM), density functional theory (DFT) with and without spin polarization, and continuum mechanics (CM) models adapted to plutonium. The properties considered are formation and migration energies, and relaxation volumes of vacancies and SIA. Predicted values vary considerably. Nevertheless, all three methods predict that the activation energy for self-diffusion by vacancies is of similar magnitude as the SIA formation energy. Furthermore, the absolute magnitudes of relaxation volumes for vacancies and SIA are also similar, indicating that there exist no large bias for radiation-induced void swelling.

  5. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  6. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-20

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. As a result, we obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both tomore » the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.« less

  7. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, J. R.; Manley, M. E.; Wall, M. A.; Blobaum, K. J. M.; Schwartz, A. J.

    2012-06-06

    Enthalpy and entropy are thermodynamic quantities critical to determining how and at what temperature a phase transition occurs. At a phase transition, the enthalpy and temperature-weighted entropy differences between two phases are equal (ΔH=TΔS), but there are materials where this balance has not been experimentally or theoretically realized, leading to the idea of hidden order and disorder. In a Pu-1.9 at. % Ga alloy, the δ phase is retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the δ phase yields to a mixed-phase microstructure of δ- and α'-Pu. The previously measured sources of entropy associated with the α'→δ transformation fail to sum to the entropy predicted theoretically. We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the α'→δ transformation that corroborates the theoretical prediction, and implies that only about 65% of the entropy stabilizing the δ phase is accounted for, leaving a missing entropy of about 0.5 kB/atom. Some previously proposed mechanisms for generating entropy are discussed, but none seem capable of providing the necessary disorder to stabilize the δ phase. This hidden disorder represents multiple accessible states per atom within the δ phase of Pu that may not be included in our current understanding of the properties and phase stability of δ-Pu.

  8. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  9. Estimation of 240Pu Mass in a Waste Tank Using Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Radioactive Xenon Isotopes from Spontaneous Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Olsen, Khris B.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Reid, Bruce D.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-12-01

    We report on a technique to detect and quantify the amount of 240Pu in a large tank used to store nuclear waste from plutonium production at the Hanford nuclear site. While the contents of this waste tank are known from previous grab sample measurements, our technique could allow for determination of the amount of 240Pu in the tank without costly sample retrieval and analysis of this highly radioactive material. This technique makes an assumption, which was confirmed, that 240Pu dominates the spontaneous fissions occurring in the tank.

  10. Stress and Diffusion in Stored Pu ZPPR Fuel from Alpha Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles W. Solbrig; Chad L. Pope; Jason P. Andrus

    2014-07-01

    ZPPR (Zero Power Physics Reactor) is a research reactor that has been used to investigate breeder reactor fuel designs. The reactor has been dismantled but its fuel is still stored there. Of concern are its plutonium containing metal fuel elements which are enclosed in stainless steel cladding with gas space filled with heliumargon gas and welded air tight. The fuel elements which are 5.08 cm by 0.508 cm up to 20.32 cm long (2 in 0.2 in 8 in) were manufactured in 1968. A few of these fuel elements have failed releasing contamination raising concern about the general state of the large number of other fuel elements. Inspection of the large number of fuel elements could lead to contamination release so analytical studies have been conducted to estimate the probability of failed fuel elements. This paper investigates the possible fuel failures due to generation of helium in the metal fuel from the decay of Pu and its possible damage to the fuel cladding from metal fuel expansion or from diffusion of helium into the fuel gas space. This paper (1) calculates the initial gas loading in a fuel element and its internal free volume after it has been brought into the atmosphere at ZPPR, (2) shows that the amount of helium generated by decay of Pu over 46 years since manufacture is significantly greater than this initial loading, (3) determines the amount of fuel swelling if the helium stays fixed in the fuel plate and estimates the amount of helium which diffuses out of the fuel plate into the fuel plenum assuming the helium does not remain fixed in the fuel plate but can diffuse to the plenum and possibly through the cladding. Since the literature is not clear as to which possibility occurs, as with Schroedingers cat, both possibilities are analyzed. The paper concludes that (1) if the gas generated is fixed in the fuel, then the fuel swelling it can cause would not cause any fuel failure and (2) if the helium does diffuse out of the fuel (in accordance diffusivities estimated from the literature), then it is unlikely that fuel element bulging will occur.

  11. Rational Ligand Design for U(VI) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szigethy, Geza

    2009-08-12

    Nuclear power is an attractive alternative to hydrocarbon-based energy production at a time when moving away from carbon-producing processes is widely accepted as a significant developmental need. Hence, the radioactive actinide power sources for this industry are necessarily becoming more widespread, which is accompanied by the increased risk of exposure to both biological and environmental systems. This, in turn, requires the development of technology designed to remove such radioactive threats efficiently and selectively from contaminated material, whether that be contained nuclear waste streams or the human body. Raymond and coworkers (University of California, Berkeley) have for decades investigated the interaction of biologically-inspired, hard Lewis-base ligands with high-valent, early-actinide cations. It has been established that such ligands bind strongly to the hard Lewis-acidic early actinides, and many poly-bidentate ligands have been developed and shown to be effective chelators of actinide contaminants in vivo. Work reported herein explores the effect of ligand geometry on the linear U(IV) dioxo dication (uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}). The goal is to utilize rational ligand design to develop ligands that exhibit shape selectivity towards linear dioxo cations and provides thermodynamically favorable binding interactions. The uranyl complexes with a series of tetradentate 3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (3,2-HOPO) ligands were studied in both the crystalline state as well as in solution. Despite significant geometric differences, the uranyl affinities of these ligands vary only slightly but are better than DTPA, the only FDA-approved chelation therapy for actinide contamination. The terepthalamide (TAM) moiety was combined into tris-beidentate ligands with 1,2- and 3,2-HOPO moieties were combined into hexadentate ligands whose structural preferences and solution thermodynamics were measured with the uranyl cation. In addition to achieving coordinative saturation, these ligands exhibited increased uranyl affinity compared to bis-Me-3,2-HOPO ligands. This result is due in part to their increased denticity, but is primarily the result of the presence of the TAM moiety. In an effort to explore the relatively unexplored coordination chemistry of Pu(IV) with bidentate moieties, a series of Pu(IV) complexes were also crystallized using bidentate hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrone ligands. The geometries of these complexes are compared to that of the analogous Ce(IV) complexes. While in some cases these showed the expected structural similarities, some ligand systems led to significant coordination changes. A series of crystal structure analyses with Ce(IV) indicated that these differences are most likely the result of crystallization condition differences and solvent inclusion effects.

  12. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  13. Rapid fusion method for the determination of Pu, Np, and Am in large soil samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2015-02-14

    A new rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for the preparation of 10-20 g soil samples has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The method enables lower detection limits for plutonium, neptunium, and americium in environmental soil samples. The method also significantly reduces sample processing time and acid fume generation compared to traditional soil digestion techniques using hydrofluoric acid. Ten gram soil aliquots can be ashed and fused using the new method in 1-2 hours, completely dissolving samples, including refractory particles. Pu, Np and Am are separated using stacked 2mL cartridges of TEVA and DGA Resin and measuredmore » using alpha spectrometry. The method can be adapted for measurement by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two 10 g soil aliquots of fused soil may be combined prior to chromatographic separations to further improve detection limits. Total sample preparation time, including chromatographic separations and alpha spectrometry source preparation, is less than 8 hours.« less

  14. Assessment of a mechanistic model in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, D.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to look at its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to the simulation of fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and the evolution of the gas bubble size distribution in three different fuel zones: the outer {alpha}-U, the intermediate, and the inner {gamma}-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the {alpha}-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is consistent with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the {alpha}-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature {gamma}-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreements between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. In addition, the results of parametric studies for several key parameters are presented for both the intermediate zone and the {gamma}-U zone simulations. (authors)

  15. Modeling of selected ceramic processing parameters employed in the fabrication of 238PuO2 fuel pellets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via ''classical'' ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters withmore » the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. The results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.« less

  16. Effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on Partitioning of Np and Pu to Synthetic Boehmite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on sorption of Np(V) and Pu(V) to synthetic boehmite ({gamma}-AlOOH) was examined a function of time and pH (between 4 to 11). Sorption of both elements in boehmite suspensions (1 M NaCl, 600 mg L{sup -1} boehmite) increased with increasing pH. Sorption edges for neptunium and plutonium occurred at approximately pH 8.0 and 6.6, respectively. After steady state partitioning was reached, HEDPA was added to the neptunium-boehmite and plutonium-boehmite suspensions. Neptunium and plutonium partitioning appears to be primarily affected by the formation of soluble Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA complexes, the dissolution of boehmite promoted by HEDPA, and the precipitation of Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA colloids. The results are discussed in terms of applicability of HEDPA-promoted dissolution as a waste reduction method in the treatment of sludge phases contained within high-level nuclear waste storage tanks.

  17. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  18. Comparison of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soil around Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, S.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Chapman, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements were used to estimate concentrations of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles to depths of 21 cm at on-site and off-site locations around the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at regional background locations east of the Front Range between Colorado`s borders with New Mexico and Wyoming. Concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the same samples. Concentrations of {sup 241}Am in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm decreased in an easterly direction from more than 5.3 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} 5 to 7 km away at a rate that was nearly proportional to the inverse square of distance. Deposits of {sup 137}Cs were ubiquitous, averaging 0.12 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm, but were unevenly distributed around Rocky Flats and the regional background locations. Deviations from the uniform exponential rate at which soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs typically decreased with depth, {minus}0.25 cm{sup {minus}1} at undisturbed sites, enabled the authors to determine that about 10% of their sampling sites had been disturbed by erosion, tillage, or other factors. The mean rate at which {sup 239,240}Pu decreased with depth was about the same, {minus}0.23 cm{sup {minus}1}, throughout the study area. Soil concentrations of {sup 241}Am decreased with depth at a similar mean rate of {minus}0.22 cm{sup {minus}1} at locations close to the 903 pad where measurements were robust. Ratios between {sup 241}Am or {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs proved more useful for delineating the extent and pattern of contamination from Rocky Flats than did activity concentrations in soil.

  19. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x=0, 8, 19 wt%) Fast Reactor Fuel Test in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter; H.C. Tsai

    2012-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4 cm active fuel column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning of life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608?C, cooling to 522?C at end of life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3 cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at ~0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a lower production of rare earth fission products higher in the fuel column as well as a much smaller delta-T between fuel center and cladding, and therefore less FCCI, despite the higher cladding temperature. This behavior could actually help extend the life of a fuel pin in a long pin reactor design to a higher peak fuel burnup.

  20. Effects of Aging on PuO2?xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2?xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 24-nm PuO2?xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  1. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced Delta to Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2008-01-18

    A well-homogenized Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy can be retained in the metastable face-centered cubic {delta} phase at room temperature. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic {alpha} phase and the intermetallic compound Pu{sub 3}Ga over a period of approximately 10,000 years [1]. In addition, these low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are metastable with respect to an isothermal martensitic phase transformation to the {alpha}{prime} phase during low temperature excursions [2, 3] and are also metastable with respect to a {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} phase transformation with increases in pressure [3-5]. The low temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic phase transformation in the Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy only goes to {approx}25% completion with the resultant {approx}20 {micro}m long by 2 {micro}m wide lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles dispersed within the {delta} matrix. In recently reported studies, Faure et al. [4] have observed a {delta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha}{prime} pressure-induced phase transformation sequence during a diamond anvil cell investigation and, based on x-ray diffraction and density and compressibility experiments, Harbur [5] has concluded that both {alpha}{prime} and an amorphous phase are present in samples that were pressurized and recovered. In this work, a large volume moissanite anvil cell is constructed to permit the pressurization and recovery of specimens of a size suitable for TEM and electron diffraction studies. The cell, shown in Fig. 1, has an overall diameter of 101.6 mm, a moissanite anvil diameter of 9.00 mm, a culet size of 3 mm, and a spring steel gasket 0.5 mm thick with a hole diameter of 2.5 mm. A 2.3 mm diameter by 100 {micro}m thick sample of {delta}-phase Pu-2 at.% Ga is compressed at a rate of approximately 0.05 GPa/minute to {approx}1 GPa to induce the phase transformation to {alpha}{prime}. Optical microscopy of the recovered specimen reveals a very fine microstructure that appears to be single phase, although the resolution of this technique is insufficient to differentiate between single and multiple phases if the grain size is below approximately 1 {micro}m. X-ray diffraction, using a laboratory Cu K{sub {alpha}} source with wavelength of 1.542{angstrom}, shows the monoclinic reflections from the {alpha}{prime} phase, strong peaks from the aluminum specimen holder, and weak peaks from the face-centered cubic {delta} phase as shown in Fig. 2. The recovered specimen is prepared for TEM and electron diffraction studies as described in Moore et al. [6]. TEM reveals small regions of {delta} phase with a very high dislocation density interspersed between the 10-100's nm {alpha}{prime} grains as shown in Fig. 3. Electron diffraction, shown in the insert in Fig. 3, clearly reveals the presence of the {delta} phase. This microstructure is in contrast to the {alpha}{prime} particles that form as a result of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the {alpha}{prime} particles are lath-shaped and significantly larger as shown in the optical micrograph in Fig. 4 of a sample cooled to -120 C and held for 10 hours. In these preliminary results, there is no evidence of either an amorphous phase, as suggested by Harbur [5], or the presence of a {gamma} phase. We expected to observe an amorphous phase based on the similarity of this experiment to that of Harbur [5]. It is possible that the {gamma} phase, as reported by Faure et al. [4], does form as an intermediate, but it is not retained to ambient pressure.

  2. Analysis of Pu-Only Partitioning Strategies in LMFBR Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel Bays; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have been under consideration for production of electricity, fissile material production, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. The neutron economy of a SFR can be operated in one of two ways. One possibility is to operate the reactor in a transuranic burner mode which has been the focus of active R&D in the last 15 years. However, prior to that the focus was on breeding transuranics. This later mode of managing the neutron economy relies on ensuring the maximum fuel utilization possible in such a way as to maximize the amount of plutonium produced per unit of fission energy in the reactor core. The goal of maximizing plutonium production in this study is as fissile feed stock for the production of MOX fuel to be used in Light Water Reactors (LWR). Throughout the l970s, this fuel cycle scenario was the focus of much research by the Atomic Energy Commission in the event that uranium supplies would be scarce. To date, there has been sufficient uranium to supply the once through nuclear fuel cycle. However, interest in a synergistic relationship Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) and a consumer LWR fleet persists, prompting this study. This study considered LMFBR concepts with varying additions of axial and radial reflectors. Three scenarios were considered in collaboration with a companion study on the LWR-MOX designs based on plutonium nuclide vectors produced by this study. The first scenario is a LMFBR providing fissile material to make MOX fuel where the MOX part of the fuel cycle is operated in a once-through-then-out mode. The second scenario is the same as the first but with the MOX part of the fuel cycle multi-recycling its own plutonium with LMFBR being used for the make-up feed. In these first two scenarios, plutonium partitioning from the minor actinides (MA) was assumed. Also, the plutonium management strategy of the LMFBR ensured that only the high fissile purity plutonium bred from blankets was sold to the MOX LWRs. The third scenario considered a LMFBR fuel cycle in an expansionary mode where excess bred transuranic material is accumulated for spinning off additional LMFBR cores. In this latter scenario, no plutonium partitioning was considered. After every cycle, transuranic from both driver and blankets is sold to the MOX LWRs. The MA production from LMFBR operated in a Pu-only fuel cycle is roughly only 1% that of the transuranic production rate. This is in contrast to LWR fuel cycles where the MA content in TRU is closer to 10% or more. If such a LMFBR were operated to provide fissile material to a fleet of MOX reactors, then 1 GWe of LMFBR could support between approximately 0.11 and 0.43 GWe of LWR-MOX reactors for a LMFBR conversion ratio between 1.1 and 1.5, if the MOX reactors were operated in a once-through-then out mode. If the plutonium is continuously recycled in the MOX reactors then the support ratio is approximately 1 GWe of LMFBR for between 0.13 and 0.65 GWe of LWR-MOX reactors depending on the LMFBR conversion ratio. Also, it was found that if the LMFBR fleet were operated in a purely expansionary mode, the smallest doubling time achievable would be seven years.

  3. Radiochemical procedures for analysis of Pu, Am, Cs and Sr in water, soil, sediments and biota samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Radioactivity Analysis Laboratory (ERAL) was established as an analytical facility. The primary function of ERAL is to provide fast and accurate radiological data of environmental samples. Over the years, many radiochemical procedures have been developed by the staffs of ERAL. As result, we have found that our procedures exist in many different formats and in many different notebooks, documents and files. Therefore, in order to provide for more complete and orderly documentation of the radiochemical procedures that are being used by ERAL, we have decided to standardize the format and compile them into a series of reports. This first report covers procedures we have developed and are using for the radiochemical analysis of Pu, Am, Cs, and Sr in various matrices. Additional analytical procedures and/or revisions for other elements will be reported as they become available through continuation of these compilation efforts.

  4. Relativistic energy density functionals: Low-energy collective states of {sup 240}Pu and {sup 166}Er

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.; Meng, J.

    2010-06-15

    The empirical relativistic density-dependent, point-coupling energy density functional, adjusted exclusively to experimental binding energies of a large set of deformed nuclei with Aapprox =150-180 and Aapprox =230-250, is tested with spectroscopic data for {sup 166}Er and {sup 240}Pu. Starting from constrained self-consistent triaxial relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov calculations of binding energy maps as functions of the quadrupole deformation in the beta-gamma plane, excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities are calculated as solutions of the corresponding microscopic collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom and compared with available data on low-energy collective states.

  5. Properties measurements of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2-x} in PO{sub 2}-controlled atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Murakami, T.; Sunaoshi, T.; Nelson, A.T.; McClellan, K.J.

    2013-07-01

    The investigation of physical properties of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels is important for the development of fast reactor fuels. It is well known that MOX is a nonstoichiometric oxide, and the physical properties change drastically with the Oxygen-to-Metal (O/M) ratio. A control technique for O/M ratio was established for measurements of high temperature properties of uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuels. Sintering behavior, thermal expansion and O/M change of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2.00} and (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 1.99} were investigated in PO{sub 2}-controlled atmosphere which was controlled by H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas system. Sintering behavior changed drastically with O/M ratio, and shrinkage of (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 2.00} was faster and more advanced at lower temperatures as compared with (U{sub 0.7}Pu{sub 0.3})O{sub 1.99}. Thermal expansion was observed to be slightly increased with decreasing O/M ratio. (authors)

  6. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K.; Takano, M.; Sato, S.; Shimazu, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  7. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  8. On the Potential for Vacancy Annihilation as a Mechanism for Conditioning in Pu-1.9 at.% Ga

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Schwartz, A J

    2009-03-09

    The {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} martensitic transformation in Pu-1.9 at.% Ga occurs when the alloy is cooled below about -100 C. This transformation exhibits anomalous behavior, where the isothermal transformation proceeds atypically with double-C kinetics. Recent work has revealed that an ambient temperature isothermal hold (referred to as conditioning) prior to the transformation has different effects depending on whether transformation proceeds in the upper- or lower-C of the double-C: the amount of transformation is increased with conditioning in the upper-C, while the transformation in the lower-C seems to be engendered by conditioning. The mechanism by which conditioning affects the low-temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation is thus of great importance to understanding the transformation itself as well as the general circumstances that can affect a martensitic phase transformation. Using differential scanning calorimetry measurements, vacancy annihilation as a mechanism for the conditioning effect has been examined. While there are some characteristics of the conditioning effect that are reminiscent of vacancy annihilation, the results of these experiments suggest that vacancy annihilation is not a likely candidate description for the conditioning effect.

  9. Theoretical aspects of the magnetism in the ferromagnetic A Fe sub 2 systems ( A =U, Np, Pu, and Am)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, O.; Johansson, B. ); Brooks, M.S.S. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on spin-polarized energy-band calculations for the cubic Laves-phase systems UFe{sub 2}, NpFe{sub 2}, PuFe{sub 2}, and AmFe{sub 2}. The calculations were performed with the local-density approximation for the exchange and correlation potential together with a term that shifts the one-electron eigenvalues and takes into account the different interelectronic repulsions for electrons with different 5{ital f} magnetic quantum numbers. The spin-orbit interaction was also included in the band Hamiltonian. Thus the parameter-free calculations incorporate Hund's first, second, and third rules. The magnetism in the first three compounds was found to be dominated by a large orbital contribution coupled antiparallel to the spin moment. In the calculations for AmFe{sub 2}, the 5{ital f} electrons were treated as core electrons. The magnetism was here found to behave very much like the magnetism of similar rare-earth Laves-phase compounds.

  10. International Workshop on Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Codes for U and Pu Isotopics: Workshop Results and Next Steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, Brent R; Solodov, Alexander A; Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Zhernosek, Alena V; McKinney, Teressa L; Pickett, Chris A; Peerani, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In November 2008, the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) and the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) co-hosted the International Workshop on Gamma Spectrometry Analysis Codes for U and Pu Isotopics at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This workshop was conducted in response to needs expressed by the international safeguards community to understand better the capabilities and limitations of the codes; to ensure these codes are sustained; and to ensure updates or revisions are performed in a controlled manner. The workshop was attended by approximately 100 participants. The participants included code developers, code suppliers, safeguards specialists, domestic and international inspectors, process operators, regulators, and programme sponsors from various government agencies. The workshop provided a unique opportunity for code developers, commercial distributors and end users to interact in a hands-on laboratory environment to develop solutions for programmatic and technical issues associated with the various codes. The workshop also provided an international forum for discussing development of an internationally accepted standard test method. This paper discusses the organization of the workshop, its goals and objectives and feedback received from the participants. The paper also describes the significance of the working group's contribution to improving codes that are commonly used during inspections to verify that nuclear facilities are compliant with treaty obligations that ensure nuclear fuel cycle facilities are used for peaceful purposes.

  11. Modeling of selected ceramic processing parameters employed in the fabrication of 238PuO2 fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, R. A.; Kramer, D. P.; Barklay, C. D.; Cairns-Gallimore, D.; Brown, J. L.; Huling, J. C.; Van Pelt, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    Recent deep space missions utilize the thermal output of the radioisotope plutonium-238 as the fuel in the thermal to electrical power system. Since the application of plutonium in its elemental state has several disadvantages, the fuel employed in these deep space power systems is typically in the oxide form such as plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2). As an oxide, the processing of the plutonium dioxide into fuel pellets is performed via ''classical'' ceramic processing unit operations such as sieving of the powder, pressing, sintering, etc. Modeling of these unit operations can be beneficial in the understanding and control of processing parameters with the goal of further enhancing the desired characteristics of the 238PuO2 fuel pellets. A finite element model has been used to help identify the time-temperature-stress profile within a pellet during a furnace operation taking into account that 238PuO2 itself has a significant thermal output. The results of the modeling efforts will be discussed.

  12. The thermal conductivity of mixed fuel UxPu1-xO2: molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Cooper, Michael William Donald; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-10-16

    Mixed oxides (MOX), in the context of nuclear fuels, are a mixture of the oxides of heavy actinide elements such as uranium, plutonium and thorium. The interest in the UO2-PuO2 system arises from the fact that these oxides are used both in fast breeder reactors (FBRs) as well as in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The thermal conductivity of UO2 fuel is an important material property that affects fuel performance since it is the key parameter determining the temperature distribution in the fuel, thus governing, e.g., dimensional changes due to thermal expansion, fission gas release rates, etc. For this reason it is important to understand the thermal conductivity of MOX fuel and how it differs from UO2. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to determine quantitatively, the effect of mixing on the thermal conductivity of UxPu1-xO2, as a function of PuO2 concentrations, for a range of temperatures, 300 1500 K. The results will be used to develop enhanced continuum thermal conductivity models for MARMOT and BISON by INL. These models express the thermal conductivity as a function of microstructure state-variables, thus enabling thermal conductivity models with closer connection to the physical state of the fuel.

  13. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Taylor; Parma, Edward J.

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  14. Noble gas component organization in Apollo 14 breccia 14318: /sup 129/I and /sup 244/Pu regolith chronology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, T.D.; Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Hudson, G.B.; Laul, J.C.; Simon, S.B.; Papike, J.J.

    1985-02-15

    Noble gas, petrological, and chemical studies made on grain-size separates from lunar regolith breccia 14318 demonstrate that the noble gases are organized into two functional components, volume-correlated and surface-correlated. As in regolith breccia 14301, volume-correlated xenon in 14318 is primarily spallation-derived and the surface-correlated component contains not only solar wind xenon but also significant amounts of ''parentless' xenon from the fission of now extinct /sup 244/Pu and the decay of now extinct /sup 129/I (''parentless'' means the daughter products were incorporated onto grain surfaces following decay of the parent nuclide elsewhere). The ratio of /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe in the total surface-correlated parentless component, as identified in grain-size analysis, is substantially higher than in the least tightly bound parentless component identified in stepwise heating analyses, confirming the trend seen in 14301. If the order of release of gases in stepwise heating is related to the order of incorporation in the simplest way (first in, last out), incorporation of these grain-surface components was probably time-ordered. The /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe ratio in each identifiable parentless component would then be characteristic of the xenon available for surface adsorption at the particular time of acquisition. Continuous variations in this ratio further suggest that incorporation of the parentless xenon was closely coupled with production. Such observations provide the basis for a new chronometer from which we conclude that acquisition of parentless xenon was an ongoing process spanning at least 90 m.y., beginning no more than 44 +- 34 m.y. after the formation of the most meteorites and possibly predating xenon acquisition for the earth.

  15. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  16. Fission Product Yields of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu in Fields of Thermal Neutrons, Fission Neutrons and 14.7-MeV Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurec, J.; Adam, A.; Bruyne, T. de [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Bauge, E., E-mail: eric.bauge@cea.f [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Aupiais, J.; Bersillon, O.; Le Petit, G. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre DAM-Ile de France (CEA DAM DIF), 91297 Arpajon (France); Authier, N.; Casoli, P. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-12-15

    The yields of more than fifteen fission products have been carefully measured using radiochemical techniques, for {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 239}Pu(n,f) in a thermal spectrum, for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), and {sup 239}Pu(n,f) reactions in a fission neutron spectrum, and for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 238}U(n,f), and {sup 239}Pu(n,f) for 14.7 MeV monoenergetic neutrons. Irradiations were performed at the EL3 reactor, at the Caliban and Prospero critical assemblies, and at the Lancelot electrostatic accelerator in CEA-Valduc. Fissions were counted in thin deposits using fission ionization chambers. The number of fission products of each species were measured by gamma spectrometry of co-located thick deposits.

  17. Measurement/Evaluation Techniques and Nuclear Data Associated with Fission of 239Pu by Fission Spectrum Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baisden, P; Bauge, E; Ferguson, J; Gilliam, D; Granier, T; Jeanloz, R; McMillan, C; Robertson, D; Thompson, P; Verdon, C; Wilkerson, C; Young, P

    2010-03-16

    This Panel was chartered to review and assess new evaluations of work on fission product data, as well as the evaluation process used by the two U.S. nuclear weapons physics laboratories. The work focuses on fission product yields resulting from fission spectrum neutrons incident on plutonium, and includes data from measurements that had not been previously published as well as new or revised fission product cumulative yield data, and related quantities such as Q values and R values. This report documents the Panel's assessment of the work presented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Based on the work presented we have seven key observations: (1) Experiments conducted in the 1970s at LANL, some of which were performed in association with a larger, NIST-led, program, have recently been documented. A preliminary assessment of this work, which will be referred to in this document as ILRR-LANL, shows it to be technically sound. (2) LLNL has done a thorough, unbiased review and evaluation of the available literature and is in the process of incorporating the previously unavailable LANL data into its evaluation of key fission product yields. The results of the LLNL effort, which includes a preliminary evaluation of the ILRR-LANL data, have been documented. (3) LANL has also conducted an evaluation of fission product yields for fission spectrum neutrons on plutonium including a meta-analysis of benchmark data as part of a planned upgrade to the ENDF/B compilation. We found that the approach of using meta-analysis provides valuable additional insight for evaluating the sparse data sets involved in this assessment. (4) Both laboratories have provided convincing evidence for energy dependence in the fission product yield of {sup 147}Nd produced from the bombardment of {sup 239}Pu with fission spectrum neutrons over an incident neutron energy range of 0.2 to 1.9 MeV. (5) Consistent, complete, and explicit treatment of both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, are critical to the assessment of both the experimental measurements (due to variations between experimental techniques, irradiation conditions, calibration procedures, etc.), and the evaluation of those experiments to extract fundamental nuclear data. A clear example of the importance of uncertainty analysis is in the justification for energy-dependent {sup 147}Nd fission product yield, where the magnitude of the effect is comparable to the uncertainties of the individual fission product yield measurements. Both LANL and LLNL are committed to the inclusion of full uncertainty analysis in their evaluations. (6) The Panel reviewed in detail two methods for determining/evaluating fission product yields from which fission assessments can be made: the K factor method and high-resolution gamma spectroscopy (both described more fully in Sections 3 and 4). The panel concluded that fission product yields, and thus fission assessments, derived using either approach are equally valid, provided that the data were obtained from well understood, direct fission measurements and that the key underlying calibrations and/or data are valid for each technique. (7) The Panel found the process of peer review of the two complementary but independent methods to be an extremely useful exercise. Although work is still ongoing and the numbers presented to the Panel may change slightly, both groups are now in much better agreement on not just one, but four key fission product yields. The groups also have a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of each other's methods.

  18. Static electric dipole polarizabilities of An{sup 5+/6+} and AnO{sub 2}{sup +/2+} (An = U, Np, and Pu) ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmar, Payal E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu Peterson, Kirk A. E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu; Clark, Aurora E. E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu

    2014-12-21

    The parallel components of static electric dipole polarizabilities have been calculated for the lowest lying spin-orbit states of the penta- and hexavalent oxidation states of the actinides (An) U, Np, and Pu, in both their atomic and molecular diyl ion forms (An{sup 5+/6+} and AnO{sub 2}{sup +/2+}) using the numerical finite-field technique within a four-component relativistic framework. The four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock method formed the reference for MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations, while multireference Fock space coupled-cluster (FSCC), intermediate Hamiltonian Fock space coupled-cluster (IH-FSCC) and Kramers restricted configuration interaction (KRCI) methods were used to incorporate additional electron correlation. It is observed that electron correlation has significant (?5 a.u.{sup 3}) impact upon the parallel component of the polarizabilities of the diyls. To the best of our knowledge, these quantities have not been previously reported and they can serve as reference values in the determination of various electronic and response properties (for example intermolecular forces, optical properties, etc.) relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle and material science applications. The highest quality numbers for the parallel components (?{sub zz}) of the polarizability for the lowest ? levels corresponding to the ground electronic states are (in a.u.{sup 3}) 44.15 and 41.17 for UO{sub 2}{sup +} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, 45.64 and 41.42 for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, respectively, and 47.15 for the PuO{sub 2}{sup +} ion.

  19. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-12-15

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for {sup 99}Mo, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 141,143}Ce, and {sup 147}Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the {sup 147}Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by {approx}5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried over to the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, except for {sup 99}Mo where the present results are about 4%-relative higher for neutrons incident on {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U. Additionally, our results illustrate the importance of representing the incident energy dependence of fission product yields over the fast neutron energy range for high-accuracy work, for example the {sup 147}Nd from neutron reactions on plutonium. An upgrade to the ENDF library, for ENDF/B-VII.1, based on these and other data, is described in a companion paper to this work.

  20. /sup 235/U(n,f), /sup 238/U(n,gamma), /sup 238/U(n,f) and /sup 239/Pu(n,f) reaction rate measurement calibrations at ZPPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Maddison, D.W.; Gasidlo, J.M.; Carpenter, S.G.; Armani, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    New reference deposits for /sup 235/U, /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U have been established with mass uncertainties of <0.2%. These new deposits replace the older reference deposits which were used during the last 17 years and improve the uncertainty of reaction rate measurements due to reference mass uncertainties by about a factor of 6. Measurements of the fission fragment absorption in 2..pi.. and low-geometry count rates. Two measurements of the /sup 238/U capture rate in depleted uranium samples based upon the thermal cross sections of /sup 238/U(n,..gamma..), /sup 235/U(n,f) and /sup 239/Pu(n,f) and based upon the /sup 243/Am calibration technique confirm the ZPPR measurement technique within the quoted uncertainty of +-0.5%.

  1. Evaluation of the ²³⁹Pu prompt fission neutron spectrum induced by neutrons of 500 keV and associated covariances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Neudecker, D.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Smith, D. L.; Capote, R.; Rising, M. E.; Kahler, A. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present evaluations of the prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) of ²³⁹Pu induced by 500 keV neutrons, and associated covariances. In a previous evaluation by Talou et al. 2010, surprisingly low evaluated uncertainties were obtained, partly due to simplifying assumptions in the quantification of uncertainties from experiment and model. Therefore, special emphasis is placed here on a thorough uncertainty quantification of experimental data and of the Los Alamos model predicted values entering the evaluation. In addition, the Los Alamos model was extended and an evaluation technique was employed that takes into account the qualitative differences between normalized model predicted valuesmore » and experimental shape data. These improvements lead to changes in the evaluated PFNS and overall larger evaluated uncertainties than in the previous work. However, these evaluated uncertainties are still smaller than those obtained in a statistical analysis using experimental information only, due to strong model correlations. Hence, suggestions to estimate model defect uncertainties are presented, which lead to more reasonable evaluated uncertainties. The calculated keff of selected criticality benchmarks obtained with these new evaluations agree with each other within their uncertainties despite the different approaches to estimate model defect uncertainties. The keff one standard deviations overlap with some of those obtained using ENDF/B-VII.1, albeit their mean values are further away from unity. Spectral indexes for the Jezebel critical assembly calculated with the newly evaluated PFNS agree with the experimental data for selected (n,γ) and (n,f) reactions, and show improvements for high-energy threshold (n,2n) reactions compared to ENDF/B-VII.1.« less

  2. Theoretical analyses of (n,xn) reactions on sup 235 U, sup 238 U, sup 237 Np, and sup 239 Pu for ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical analyses were performed of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu between 0.01 and 20 MeV in order to calculate neutron emission cross sections and spectra for ENDF/B-VI evaluations. Coupled-channel optical model potentials were obtained for each target nucleus by fitting total, elastic, and inelastic scattering cross section data, as well as low-energy average resonance data. The resulting deformed optical model potentials were used to calculate direct (n,n{prime}) cross sections and transmission coefficients for use in Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory analyses. A fission model with multiple barrier representation, width fluctuation corrections, and preequilibrium corrections were included in the analyses. Direct cross sections for higher-lying vibrational states were calculated using DWBA theory, normalized using B(E{ell}) values determined from (d,d{prime}) and Coulomb excitation data, where available, and from systematics otherwise. Initial fission barrier parameters and transition state density enhancements appropriate to the compound systems involved were obtained from previous analyses, especially fits to charged-particle fission probability data. The parameters for the fission model were adjusted for each target system to obtain optimum agreement with direct (n,f) cross section measurements, taking account of the various multichance fission channels, that is, the different compound systems involved. The results from these analyses were used to calculate most of the neutron (n,n), (n,n{prime}), and (n,xn) cross section data in the ENDF/B/VI evaluations for the above nuclei, and all of the energy-angle correlated spectra. The deformed optical model and fission model parameterizations are described. Comparisons are given between the results of these analyses and the previous ENDF/B-V evaluations as well as with the available experimental data. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Co-operativity among defect sites in AnO2+ and An4O9 (An = U, Np or Pu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders David; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Uberuaga, Blas P; Conradson, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    Actinide dioxides derived from the AnO{sub 2} fluorite lattice are of high technological relevance due to their application in nuclear reactor fuels. Oxidation of AnO{sub 2} compounds emerges as a central theme in fuel fabrication, reactor operation, long-term storage forms for both spent fuels and surplus weapons materials, and environmental actinide migration. In this paper, we use density functional theory calculations to study the oxidation of uranium, neptunium and plutonium dioxides, AnO{sub 2} (An = U, Np or Pu), in O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O environments. We pay particular attention to the formation of oxygen clusters (co-operativity) in AnO{sub 2+x} and how this phenomenon govern oxidation thermodynamics and the development of ordered An{sub 4}O{sub 9} compounds. The so-called split di-interstitial, which is composed of two nearest neighbor octahedral oxygen interstitials that are distorted in such a way that they dislocate one regular fluorite lattice oxygen ion to form a cluster of triangular geometry, is predicted to be the fundamental building block of the most stable cluster configurations. We also identify how the formation of oxygen defect clusters and the degree of oxidation in AnO{sub 2+x} are both governed by the characer of the An-5f to excess O-2p charger transfer, i.e. the charge transfer to the O-2p orbitals of the interstitial-like (+x) ions, and the ability of the excess O-2p orbitals to hybridize with regular fluorite lattice ions.

  4. Desired PU Loading During Vitrification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  5. Lebanon, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.7814571, -75.6476841 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type"...

  6. Lebanon-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  7. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  8. A=3Li (2010PU04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1987TI07) identified reactions 1 through 4 below as possible candidates for the observation of a bound or resonant state of three protons. An additional possibility would be...

  9. NR Pu SEIS Advisory 07272012_Clean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ( 423) 7 51---8400 Valley A uthority: r rgolden@tva.gov DOE A nnounces I ssuance o f D raft S upplemental E nvironmental S tudy o n P lutonium D isposition WASHINGTON, D C - T...

  10. Energy dependence of fission product yields from 235U, 238U and 239Pu for incident neutron energies between 0.5 and 14.8 MeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gooden, M. E.; Arnold, C. W.; Becker, J. A.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fallin, B.; Fowler, M. M.; Howell, C. R.; et al

    2016-01-06

    In this study, Fission Product Yields (FPY) have historically been one of the most observable features of the fission process. They are known to have strong variations that are dependent on the fissioning species, the excitation energy, and the angular momentum of the compound system. However, consistent and systematic studies of the variation of these FPY with energy have proved challenging. This is caused primarily by the nature of the experiments that have traditionally relied on radiochemical procedures to isolate specific fission products. Although radiochemical procedures exist that can isolate all products, each element presents specific challenges and introduces varyingmore » degrees of systematic errors that can make inter-comparison of FPY uncertain. Although of high importance in fields such as nuclear forensics and Stockpile Stewardship, accurate information about the energy dependence of neutron induced FPY are sparse, due primarily to the lack of suitable monoenergetic neutron sources. There is a clear need for improved data, and to address this issue, a collaboration was formed between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) to measure the energy dependence of FPY for 235U, 238U and 239Pu. The measurements have been performed at TUNL, using a 10 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator to produce monoenergetic neutrons at energies between 0.6 MeV to 14.8 MeV through a variety of reactions. The measurements have utilized a dual-fission chamber, with thin (10-100 μg/cm2) reference foils of similar material to a thick (100-400 mg) activation target held in the center between the chambers. This method allows for the accurate determination of the number of fissions that occurred in the thick target without requiring knowledge of the fission cross section or neutron fluence on target. Following activation, the thick target was removed from the dual-fission chamber and gamma-ray counted using shielded HPGe detectors for a period of 1-2 months to determine the yield of various fission products. To the extent possible all irradiation and counting procedures were kept the same to minimize sources of systematic errors. FPY have been determined at incident neutron energies of 0.6, 1.4, 2.4, 3.5, 4.6, 5.5, 8.9 and 14.8 MeV.« less

  11. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON

  12. Evaluation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) PU238 Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Practices More Documents & Publications Waste Management at Technical Area-55, 406-GEN-R00 Environmental and Waste Management (WMO) Legacy TRU Waste Pause Nitrate Salt...

  13. V-213: PuTTY SSH Handshake Integer Overflow Vulnerabilities ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    source code repository Addthis Related Articles V-222: SUSE update for Filezilla V-157: Adobe Reader Acrobat Multiple Vulnerabilities V-066: Adobe AcrobatReader Multiple Flaws...

  14. Photochemical oxidation of oxalate in Pu-238 process streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, K. M.; Ford, D. K.; Trujillo, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    For over forty years, NASA has relied on plutonium-238 in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) units and Radioisotope Heater Units ( W s ) to provide power and heat for many space missions including Transit, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses and Cassini. RHUs provide heat to keep key components warm in extremely cold environments found on planets, moons, or in deep space. RTGs convert heat generated from the radioactive decay of plutonium-238 into electricity using a themocouple, Plutonium-238 has proven to be an excellent heat source far deep space missions because of its high thermal power density, useful lifetime, minimal shielding requirements, and oxide stability.

  15. Savannah River Site: Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) at...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Review Team thanks h m for his insights and assistance. The Review Team also ... H.Area ...... ......

  16. Shenzhen Prosunpro PengSangPu Solar Industrial Products Corporation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 518055 Sector: Solar Product: Shenzhen Prosunpro makes and installs flat panel solar passive energy collectors and engineers central solar hot water systems....

  17. NREL to Host Demonstration of Ford's Electric Ranger PU Truck

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory to Host Demonstration of Ford's Electric Ranger Pickup Truck For more information contact: George Douglas (303) 275-4096 e:mail: george_douglas@nrel.gov Golden, Colo., Sept. 26, 1997 -- Representatives from Ford Motor Company will explain to area fleet managers how the Ford electric pickup truck can be integrated into vehicle fleets. Electric vehicles have the potential to reduce operation and fuel costs, cut pollution and help fleet managers meet alternative fuel

  18. NR Pu SEIS Advisory 07152010 _final_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Municipal Center, North Augusta, SC, from 5:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. - August 24, 2010 - Best Western Stevens Inn, Carlsbad, NM, from 5:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Savannah River...

  19. Status of Pu-239 Evaluations (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference Resource Relation: Conference: NEMEA-7CIELO, International Collaboration on Nuclear Data A workshop of the Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organisation...

  20. The Evolution in Pu Nanocluster Electronic Structure: from Atomicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  1. Microsoft Word - Pu Disposition Red Team Report.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    orkers * Institutional k nowledge i n n uclear m aterials h andling a nd p rocessing * Revenue a rising f rom M OX f uel s ales o n t he o rder o f u p t o 1B It s hould b e n...

  2. Ceramicrete stabilization of U-and Pu-bearing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Naperville, IL); Maloney, M. David (Evergreen, CO); Thompson, Gary H. (Thornton, CO)

    2007-11-13

    A method of stabilizing nuclear material is disclosed. Oxides or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs) and/or hydrocarbons and/or acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs are treated by adjusting the pH of the nuclear material to not less than about 5 and adding sufficient MgO to convert fluorides present to MgF.sub.2; alumina is added in an amount sufficient to absorb substantially all hydrocarbon liquid present, after which a binder including MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 is added to the treated nuclear material to form a slurry. Additional MgO may be added. A crystalline radioactive material is also disclosed having a binder of the reaction product of calcined MgO and KH.sub.2PO.sub.4 and a radioactive material of the oxides and/or halides of actinides and/or transuranics (TRUs). Acids contaminated with actinides and/or TRUs, and/or actinides and/or TRUs with or without oils and/or greases may be encapsulated and stabilized by the binder.

  3. Multiscale Speciation of U and Pu at Chernobyl, Hanford, Los...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameter in environmental risk assessment and remediation because it determines their transport, toxicology, and ultimate disposition. This tenet especially applies to uranium...

  4. Report on the Feasibility of Pu Photoelectron Spectroscopy with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2012-09-11 OSTI Identifier: 1053685 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-582213 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org:...

  5. Microsoft Word - Pu Disposition Red Team Report.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Final Report of the Plutonium Disposition Red Team Date: 13 August 2015 Oak Ridge, Tennessee Thom Mason, Chair This r eport w as p repared a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored b y a n a gency o f t he U nited S tates Government. N either t he U nited S tates G overnment n or any a gency t hereof, n or a ny o f t heir employees, m akes a ny w arranty, e xpress o r i mplied, o r a ssumes a ny l egal l iability o r responsibility f or t he a ccuracy, c ompleteness, o r u sefulness o f a ny i

  6. Linn County, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Halsey, Oregon Harrisburg, Oregon Idanha, Oregon Lebanon, Oregon Lyons, Oregon Mill City, Oregon Millersburg, Oregon Scio, Oregon Sodaville, Oregon South Lebanon, Oregon...

  7. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  8. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Materials Data on PuAs (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Evaluation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) PU238 Waste Management Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  11. Summary of Pu?u ?O?o - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey, 2012 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Summary of Puu Oo - Kupaianaha Eruption, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii...

  12. Materials Data on PuI3 (SG:63) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-18

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  14. Materials Data on PuNi2 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on PuH8(SO6)2 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-04-24

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on Pu3Al (SG:123) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Summary of EXAFS results on Cd-doped PuRhIn5 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Booth, C H ; Bauer, E D ; Tobin, J G Publication Date: 2014-06-12 OSTI Identifier: 1149554 Report...

  18. (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: WPEC Meeting ; 2014-05-11 - 2014-05-16 ; Paris, France, France Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ...

  19. Energy Dependence of Fission Product Yields for 239Pu, 235U,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: Instrumentation Related to Nuclear Science & Technology(46); Nuclear Physics & Radiation Physics(73); Radiation Chemistry, Radiochemistry, & Nuclear...

  20. Spin-orbit holds the heavyweight title for Pu and Am: Exchange regains it for Cm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Soderlind, P

    2008-01-10

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) The 5f electrons in Cm are near an LS coupling scheme. (2) This coupling scheme allows for a large spin polarization of the 5f electrons, which in turn stabilizes the Cm III crystal structure. (3) Results for Cm show us the recipe for magnetic stabilization of the crystal structure of metals: (A) The metal must be near the itinerant-localized transition where multiple crystal structures have close energies; (B) The metal is just on the magnetic side of the transition; and (C) There must be a magnetic moment large enough to overcome the energy difference between crystal structures, thus dictating the atomic geometry. (4) These results solidify our understanding of magnetically-stabilized metals, showing us where to look for engineered materials with magnetic applications.

  1. Hidden disorder in the α'→δ transformation of Pu-1.9 at....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    retained as a metastable state at room temperature, but at low temperatures, the phase ... We report an experimental measurement of the entropy of the ' transformation that ...

  2. Campaign 1.7 Pu Aging. Development of Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venhaus, Thomas J.

    2015-09-09

    The first application of Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to an aged plutonium surface has resulted in a rich set of surface chemistry data, as well as some unexpected results. FY15 was highlighted by not only the first mapping of hydrogen-containing features within the metal, but also a prove-in series of experiments using the systems Sieverts Reaction Cell. These experiments involved successfully heating the sample to ~450 oC for nearly 24 hours while the sample was dosed several times with hydrogen, followed by an in situ ToF-SIMS analysis. During this year, the data allowed for better and more consistent identification of the myriad peaks that result from the SIMS sputter process. In collaboration with the AWE (U.K), the system was also fully aligned for sputter depth profiling for future experiments.

  3. Materials Data on PuGe2 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on Pu2Co (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on PuOF (SG:216) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coordinate space. Fission-fragment shapes are extracted from the calculations. A benchmark calculation for sup 226Th is obtained and compared to results in the literature....

  7. Table A1. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Energy for All Pu

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 " " (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ","Coke and"," ","Shipments"," " " ","

  8. Table A1. Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Energy for All Pu

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",," " " "," "," ",," "," ",," "," ",," ","Shipments","RSE" "SIC"," ",,"Net","Residual","Distillate",," ",,"Coke

  9. Type B Accident Investigation on the August 5, 2003, Pu-238 Multiple...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    direct cause of the accident was the release of airborne contamination from a degraded package that contained cellulose material and plutonium-238 residues. PDF icon Type B...

  10. Microsoft Word - Template_SLAC Proprietary Use Agreement_PU 11...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    increased flexibility such agreements afford. Where this agreement is to be used as an umbrella agreement for multiple transactions it may be modified to reflect such usage....

  11. Materials Data on Pu2Co (SG:189) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on PuGe2 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is obtained and compared to results in the literature. ... calculations near the critical scission configurations ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review C, vol. 80, ...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - Draft HAB Pu presentation CJK 040412.pptx [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 5 6

  15. Coprocessed nuclear fuels containing (U, Pu) values as oxides, carbides or carbonitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lloyd, M.H.

    1981-01-09

    Method for direct coprocessing of nuclear fuels derived from a product stream of fuels reprocessing facility containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values comprising nitrate stabilization of said stream vacuum concentration to remove water and nitrates, neutralization to form an acid deficient feed solution for the internal gelation mode of sol-gel technology, green spherule formation, recovery and treatment for loading into a fuel element by vibra packed or pellet formation technologies.

  16. Coprocessed nuclear fuels containing (U, Pu) values as oxides, carbides or carbonitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lloyd, Milton H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Method for direct coprocessing of nuclear fuels derived from a product stream of a fuels reprocessing facility containing uranium, plutonium, and fission product values comprising nitrate stabilization of said stream vacuum concentration to remove water and nitrates, neutralization to form an acid deficient feed solution for the internal gelation mode of sol-gel technology, green spherule formation, recovery and treatment for loading into a fuel element by vibra packed or pellet formation technologies.

  17. (U) CIELO: Status of 239Pu Evaluation (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Chadwick, Mark B. 1 ; Kahler, Albert C. III 1 ; Kawano, Toshihiko 1 ; Talou, Patrick 1 ; Neudecker, Denise...

  18. Materials Data on PuIr2 (SG:227) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Pu5Ir3 (SG:140) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Waupaca County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dupont, Wisconsin Embarrass, Wisconsin Farmington, Wisconsin Fremont, Wisconsin Harrison, Wisconsin Helvetia, Wisconsin Iola, Wisconsin Larrabee, Wisconsin Lebanon, Wisconsin...

  1. Mercer County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pennsylvania Greenville, Pennsylvania Grove City, Pennsylvania Hermitage, Pennsylvania Jackson Center, Pennsylvania Jamestown, Pennsylvania Mercer, Pennsylvania New Lebanon,...

  2. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  3. Theory of nodal s±-wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s⁺⁻ wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface “hot-spots” in the inter-band scattering channel,more » which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s⁺⁻ wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.« less

  4. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  5. Theory of nodal s±-wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s⁺⁻ wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface “hot-spots” in the inter-band scattering channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s⁺⁻ wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.

  6. Russell County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia Castlewood, Virginia Cleveland, Virginia Honaker, Virginia Lebanon, Virginia Raven, Virginia St. Paul, Virginia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. Sustainx Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sustainx Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sustainx Inc Place: West Lebanon, New Hampshire Zip: 3784 Product: New Hampshire-based manufacturer of above-ground, isothermal CAES...

  8. Kent County, Delaware: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Delaware Kenton, Delaware Leipsic, Delaware Little Creek, Delaware Magnolia, Delaware Milford, Delaware Rising Sun-Lebanon, Delaware Riverview, Delaware Rodney Village, Delaware...

  9. EA-1721: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Johnson Controls, Inc. and ENTEK Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Application Holland, Michigan, Lebanon, Oregon, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin

  10. MAK Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MAK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: MAK Technologies Place: Lebanon, New Jersey Zip: 8833 Sector: Solar Product: Designs and installs solar electric and solar...

  11. Governance for Sustainable Development in the Arab Region | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type Guidemanual Website http:www.escwa.un.orginform Country Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  12. Best Practices and Tools for Large-scale Deployment of Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.escwa.un.orginformationpublicationsedituploadsdpd-09-TP3.pdf Country: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  13. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background Membership "ESCWA comprises 14 Arab countries in Western Asia: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  14. OnPower Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: OnPower Inc Place: Lebanon, Ohio Zip: 45036 Product: Assembling solid oxide fuel cell products, using Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems SOFC technology. Coordinates:...

  15. Ultimate Best Buy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultimate Best Buy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ultimate Best Buy LLC Place: Lebanon, Ohio Country: United States Zip: 45036 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services,...

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Reporting Small Quantities to NMMSS_Brian...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    next whole reporting unit. Reportable Units DOE-owned Other Materials: - Enriched Lithium Kilograms Li - Deuterium 0.1 kg D 2 - Pu-242 Grams Pu, Grams Pu-242 (>20% Pu-242 by...

  17. Microsoft Word - srb2014-07-10_Analysis of WIPP Samples by SRNL...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to ensure the Pu-238 analysis was not biased by Am-241 (both having the same alpha energy emission). The Pu-238 and Pu- 241 values measured were compared to the Pu-239240...

  18. Environmental assessment operation of the HB-Line facility and frame waste recovery process for production of Pu-238 oxide at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0948, addressing future operations of the HB-Line facility and the Frame Waste Recovery process at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, DOE has concluded that, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  19. A Brief Review of Past INL Work Assessing Radionuclide Content in TMI-2 Melted Fuel Debris: The Use of 144Ce as a Surrogate for Pu Accountancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Chichester; S. J. Thompson

    2013-09-01

    This report serves as a literature review of prior work performed at Idaho National Laboratory, and its predecessor organizations Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), studying radionuclide partitioning within the melted fuel debris of the reactor of the Three Mile Island 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant. The purpose of this review is to document prior published work that provides supporting evidence of the utility of using 144Ce as a surrogate for plutonium within melted fuel debris. When the TMI-2 accident occurred no quantitative nondestructive analysis (NDA) techniques existed that could assay plutonium in the unconventional wastes from the reactor. However, unpublished work performed at INL by D. W. Akers in the late 1980s through the 1990s demonstrated that passive gamma-ray spectrometry of 144Ce could potentially be used to develop a semi-quantitative correlation for estimating plutonium content in these materials. The fate and transport of radioisotopes in fuel from different regions of the core, including uranium, fission products, and actinides, appear to be well characterized based on the maximum temperature reached by fuel in different parts of the core and the melting point, boiling point, and volatility of those radioisotopes. Also, the chemical interactions between fuel, fuel cladding, control elements, and core structural components appears to have played a large role in determining when and how fuel relocation occurred in the core; perhaps the most important of these reaction appears to be related to the formation of mixed-material alloys, eutectics, in the fuel cladding. Because of its high melting point, low volatility, and similar chemical behavior to plutonium, the element cerium appears to have behaved similarly to plutonium during the evolution of the TMI-2 accident. Anecdotal evidence extrapolated from open-source literature strengthens this logical feasibility for using cerium, which is rather easy to analyze using passive nondestructive analysis gamma-ray spectrometry, as a surrogate for plutonium in the final analysis of TMI-2 melted fuel debris. The generation of this report is motivated by the need to perform nuclear material accountancy measurements on the melted fuel debris that will be excavated from the damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which were destroyed by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Lessons may be taken from prior U.S. work related to the study of the TMI-2 core debris to support the development of new assay methods for use at Fukushima Daiichi. While significant differences exist between the two reactor systems (pressurized water reactor (TMI-2) versus boiling water reactor (FD), fresh water post-accident cooing (TMI-2) versus salt water (FD), maintained containment (TMI-2) versus loss of containment (FD)) there remain sufficient similarities to motivate these comparisons.

  20. Cleanup levels for Am-241, Pu-239, U-234, U-235 & U-238 in soils at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.; Colby, B.; Brooks, L.; Slaten, S.

    1997-07-03

    This presentation briefly outlines a cleanup program at a Rocky Flats site through viewgraphs and an executive summary. Exposure pathway analyses to be performed are identified, and decontamination levels are listed for open space and office worker exposure areas. The executive summary very briefly describes the technical approach, RESRAD computer code to be used for analyses, recommendations for exposure levels, and application of action levels to multiple radionuclide contamination. Determination of action levels for surface and subsurface soils, based on radiation doses, is discussed. 1 tab.

  1. Design and Nuclear-Safety Related Simulations of Bare-Pellet Test Irradiations for the Production of Pu-238 in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freels, James D; Jain, Prashant K; Hobbs, Randy W

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)is developing technology to produce plutonium-238 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a power source material for powering vehicles while in deep-space[1]. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL has been utilized to perform test irradiations of incapsulated neptunium oxide (NpO2) and aluminum powder bare pellets for purposes of understanding the performance of the pellets during irradiation[2]. Post irradiation examinations (PIE) are currently underway to assess the effect of temperature, thermal expansion, swelling due to gas production, fission products, and other phenomena

  2. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  3. R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.

  4. Preliminary Simulations for Geometric Optimization of a High-Energy Delayed Gamma Spectrometer for Direct Assay of Pu in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Campbell, Luke W.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

    2012-06-07

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is under investigation as part of the Next Generation Safeguard Initiative effort to develop non-destructive assay instruments for plutonium mass quantification in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. Results obtained to date indicate that individual isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray spectra can potentially be used to quantify the total fissile content and individual weight fractions of fissile and fertile nuclides present in spent fuel. Adequate assay precision for inventory analysis can be obtained using a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available detection technology. In an attempt to optimize the geometric configuration and material composition for a delayed gamma measurement on spent fuel, the current study applies MCNPX, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, in order to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio. Results are presented for optimizing the neutron spectrum tailoring material, geometries to maximize thermal or fast fissions from a given neutron source, and detector location to allow an acceptable delayed gamma-ray signal while achieving a reasonable detector lifetime while operating in a high-energy neutron field. This work is supported in part by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security, National Nuclear Security Administration.

  5. Environmental considerations associated with siting, constructing, and operating a special isotope separation plant at INEL: Volume 2, Proceedings: Report of public hearings. [AVLIS; Pu isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report documents the two public hearings conducted for the purpose of determining the scope of issues to be addressed in relation to the siting, constructing, and operating of a special isotope separation plant at INEL. The report includes transcripts of the public hearings held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, February 24, 1987, and in Boise, Idaho, February 26, 1987, and includes the exhibits of record relating to those hearings. The review and hearing process meets pertinent National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidelines.

  6. Environmental considerations associated with siting, constructing, and operating a special isotope separation plant at INEL: Volume 1, Proceedings: Report of public hearings. [AVLIS; Pu isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report documents the two public hearings conducted for the purpose of determining the scope of issues to be addressed in relation to the siting, constructing, and operating of a special isotope separation plant at INEL. The report includes transcripts of the public hearings held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, February 24, 1987, and in Boise, Idaho, February 26, 1987, and includes the exhibits of records relating to those hearings. The review and hearing process meets pertinent National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidelines.

  7. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ITLV

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  8. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed. Additional pens and sheds were built to house and manage livestock involved with the Operation Roofer Coaster activities in 1963.

  9. BPA-2014-00122-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a campaign or expedition for which a campaign medal has been authorized, such as El Salvador, Lebanon, Granada, Panama, Southwest Asia, Somalia, and Haiti. You must submit a copy...

  10. State Department's TechWomen 2012 Visit NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechWomen brought a total of 41 women working in the technology sector from Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the Palestinian Territories, Tunisia and Yemen to the U.S....

  11. CW-5, PW- 1,3,6 ROD concerns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under the Z-9 crib becomes acidic and removes the pu sorbed on the soil. Sounds like if water gets under Z-9 crib, it will move the Pu down toward the GW. In other words, the Pu...

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - 1_BRIAN_HORN_NMMSS Overrview-May 12 2014...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    - Natural uranium - U-235 in enriched uranium - Uranium in cascade - Thorium - U-233 -Lithium-6 - Plutonium - Pu-238 -Pu-242 - Americium-241 -Americium-243 - Curium-244...

  13. Experimental studies of actinide volatilities with application to mixed waste oxidation processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Condit, R.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-04-30

    The transpiration technique is used to measure volatilities of U from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), Pu from PuO{sub 2}(s) and Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}/2%AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1300{degree}C.

  14. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  15. Sorption Behavior and Morphology of Plutonium in the Presence of Goethite at 25 and 80C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M; Zhao, P; Dai, Z; Carroll, S A; Kersting, A B

    2012-06-11

    In this study, we examined the sorption behavior of Pu at elevated temperatures in the presence of one relevant mineral, goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), over a range of concentrations that span solubility-controlled to adsorption-controlled concentrations. We focused on the sorptive behavior of two common forms of Pu: aqueous Pu(IV) and intrinsic Pu(IV) nano-colloids at 25 and 80 C in a dilute pH 8 NaCl/NaHCO{sub 3} solution. The morphology of Pu sorbed to goethite was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We examined the relative stability of PuO{sub 2} precipitates, PuO{sub 2} nano-colloids, Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} surface precipitates, and monomeric sorbed Pu as a function of temperature and over a time scale of months.

  16. Aspects of plutonium solution chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choppin, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of pH and complexation on the relative stabilities of the oxidation states of Pu is discussed. A set of ionic radii are presented for Pu in different oxidation states and different coordination numbers. A model for Pu hydration is presented and the relation between hydrolysis and oxidation state evaluated, including the problem of hydrous polymerization. Complexation of Pu is discussed in terms of the relative stabilities of different oxidation states and the effective ionic charge of PuO/sub 2//sup +/ and PuO/sub 2//sup +2/. An equation is proposed for calculating stability constants of Pu complexes and its correlation with experimental values demonstrated. The competition between inner vs outer sphere complexation as affected by the oxidation state of Pu and the pKa of the ligand is reviewed. Two examples of uses of specific complexing agents for Pu indicate a useful direction for future studies. 29 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface repository environments on Pu oxidation state distributions has been the subject of much recent research. Kenney-Kennicutt and Morse (14), Duff et al. (15), and Morgenstern and Choppin (16) observed oxidation of Pu facilitated by Mn(IV)-bearing minerals. Conversely, Shaughnessy et al. (17) used X-ray Absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to show reduction of Pu(VI) by hausmannite (Mn{sup II}Mn{sub 2}{sup III}O{sub 4}) and manganite ({gamma}-Mn{sup III}OOH) and Kersting et al., (18) observed reduction of Pu(VI) by pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}). In this paper, we attempt to reconcile the apparently conflicting datasets by showing that Mn-bearing minerals can indeed oxidize Pu, however, if the oxidized species remains on the solid phase, the oxidation step competes with the formation of Pu(IV) that becomes the predominant solid phase Pu species with time. The experimental approach we took was to conduct longer term (approximately two years later) oxidation state analyses on the Pu sorbed to Yucca Mountain tuff (initial analysis reported by Duff et al., (15)) and measure the time-dependant changes in the oxidation state distribution of Pu in the presence of the Mn mineral pyrolusite.

  18. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  19. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  20. MOX Fuel Presentation to Duke Board of Directors

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    PuO 2 with 95% depleted UO 2 - Like LEU fuel pellets, MOX fuel pellets are primarily uranium * Fission power comes primarily from plutonium (Pu 239 ) instead of uranium (U 235 )...

  1. Letter to Russia (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structure of a Pu2 dimer with the bond length 3.28 angstrom corresponding to the inter-atomic distances in delta-Pu.' What does this underpinningunderlying mean in more...

  2. LMS-AMC-S01980-0-0.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Amchitka Data for Inclusion in the Database This page intentionally left blank Table D-1. Actinide Concentration Determined by Analysis 1 of Biota Samples Collected by CRESP 2 Composite ID Coded Sample ID Weight (grams) Tissue Coded Species Species Location Collector Serial No Am-241 (Bq/kg) Am-241 s.d. Am-241 MDA Am-241 Detects Pu-238 (Bq/kg) Pu-238 s.d. Pu-238 MDA Pu-238 Detects Pu-239+240 (Bq/kg) Pu-239+240 s.d. Pu-239+240 MDA Pu-239+240 Detects Sr-90 (Bq/kg) Sr-90 s.d. Sr-90 MDA Sr-90

  3. Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the 239Pu(nth,f) Reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the 239Pu(nth,f) Reaction We calculate the ...

  4. CX-000759: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Demonstration of Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage to Support Renewable Energy ProductionCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 02/09/2010Location(s): West Lebanon, New HampshireOffice(s): Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. CX-000985: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Pennsylvania Green Energy Works! Targeted Grant - Biogas - Anergy Dairy Farm BiodigestersCX(s) Applied: B1.15, B5.1Date: 02/16/2010Location(s): Lebanon County, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Ireland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Israel 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jamaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 0 0 819 0 502...

  7. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Israel 0 0 2 0 147 0 147 Italy 0 0 74 0 0 0 0 Jamaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 0 0 1,043 0 383...

  8. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Israel 0 0 2 0 220 0 220 Italy 0 0 74 0 0 0 0 Jamaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 9 0 2 5 7 Korea, South 0 0 126 0 1 13 14 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 1 0 10,916 0...

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Ireland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Israel 0 0 0 0 73 0 73 Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Jamaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 5 0 2 3 5 Korea, South 0 0 119 0 0 13 14 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 1 0 7,778 0...

  10. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Israel 0 0 2 0 220 0 220 Italy 0 0 74 0 0 0 0 Jamaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 9 0 2 5 7 Korea, South 0 0 126 0 1 13 14 Lebanon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 0 0 10,916 0...

  11. FY12 Final Report for PL10-Mod Separations-PD12: Electrochemically Modulated Separation of Plutonium from Dilute and Concentrated Dissolver Solutions for Analysis by Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Cloutier, Janet M.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned on and off depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 g Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  12. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 g Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  13. Spectrochemical analysis of plutonium using direct current plasma emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.F.; Fadeff, S.K.; Torres, S.

    1983-12-03

    One year ago, LLNL was just completing the installation of a Direct Current Plasma (DCP) spectrometer for the analysis of Pu and Pu alloys. The installation was completed in December 1982 and has been utilized regularly for Pu analysis since then. This paper discusses the experience with the instrument and some data demonstrating its performance.

  14. Possible differences in biological availability of isotopes of plutonium: Report of a workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, J.R.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a workshop conducted on the apparent different bioavailability of isotopes {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu. There is a substantial body of evidence that {sup 238}Pu as commonly found in the environment is more biologically available than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Trinity Site, Nevada Test Site from nonnuclear and nuclear events, Rocky Flats, Enewetak and Bikini, and the arctic tundra support this conclusion and indicate that the bioavailability of {sup 238}Pu is more than an order of magnitude greater than that of {sup 239}Pu. Plant and soil studies from controlled environments and from Savannah River indicate no isotopic difference in availability of Pu to plants; whereas studies at the Trinity Site do suggest a difference. While it is possible that these observations can be explained by problems in the experimental procedure and analytical techniques, this possibility is remote given the ubiquitous nature of the observations. Studies of solubility of Pu in the stomach contents of cattle grazing at the Nevada Test Site and from fish from Bikini Atoll both found that {sup 238}Pu was more soluble than {sup 239}Pu. Studies of the Los Alamos effluent stream indicate that as particle size decreases, the content of {sup 238}Pu relative to {sup 239}Pu increases.

  15. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  16. Plutonium and minor actinides utilization in Thorium molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waris, Abdul; Aji, Indarta K.; Novitrian,; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    FUJI-12 reactor is one of MSR systems that proposed by Japan. The original FUJI-12 design considers Th/{sup 233}U or Th/Pu as main fuel. In accordance with the currently suggestion to stay away from the separation of Pu and minor actinides (MA), in this study we evaluated the utilization of Pu and MA in FUJI-12. The reactor grade Pu was employed in the present study as a small effort of supporting THORIMS-NES scenario. The result shows that the reactor can achieve its criticality with the Pu and MA composition in the fuel of 5.96% or more.

  17. High-Precision Plutonium Isotopic Compositions Measured on Los Alamos National Laboratory’s General’s Tanks Samples: Bearing on Model Ages, Reactor Modelling, and Sources of Material. Further Discussion of Chronometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Khalil J.; Rim, Jung Ho; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Roback, Robert Clifford; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Stanley, Floyd E.

    2015-06-29

    In this study, we re-analyzed late-1940’s, Manhattan Project era Plutonium-rich sludge samples recovered from the ''General’s Tanks'' located within the nation’s oldest Plutonium processing facility, Technical Area 21. These samples were initially characterized by lower accuracy, and lower precision mass spectrometric techniques. We report here information that was previously not discernable: the two tanks contain isotopically distinct Pu not only for the major (i.e., 240Pu, 239Pu) but trace (238Pu ,241Pu, 242Pu) isotopes. Revised isotopics slightly changed the calculated 241Am-241Pu model ages and interpretations.

  18. Plutonium partitioning in uranium and plutonium co-recovery system for fast reactor fuel recycling with enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakahara, Masaumi; Koma, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2013-07-01

    For enhancement of nuclear proliferation resistance, a 'co-processing' method for U and Pu co-recovery was studied. Two concepts, no U scrubbing and no Pu reduction partitioning, were employed to formulate two types of flow sheets by using a calculation code. Their process performance was demonstrated using radioactive solutions derived from an irradiated fast reactor fuel. These experimental results indicated that U and Pu were co-recovered in the U/Pu product, and the Pu content in the U/Pu product increased approximately 2.3 times regardless of using reductant. The proposed no U scrubbing and no Pu reductant flow sheet is applicable to fast reactor fuel reprocessing and enhances its resistance to nuclear proliferation. (authors)

  19. Plutonium Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Due to its nuclear properties, Pu will remain a material of global interest well into the future. Processing, Structure, Properties and Performance remains a good framework for discussion of Pu materials science Self-irradiation and aging effects continue to be central in discussions of Pu metallurgy Pu in its elemental form is extremely unstable, but alloying helps to stabilize Pu; but, questions remain as to how and why this stabilization occurs. Which is true Pu-Ga binary phase diagram: US or Russian? Metallurgical issues such as solute coring, phase instability, crystallographic texture, etc. result in challenges to casting, processing, and properties modeling and experiments. For Ga alloyed FCC stabilized Pu, temperature and pressure remain as variables impacting phase stability.

  20. A Neutronic Analysis of TRU Recycling in PWRs Loaded with MOX-UE Fuel (MOX with U-235 Enriched U Support)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Youinou; S. Bays

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study dealing with the homogeneous recycling of either Pu or Pu+Np or Pu+Np+Am or Pu+Np+Am+Cm in PWRs using MOX-UE fuel, i.e. standard MOX fuel with a U235 enriched uranium support instead of the standard tail uranium (0.25%) for standard MOX fuel. This approach allows to multirecycle Pu or TRU (Pu+MA) as long as U235 is available, by keeping the Pu or TRU content in the fuel constant and at a value ensuring a negative moderator void coefficient (i.e. the loss of the coolant brings imperatively the reactor to a subcritical state). Once this value is determined, the U235 enrichment of the MOX-UE fuel is adjusted in order to reach the target burnup (51 GWd/t in this study).

  1. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  2. Development of a Composite Non-Electrostatic Surface Complexation Model Describing Plutonium Sorption to Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, B A; Kersting, A; Zavarin, M; Zhao, P

    2008-10-28

    Due to their ubiquity in nature and chemical reactivity, aluminosilicate minerals play an important role in retarding actinide subsurface migration. However, very few studies have examined Pu interaction with clay minerals in sufficient detail to produce a credible mechanistic model of its behavior. In this work, Pu(IV) and Pu(V) interactions with silica, gibbsite (Aloxide), and Na-montmorillonite (smectite clay) were examined as a function of time and pH. Sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to gibbsite and silica increased with pH (4 to 10). The Pu(V) sorption edge shifted to lower pH values over time and approached that of Pu(IV). This behavior is apparently due to surface mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Surface complexation constants describing Pu(IV)/Pu(V) sorption to aluminol and silanol groups were developed from the silica and gibbsite sorption experiments and applied to the montmorillonite dataset. The model provided an acceptable fit to the montmorillonite sorption data for Pu(V). In order to accurately predict Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite, the model required inclusion of ion exchange. The objective of this work is to measure the sorption of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) to silica, gibbsite, and smectite (montmorillonite). Aluminosilicate minerals are ubiquitous at the Nevada National Security Site and improving our understanding of Pu sorption to aluminosilicates (smectite clays in particular) is essential to the accurate prediction of Pu transport rates. These data will improve the mechanistic approach for modeling the hydrologic source term (HST) and provide sorption Kd parameters for use in CAU models. In both alluvium and tuff, aluminosilicates have been found to play a dominant role in the radionuclide retardation because their abundance is typically more than an order of magnitude greater than other potential sorbing minerals such as iron and manganese oxides (e.g. Vaniman et al., 1996). The sorption database used in recent HST models (Carle et al., 2006) and upscaled for use in CAU models (Stoller-Navarro, 2008) includes surface complexation constants for U, Am, Eu, Np and Pu (Zavarin and Bruton, 2004). Generally, between 15 to 30 datasets were used to develop the constants for each radionuclide. However, the constants that describe Pu sorption to aluminosilicates were developed using only 10 datasets, most of which did not specify the oxidation state of Pu in the experiment. Without knowledge or control of the Pu oxidation state, a high degree of uncertainty is introduced into the model. The existing Pu surface complexation model (e.g. Zavarin and Bruton, 2004) drastically underestimates Pu sorption and, thus, will overestimate Pu migration rates (Turner, 1995). Recent HST simulations at Cambric (Carle et al., 2006) suggest that the existing surface complexation model may underpredict Pu K{sub d}s by as much as 3 orders of magnitude. In order to improve HST and CAU-scale transport models (and, as a result, reduce the conservative nature Pu migration estimates), sorption experiments were performed over a range of solution conditions that brackets the groundwater chemistry of the Nevada National Security Site. The aluminosilicates examined were gibbsite, silica, and montmorillonite.

  3. Colloidal Cutin-like Siderophoric Molecules Mobilize Plutonium from Contaminated Soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, C.; Santschi, P; Roberts, K; Zhong, J; Hatcher, P; Hung, C; Francis, A; Dodge, C; Honeyman, B

    2008-01-01

    Relatively recently, inorganic colloids have been invoked to reconcile the apparent contradictions between expectations based on classical dissolved-phase Pu transport and field observations of 'enhanced' Pu mobility (Kersting et al. Nature 1999, 397, 56-59). A new paradigm for Pu transport is mobilization and transport via biologically produced ligands. This study for the first time reports a new finding of Pu being transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-like natural substance containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu. Most likely, Pu is complexed by chelating groups derived from siderophores that are covalently bound to a backbone of cutin-derived soil degradation products, thus revealing the history of initial exposure to Pu. Features such as amphiphilicity and small size make this macromolecule an ideal collector for actinides and other metals and a vector for their dispersal. Cross-linking to the hydrophobic domains (e.g., by polysaccharides) gives this macromolecule high mobility and a means of enhancing Pu transport. This finding provides a new mechanism for Pu transport through environmental systems that would not have been predicted by Pu transport models.

  4. Microsoft Word - Lochinvar Comments -EO 13563 Preliminary Plan.docx

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Lochinvar Corporation 300 Maddox Simpson Parkway Lebanon, TN 37090 615/889-8900 Fax: 615/547-1000 July 28, 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Office of General Counsel 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Room 6A245 Washington, DC 20585 RE: Comments to DOE on Certification, Compliance and Enforcement Regulations for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment EO 13563 Preliminary Plan To Whom It May Concern: Lochinvar Corporation is a manufacturer of Commercial Boilers, Water Heaters and Pool

  5. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence ofmore » a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.« less

  6. A practical strategy for reducing the future security risk of United States spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chodak, P. III; Buksa, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Depletion calculations show that advanced oxide (AOX) fuels can be used in existing light water reactors (LWRs) to achieve and maintain virtually any desired level of US (US) reactor-grade plutonium (R-Pu) inventory. AOX fuels are composed of a neutronically inert matrix loaded with R-Pu and erbium. A 1/2 core load of 100% nonfertile, 7w% R-Pu AOX and 3.9 w% UO{sub 2} has a net total plutonium ({sup TOT}Pu) destruction rate of 310 kg/yr. The 20% residual {sup TOT}Pu in discharged AOX contains > 55% {sup 242}Pu making it unattractive for nuclear explosive use. A three-phase fuel-cycle development program sequentially loading 60 LWRs with 100% mixed oxide, 50% AOX with a nonfertile component displacing only some of the {sup 238}U, and 50% AOX, which is 100% nonfertile, could reduce the US plutonium inventory to near zero by 2050.

  7. Method of immobilizing weapons plutonium to provide a durable, disposable waste product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lutze, Werner; Weber, William J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of atomic scale fixation and immobilization of plutonium to provide a durable waste product. Plutonium is provided in the form of either PuO.sub.2 or Pu(NO.sub.3).sub.4 and is mixed with and SiO.sub.2. The resulting mixture is cold pressed and then heated under pressure to form (Zr,Pu)SiO.sub.4 as the waste product.

  8. Fuel element design for the enhanced destruction of plutonium in a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Douglas C.; Porter, Douglas L.; Hayes, Steven L.; Hill, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    A uranium-free fuel for a fast nuclear reactor comprising an alloy of Pu, Zr and Hf, wherein Hf is present in an amount less than about 10% by weight of the alloy. The fuel may be in the form of a Pu alloy surrounded by a Zr--Hf alloy or an alloy of Pu--Zr--Hf or a combination of both.

  9. Fuel element design for the enhanced destruction of plutonium in a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, D.C.; Porter, D.L.; Hayes, S.L.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-03-23

    A uranium-free fuel for a fast nuclear reactor comprising an alloy of Pu, Zr and Hf, wherein Hf is present in an amount less than about 10% by weight of the alloy. The fuel may be in the form of a Pu alloy surrounded by a Zr--Hf alloy or an alloy of Pu--Zr--Hf or a combination of both. 7 figs.

  10. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Poorter, Gerald L. (Los Alamos, NM); Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  11. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fission of 240Pu (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on January 20, 2017 Title: Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional

  12. An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the Oxidation and Aging of U

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Pu (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the Oxidation and Aging of U and Pu Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the Oxidation and Aging of U and Pu Uranium and Plutonium are highly reactive elements that undergo not only chemical reactions but also nuclear reactions. This can lead to possibly significant materials degradation, a matter of potentially great concern. Here, the issue of the

  13. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic determination of plutonium speciation at the Rocky Flats environmental technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lezama-pacheco, Juan S; Conradson, Steven D; Clark, David L

    2008-01-01

    X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy was used to probe the speciation of the ppm level Pu in thirteen soil and concrete samples from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in support of the site remediation effort that has been successfully completed since these measurements. In addition to X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectra, two of the samples yielded Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra that could be analyzed by curve-fits. Most of these spectra exhibited features consistent with PU(IV), and more specificaJly, PuO{sub 2+x}-type speciation. Two were ambiguous, possibly indicating that Pu that was originally present in a different form was transforming into PuO{sub 2+x}, and one was interpreted as demonstrating the presence of an unusual Pu(VI) compound, consistent with its source being spills from a PUREX purification line onto a concrete floor and the resultant extreme conditions. These experimental results therefore validated models that predicted that insoluble PuO{sub 2+x} would be the most stable form of Pu in equilibrium with air and water even when the source terms were most likely Pu metal with organic compounds or a Pu fire. A corollary of these models' predictions and other in situ observations is therefore that the minimal transport of Pu that occurred on the site was via the resuspension and mobilization of colloidal particles. Under these conditions, the small amounts of diffusely distributed Pu that were left on the site after its remediation pose only a negligible hazard.

  14. REDUCTION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES IN AN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH FORMALDEHYDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, C.M.

    1959-06-01

    A method is given for reducing Pu to the tetravalent state and lowering the high acidity of dissolver solutions containing U and Pu. Formaldehyde is added to the HNO/sub 3/ solution of U and Pu to effect a formaldehyde to HNO/sub 3/ molar ratio of 0.375:1 to 1.5:1. The Pu can then be removed from the solution by carrier precipitation using BiPO/sub 4/ or by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  15. SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR THE NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAMMATIC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... on battery, chemical or solar energy sources cannot reliably ... consistent with DOE's current safeguards and security ... These aspects of Pu-238 production are the subject of this ...

  16. Improvements to Nuclear Data and Its Uncertainties by Theoretical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multiplicity, and produce new evaluated files of U and Pu ... global and microscopic model input parameters, leading ... While in the past the design, construction and ...

  17. Analysis of a Nuclear Accident: Fission and Activation Product Releases from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Facility as Remote Indicators of Source Identification, Extent of Release, and State of Damaged Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Clark, Richard A.

    2011-12-05

    Evidence of the release Pu from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station to the local environment and surrounding communities and estimates on fraction of total fuel inventory released

  18. FP-33 Final Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R. W.

    2015-10-02

    This report describes an analysis of 244Pu from VNIIEF (FP-33) sent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as test samples.

  19. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Orton, Robert D.; Rapko, Brian M.; Smart, John E.

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  20. Method for separating actinides. [Patent application; stripping of Np from organic extractant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.

    1980-11-10

    An organic solution used for processing spent nuclear reactor fuels is contacted with an aqueous nitric acid solution to strip Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV) from the organic solution into the acid solution. The acid solution is exposed to ultraviolet light, which reduces Np(VI) to Np(V) without reducing U(VI) and Pu(IV). Since the solubility of Np(V) in the organic solution is much lower than that of Np(VI), U(VI), and Pu(IV), a major part of the Np is stripped from the organic solution while leaving most of the U and Pu therein.

  1. Econnect Group Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econnect Group Ltd Place: Hexham, Northumberland, United Kingdom Zip: NE46 3PU Product: Electrical grid integration specialist. References: Econnect Group Ltd1 This article is a...

  2. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fission of Pu 240 Authors: Sadhukhan, Jhilam ; Nazarewicz, Witold ; Schunck, Nicolas Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235765 GrantContract Number:...

  3. Econnect Construction Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econnect Construction Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Econnect Construction Ltd Place: Northumberland, United Kingdom Zip: NE46 3PU Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  4. Self-regulating neutron coincidence counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baron, N.

    1980-06-16

    A device for accurately measuring the mass of /sup 240/Pu and /sup 239/Pu in a sample having arbitrary moderation and mixed with various contaminants. The device utilizes a thermal neutron well counter which has two concentric rings of neutron detectors separated by a moderating material surrounding the well. Neutron spectroscopic information derived by the two rings of detectors is used to measure the quantity of /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu in device which corrects for background radiation, deadtime losses of the detector and electronics and various other constants of the system.

  5. An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the Oxidation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the Oxidation and Aging of U and Pu Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An internal report: Electron Spectroscopy of the...

  6. 2012 SSAA Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Integrated Experiment Silvera, Isaac Harvard University Pressing for Metallic Hydrogen Tornow, Werner Duke University Fission Product Yields of 235U, 238U, 239Pu and...

  7. Follow-up on the Management of Plutonium-239 Sealed Sources Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the threat of the sources being used in radiological dispersal deiices or a "dirty bomb." Plutonium-239 (Pu-239), one of the rildioactive sealed sources recovered by OSRP,...

  8. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Princeton, NJ (United States)","USDOE Office of Science (SC)","70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY Computer Simulation, Diagnostics, Edge Plasma",,"Gas-Pu -Imaging (GPI) is a...

  9. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  10. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  11. GridPV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Point of Common Coupling pu per unit PV Photovoltaic UTM Universal Transverse Mercator VBA Visual Basic for Applications WVM Wavelet Variability Model 9 1. INTRODUCTION The power...

  12. Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies for the 239Pu(nth,f) Reaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Calculation of Fission Fragment Energies...

  13. kzu7205.tmp

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... neutrons) and PU02 (spontaneous fission and (ct,n)) in weapons component inspection. ... this work involve the detection of fast neutrons emitted from special nuclear material. ...

  14. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE AND BEHAVIOR IN PLANTS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-03-01

    Eight species of desert vegetation and associated soils were collected from the Nevada National Security Site (N2S2) and analyzed for 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentrations. Amongst the plant species sampled were: atmospheric elemental accumulators (moss and lichen), the very slow growing, long-lived creosote bush and the rapidly growing, short-lived cheatgrass brome. The diversity of growth strategies provided insight into the geochemical behavior and bio-availability of Pu at the N2S2. The highest concentrations of Pu were measured in the onion moss (24.27 Bq kg-1 238Pu and 52.78 Bq kg-1 239+240Pu) followed by the rimmed navel lichen (8.18 Bq kg-1 and 18.4 Bq kg-1 respectively), pointing to the importance of eolian transport of Pu. Brome and desert globemallow accumulated between 3 and 9 times higher concentrations of Pu than creosote and sage brush species. These results support the importance of species specific elemental accumulation strategies rather than exposure duration as the dominant variable influencing Pu concentrations in these plants. Total vegetation elemental concentrations of Ce, Fe, Al, Sm and others were also analyzed. Strong correlations were observed between Fe and Pu. This supports the conclusion that Pu was accumulated as a consequence of the active accumulation of Fe and other plant required nutrients. Cerium and Pu are considered to be chemical analogs. Strong correlations observed in plants support the conclusion that these elements displayed similar geochemical behavior in the environment as it related to the biochemical uptake process of vegetation. Soils were also sampled in association with vegetation samples. This allowed for the calculation of a concentration ratio (CR). The CR values for Pu in plants were highly influenced by the heterogeneity of Pu distribution among sites. Results from the naturally occurring elements of concern were more evenly distributed between sample sites. This allowed for the development of a pattern of plant species that accumulated Ce, Sm, Fe and Al. The highest accumulators of these elements were onion moss, lichen flowed by brome. The lowest accumulators were creosote bush and fourwing saltbush. This ranked order corresponds to plant accumulations of Pu.

  15. CAPABILITY TO RECOVER PLUTONIUM-238 IN H-CANYON/HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, K.; Smith, Robert H. Jr.; Goergen, Charles R.

    2013-01-09

    Plutonium-238 is used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to generate electrical power and in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) to produce heat for electronics and environmental control for deep space missions. The domestic supply of Pu-238 consists of scrap material from previous mission production or material purchased from Russia. Currently, the United States has no significant production scale operational capability to produce and separate new Pu-238 from irradiated neptunium-237 targets. The Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy is currently evaluating and developing plans to reconstitute the United States capability to produce Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets. The Savannah River Site had previously produced and/or processed all the Pu-238 utilized in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) for deep space missions up to and including the majority of the plutonium for the Cassini Mission. The previous full production cycle capabilities included: Np-237 target fabrication, target irradiation, target dissolution and Np-237 and Pu-238 separation and purification, conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide, scrap recovery, and Pu-238 encapsulation. The capability and equipment still exist and could be revitalized or put back into service to recover and purify Pu-238/Np-237 or broken General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) pellets utilizing existing process equipment in HB-Line Scrap Recovery, and H-anyon Frame Waste Recovery processes. The conversion of Np-237 and Pu-238 to oxide can be performed in the existing HB-Line Phase-2 and Phase-3 Processes. Dissolution of irradiated Np-237 target material, and separation and purification of Np-237 and Pu-238 product streams would be possible at production rates of ~ 2 kg/month of Pu-238 if the existing H-Canyon Frames Process spare equipment were re-installed. Previously, the primary H-Canyon Frames equipment was removed to be replaced: however, the replacement project was stopped. The spare equipment is stored and still available for installation. Out of specification Pu-238 scrap material can be purified and recovered by utilizing the HB-Line Phase-1 Scrap Recovery Line and the Phase-3 Pu-238 Oxide Conversion Line along with H-Canyon Frame Waste Recovery process. In addition, it also covers and describes utilizing the Phase-2 Np-237 Oxide Conversion Line, in conjunction with the H-Canyon Frames Process to restore the H-Canyon capability to process and recover Np-237 and Pu-238 from irradiated Np-237 targets and address potential synergies with other programs like recovery of Pu-244 and heavy isotopes of curium from other target material.

  16. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  17. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  18. Using a Time Projection Chamber to Measure High Precision Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Brett

    2015-08-06

    2014 LANSCE run cycle data will provide a preliminary 239Pu(n,f) cross section and will quantify uncertainties: PID and Target/beam non-uniformities. Continued running during the 2015 LANSCE run cycle: Thin targets to see both fission fragments and 239Pu(n,f) cross section and fully quantified uncertainties

  19. Mass balance and separation factor of actinides through series process test on pyro-process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitawaki, Shinichi; Fukushima, Mineo; Yahagi, Noboru; Kurata, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    An electrolysis test in a sequential condition was performed using U-Pu alloy and liquid Cd as an anode and a cathode material, respectively, in which the anode and cathode was changed three times. Mass balance of U and Pu after three-time electrolysis was determined from both the chemical analysis of salt and anode residue, and the weight increase in the cathode. Approximately 95% of U and 100% of Pu was detected even after three times electrolysis. The loss of U is more significant than that of Pu. The mass balance was also evaluated for the intermediate steps of the sequence. More than 90% of U and Pu with respect to the initial amount were constantly caught up with in each step. The separation factor of U/Pu in three cathodes were varied 1.62-2.06. The chemical form of the anode residue was UO, PuOCl and PuO{sub 2}, which can be converted to the chloride by a reaction with ZrCl{sub 4}. (authors)

  20. ESC FY2002 Annual Report: Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Photoelectron Spectroscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G; Chung, B W; Schulze, R K; Shuh, D K

    2002-10-04

    Despite recent intensive experimental effort, the electronic structure of Pu, particularly {delta}-Pu, remains ill defined. An evaluation of our previous synchrotron-radiation-based investigation of {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu has lead to a new paradigm for the interpretation of photoemission spectra of U, Np, {alpha}-Pu, {delta}-Pu and Am. This approach is founded upon a model in which spin and spin-orbit splittings are included in the picture of the 5f states and upon the observation of chiral/spin-dependent effects in non-magnetic systems. By extending a quantitative model developed for the interpretation of core level spectroscopy in magnetic systems, it is possible to predict the contributions of the individual component states within the 5-f manifold. This has lead to a remarkable agreement between the results of the model and the previously collected spectra of U, Np, Pu and Am, particularly {delta}-Pu, and to a prediction of what we might expect to see in future spin-resolving experiments.

  1. Start-up Plan for Plautonium-238 Production for Radioisotope Power System (Report to Congress- June 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Administration has requested the restart of plutonium?238 (Pu?238) production in fiscal year (FY) 2011. The following joint start?up plan, consistent with the President's request, has been developed collaboratively between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and defines the roles and contributions of major users of Pu?238 in response to Congressional request.

  2. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  3. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-08-19

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239.

  4. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  5. The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  7. Next-generation purex flowsheets with acetohydroxamic acid as complexant for FBR and thermal-fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is a novel complexant for recycle of nuclear-fuel materials. It can be used in ordinary centrifugal extractors, eliminating the need for electro-redox equipment or complex maintenance requirements in a remotely maintained hot cell. In this work, the effect of AHA on Pu(IV) distribution ratios in 30% TBP system was quantified, modeled, and integrated in SIMPSEX code. Two sets of batch experiments involving macro Pu concentrations (conducted at IGCAR) and one high-Pu flowsheet (literature) were simulated for AHA based U-Pu separation. Based on the simulation and validation results, AHA based next-generation reprocessing flowsheets are proposed for co-processing based FBR and thermal-fuel reprocessing as well as evaporator-less macro-level Pu concentration process required for MOX fuel fabrication. Utilization of AHA results in significant simplification in plant design and simpler technology implementations with significant cost savings. (authors)

  8. Progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of minor actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    Recent progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of MA is summarized. Preparation of MA-bearing nitride pellets, such as (Np,Am)N, (Am,Pu)N and (Np,Pu,Am,Cm)N, was carried out. Irradiation behavior of U-free nitride fuel was investigated by the irradiation test of (Pu,Zr)N and PuN+TiN fuels, in which ZrN and TiN were added as a possible diluent material. Further, pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuel was developed by electrorefining in a molten chloride salt and subsequent re-nitridation of actinides in liquid Cd cathode electro-deposits. Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA has been demonstrated in a laboratory scale by the experimental study with MA and Pu. (authors)

  9. Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project: Phase 2 soils program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McArthur, R.D.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    To help estimate population doses of radiation from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site, soil samples were collected throughout the western United States. Each sample was prepared by drying and ball-milling, then analyzed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the amount of {sup 137}Cs it contained. Most samples were also analyzed by chemical separation and alpha-spectrometry to determine {sup 239 + 240}Pu and by isotope mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios of {sup 240}Pu to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu to {sup 239}Pu. The total inventories of cesium and plutonium at 171 sites were computed from the results. This report describes the sample collection, processing, and analysis, presents the analytical results, and assesses the quality of the data. 10 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  11. OBES "One Pager"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G

    2008-11-07

    We are developing and utilizing photon dichroic and spin resolved techniques to investigate electron correlation in complex systems. These materials include potential spintronic device sources such as Fe/GaAs and f electronic materials such as non-magnetic {delta}-Pu. We are pursuing Double Polarization Photoelectron Dichroism measurements of the Fano Effect, using spin resolving detection in photoelectron spectroscopy, to test the nature of electron correlation in Pu. (See Pubs 2, 4 & 5.) If successful, we will solve the riddle of Pu electronic structure that has remained unresolved for the last 60 years. We are also developing a Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS) capability to permit the direct measurement of the unoccupied electronic structure of Pu, which is another missing piece in the puzzle of Pu electronic structure.

  12. Comparison of Spectroscopic Data with Cluster Calculations of Plutonium, Plutonium Dioxide and Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Ryzhkov, M V; Mirmelstein, A

    2012-05-15

    Using spectroscopic data produced in the experimental investigations of bulk systems, including X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), the theoretical results within for UO{sub 2}{sup 6}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 6} and Pu{sup 7} clusters have been evaluated. The calculations of the electronic structure of the clusters have been performed within the framework of the Relativistic Discrete-Variational Method (RDV). The comparisons between the LLNL experimental data and the Russian calculations are quite favorable. The cluster calculations may represent a new and useful avenue to address unresolved questions within the field of actinide electron structure, particularly that of Pu. Observation of the changes in the Pu electronic structure as a function of size suggests interesting implications for bulk Pu electronic structure.

  13. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ?Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ?Cs, ?Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ??Pu/?Pu isotopic ratios are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ?Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ?Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ?Am/????Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ??Pu/?Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.

  14. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  15. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Clark, Sue B.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Watrous, Matthew G.; Olson, John E.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-10-01

    Particulate transport represents an important mechanism for actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface; soil samples taken in the early 1970's near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provide a case study for examining the mechanisms and characteristics of actinide transport under arid conditions. Transuranic waste was disposed via shallow land burial at the SDA until shortly after a flooding event that occurred in 1969. In this study we analyze soils collected in the early 1970's for ¹³⁷Cs, ²⁴¹Am, and Pu using a combination of radiometric and mass spectrometric techniques. Two distinct ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu isotopic ratiosmore » are observed for contamination from the SDA, with values ranging from at least 0.059 to 0.069. ²⁴¹Am concentrations are observed to increase only slightly in 0-4 cm soils over the ~40 year period since soil sampling, contrary to Markham's previous hypothesis that ²⁴¹Pu is principally associated with the 0-4 cm soil fractions (Markham 1978). The lack of statistical difference in ²⁴¹Am/²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu ratios with depth suggests mechanical transport and mixing discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples beyond the northeastern corner are observed to contain anomalously high Pu concentrations with corresponding low ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atoms ratios, suggesting the occurrence of "hot particles;" application of a background Pu subtraction results in calculated Pu atom ratios for the "hot particles" which are statistically similar to those observed in the northeastern corner. Taken together, our data suggests that flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and the flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading resulted from wind transport of discrete particles.« less

  16. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the presence of oxalate by thermogravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). To use the TGA-MS for carbon or oxalate content, some method development will be required. However, the TGA-MS is already used for moisture measurements. Therefore, SRNL initiated method development for the TGA-MS to allow quantification of oxalate or total carbon. That work continues at this time and is not yet ready for use in this study. However, the collected test data can be reviewed later as those analysis tools are available.

  17. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  18. The application of N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DOGA) in the PUREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianchen, Wang; Jing, Chen

    2007-07-01

    The new salt-free complexant, DOGA for separating trace Pu(IV) and Np(IV) from U(VI) nitric acid solution was studied. DOGA has stronger complexing abilities to Pu(IV) and Np(IV), but complexing ability of DOGA to U(VI) was weaker. The DOGA can be used in the PUREX process to separate Pu(IV) and Np(IV) from U(VI) nitric solution. On one hand, U(IV) in the nitric acid solution containing trace Pu(IV) and Np(IV) was extracted by 30%TBP - kerosene(v/v) in the presence of DOGA, but Pu(IV) and Np(IV) were kept in the aqueous phase. On the other hand, Pu(IV) and Np(IV) loading in 30% TBP - kerosene were effectively stripped by DOGA into the aqueous phase, but U(VI) loading in 30% TBP - kerosene was remained in 30% TBP - kerosene. DOGA is a promising complexant to separate Pu(IV) and Np(IV) from U(VI) solution in the U-cycle of the PUREX process. (authors)

  19. Application of non-radiometric methods to the determination of plutonium. Literature review conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.

    1992-03-05

    This literature review was motivated by discussions that took place during a review of contamination control technologies proposed for INEL (buried waste). It should be a useful tool in identifying non-radiation measurement techniques for Pu and Am such as ICP-MS, which should fulfill the following criteria: apparatus must be field deployable; up to 100 samples per day; and lower levels of detection and required time must be listed. The sensitivity of ICP and RIMS is compared against that needed for contamination monitoring at INEL. Only Pu-241, with a required detection limit of 400 ppt, would challenge the sensitivity of ICP-MS; Pu-238 would be easily determined. The need to determine Pu-238 and Am-241 in the presence of U-238 and Pu-241 seems to preclude the possibility of using laser ablation ICP-MS for Pu monitoring. ICP-AES and -LEAFS methods may not have enough sensitivity to determine Pu-238 at 2 ppb level with confidence, but RIMS (resonance ionization mass spectroscopy) should be adequate. 47 refs, figs.

  20. Separation Of Uranium And Plutonium Isotopes For Measurement By Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinelli, R E; Hamilton, T F; Williams, R W; Kehl, S R

    2009-03-29

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 242}Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA{reg_sign} column coupled to a UTEVA{reg_sign} column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U, and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment.

  1. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of /sup 239 +240/Pu and lesser amounts of /sup 241/Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of /sup 239 +240/Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables.

  2. Berkeley Lab Hosts 5 Emerging Leaders During TechWomen 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechWomen2013 Berkeley Lab Hosts 5 Emerging Leaders During TechWomen 2013 Mentoring program brought more than 70 women from 16 Middle Eastern and African countries to the U.S. November 26, 2013 Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov For Aseel Honein, an architect, teacher and design activist from Lebanon, spending a month collaborating with scientists at Berkeley Lab was a dream come true. She got the opportunity to do so through the TechWomen 2013 program, which brought 76 women from

  3. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson

    2013-02-01

    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium I positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  4. Summary - Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River Site

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site EM Project: PuPP ETR Report Date: October 2008 ETR-17 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Plutonium Preparation Project at the Savannah River Site Why DOE-EM Did This Review The purpose of the Plutonium Preparation Project (PuPP) is to prepare for disposition of plutonium materials; for examination, re-stabilization, and disassembly of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) unirradiated fuel; and for repackaging of Pu

  5. Mucrobial Stabilization of Plutonium in the Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BJ Honeyman, AJ Francis, CJ Dodge, JB Gillow, PH Santschi

    2004-06-01

    This report outlines the results of work performed at the Colorado School of Mines, Brookhaven National Laboratory and Texas A and M University during the second reporting phase of this project. The sub-projects focused on this year include: (1) Biotransformation of Pu-contaminated soil; (2) Environmental colloids at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site; (3) Production, isolation and characterization of EPS (exopolymeric substances, or exopolysaccharides); (4) Colloid trapping; (5) Determination of stability constants of complexes of Pu(IV) with organic ligands; and (6) The role of bacterial EPS in the transport of Pu through saturated porous media.

  6. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga (Conference) | SciTech Connect Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Authors: Wong, J. ; Holt, M. ; Hong, H. ; Wall, M. ; Schwartz, A. ; Zschack, P. ; Chiang, T.-C. Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235452 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in honey bees from Area G at TA-54 during 1997. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haarmann, T.K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Honey bees were collected from two colonies located at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Area G, Technical Area 54, and from one control (background) colony located near Jamez Springs, NM. Samples were analyzed for the following: cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu), tritium ({sup 3}H), total uranium, and gross gamma activity. Area G sample results from both colonies were higher than the upper (95%) level background concentration for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 3}H.

  8. Plutonium Uptake By Brucite And Hydroxylated Periclase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, J.D.; Neu, M.P.; Schulze, R.K.; Honeyman, B.D.

    2009-06-02

    Batch adsorption experiments and spectroscopic investigations consistently show that aqueous Pu(IV) is quickly removed from solution and becomes incorporated in a brucite or hydroxylated MgO surface to a depth of at least 50 nm, primarily as Pu(IV) within a pH range of 8.5--12.5, and is unaffected by the presence of the organic ligand, citrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) were used to estimate Pu penetration depth and provide information about its chemical state.

  9. Plutonium in human urine: Normal levels in the US public. 1991 Annual report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Xue, Ying-Hua

    1997-03-01

    A neutron induced fission track method was successfully developed for assaying {sup 239}Pu in human urine with a detection limit below 20 aCi/sample. The technique involves the co-precipitation of {sup 239}Pu with rhodizonic acid, separation of {sup 239}Pu from potentially interfering natural uranium and other inorganic materials by ion-exchange techniques, collection of the sample onto lexan detectors, irradiation of sample in MIT reactor at a fluence of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, etching of the lexan slide and counting the track either manually or by some automated counting system.

  10. Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    [From sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions] (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. [From sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of gas leak rates through very small orifices and channels. [From sealed PuO/sub 2/ containers under accident conditions] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect.

  11. Reduction of Plutonium in Acidic Solutions by Mesoporous Carbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parsons-Moss, Tashi; Jones, Stephen; Wang, Jinxiu; Wu, Zhangxiong; Uribe, Eva; Zhao, Dongyuan; Nitsche, Heino

    2015-12-19

    Batch contact experiments with several porous carbon materials showed that carbon solids spontaneously reduce the oxidation state of plutonium in 1-1.5 M acid solutions, without significant adsorption. The final oxidation state and rate of Pu reduction varies with the solution matrix, and also depends on the surface chemistry and surface area of the carbon. It was demonstrated that acidic Pu(VI) solutions can be reduced to Pu(III) by passing through a column of porous carbon particles, offering an easy alternative to electrolysis with a potentiostat.

  12. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  13. Soil concentration, vertical distribution and inventory of plutonium, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs in the Marche Region of Central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, G.; Testa, C.; Desideri, D.; Guerra, F.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C. . Inst. of General Chemistry); Belli, M.E. )

    1999-07-01

    Soil concentrations of [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 241]Am, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs are investigated in the Marche Region of Central Italy. Mean values in uncultivated soils are 3.5--8 times higher than the corresponding values in cultivated soils. Radionuclide inventories and ratios are consistent with values reported by the United nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation for this latitude. This suggests that radiocontamination in this region is mainly due to atmospheric deposition of nuclear weapon test fallout. The vertical distribution of these radionuclides is also studied. The results show that, with the exception of [sup 90]Sr, more than 90% of these radionuclides are contained in the first 20 cm of soil and that mobility follows the order [sup 90]Sr > [sup 241]Am > [sup 239+240]Pu, [sup 238]Pu > [sup 137]Cs.

  14. National Ignition Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF, in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics...

  15. ssp

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF, in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics...

  16. stockpile stewardship program

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF, in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics...

  17. advanced simulation and computing

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NIF, in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics...

  18. Nano-focused Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (nBIS) Determinatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This is world-class science directed at issue that is central to LLNL and DOE: Pu structure property relationships. less Authors: Tobin, J G ; Butterfield, M ; Teslich, N ; ...

  19. Pulsar Energy Capital L L P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pulsar Energy Capital L L P Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pulsar Energy Capital L.L.P. Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW20 0PU Product: Pulsar Energy Capital LLP is a...

  20. CX-011355: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Receipt, Unloading, and Movement of Radioactive Samples in Support of the 3013 Pu Surveillance Program CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/09/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  1. DO EIEA-0841 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPORT OF RUSSIAN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the chemical form (dioxide), reducing its mobility in the environment, if released q Low gamma-radiation level and acceptable neutron emission level The Pu-238 fuel form...

  2. NNSA releases Stockpile Stewardship Program quarterly experiments...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    in particular the first Pu experiment on NIF, the return to operations of the TA-55 gas gun, a successful series of plutonium experiments on Joint Actinide Shock Physics ...

  3. Search for: kondo effect | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host Zhu, Jian ... either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. ...

  4. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  5. V.K. Utyonkov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of superheavy nuclei at limits of stability: 239,240 Pu + 48 Ca and 249-251 Cf + 48 Ca reactions V.K. Utyonkov for the collaboration of Joint Institute for Nuclear...

  6. Molten salt fuels with high plutonium solubility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W; Turchi, Patrice E.A.; Shaw, Henry F; Kaufman, Larry

    2013-08-13

    The present invention includes a composition of LiF--ThF.sub.4--UF.sub.4--PuF.sub.3 for use as a fuel in a nuclear engine.

  7. MNeu NABIR Apr05 2.ppt

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    costly, financially and in terms of increased exposure risk to people and the environment. ... U, e.g. reduction by DMRB, may or may not work for Pu 600 papers on U(VI) hydrolysis 5 ...

  8. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and detailed information, beyond average quantities, can be inferred. This approach is applied to the following reactions: sup 252Cf (sf), nsub th + sup 239Pu, n (0.5...

  9. Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Studies show that Pu exists primarily as an oxide in land deposits and in ocean sediments. ... redistribution by processes such as cultivation and erosion by wind and water currents. ...

  10. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  11. A=6Li (2002TI10)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for theoretical calculations. Except for a phenomenological (1985ME02), a microscopic cluster (1986ME13), and a Greens-Function Monte-Carlo (1997PU03) calculation, the models fail...

  12. Eugene P. Wigner - Patents - 1961 through 1963

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    active portion capable of operating at an energy level of 0.5 to 1000 ev comprising discrete bodies of Pu239 disposed in a body of water which contains not more than 5 molecules of ...

  13. ARQfall99.pgm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of the Savannah River reactors, the United States has ... is oxidized to Pu(IV) with sodium nitrite and loaded onto a ... fuel to be burned in the Fast Flux Test Facility breeder ...

  14. He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: He bubble coarsening by migration and coalescence in annealed Pu-Ga alloys Authors: Jeffries, J R ; Wall, M A ; Moore, K T ; Schwartz, A J Publication Date: 2010-09-29 OSTI ...

  15. 98spring.pgm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D. Tait, "Identifica- tion of the Limiting Species in the Plutonium(IV) Carbonate System. Solid State and Solution Mo- lecular Structure of the Pu(CO 3 ) 5 6- Ion," J. Inorganic...

  16. Site Map

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and FAS publications of "Energy Levels of Light Nuclei, A 3 - 20": TUNL publications (PDF documents): A 3 (2010PU04), Erratum A 3 (1987TI07), Erratum A 4 (1992TI02),...

  17. Electrorefining of uranium and plutonium from liquid cadmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Poa, D.S.; Miller, W.E.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Feasibility of electrorefining of U, Pu, and mixtures thereof using a liquid Cd anode and a molten-salt electrolyte was investigated for the proposed pyrometallurgical process for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel. (DLC)

  18. Special isotope separation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.D.

    1989-02-03

    The SIS facilities will include a Plutonium Processing Facility (PPF), a Laser Support Facility (LSF), and all associated equipment required for isotope separation. The SIS Plant will process fuel-grade plutonium into weapons-grade plutonium using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and supporting chemical processes. The AVLIS process uses precisely tuned visible laser light to selectively ionize or excite specific plutonium isotopes in a vapor stream. The ionized plutonium isotopes (Pu 240, Pu 238 and Pu 241) are then separated from the plutonium isotope of interest (Pu 239). Chemical processes are required to (1) prepare the AVLIS plutonium feed for processing, remove americium-241, and cast plutonium metal into forms that meet AVLIS processing requirements; (2) recover and, if required, purify the AVLIS plutonium product; and (3) recover and process the AVLIS separated by-products. This presentation describes the production facility and some of the plutonium processes.

  19. DOE/RL-2013-53

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As Available 90 Sr Liver 1 BE (2014) As Available GEA, Pu, ICP-MS, Hg-CVAA Cottontail Rabbits 300 Area (d) Muscle 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. GEA Bone 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. 90 Sr...

  20. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  1. Glenn T. Seaborg - Patents - 1954 through 1958

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Separation of Plutonium from Aqueous Solutions) G.T. Seaborg, S.G. Thompson; Mar 19, 1957. A method is given for separating Pu from fission products arising with it in...

  2. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  3. Howard Waste Recycling Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Recycling Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Howard Waste Recycling Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: N18 3PU Sector: Biomass Product: London-based project...

  4. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  5. Harvey Wasserman! User Services Group NERSC Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    c luster GenePool ( JGI) * 5K c ore c luster * 2.1 P B I silon F ile S ystem Testbeds Dirac G PU t estbed (48 n odes) Current NERSC Platforms System Hopper Carver Edison Nodes...

  6. Progress Report on FY15 Crystalline Experiments M4FT-15LL0807052

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-08-13

    Colloid-facilitated plutonium transport is expected to be the dominant mechanism in its migration through the environment. The forms of Pu colloids (intrinsic versus pseudo-colloid) and their stabilities control temporal and spatial scales of Pu transport in the environment. In the present study, we examine the stability of Pu intrinsic colloids freshly prepared in alkaline solution relative to Pu-montmorillonite pseudo-colloids using a dialysis device and modeling approaches. Intrinsic colloids prepared under alkaline conditions were found to be unstable over a timescale of months. The kinetics of multiple processes, including hydrolysis/precipitation of Pu(IV), dissolution of intrinsic colloids in the absence and presence of the clay colloids, transport of dissolved Pu species across the dialysis membrane, and formation of pseudo-colloids were examined. The dissolution of intrinsic colloids was the rate-limiting process in most cases. The apparent intrinsic colloid dissolution rate constants range from 6×10-7 to 1×10- 6 mol·m-2·day-1 and 4×10-6 to 8×10-6 mol·m-2·day-1 at 25 and 80°C, respectively, while the apparent diffusion rate constants for Pu ions crossing the dialysis membrane are >200 times higher. Elevated temperatures enhance dissolution of Pu colloids and the activation energy for the process is estimated to be 28 kJ mol-1. The sorption of Pu to montmorillonite appears to be endothermic as the affinity of Pu for the clay increases with increasing temperature. Our results provide an in-depth understanding of how intrinsic and pseudo-colloids interact with each other kinetically. Although the fact that intrinsic colloids tend to dissolve in the presence of montmorillonite and transform into pseudo-colloids may limit the migration of intrinsic colloids, the thermodynamically more stable pseudo-colloids may play an important role in Pu transport in the environment over significant temporal and spatial scales.

  7. EVALUATION OF FLOWSHEET CHANGES FOR THE HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BLENDDOWN PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Rudisill, T.; Laurinat, J.; Mickalonis, J.

    2007-10-22

    H Canyon is considering a flowsheet change for Plutonium (Pu) Contaminated Scrap (PuCS) material. The proposed change is to route dissolved PuCS material directly to a uranium (U) storage tank. As a result, the PuCS solution will bypass Head End and First U Cycle, and will be purified by solvent extraction in Second U Cycle. The PuCS solution contains appreciable amounts of boron (B) and fluoride (F{sup -}), which are currently at trace levels in the U storage tank. Though unlikely, if the B concentration in the U storage tank were to reach 1.8 g B/g U, the entire contents of the U storage tank would likely require a second pass through Second U Cycle to provide sufficient decontamination to meet the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Blend Grade Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) specification for B, which is 30 {micro}g/g U. In addition, Second U Cycle is expected to provide sufficient decontamination of F{sup -} and Pu regardless of the amount of PuCS solution sent to the storage tank. Though aluminum (Al) is not present in the PuCS solution, B can be credited as a complexant of F{sup -}. Both stability constants from the literature and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) corrosion studies were documented to demonstrate that B complexation of F{sup -} in nitric acid solutions is sufficient to prevent excessive corrosion. Though B and Al complex F{sup -} to a similar degree, neither completely eliminates the presence of free F{sup -} in solution. Therefore, a limited amount of corrosion is expected even with complexed F{sup -} solutions. Tanks maintained at ambient temperature are not expected to experience significant corrosion. However, the Low Activity Waste (LAW) evaporators may be subjected to a corrosion rate of about 25 mils per year (mpy) as they reach their highest F{sup -} concentrations. The feed adjustment evaporator would only be subjected to the corrosion rate of about 25 mpy in the latter stages of the PuCS campaign. An issue that must be addressed as part of the proposed PuCS flowsheet change is that B has limited solubility in concentrated nitric acid solutions. As the proposed PuCS campaign progresses, the B concentration will increase in the U storage tank, in Second U Cycle feed, and in the 1DW stream sent to the LAW evaporators. Limitations on the B concentration in the LAW evaporators will be needed to prevent formation of boron-containing solids.

  8. Selected papers for global `95 concerning plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1996-06-14

    This report contains selected papers from the Global `95 Conference ``Evaluation of Emerging Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems,`` held in Versailles, Sept. 11-14, 1995. The 11 papers in Part I are from ``Benefits and Risks of Reprocessing`` sessions. The 7 papers in Part II are some of the more interesting poster papers that relate to the use of Pu for power generation. Finally, the 3 papers are on the topic of management and disposition of Pu from retired nuclear weapons.

  9. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Double-moment Microphysical Parameterization with Observations During MC3E Download a printable PDF Submitter: Pu, Z., University of Utah Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Pu Z and C Lin. 2015. "Evaluation of double-moment representation of ice hydrometeors in bulk microphysical parameterization: comparison between WRF numerical simulations and UND-Citation data during MC3E." Geoscience Letters, 2(11),

  10. Annual progress Report on research related to our research project Stabilization of Plutonium in Subsurface Environments via Microbial Reduction and Biofilm Formation funded by the Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    New, Mary

    2006-06-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to investigate and optimize the mechanisms for in situ immobilization of Pu species by naturally-occurring bacteria. Specific research objectives are: (a) investigate the mechanism of bacterial accumulation and immobilization of plutonium species by biofilm formation under aerobic conditions and (b) to demonstrate the direct and indirect stabilization of Pu via dissimilatory reduction by Geobacter metallireducens.

  11. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=228

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abusaleem, Khalifeh

    2014-02-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for known nuclides of mass 228 (Ac, At, Fr, Np, Pa, Pu, Ra, Rn, Th, and U). Excited states in {sup 228}At, {sup 228}Rn, {sup 228}Fr, {sup 228}Np, and {sup 228}Pu have not been identified as yet. Significant amounts of new data have been added since the last evaluation of A=228 nuclides. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=228 published by 1997Ar08.

  12. Note: Application of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors for quality assurance of mixed oxide fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodaira, S. Kurano, M.; Hosogane, T.; Ishikawa, F.; Kageyama, T.; Sato, M.; Kayano, M.; Yasuda, N.

    2015-05-15

    A CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector was used for quality assurance of mixed oxide fuel pellets for next-generation nuclear power plants. Plutonium (Pu) spot sizes and concentrations in the pellets are significant parameters for safe use in the plants. We developed an automatic Pu detection system based on dense ?-radiation tracks in the CR-39 detectors. This system would greatly improve image processing time and measurement accuracy, and will be a powerful tool for rapid pellet quality assurance screening.

  13. Preparation of actinide specimens for the US/UK joint experiment in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinby, T C; Adair, H L; Kobisk, E H

    1982-05-01

    A joint research program involving the United States and the United Kingdom was initiated about four years ago for the purpose of studying the fuel behavior of higher actinides using in-core irradiation in the fast reactor at Dounreay, Scotland. Simultaneously, determination of integral cross sections of a wide variety of higher actinide isotopes (physics specimens) was proposed. Coincidental neutron flux and energy spectral measurements were to be made using vanadium encapsulated dosimetry materials in the immediate region of the fuel pellets and physics samples. The higher actinide samples chosen for the fuel study were /sup 241/Am and /sup 244/Cm in the forms of Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Am/sub 6/Cm(RE)/sub 7/O/sub 21/, where (RE) represents a mixture of lanthanides. Milligram quantities of actinide oxides of /sup 248/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 243/Am, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Pu, /sup 242/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 235/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 233/U, /sup 232/Th, /sup 230/Th, and /sup 231/Pa were encapsulated to obtain nuclear cross section and reaction rate data for these materials.

  14. Thermal Degradation Studies of Polyurethane/POSS Nanohybrid Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J P; Pielichowski, K; TremblotDeLaCroix, P; Janowski, B; Todd, D; Liggat, J J

    2010-03-05

    Reported here is the synthesis of a series of Polyurethane/POSS nanohybrid elastomers, the characterization of their thermal stability and degradation behavior at elevated temperatures using a combination of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Thermal Volatilization Analysis (TVA). A series of PU elastomers systems have been formulated incorporating varying levels of 1,2-propanediol-heptaisobutyl-POSS (PHIPOSS) as a chain extender unit, replacing butane diol. The bulk thermal stability of the nanohybrid systems has been characterized using TGA. Results indicate that covalent incorporation of POSS into the PU elastomer network increase the non-oxidative thermal stability of the systems. TVA analysis of the thermal degradation of the POSS/PU hybrid elastomers have demonstrated that the hybrid systems are indeed more thermally stable when compared to the unmodified PU matrix; evolving significantly reduced levels of volatile degradation products and exhibiting a {approx}30 C increase in onset degradation temperature. Furthermore, characterization of the distribution of degradation products from both unmodified and hybrid systems indicate that the inclusion of POSS in the PU network is directly influencing the degradation pathways of both the soft and hard block components of the elastomers: The POSS/PU hybrid systems show reduced levels of CO, CO2, water and increased levels of THF as products of thermal degradation.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Wong; Denise Thronas; Robert Marshall

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  16. Plutonium Isotopes in the Terrestrial Environment at the Savannah River Site, USA. A Long-Term Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Nuessle, Patterson R.; Brant, Heather A.; Hall, Gregory; Halverson, Justin E.; Cadieux, James R.

    2015-01-16

    This work presents the findings of a long term plutonium study at Savannah River Site (SRS) conducted between 2003 and 2013. Terrestrial environmental samples were obtained at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in A-area. Plutonium content and isotopic abundances were measured over this time period by alpha spectrometry and three stage thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS). Here we detail the complete sample collection, radiochemical separation, and measurement procedure specifically targeted to trace plutonium in bulk environmental samples. Total plutonium activities were determined to be not significantly above atmospheric global fallout. However, the 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios attributed to SRS are abovemore » atmospheric global fallout ranges. The 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios are reasonably consistent from year to year and are lower than fallout, while the 242Pu/239Pu atom ratios are higher than fallout values. Overall, the plutonium signatures obtained in this study reflect a mixture of weapons-grade, higher burn-up, and fallout material. This study provides a blue print for long term low level monitoring of plutonium in the environment.« less

  17. INTERPRETATION OF AT-LINE SPECTRA FROM AFS-2 BATCH #3 FERROUS SULFAMATE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.; O'Rourke, P.

    2013-12-10

    Spectra from the at-line spectrometer were obtained during the ferrous sulfamate (FS) valence adjustment step of AFS-2 Batch #3 on 9/18/2013. These spectra were analyzed by mathematical principal component regression (PCR) techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of this treatment. Despite the complications from Pu(IV), we conclude that all Pu(VI) was consumed during the FS treatment, and that by the end of the treatment, about 85% was as Pu(IV) and about 15% was as Pu(III). Due to the concerns about the odd shape of the Pu(IV) peak and the possibility of this behavior being observed in the future, a follow-up sample was sent to SRNL to investigate this further. Analysis of this sample confirmed the previous results and concluded that it odd shape was due to an intermediate acid concentration. Since the spectral evidence shows complete reduction of Pu(VI) we conclude that it is appropriate to proceed with processing of this the batch of feed solution for HB-Line including the complexation of the fluoride with aluminum nitrate.

  18. Implications of Plutonium isotopic separation on closed fuel cycles and repository design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.

    2013-07-01

    Advances in laser enrichment may enable relatively low-cost plutonium isotopic separation. This would have large impacts on LWR closed fuel cycles and waste management. If Pu-240 is removed before recycling plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, it would dramatically reduce the buildup of higher plutonium isotopes, Americium, and Curium. Pu-240 is a fertile material and thus can be replaced by U-238. Eliminating the higher plutonium isotopes in MOX fuel increases the Doppler feedback, simplifies reactor control, and allows infinite recycle of MOX plutonium in LWRs. Eliminating fertile Pu-240 and Pu-242 reduces the plutonium content in MOX fuel and simplifies fabrication. Reducing production of Pu-241 reduces production of Am-241 - the primary heat generator in spent nuclear fuels after several decades. Reducing heat generating Am-241 would reduce repository cost and waste toxicity. Avoiding Am- 241 avoids its decay product Np-237, a nuclide that partly controls long-term oxidizing repository performance. Most of these benefits also apply to LWR plutonium recycled into fast reactors. There are benefits for plutonium isotopic separation in fast reactor fuel cycles (particularly removal of Pu-242) but the benefits are less. (author)

  19. Melting temperatures of the ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, T.; Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K.; Sugata, H.; Shibata, K.; Sato, D.

    2013-07-01

    Severe accidents occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Units 1-3 on March 11, 2011. MOX fuels were loaded in the Unit 3. For the thermal analysis of the severe accident, melting temperature and phase state of MOX corium were investigated. The simulated coriums were prepared from 4%Pu-containing MOX, 8%Pu-containing MOX and ZrO{sub 2}. Then X-ray diffraction, density and melting temperature measurements were carried out as a function of zirconium and plutonium contents. The cubic phase was observed in the 25%Zr-containing corium and the tetragonal phase was observed in the 50% and 75%Zr-containing coria. The lattice parameter and density monotonically changed with Pu content. Melting temperature increased with increasing Pu content; melting temperature were estimated to be 2932 K for 4%Pu MOX corium and 3012 K for 8%Pu MOX corium in the 25%ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system. The lowest melting temperature was observed for 50%Zr-containing corium. (authors)

  20. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} is also likely to be present in deposits and scales that have formed on the steel surfaces of the tank. Over the operational period and after closure of Tank 18, Ostwald ripening has and will continue to transform PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} to a more crystalline form of plutonium dioxide, PuO{sub 2(c)}. After bulk waste removal and heel retrieval operations, the free hydroxide concentration decreased and the carbonate concentration in the free liquid and solids increased. Consequently, a portion of the PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} has likely been converted to a hydroxy-carbonate complex such as Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)}. or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)}. Like PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)}, Ostwald ripening of Pu(OH){sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub (s)} or PuO(CO{sub 3}) {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O{sub (am)} would be expected to occur to produce a more crystalline form of the plutonium carbonate complex. Due to the high alkalinity and low carbonate concentration in the grout formulation, it is expected that upon interaction with the grout, the plutonium carbonate complexes will transform back into plutonium hydroxide. Although crystalline plutonium dioxide is the more stable thermodynamic state of Pu(IV), the low temperature and high water content of the waste during the operating and heel removal periods in Tank 18 have limited the transformation of the plutonium into crystalline plutonium dioxide. During the tank closure period of thousands of years, transformation of the plutonium into a more crystalline plutonium dioxide form would be expected. However, the continuing presence of water, reaction with water radiolysis products, and low temperatures will limit the transformation, and will likely maintain an amorphous Pu(OH){sub 4} or PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} form on the surface of any crystalline plutonium dioxide produced after tank closure. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic (XAS) measurements of Tank 18 residues are recommended to confirm coordination environments of the plutonium. If the presence of PuO(CO{sub 3}){sub (am,hyd)} is confirmed by XAS, it is recommended that e

  1. Plutonium chemistry under conditions relevant for WIPP performance assessment. Review of experimental results and recommendations for future work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oversby, Virginia M.

    2000-09-30

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located at a depth of 650 m in bedded salt at a site approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, was constructed by the US Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic wastes arising from defense-related activities. The disposal site is regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). During the process leading to certification of the site for initial emplacement of waste, EEG and their contractors reviewed the DOE Compliance Certification Application (CCA) and raised a number of issues. This report reviews the issues related to the chemistry of plutonium as it will affect the potential for release of radioactivity under WIPP conditions. Emphasis is placed on conditions appropriate for the Human Intrusion scenario(s), since human intrusion has the largest potential for releasing radioactivity to the environment under WIPP conditions. The most significant issues that need to be addressed in relation to plutonium chemistry under WIPP conditions are (1) the effects of heterogeneity in the repository on Pu concentrations in brines introduced under the human intrusion scenario, (2) the redox state of Pu in solution and potential for plutonium in solid phases to have a different redox state from that in the solution phase, (3) the effect of organic ligands on the solubility of Pu in WIPP-relevant brines, and (4) the effects of TRU waste characteristics in determining the solubility of Pu. These issues are reviewed with respect to the treatment they received in the DOE CCA, DOEs response to EEGs comments on the CCA, and EPAs response to those comments as reflected in the final EPA rule that led to the opening of the WIPP. Experimental results obtained in DOEs Actinide Source-Term Test Program (STTP) during the last two years are reviewed and interpreted in the light of other developments in the field of Pu solution chemistry. This analysis is used as the basis for a conceptual model for Pu behavior under WIPP conditions. This report identifies three issues that can be addressed as part of the five-year re-certification cycles mandated by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (U.S. Congress, 1996, *8.(f)(1)) and implemented in the EPA Final Rule (U.S. EPA, 1998a). First, the impact of organic ligands on the complexation of a system with multiple cations could be delineated by some simple experiments with Th (IV), citrate,EDTA, Ca2+ and one or more transition metals. An experiment with Pu (IV) could be designed to determine the lability of Pu oxidation states in the presence of organic ligands. Second, the issue of using analogs for Pu could be addressed with appropriate experiments using U and Pu at redox conditions in the range anticipated at the WIPP. Attention to the published experimental results of U and Pu could make a considerable contribution to this effort. Third, the issue of uncertainty in calculated actinide solubility can be resolved with experimental data for Pu (IV) compounds of appropriate compositions. The report also recommends starting by constructing a data base for U and Pu using the published, peer-reviewed OECD/NEA U and Pu data bases.

  2. The effect of ion-exchange purification on the determination of plutonium at the New Brunswick Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, W.G.; Spaletto, M.I.; Lewis, K.; Soriano, M.D.; Smith, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    The method of plutonium (Pu) determination at the Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) consists of a combination of ion-exchange purification followed by controlled-potential coulometric analysis (IE/CPC). The present report's purpose is to quantify any detectable Pu loss occurring in the ion-exchange (IE) purification step which would cause a negative bias in the NBL method for Pu analysis. The magnitude of any such loss would be contained within the reproducibility (0.05%) of the IE/CPC method which utilizes a state-of-the-art autocoulometer developed at NBL. When the NBL IE/CPC method is used for Pu analysis, any loss in ion-exchange purification (<0.05%) is confounded with the repeatability of the ion-exchange and the precision of the CPC analysis technique (<0.05%). Consequently, to detect a bias in the IE/CPC method due to the IE alone using the IE/CPC method itself requires that many randomized analyses on a single material be performed over time and that statistical analysis of the data be performed. The initial approach described in this report to quantify any IE loss was an independent method, Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry; however, the number of analyses performed was insufficient to assign a statistically significant value to the IE loss (<0.02% of 10 mg samples of Pu). The second method used for quantifying any IE loss of Pu was multiple ion exchanges of the same Pu aliquant; the small number of analyses possible per individual IE together with the column-to-column variability over multiple ion exchanges prevented statistical detection of any loss of <0.05%. 12 refs.

  3. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013 equivalency. Under the defined process conditions and associated material specifications, the high-purity PuO{sub 2} produced in HBL presents no unique safety concerns for packaging or storage in the 3013 required configuration. The PuO{sub 2} produced using the HBL flow sheet conditions will have a higher specific surface area (SSA) than PuO{sub 2} stabilized at 950 C and, consequently, under identical conditions will adsorb more water from the atmosphere. The greatest challenge to HBL operators will be controlling moisture content below 0.5 wt %. However, even at the 0.5 wt % moisture limit, the maximum acceptable pressure of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the 3013 container is greater than the maximum possible pressure for the HBL PuO{sub 2} product.

  5. ANALYSIS OF 2H-EVAPORATOR SCALE WALL [HTF-13-82] AND POT BOTTOM [HTF-13-77] SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2Hevaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxy-hydroxide mineral). On as received basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E- 05 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA.

  6. In-situ gamma-ray assay of the east cell line in the 235-F Plutonium fuel form facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diprete, D.

    2015-08-21

    On September 17th -19th , 2013, scientists from SRNL took a series of in-situ gamma-ray measurements in the maintenance trench beneath Cells 1-5 on the east line of the PuFF facility using a well-collimated, high-purity germanium detector. The cell interiors were assayed along with the furnaces and storage coolers that protrude beneath the cells. The detector efficiency was estimated using a combination of MCNP simulations and empirical measurements. Data analysis was performed using three gamma-rays emitted by Pu-238 (99.85 keV, 152.7 keV, and 766.4 keV) providing three independent estimates of the mass of Pu-238 holdup in each of the cells. The weighted mean of these three results was used as the best estimate of Pu-238 holdup in the East Cell Line of PuFF. The results of the assay measurements are found in the table on the following page along with the results from the scoping assay performed in 2006. All uncertainties in this table (as well as the rest of the report) are reported at 1?. Summing the assay results and treating MDAs as M238Pu= 0 MDA, the total holdup in the East Cell Line was 240 40 grams. This result is 100 grams lower than the previous estimate, a 0.55? difference. The uncertainty in the Pu-238 holdup is also reduced substantially relative to the 2006 scoping assay. However, the current assay results are in agreement with the 2006 scoping assay results due to the large uncertainty associated with the 2006 scoping assays. The current assay results support the conclusion that the 2006 results bound the Pu-238 mass in Cells 1-5. These results should be considered preliminary since additional measurements of the East Cell line are scheduled for 2017 and 2018. Those measurements will provide detailed information about the distribution of Pu-238 in the cells to be used to refine the results of the current assay.

  7. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J; Oldham, Warren J; Murrell, Michael T; Katzman, Danny

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel recycling with plasma reduction and etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Ho

    2012-06-05

    A method of extracting uranium from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) particles is disclosed. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) (containing oxides of uranium, oxides of fission products (FP) and oxides of transuranic (TRU) elements (including plutonium)) are subjected to a hydrogen plasma and a fluorine plasma. The hydrogen plasma reduces the uranium and plutonium oxides from their oxide state. The fluorine plasma etches the SNF metals to form UF6 and PuF4. During subjection of the SNF particles to the fluorine plasma, the temperature is maintained in the range of 1200-2000 deg K to: a) allow any PuF6 (gas) that is formed to decompose back to PuF4 (solid), and b) to maintain stability of the UF6. Uranium (in the form of gaseous UF6) is easily extracted and separated from the plutonium (in the form of solid PuF4). The use of plasmas instead of high temperature reactors or flames mitigates the high temperature corrosive atmosphere and the production of PuF6 (as a final product). Use of plasmas provide faster reaction rates, greater control over the individual electron and ion temperatures, and allow the use of CF4 or NF3 as the fluorine sources instead of F2 or HF.

  9. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  10. Ab Initio Enhanced calphad Modeling of Actinide-Rich Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Dane; Yang, Yong Austin

    2013-10-28

    The process of fuel recycling is central to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), where plutonium and the minor actinides (MA) Am, Np, and Cm are extracted from spent fuel and fabricated into new fuel for a fast reactor. Metallic alloys of U-Pu-Zr-MA are leading candidates for fast reactor fuels and are the current basis for fast spectrum metal fuels in a fully recycled closed fuel cycle. Safe and optimal use of these fuels will require knowledge of their multicomponent phase stability and thermodynamics (Gibbs free energies). In additional to their use as nuclear fuels, U-Pu-Zr-MA contain elements and alloy phases that pose fundamental questions about electronic structure and energetics at the forefront of modern many-body electron theory. This project will validate state-of-the-art electronic structure approaches for these alloys and use the resulting energetics to model U-Pu-Zr-MA phase stability. In order to keep the work scope practical, researchers will focus on only U-Pu-Zr-{Np,Am}, leaving Cm for later study. The overall objectives of this project are to: Provide a thermodynamic model for U-Pu-Zr-MA for improving and controlling reactor fuels; and, Develop and validate an ab initio approach for predicting actinide alloy energetics for thermodynamic modeling.

  11. Carrier-mediated transport of actinide ions using supported liquid membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panja, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Pu{sup 3+} under varying reducing conditions was investigated from a feed containing 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} into a receiver phase containing 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} using TODGA (N,N,N',N' - tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) as the carrier ligand. A mixture of 0.2 M hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and 0.2 M hydrazinium nitrate (used in the feed as the reducing agent) has been found to be effective for quantitative (>99%) transport of the trivalent Pu in about 3 h. Transport of trivalent plutonium in 3 h (>99%) was higher as compared to that of the tetravalent plutonium (94%), though their D values followed an opposite trend. The permeability coefficient (P) of Pu{sup 3+} was (4.63 {+-} 0.26) x 10{sup -3} cm/s as compared to (2.10 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} cm/s for Pu{sup 4+} and (3.67 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3} cm/s Am{sup 3+}. P values of trivalent actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+}, and Cm{sup 3+} are compared with their distribution data. (authors)

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil using Thenoyltrifluoroacetone and Tributylphosphate Complexation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Fox, Robert Vincent; Holmes, R.; Robbins, R; Boardman, C.

    2001-10-01

    Samples of clean soil from the source used to backfill pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex were spiked with Pu-239 and Am-241 to evaluate ligand-assistedsupercritical fluid extraction as a decontamination method. The actual soil in the pits has been subject to approximately three decades of weatheringsince it was originally contaminated. No surrogate soil can perfectly simulate the real event, but actual contaminated soil was not available for research purposes. However, fractionation of Am and Pu in the surrogate soil was found to be similar to that previously measured in the real soil using asequential aqueous extraction procedure. This suggests that Pu and Am behavior are similar in the two soils. The surrogate was subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, in the presence of the fluorinated beta diketone thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), and tributylphosphate (TBP). As much as 69% of the Pu and 88% of the Am were removed from the soil using 3.2mol% TTA and 2.7 mol % TBP, in a single 45 minute extraction. Extraction conditions employing a 5 mol % ethanol modifier with 0.33 mol % TTA and 0.27 mol %TBP resulted in 66% Pu and 68% Am extracted. To our knowledge, this is thefirst report of the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the removal of actinides from soil.

  13. Specific sequestering agents for actinides. 11. Complexation of plutonium and americium by catecholate ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kappel, M.J.; Nitsche, H.; Raymond, N.N.

    1985-02-13

    The results of the first in vitro experiments regarding the complexation of plutonium and americium by catechol and tetracatechoylamide ligands are presented. Electrochemical techniques have allowed the elucidation of the protonation behavior of Pu(IV)-and Pu(III)-catecholate complexes. Above pH 12, the Pu(IV) complex is a tetrakis(catecholate) complex and the Pu(III) complex is a tetrakis- or tris(catecholate) complex, depending upon ligand concentration. At neutral pH, the Pu(IV) complex of the octadentate ligand 3,4,3-LICAMS appears to be a tris(catecholate) complex, indicating that the full denticity of the ligand is not utilized in vivo. Spectroscopic evidence is presented for the complexation of Am(III) by tetracatechoylamide ligands. The inability to observe the Am(IV)/Am(III)-catecholate reduction couple indicates that the free-ion Am(IV)/Am(III) reduction potential is greater than +2.6 V vs. NHE. 48 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  14. In-situ gamma-ray assay of the west cell line in the 235-F plutonium fuel form facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, A. H.; Diprete, D.

    2014-09-01

    On August 29th, 2013, scientists from SRNL took a series of in-situ gamma-ray measurements in the maintenance trench beneath Cells 6-9 on the west line of the PuFF facility using an uncollimated, highpurity germanium detector. The detector efficiency was estimated using a combination of MCNP simulations and empirical measurements. Data analysis was performed using three gamma-rays emitted by Pu-238 (99.85 keV, 152.7 keV, and 766.4 keV) providing three independent estimates of the mass of Pu-238 holdup in each of the cells. The weighted mean of these three results was used as the best estimate of Pu-238 holdup in the West Cell Line of PuFF. The results of the assay measurements are found in the table below along with the results from the scoping assay performed in 2006. All uncertainties in this table (as well as the rest of the report) are given as 1?. The total holdup in the West Cell Line was 2.4 0.7 grams. This result is 0.6 g higher than the previous estimate, a 0.4? difference.

  15. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  16. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  17. Reactor physics studies for assessment of tramp uranium methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimm, P.; Vasiliev, A.; Wieselquist, W.; Ferroukhi, H.; Ledergerber, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents calculation studies towards validation of a methodology for estimations of the tramp uranium mass from water chemistry measurements. Particular emphasis is given to verify, from a reactor physics point of view, the justification basis for the so-called 'Pu-based model' versus the 'U-based model' as a key assumption for the methodology. The computational studies are carried out for a typical BWR fuel assembly with CASMO-5M and MCNPX. By approximating the evolution of fissile nuclides and the fraction of {sup 235}U fissions to total fissions in different zones of a fuel rod, including tramp uranium on the clad surface, it is found that Pu gives the dominant contribution to fissions for tramp uranium after an irradiation on the outer clad surface of at least one cycle in a BWR. Thus, the use of the so-called Pu model for the determination of the tramp uranium mass (this means in particular using the yields for {sup 239}Pu fission) appears justified in the cases considered. On that basis, replacing the older U model by a Pu model is recommended. (authors)

  18. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFPs Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)39H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  19. Comparative behavior of plutonium and americium in the equatorial Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Eagle, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inventories of /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The amount of /sup 239 +240/Pu mobilized to solution at the atolls can be predicted from a distribution coefficient K/sub d/ of 2.3 x 10/sup 5/ and the mean sediment concentrations. The mobilized /sup 239 +240/Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Characteristics of /sup 239 +240/Pu described at one location may not necessarily describe its behavior elsewhere. The relative amounts of /sup 241/Am to /sup 239 +240/Pu may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay.

  20. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: sampling and analysis summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Stuart, M.L.

    1981-07-23

    A radiological survey was conducted in the Northern Marshall Islands to document reamining external gamma exposures from nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. An additional program was later included to obtain terrestrial and marine samples for radiological dose assessment for current or potential atoll inhabitants. This report is the first of a series summarizing the results from the terrestrial and marine surveys. The sample collection and processing procedures and the general survey methodology are discussed; a summary of the collected samples and radionuclide analyses is presented. Over 5400 samples were collected from the 12 atolls and 2 islands and prepared for analysis including 3093 soil, 961 vegetation, 153 animal, 965 fish composite samples (average of 30 fish per sample), 101 clam, 50 lagoon water, 15 cistern water, 17 groundwater, and 85 lagoon sediment samples. A complete breakdown by sample type, atoll, and island is given here. The total number of analyses by radionuclide are 8840 for /sup 241/Am, 6569 for /sup 137/Cs, 4535 for /sup 239 +240/Pu, 4431 for /sup 90/Sr, 1146 for /sup 238/Pu, 269 for /sup 241/Pu, and 114 each for /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu. A complete breakdown by sample category, atoll or island, and radionuclide is also included.

  1. Study on the properties of saline HLLW in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, J.F.; Liu, X.G.; Song, C.L.; Jiao, R.Z.

    2008-07-01

    The properties and the components of HLLW (High-level Liquid Waste) were studied. The genuine saline HLLW is a blue-green liquid with 1.399 g/mL density. The activities of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total {alpha}/{beta}/{gamma} were determined. The extractive properties of actinide s in the HLLW were examined in a five-stage cross-extraction test. More than 98% of the Pu in HLLW is Pu{sup 4+}, and more than 70% of the Np is Np{sup 4+}. It was shown that >99.97% of the {alpha}-nuclides were extracted by 30% TRPO-kerosene from the HLLW. The separation performance of actinides is excellent. (authors)

  2. CALORIMETRY OF TRU WASTE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. RUDY; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    Calorimetry has been used for accountability measurements of nuclear material in the US. Its high accuracy, insensitivity to matrix effects, and measurement traceability to National Institute of Standards and Technology have made it the primary accountability assay technique for plutonium (Pu) and tritium in the Department of Energy complex. A measurement of Pu isotopic composition by gamma-ray spectroscopy is required to transform the calorimeter measurement into grams Pu. The favorable calorimetry attributes allow it to be used for verification measurements, for production of secondary standards, for bias correction of other faster nondestructive (NDA) methods, or to resolve anomalous measurement results. Presented in this paper are (1) a brief overview of calorimeter advantages and disadvantages, (2) a description of projected large volume calorimeters suitable for waste measurements, and (3) a new technique, direct measurement of transuranic TRU waste alpha-decay activity through calorimetry alone.

  3. Subthreshold Photofission of Even-Even Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadmensky, S.G.; Rodionova, L.V. [Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl. 1, Voronezh, 394693 (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-01

    Within quantum-mechanical fission theory, the angular distributions of fragments originating from the subthreshold photofission of the even-even nuclei {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu are analyzed for photon energies below 7 MeV. Special features of various fission channels are assessed under the assumption that the fission barrier has a two-humped shape. It is shown that the maximum value of the relative orbital angular momentum L{sub m} of fission fragments can be found upon taking into account deviations from the predictions of A. Bohr's formula for the angular distributions of fission fragments. The result is L{sub m} {approx_equal} 30. The existence of an 'isomeric shelf' for the angular distributions of fragments from {sup 236}U and {sup 238}U photofission in the low-energy region is confirmed.

  4. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  5. Structural Characterization of a Plutonium Sequestering Agent Complex by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorden, A.E.V. |; Szigethy, G.; Tiedemann, B.E.F.; Xu, J.; Shuh, D.K.; Raymond, K.N. |

    2007-07-01

    New ligands and materials are required that can coordinate, sense, and purify actinides for selective extraction and reduction of toxic, radioactive wastes from the mining and purification of actinides. The similarities in the chemical, biological transport, and distribution properties of Fe(III) and Pu(IV) inspired a bio-mimetic approach to the development of sequestering agents for actinides. A detailed evaluation of the structure and bonding of actinide coordinating ligands like these is important for the design of new selective ligand systems. Knowing the difficulty with working with the crystals resulting from these ligand systems and safe handling considerations for working with Pu, procedures were developed that utilize the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to determine the solid-state structures of Pu complexes by X-ray diffraction. (au0011tho.

  6. A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for DANCE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, C. Y.; Chyzh, A.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Carter, D.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2012-08-04

    A compact gas-filled avalanche counter for the detection of fission fragments was developed for a highly segmented 4π γ-ray calorimeter, namely the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments located at the Lujan Center of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. It has been used successfully for experiments with 235U, 238Pu,239Pu, and 241Pu isotopes to provide a unique signature to differentiate the fission from the competing neutron-capture reaction channel. We also used it to study the spontaneous fission in 252Cf. The design and performance of this avalanche counter for targets with extreme α-decay rate up to ~2.4×108/s are described.

  7. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

  8. Development of an improved sodium titanate for the pretreatment of nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Poirier, M.R.; Barnes, M.J.; Peters, T.B.; Fondeur, F.F.; Thompson, M.E.; Fink, S.D. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Nyman, M.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal. The MST and separated Cs-137 will be encapsulated into a borosilicate glass wasteform for eventual entombment at the federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material. (authors)

  9. Recommended Method To Account For Daughter Ingrowth For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Smith, Frank G. III

    2013-06-21

    A 3-D STOMP model has been developed for the Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at Site D as outlined in Appendix K of FBP 2013. This model projects the flow and transport of the following radionuclides to various points of assessments: Tc-99, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Am-241, Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Th-228, and Th-230. The model includes the radioactive decay of these parents, but does not include the associated daughter ingrowth because the STOMP model does not have the capability to model daughter ingrowth. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides herein a recommended method to account for daughter ingrowth in association with the Portsmouth OSWDF Performance Assessment (PA) modeling.

  10. Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores are identified by evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of keff, mass balance, and void coefficient. The effect of advanced iron alloy cladding (i.e., FeCrAl) on the performance of Pu conversion in MOX fueled cores is studied instead of using standard stainless-steel cladding. Variations in clad thickness and coolant-to-fuel volume ratio are also exercised. The use of FeCrAl instead of SS as a cladding alloy reduces the required Pu enrichment and improves the Pu conversion rate primarily due to the absence of nickel in the cladding alloy that results in the reduction of the neutron absorption. Also the difference in void coefficients between SS and FeCrAl alloys is nearly 500 pcm over the entire burnup range. The report also shows sensitivity and uncertainty analyses in order to characterize D2O cooled HCPWRs from different aspects. The uncertainties of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected reactor cores are evaluated at different burnup points in order to find similarities and trends respect to D2O-HCPWR.

  11. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  12. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenters logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  13. Plutonium (III) and uranium (III) nitrile complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enriquez, A. E.; Matonic, J. H.; Scott, B. L.; Neu, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Iodine oxidation of uranium and plutonium metals in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine form AnI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} and AnI{sub 3}(py){sub 4} (An = Pu, U). These compounds represent convenient entries Into solution An(III) chemistry in organic solvents. Extensions of the actinide metal oxidation methodology in nitrile solvents by I{sub 2}, AgPF{sub 6}, and TIPF{sub 6} are presented here. Treatment of Pu{sup 0} in acetonitrile with iodine yields a putative PuI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub x} intermediate which can be trapped with the tripodal nitrogen donor ligand tpza (tpza = (tris[(2-pyrazinyl)methyl]amine)) and forms the eight-coordinate complex (tpza)PuI{sub 3}(NCMe). Treatment of excess U{sup 0} metal by iodine in acetonitrile afforded a brown crystalline mixed valence complex, [U(NCMe){sub 9}][UI{sub 6}][I], instead of UI{sub 3}(NCMe){sub 4}. The analogous reaction in bezonitrile forms red crystalline UI{sub 4}(NCPh){sub 4}. In contrast, treatment of UI{sub 3}(THF){sub 4} with excess acetonitrile cleanly generates [U(NCMe){sub 9}][I]{sub 3}. Oxidation of Pu{sup 0} by either TI(I) or Ag(I) hexafluorophosphate salts generates a nine-coordinate homoleptic acetonitrile adduct [Pu(NCMe){sub 9}][PF{sub 6}]{sub 3}. Attempts to oxidize U{sub 0} with these salts were unsuccessful.

  14. Evaluation of Impurity Extremes in a Plutonium-loaded Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.M.; Crawford, C.L.; Marra, J.C.; Bibler, N.E.; Hoffman, E.N.; Edwards, T.B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A vitrification technology utilizing a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass appears to be a viable option for the disposition of excess weapons-usable plutonium that is not suitable for processing into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A significant effort to develop a glass formulation and vitrification process to immobilize plutonium was completed in the mid-1990's. The LaBS glass formulation was found to be capable of immobilizing in excess of 10 wt % Pu and to be tolerant of a range of impurities. To confirm the results of previous testing with surrogate Pu feeds containing impurities, four glass compositions were selected for fabrication with actual plutonium oxide and impurities. The four compositions represented extremes in impurity type and concentration. The homogeneity and durability of these four compositions were measured. The homogeneity of the glasses was evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The XRD results indicated that the glasses were amorphous with no evidence of crystalline species in the glass. The SEM/EDS analyses did show the presence of some undissolved PuO{sub 2} material. The EDS spectra indicated that some of the PuO{sub 2} crystals also contained hafnium oxide. The SEM/EDS analyses showed that there were no heterogeneities in the glass due to the feed impurities. The durability of the glasses was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The PCT results indicated that the durability of Pu impurity glasses was comparable with Pu glasses without impurities and significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used as the benchmark for repository disposition of high-level waste (HLW) glasses. (authors)

  15. A Blueprint for GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Startup Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Khericha

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the requirements and issues associated with design of GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor Fuel Facility. The report was prepared in support of providing data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives was to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept was proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR was proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu was assumed to be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) was being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. It was estimated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and would take 3 to 5 years to construct.

  16. PRELIMINARY DATA CALL REPORT ADVANCED BURNER REACTOR START UP FUEL FABRICATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. T. Khericha

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives is to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept has been proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR is proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu will be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) is being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. This report is provided in response to Data Call for the construction of startup fuel fabrication facility. It is anticipated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and will take to 3 to 5 years to construct.

  17. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  18. Plutonium isotopic assay from alpha spectroscopy: A progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baran, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) group at New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) continues to develop and refine a computer program ALPHAFIT, a sophisticated peak-fitting routine for use in determining the isotopic abundances of Pu and U samples. The program uses up to seven parameters per peak fit and up to 12 peaks per region of interest to de-convolute typical complicated Pu a spectra. Preliminary results show decent fits for major peaks in the spectrum and calculated isotopic abundances of the major isotopes to {+-} 4%.

  19. Effects of self-irradiation in plutonium alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chung, B. W.; Lema, K. E.; Allen, P. G.

    2015-09-16

    In this paper, we present updated results of self-irradiation effects on 238Pu-enriched 239Pu alloys measured by immersion density, dilatometry, and tensile tests. We obtained the self-irradiation equivalent time of nearly 200 years, nearly 100 years longer than in our previous papers. At this extended aging, we find the rate of decrease in density has slowed significantly, stabilizing around 15.73 g/cc, without signs of void swelling. The volume expansion measured at 35°C also shows apparent saturation at less than 0.25%. Quasi-static tensile measurement still show gradual increase in the strength of plutonium alloys with age.

  20. I

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I _ _ ORNL-6161 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Critical Experiments With Mixed Plutonium-Uranium Nitrate Solutions Having Pu:(Pu-I-U) Ratios Greater than 0.5 , R.T. Primm,III R. C. Lloyd , E.D. Clayton OPERATED BY E_;_rr:_ilLrl_;3_QI=TH_ I:X:)CUlulIE.N'I'" B LJNa-_;,;":"_" MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC. FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY L I ORNL-- 6161 ORNL-6161 Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program CRITICAL EXPERIMENTS WITH MIXED PLUTONIUM-URANIUM NITRATE

  1. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  2. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  3. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Engineering Triaxial thermopile array geo-heat-flow sensor Carrigan, C.R.; Hardee, H.C.; Reynolds, G.D.; Steinfort, T.D. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 Primm, R.T. III [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]; Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] High density arrays of

  4. Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometry Time Spectral Analysis for Spent Fuel Assay: FY11 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Warren, Glen A.

    2011-09-30

    Developing a method for the accurate, direct, and independent assay of the fissile isotopes in bulk materials (such as used fuel) from next-generation domestic nuclear fuel cycles is a goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle R&D, Material Protection and Control Technology (MPACT) Campaign. To meet this goal, MPACT supports a multi-institutional collaboration, of which PNNL is a part, to study the feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This technique is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic masses in used fuel with an uncertainty considerably lower than the approximately 10% typical of today's confirmatory assay methods. This document is a progress report for FY2011 PNNL analysis and algorithm development. Progress made by PNNL in FY2011 continues to indicate the promise of LSDS analysis and algorithms applied to used fuel. PNNL developed an empirical model based on calibration of the LSDS to responses generated from well-characterized used fuel. The empirical model, which accounts for self-shielding effects using empirical basis vectors calculated from the singular value decomposition (SVD) of a matrix containing the true self-shielding functions of the used fuel assembly models. The potential for the direct and independent assay of the sum of the masses of 239Pu and 241Pu to within approximately 3% over a wide used fuel parameter space was demonstrated. Also, in FY2011, PNNL continued to develop an analytical model. Such efforts included the addition of six more non-fissile absorbers in the analytical shielding function and the non-uniformity of the neutron flux across the LSDS assay chamber. A hybrid analytical-empirical approach was developed to determine the mass of total Pu (sum of the masses of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu), which is an important quantity in safeguards. Results using this hybrid method were of approximately the same accuracy as the pure empirical approach. In addition, total Pu with much better accuracy with the hybrid approach than the pure analytical approach. In FY2012, PNNL will continue efforts to optimize its empirical model and minimize its reliance on calibration data. In addition, PNNL will continue to develop an analytical model, considering effects such as neutron-scattering in the fuel and cladding, as well as neutrons streaming through gaps between fuel pins in the fuel assembly.

  5. EFRC: Administration and Operation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mark Pederson PhD Computation and Theoretical Chemistry Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences An ASCR / BES / NERSC Workshop February 9-10, 2010 9AM OFFICE OF SCIENCE OFFICE OF SCIENCE Primary: Near Future Needs of Capacity Computing? BES has approximately 150 users requesting 50K to 4M processor hours (PU) per year. BES users use approximately 80-100M PU per year through the NERSC allocation

  6. Polycrystalline gamma plutonium's elastic moduli versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline {sup 239}Pu in the {gamma} phase. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli were measured simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth, linear, and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. They calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519 K to 0.252 at 571 K. These measurements on extremely well characterized pure Pu are in agreement with other reported results where overlap occurs.

  7. Microsoft Word - S09641_2012Annual.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    05 Figure 59. Predischarge Sampling Locations Table 45. Sampling and Data Evaluation Protocols at Predischarge Monitoring Locations Location Code Location Description Sample Types/ Frequencies Analytes Data Evaluation A4 POND Pond A-4 at east end of pond near outlet works Prior to opening outlet valve Pu, Am, total U, nitrate a Review with regulators prior to initiating discharge B5 POND Pond B-5 at east end of pond near outlet works Prior to opening outlet valve Pu, Am, total U, nitrate a

  8. Integral Validation of Minor Actinide Nuclear Data by using Samples Irradiated at Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Shinohara, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2005-05-24

    The reliability of nuclear data for minor actinides was evaluated by using the results of the post-irradiation experiment for actinide samples irradiated at the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor. The burnup calculations with JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VI.8, and JEFF-3.0 were performed. From the comparison between the experimental data and the calculational results, in general, the reliability of nuclear data for the minor actinides are at an adequate level for the conceptual design study of transmutation systems. It is, however, found that improvement of the accuracy is necessary for some nuclides, such as 238Pu, 242Pu, and 241Am.

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - MOX Adventure_Reactor Subcommittee_Tamara Reavis

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    MOX Adventure Tamara Reavis May 2015 Page 2 Overview of Presentation > Characteristics of MOX Fuel  MOX Fuel at Duke Energy  MOX Fuel and NMMSS Page 3 MOX Fuel - General  MOX fuel pellets from former weapons plutonium  Blend of ~5% PuO 2 with ~95% depleted UO 2  Like LEU fuel pellets, MOX fuel pellets are primarily uranium  Fission power comes primarily from plutonium (Pu 239 ) instead of uranium (U 235 )  Other than the material of the fuel pellets, MOX and uranium fuel

  10. Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahin, Smer

    2014-09-30

    Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG?PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ? 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ? 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG?PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ?160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ?1.3.

  11. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  12. The features of neutronic calculations for fast reactors with hybrid cores on the basis of BFS-62-3A critical assembly experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.; Blokhin, A. I.

    2012-07-01

    The different (U-Pu) fuel compositions are considered for next generation of sodium fast breeder reactors. The considerable discrepancies in axial and radial neutron spectra for hybrid reactor systems compared to the cores with UO{sub 2} fuel cause increasing uncertainty of generating the group nuclear constants in those reactor systems. The calculation results of BFS-62-3A critical assembly which is considered as full-scale model of BN-600 hybrid core with steel reflector specify quite different spectra in local areas. For those systems the MCNP 5 calculations demonstrate significant sensitivity of effective multiplication factor K{sub eff} and spectral indices to nuclear data libraries. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu the results of calculated radial fission rate distributions against the reconstructed ones are analyzed. Comparative analysis of spectral indices, neutron spectra and radial fission rate distributions are performed using the different versions of ENDF/B, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, JEFF-3.1.1 libraries and BROND-3 for Fe, Cr isotopes. For analyzing the fission rate sensitivity to the plutonium presence in the fuel {sup 239}Pu is substituted for {sup 235}U (enrichment 90%) in the FA areas containing the plutonium. For {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu radial fission rate distributions the explanation of pick values discrepancies is based on the group fission constants analyses and possible underestimation of some features at the experimental data recovery method (Westcott factors, temperature dependence). (authors)

  13. Hydrogen Concentration in the Inner-Most Container within a Pencil Tank Overpack Packaged in a Standard Waste Box Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marusich, Robert M.

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate hydrogen generation within Pencil Tank Overpacks (PTO) in a Standard Waste Box (SWB), to establish plutonium (Pu) limits for PTOs based on hydrogen concentration in the inner-most container and to establish required configurations or validate existing or proposed configurations for PTOs. The methodology and requirements are provided in this report.

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Summary report, field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-11-01

    A three-phase field sampling program was conducted on the Buttermilk-Cattaraugus Creek system to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Phase 1 of the sampling program was conducted during November and December 1977; Phase 2 during September 1978; and Phase 3 during April 1979. Bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples were collected over a 45-mile reach of the creek system. Bed sediment samples were also collected at the mouth of Cattaraugus Creek in Lake Erie. A fourth sampling trip was conducted during May 1980 to obtain supplementary channel geometry data and flood plain sediment samples. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, CS-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239,240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks.

  15. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

    1982-08-01

    A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions.

  16. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered {sup 237}Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO{sub 2} for future production of {sup 238}Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  17. TUNL Nuclear Data Project, HTML Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H 3H is available in the following: HTML for 3H: (2010PU04), (1987TI07) A = 3 is available for the following: A = 3 Tables A = 3 References PDF Documents for A = 3 Errata for A = 3 publications Last modified on 09 September 2014

  18. TUNL Nuclear Data Project, HTML Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He 3He is available in the following: HTML for 3He: (2010PU04), (1987TI07) A = 3 is available for the following: A = 3 Tables A = 3 References PDF Documents for A = 3 Errata for A = 3 publications Last modified on 09 September 2014

  19. TUNL Nuclear Data Project, HTML Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Li 3Li is available in the following: HTML for 3Li: (2010PU04), (1987TI07) A = 3 is available for the following: A = 3 Tables A = 3 References PDF Documents for A = 3 Errata for A = 3 publications Last modified on 30 November 2010

  20. TUNL Nuclear Data Project, HTML Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n 3n is available in the following: HTML for 3n: (2010PU04), (1987TI07) A = 3 is available for the following: A = 3 Tables A = 3 References PDF Documents for A = 3 Errata for A = 3 publications Last modified on 29 May 2013

  1. Plutonium metal exchange program : current status and statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, L.; Eglin, J. L.; Michalak, S. E.; Picard, R. R.; Temer, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plutonium (Pu) Metal Sample Exchange program was conducted to insure the quality and intercomparability of measurements such as Pu assay, Pu isotopics, and impurity analyses. The Rocky Flats program was discontinued in 1989 after more than 30 years. In 2001, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) reestablished the Pu Metal Exchange program. In addition to the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, six Department of Energy (DOE) facilities Argonne East, Argonne West, Livermore, Los Alamos, New Brunswick Laboratory, and Savannah River are currently participating in the program. Plutonium metal samples are prepared and distributed to the sites for destructive measurements to determine elemental concentration, isotopic abundance, and both metallic and nonmetallic impurity levels. The program provides independent verification of analytical measurement capabilies for each participating facility and allows problems in analytical methods to be identified. The current status of the program will be discussed with emphasis on the unique statistical analysis and modeling of the data developed for the program. The discussion includes the definition of the consensus values for each analyte (in the presence and absence of anomalous values and/or censored values), and interesting features of the data and the results.

  2. Monte Carlo analysis of neutron slowing-down-time spectrometer for fast reactor spent fuel assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jianwei; Lineberry, Michael

    2007-07-01

    Using the neutron slowing-down-time method as a nondestructive assay tool to improve input material accountancy for fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing is under investigation at Idaho State University. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to simulate the neutron slowing down process in different slowing down spectrometers, namely, lead and graphite, and determine their main parameters. {sup 238}U threshold fission chamber response was simulated in the Monte Carlo model to represent the spent fuel assay signals, the signature (fission/time) signals of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu were simulated as a convolution of fission cross sections and neutron flux inside the spent fuel. {sup 238}U detector signals were analyzed using linear regression model based on the signatures of fissile materials in the spent fuel to determine weight fractions of fissile materials in the Advanced Burner Test Reactor spent fuel. The preliminary results show even though lead spectrometer showed a better assay performance than graphite, graphite spectrometer could accurately determine weight fractions of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu given proper assay energy range were chosen. (authors)

  3. Role of Anions and Reaction Conditions in the Preparation of Uranium(VI), Neptunium(VI), and Plutonium(VI) Borates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-02-03

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO2[B8O11(OH)4] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO22+, surrounded by BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra to create an AnO8 hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI).

  4. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  5. A=3, 2010 evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 (2010PU04) (Revised Manuscript from 2010) An evaluation of A = 3 was published in Nuclear Physics A848 (2010) p. 1. The version here differs from the published version in that we have corrected a few errors discovered after the article went to press. PDF HTML A = 3 3n, 3H, 3He, 3Li Adobe Reader Download Last modified: 01

  6. Calculated phase diagrams of pyrochemical systems at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The phase diagrams can help in understanding the process. The approach taken is calculated binary and ternary phase diagrams and optimized thermodynamic parameters. The salt extraction system uses the salts Cs/sub 2/PuCl/sub 6/ and CaCl/sub 2/. Al, Mg, and Ca are used in the salt scrub system. Phase sections are given together with recommendations. (DLC)

  7. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1956PA23 E.B. Paul, Physica 22 (1956) 1140A 1956PU41 T.M. Putnam, J.E. Brolley and Jr., L. Rosen, Phys. Rev. 104 (1956) 1303 1956RI37 A.C. Riviere, Nucl. Phys. 2 (1956) 81...

  8. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  9. Low-level determination of plutonium by gamma and L x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitsche, H.; Gatti, R.C.; Lee, S.C.

    1991-04-01

    we have developed an analytical method for detection of {sup 239}Pu in aqueous samples at concentrations as low as 10{sup {minus}10} M. This nuclear counting technique utilizes the uranium L X-rays, which follow the alpha decay of plutonium. Because L X-rays are specific for the element and not for the individual isotopes, the isotopic composition of the plutonium sample must be known. The counting efficiency in the 11--23 keV range is determined from a plutonium standard, and the concentration of the sample is then calculated from the L X-ray count and the isotopic composition. The total L X-ray count is corrected for possible contributions from other radionuclides present as impurities by measuring the low-energy gamma spectrum for each contaminant to establish specific photon/X-ray ratios. The ratios are important when {sup 241}Pu and {sup 242}Pu are measured, because the respective decay chain members produce non-U L X-rays. This new method can replace the use of labor-intensive radiochemical separation techniques and elaborate activation methods for analysis of {sup 239}Pu in aqueous samples. It is also applicable for assaying plutonium in liquid wastes that pose possible hazards to the environment.

  10. Hanford/Tomsk reciprocal site visit: Plutonium agreement compliance talks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, R.A.; Sorenson, R.; Six, D.; Schiegel, S.C.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of the visit to Hanford Site was to: demonstrate equipment, technology, and methods for calculating Pu production, measuring integrated reactor power, and storing and safeguarding PuO{sub 2}; demonstrate the shutdown of Hanford production reactors; and foster openness and transparency of Hanford operations. The first day`s visit was an introduction to Hanford and a review of the history of the reactors. The second day consisted of discussions on the production reactors, reprocessing operations, and PuO{sub 2} storage. The group divided on the third day to tour facilities. Group A toured the N reactor, K-West reactor, K-West Basins, B reactor, and participated in a demonstration and discussion of reactor modeling computer codes. Group B toured the Hanford Pu Storage Facility, 200-East Area, N-cell (oxide loadout station), the Automated Storage Facility, and the Nondestructive Assay Measurement System. Group discussions were held during the last day of the visit, which included scheduling of a US visit to Russia.

  11. Analysis of the Reactor Position Independent Monitor (PIM) Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2014-07-17

    In this note I analyze the physics determining the proposed reactor position independent monitor (PIM), which is the ratio (240Pu/239Pu)1/3 (135Cs/137Cs)1/2. The PIM ratios in any reactor fuel is shown to increase monotonically with the time over which the fuel is irradiated. This is because the Cs ratio determines the neutron flux, while the Pu isotopic ratio is determined by the flux times the irradiation time. If the irradiation time for all fuel rods across the reactor is fixed, the PIM ratio is approximately constant in all rods. However, no information can be extracted from the PIM ratio on Pu isotopics unless both the flux (or Cs ratio) and the irradiation time (from, say, Ru isotopics) are known separately, i.e., the PIM ratio is not a fundamental parameter of any reactor. Thus, unless the PIM ratio has been measured for the specific fuel under interrogation, no information can be deduced from measurements or reactor simulations of PIM ratios in different fuel from the same reactor. However, if a PIM measurement has been in one spent fuel rod from a given reactor, all other rods that are known to have been in the reactor for the same irradiation period can be assumed to have approximately the same PIM ratio.

  12. Activity report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  13. Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing, Vol. 50-51, January 2015, pp. 349-361. Published on-line (http:authors.elsevier.coma1PU7Q39t07Itt). Atamturktur, H.S., Hemez, F.M., Williams, B., Tome, C., Unal,...

  14. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  15. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples calcined at 650 C generally had lower specific surface areas and lower moisture contents than the samples calcined at 635 C, which matches expectations from the literature. Taken together, the TGA-MS results for samples handled at nominally 20-50% RH, without extended exposure, indicate that the Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation process followed by calcination at 635-650 C appears capable of producing PuO{sub 2} with moisture content < 0.5 wt% as required by the 3013 Standard. Exposures of PuO{sub 2} samples to ambient air for 3 or more hours generally showed modest mass gains that were primarily gains in moisture content. These results point to the need for a better understanding of the moisture absorption of PuO{sub 2} and serve as a warning that extended exposure times, particularly above the 50% RH level observed in this study will make the production of PuO{sub 2} with less than 0.5 wt % moisture more challenging. Samples analyzed in this study generally contained approximately 2 monolayer equivalents of moisture. In this study, the bulk of the moisture released from samples below 300 C, as did a significant portion of the CO{sub 2}. Samples in this study consistently released a minor amount of NO in the 40-300 C range, but no samples released CO or SO{sub 2}. TGA-MS results also showed that MS moisture content accounted for 80 {+-} 8% of the total mass loss at 1000 C measured by the TGA. The PuO{sub 2} samples produced had particles sizes that typically ranged from 0.2-88 {micro}m, with the mean particle size ranging from 6.4-9.3 {micro}m. The carbon content of ten different calcination batches ranged from 190-480 {micro}g C/g Pu, with an average value of 290 {micro}g C/g Pu. A statistical review of the calcination conditions and resulting SSA values showed that in both cases tested, calcination temperature had a significant effect on SSA, as expected from literature data. The statistical review also showed that batch size had a significant effect on SSA, but the narrow range of batch sizes tested is a compelling reason to set aside that result until tests

  16. RussiaLANLV3-web.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B-dot (6 probes* 60) TL2-1...TL2-6 B-dot (6 probes* 60) TL3-1...TL3-6 PU CMU Liner Modified for the Web multi-year effort planned in eight phases continuing into FY09 ...

  17. Analysis of tank 39H (HTF-39-15-61, 62) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of corrosion control program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 39H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Corrosion Control Program. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis for silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. Other reported analytical results include analyses results for uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239. The measured sodium concentration averaged, respectively, 4.28E+00 9.30E-02 M and 4.32E+00 1.076E-01 M in the Tank 39H surface sample and Tank 39H subsurface sample. In general, the nitrate, nitrite, free-OH and specific gravity of the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were all about the same in magnitude, respectively, averaging 1.98 M, 0.314 M, 1.26 M and 1.24. The measured silicon concentration for the Tank 39H surface and subsurface samples were, respectively, 3.84E+01 5.51E+00 and 4.14E+01 1.17E+00 mg/L. Based on the uranium, Pu-241 and Pu-239 concentrations, the calculated U-235 equivalent is 21.41 wt% for the surface sample and 21.32 wt% for the subsurface sample.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM UPTAKE INTO MCU SOLVENT AND NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-06

    At the request of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) customer, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) examined the plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) uptake into the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) that will be used at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). SRNL examined archived samples of solvent used in Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests, as well as samples from new tests designed explicitly to examine the Pu and U uptake. Direct radiocounting for Pu and U provided the best results. Using the radiocounting results, we found that in all cases there were <3.41E-12 g Pu/g of NGS and <1.17E-05 g U/g of NGS in multiple samples, even after extended contact times and high aqueous:organic volume phase ratios. These values are conservative as they do not allow for release or removal of the actinides by scrub, strip, or solvent wash processes. The values do not account for extended use or any increase that may occur due to radiolytic damage of the solvent.

  19. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  20. PDSF User Meeting 06-18-13.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topics from PDSF Staff: In Progress * Test fi les - PuSng t hem t ogether o ver t he n ext f ew w eeks * Benchmarking Topics from the Users * PDSF S teering C ommiQee M eeHng...

  1. PDSF User Meeting 07-02-13.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N IM d atabase * Will e mail e veryone i n P I l ist * Standard N ERSC m ethod * Benchmarking - PuWng b enchmark fi les i n t op o f a ll eliza d irectories Topics from the...

  2. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Martin W.A.; Moricca, Sam A.; Zhang, Yingjie; Day, R. Arthur; Begg, Bruce D.; Scales, Charlie R.; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Hobbs, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  3. ANALYSIS AND EXAMINATION OF MOX FUEL FROM NONPROLIFERATION PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Machut, Dr McLean; Morris, Robert Noel; Blanpain, Patrick; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio of less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. The performance of the rods was analyzed with AREVA s next-generation GALILEO code. The results of the analysis confirmed that the fuel rods had performed safely and predictably, and that GALILEO is applicable to MOX fuel with a low 240Pu/239Pu ratio as well as to standard MOX. The results are presented and compared to the GALILEO database. In addition, the fuel cladding was tested to confirm that traces of gallium in the fuel pellets had not affected the mechanical properties of the cladding. The irradiated cladding was found to remain ductile at both room temperature and 350 C for both the axial and circumferential directions.

  4. A=18N (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7Be)18N reaction is 13.117 0.020 MeV (1983PU01). 18N is then stable with respect to breakup into 17N + n by 2.825 MeV. See (1983AJ01) for the earlier work. 1. 18N(-)18O Qm ...

  5. A=18N (1995TI07)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by (1993AU05) is 13.117 0.020 MeV (1983PU01). 18N is then stable with respect to breakup into 17N + n by 2.825 MeV. See (1983AJ01) for the earlier work. 1. 18N(-)18O Qm ...

  6. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    'a! , + : ; fa- . . . c2 ..- - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( i i : ; i - 3 = -*..A - - I . ; > . . . . . . . . . . , ' ; ! . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . P i v ~ - R - 6 . ( . i % ' . * ,. : . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . - _ ' . . I , - 3 . I 5 6 7 3 . : : i': . PuL 5 3 - 3 . . ,! . , - . - . . . . . I - . c . 1 .-.> -., ! ; < : : A . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . ..... ----&- ,.<.. . ........ I . - c ' . . . - COPY w n Investigation

  7. Particulate, colloidal, and solution phase associations of plutonium, americium, and uranium in surface and groundwater at the Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, R.A.; McKnight, D.M.; Ranville, J.F.; Stephens, V.C.; Honeyman, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    With the cessation of plutonium processing at the D.O.E.-administered Rocky Flats Plant near Denver, CO, the focus of activities at the facility has switched to contaminant assessment and potential remediation strategies. In this context the authors began a study in 1991 to determine the potential for colloid-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu, Am, and in surface- and groundwater at this site. Using the technique of tangential flow ultrafiltration, the authors isolated particles from four size fractions at one groundwater well and two surface water seeps to determine the distribution of Pu, Am, and U among particulate, colloidal, and dissolved aqueous phases. Analysis of particle isolates and filtrate fractions showed significant associations of Am and Pu with colloidal and particulate size particles; uranium isotopes were associated mainly with low molecular weight organic species. The results indicate a potential for colloidal-facilitated transport of the actinides Pu and Am and a significant contribution by low molecular weight natural organic matter to uranium transport.

  8. Environmental assessment: special isotope separation process selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the differences in potential environmental impacts between two plutonium Special Isotope Separation (SIS) technologies: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS). Both SIS technologies use PuO/sub 2/ as feed; AVLIS converts feed to plutonium metal and MLIS converts feed to PuF/sub 6/. The AVLIS process uses laser energy to selectively photoionize and electrostatically separate plutonium isotopes from an atomic vapor stream. The MLIS process uses laser energy to selectively disassociate specific isotopes of plutonium in the form of PuF/sub 6/ molecules to create PuF/sub 5/ for collection and further processing. Both processes produce plutonium metal as their product. An evaluation of differences in potential environmental impacts attributed to the construction of an SIS facility, based on either technology, included a comparison of construction materials, land areas required, and the size of the design and construction workforce. The differences in potential environmental impacts from operating an SIS facility were also compared. No large differences in potential environmental impacts would be expected from the use of process chemicals. An AVLIS or an MLIS facility would produce operating effluents that would meet all applicable radiation, chemical, and hazardous waste standards and would be constructed to protect workers, the public and the environment. This EA has not revealed any significant differences in the potential environmental impacts that could occur as a result of deploying either the AVLIS or the MLIS Special Isotope Separation technology.

  9. Source Term Analysis for the WIPP Release Quantity 5-28-14

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    he k nown b reached d rum, 2 ) m easured A m---241Pu---239 ratios i n t he d rum a nd a ir f ilters c ollected p ost---release, a nd 3 ) t he t ime s eries o f t he r elease....

  10. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-31

    DOE is investigating methods for long term dispositioning of weapons grade plutonium. One such method would be to utilize the plutonium in Mixed OXide (MOX) fuel assemblies in existing CANDU reactors. CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors are designed, licensed, built, and supported by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and currently use natural uranium oxide as fuel. The MOX spent fuel assemblies removed from the reactor would be similar to the spent fuel currently produced using natural uranium fuel, thus rendering the plutonium as unattractive as that in the stockpiles of commercial spent fuel. This report presents the results of a study sponsored by the DOE for dispositioning the plutonium using CANDU technology. Ontario Hydro`s Bruce A was used as reference. The fuel design study defined the optimum parameters to disposition 50 tons of Pu in 25 years (or 100 tons). Two alternate fuel designs were studied. Safeguards, security, environment, safety, health, economics, etc. were considered. Options for complete destruction of the Pu were also studied briefly; CANDU has a superior ability for this. Alternative deployment options were explored and the potential impact on Pu dispositioning in the former Soviet Union was studied. An integrated system can be ready to begin Pu consumption in 4 years, with no changes required to the reactors other than for safe, secure storage of new fuel.

  11. Q-Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, Andrew Scott

    2015-02-23

    A new tool for rapid single-particle analysis in safeguards is described. This quantitative analysis tool has advantages over conventional methods for isotopic analysis of actinide-bearing samples. The method can be used to determine chemical age via 241Am/241Pu ''atomic clock''.

  12. US Department of Energy standardized radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    The following working groups were formed under the direction of a radiological training coordinator: managers, supervisors, DOE auditors, ALARA engineers/schedulers/planners, radiological control personnel, radiation-generating device operators, emergency responders, visitors, Pu facilities, U facilities, tritium facilities, accelerator facilities, biomedical researchers. General courses for these groups are available, now or soon, in the form of handbooks.

  13. Fabrication of high exposure nuclear fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for making a fuel pellet for a nuclear reactor. A mixture is prepared of PuO.sub.2 and UO.sub.2 powders, where the mixture contains at least about 30% PuO.sub.2, and where at least about 12% of the Pu is the Pu.sup.240 isotope. To this mixture is added about 0.3 to about 5% of a binder having a melting point of at least about 250.degree. F. The mixture is pressed to form a slug and the slug is granulated. Up to about 4.7% of a lubricant having a melting point of at least about 330.degree. F. is added to the granulated slug. Both the binder and the lubricant are selected from a group consisting of polyvinyl carboxylate, polyvinyl alcohol, naturally occurring high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, chemically modified high molecular weight cellulosic polymers, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is pressed to form a pellet and the pellet is sintered.

  14. Cerium(IV), Neptunium(IV), and Plutonium(IV) 1,2-phenyldiphosphonates: Correlations and Differences between Early Transuranium Elements and Their Proposed Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diwu, Juan; Wang, Shuao; Liao, Zuolei; Burns, Peter C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-10-04

    The in situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) in the presence of 1,2-phenylenediphosphonic acid (PhP2) results in the crystallization of Np[C6H4(PO3H)2]22H2O (NpPhP2) and Pu[C6H4(PO3H)(PO3H2)][C6H4(PO3H)(PO3)]2H2O (PuPhP2), respectively. Similar reactions have been explored with Ce(IV) resulting in the isolation of the Ce(IV) phenylenediphosphonate Ce[C6H4(PO3H)(PO3H2)][C6H4(PO3H)(PO3)]2H2O (CePhP2). Single crystal diffraction studies reveal that although all these three compounds all crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-, only PuPhP2 and CePhP2 are isotypic, whereas NpPhP2 adopts a distinct structure. In the cerium and plutonium compounds edge-sharing dimers of MO8 polyhedra are bridged by the diphosphonate ligand to create one-dimensional chains. NpPhP2 also forms chains. However, the NpO8 units are monomeric. The protonation of the ligands is also different in the two structure types. Furthermore, the NpO8 polyhedra are best described as square antiprisms (D4d), whereas the CeO8 and PuO8 units are trigonal dodecahedra (D2d). Bond-valence parameters of Ro = 1.972 and b = 0.538 have been derived for Np4+ using a combination of the data reported in this work with that available in crystallographic databases. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of NpPhP2 and PuPhP2 are also reported and used to confirm the tetravalent oxidation states.

  15. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  16. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  17. FCRD Transmutation Fuels Handbook 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth; Papesch, Cynthia Ann

    2015-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. It is, therefore, important to understand the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys, both with and without minor actinide additions. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U and Pu are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phase-transformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, and that general acceptance of results sometimes indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, and alloys of two or three of these elements. It contains information about phase diagrams and related information (including phases and phase transformations); heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy; thermal expansion; and thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, it attempts to provide information about how well the property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although the handbook includes some references to publications about modeling, its primary focus is experimental data. Most of the data has been published elsewhere (although scattered throughout numerous references, some quite obscure); however, some data is presented here for the first time.

  18. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  19. OSMOSE program : statistical review of oscillation measurements in the MINERVE reactor R1-UO2 configuration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoven, G.; Klann, R.; Zhong, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-28

    The OSMOSE program is a collaboration on reactor physics experiments between the United States Department of Energy and the France Commissariat Energie Atomique. At the working level, it is a collaborative effort between the Argonne National Laboratory and the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The objective of this program is to measure very accurate integral reaction rates in representative spectra for the actinides important to future nuclear system designs, and to provide the experimental data for improving the basic nuclear data files. The main outcome of the OSMOSE measurement program will be an experimental database of reactivity-worth measurements in different neutron spectra for the heavy nuclides. This database can then be used as a benchmark to verify and validate reactor analysis codes. The OSMOSE program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in Eupraxic Spectra) aims at improving neutronic predictions of advanced nuclear fuels through oscillation measurements in the MINERVE facility on samples containing the following separated actinides: {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 244}Cm, and {sup 245}Cm. The first part of this report provides an overview of the experimental protocol and the typical processing of a series of experimental results which is currently performed at CEA-Cadarache. In the second part of the report, improvements to this technique are presented, as well as the program that was created to process oscillation measurement results from the MINERVE facility in the future.

  20. Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-20

    In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.

  1. Heavy metal inventory and fuel sustainability of recycling TRU in FBR design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Nuclear fuel materials from spent fuel of light water reactors have a potential to be used for destructive devices with very huge energy release or in the same time, it can be utilized as a peaceful energy or civil applications, for generating electricity, desalination of water, medical application and others applications. Several research activities showed some recycled spent fuel can be used as additional fuel loading for increasing fuel breeding capability as well as improving intrinsic aspect of nuclear non-proliferation. The present investigation intends to evaluate the composition of heavy metals inventories and fuel breeding capability in the FBR design based on the loaded fuel of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel (SF) of 33 GWd/t with 5 years cooling time by adopting depletion code of ORIGEN. Whole core analysis of FBR design is performed by adopting and coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes. Nuclear data library, JFS-3-J-3.2R which is based on the JENDL 3.2 has been used for nuclear data analysis. JSFR design is the basis design reference which basically adopted 800 days cycle length for 4 batches system. Higher inventories of plutonium of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium composition than initial composition have been shown. Minor actinide (MA) inventory compositions obtain a different inventory trends at equilibrium composition for both fuel types. Higher Inventory of MA is obtained by MOX fuel and less MA inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium composition than initial composition. Some different MA inventories can be estimated from the different inventory trend of americium (Am). Higher americium inventory for MOX fuel and less americium inventory for TRU fuel at equilibrium condition. Breeding ratio of TRU fuel is relatively higher compared with MOX fuel type. It can be estimated from relatively higher production of Pu-238 (through converted MA) in TRU fuel, and Pu-238 converts through neutron capture to produce Pu-239. Higher breeding ratio of MOX fuel and TRU fuel types at equilibrium condition are estimated from converted fertile material during reactor operation into fissile material of plutonium such as converted uranium fuel (converted U-238 into Pu-239) or additional converted fuel from MA into Pu-238 and changes into Pu-239 by capturing neutron. Loading LWR SF gives better fuel breeding capability and increase inventory of MA for doping material of MOX fuel; however, it requires more supply MA inventory for TRU fuel type.

  2. Optimization of combined delayed neutron and differential die-away prompt neutron signal detection for characterization of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Pauline; Tobin, Stephen J; Croft, Stephen; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, M; Lee, T

    2010-12-02

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded multiple laboratories and universities to develop a means to accurately quantify the Plutonium (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and ways to also detect potential diversion of fuel pins. Delayed Neutron (DN) counting provides a signature somewhat more sensitive to {sup 235}U than Pu while Differential Die-Away (DDA) is complementary in that it has greater sensitivity to Pu. The two methods can, with care, be combined into a single instrument which also provides passive neutron information. Individually the techniques cannot robustly quantify the Pu content but coupled together the information content in the signatures enables Pu quantification separate to the total fissile content. The challenge of merging DN and DDA, prompt neutron (PN) signal, capabilities in the same design is the focus of this paper. Other possibilities also suggest themselves, such as a direct measurement of the reactivity (multiplication) by either the boost in signal obtained during the active interrogation itself or by the extension of the die-away profile. In an early study, conceptual designs have been modeled using a neutron detector comprising fission chambers or 3He proportional counters and a {approx}14 MeV neutron Deuterium-Tritium (DT) generator as the interrogation source. Modeling was performed using the radiation transport code Monte Carlo N-Particles eXtended (MCNPX). Building on this foundation, the present paper quantifies the capability of a new design using an array of {sup 3}He detectors together with fission chambers to optimize both DN and PN detections and active characterization, respectively. This new design was created in order to minimize fission in {sup 238}U (a nuisance DN emitter), to use a realistic neutron generator, to reduce the cost and to achieve near spatial interrogation and detection of the DN and PN, important for detection of diversion, all within the constraints of a single practical instrument. Both DN and PN detections are active techniques using the signal from the most prominent fissile isotopes of spent nuclear fuel that respond the best to a slow neutron interrogation, {sup 235}U, {sup 239}U and {sup 241}PU. The performance is characterized against a library of 64 assemblies and 40 diversion scenarios at different burnup (BU), cooling-time (CT) and initial enrichment (IE) in fresh water.

  3. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of fuel-vapor species from spectroscopic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.

    1980-09-01

    Measured spectroscopic data, estimated molecular parameters, and a densty-of-states model for electronic structure have been used to calculate thermodynamic functions for gaseous ThO, ThO/sub 2/, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, and PuO/sub 2/. Various methods for estimating parameters have been considered and numerically evaluated. The sensitivity of the calculated thermodynamic functions to molecular parameters has been examined quantitatively. New values of the standard enthalpies of formation at 298.15/sup 0/K have been derived from the best available ..delta..G/sup 0//sub f/ equations and the calculated thermodynamic functions. Estimates of the uncertainties have been made for measured and estimated data as well as for various mathematical and physical approximations. Tables of the thermodynamic functions to 6000/sup 0/K are recommended for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides.

  4. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester, New York, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the /sup 209/Bi + /sup 136/Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u /sup 56/Fe ions with targets of /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu. (RWR)

  5. Irradiation-induced reduction of microcracking in zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Tucker, D.S.; Hurley, G.F.; Kise, C.D.; Rankin, J.

    1984-01-01

    /sup 238/Pu-substituted zirconolite (CaPuTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/) was stored near ambient temperature for 231 days, equivalent to an alpha decay dose of 3.1x10/sup 25/ ..cap alpha../m/sup 3/ or 3x10/sup 5/ years of storage time for SYNROC ceramic nuclear waste. Periodic indentation testing showed that hardness was decreased by alpha decay-induced conversion to the metamict state, while fracture toughness and resistance to cracking were increased, apparently as a consequence of the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure. These results imply improved stability of this nuclear waste phase as a result of self-irradiation damage. 21 references, 4 figures.

  6. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  7. Studies on the stripping of transuranic elements from loaded TRPO by N,N-Dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Duan, Wuhua

    2008-07-01

    The partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides such as minor actinides from HLW is a method to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of high-level waste (HLW). The TRPO partitioning process to remove actinides from HLW was developed in China. In the original TRPO process, Am and lanthanides, Pu, and Np are stripped by 5.5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.6 M oxalic acid from the loaded solvent, respectively. In order to simplify the stripping of transuranic elements, a new compound N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DOGA) was synthesized. Two pilot tests were carried out in the centrifugal-contactor facility. Nd and Zr were used to simulate Am and Pu, respectively. Stripping of >99.9% Zr and >99.9% Nd was achieved using DOGA from the loaded 30% TRPO-kerosene. (authors)

  8. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  9. Recovery of Plutonium from Refractory Residues Using a Sodium Peroxide Pretreatment Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2003-10-23

    The recycle of plutonium from refractory residues is a necessary activity for the nuclear weapon production complex. Traditionally, high-fired plutonium oxide (PuO2) was leached from the residue matrix using a nitric acid/fluoride dissolving flowsheet. The recovery operations were time consuming and often required multiple contacts with fresh dissolving solution to reduce the plutonium concentration to levels where residual solids could be discarded. Due to these drawbacks, the development of an efficient process for the recovery of plutonium from refractory materials is desirable. To address this need, a pretreatment process was developed. The development program utilized a series of small-scale experiments to optimize processing conditions for the fusion process and demonstrate the plutonium recovery efficiency using ceramic materials developed as potential long-term storage forms for PuO2 and an incinerator ash from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) as te st materials.

  10. Application of modified direct denitration to support the ORNL coupled-end-to-end demonstration in production of mixed oxides suitable for pellet fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.A.; Vedder, R.J.; Felker, L.K.; Marschman, S.C.

    2007-07-01

    The current and future development of the Modified Direct Denitration (MDD) process is in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Coupled End-to-End (CETE) research, development, and demonstration (R and D) of proposed advanced fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication processes. This work will involve the co-conversion of the U/Pu/Np product streams from the UREX+3 separation flow sheet utilizing the existing MDD glove-box setup and the in-cell co-conversion of the U/Pu/Np/Am/Cm product streams from the UREX+1a flow sheet. Characterization equipment is being procured and installed. Oxide powder studies are being done on calcination/reduction variables, as well as pressing and sintering of pellets to permit metallographic examinations. (authors)

  11. GANEX: Adaptation of the DIAMEX-SANEX Process for the Group Actinide Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguirditchian, M.; Chareyre, L.; Heres, X.; Hill, C.; Baron, P.; Masson, M.

    2007-07-01

    The DIAMEX-SANEX process using the solvent HDEHP/DMDOHEMA/TPH was adapted to manage the separation of neptunium and plutonium along with americium and curium in the second cycle of the GANEX process. Distribution ratios of Np and Pu depending on their initial oxidation states, actinide/lanthanide separation factor and loading capacity of the solvent were measured after batch experiments in order to verify the behaviour of Np and Pu in this process and check their impact on the hydrodynamics. Results show that after some experimental optimizations, the group separation seems possible using this process. A demonstrative test will be carried out on a high active feed in 2008 at CEA Marcoule. (authors)

  12. Historical Review of U.S. Transient Fast Reactor Fuel Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, William J.; MacLean, Heather J.; Crawford, Douglas C.

    2007-07-01

    Development of fast spectrum nuclear fuels in the United States has been pursued over the course of approximately 30 years including the EBR-I and FERMI reactors and continuing through the early 1990's culminating with the FFTF and the EBR-II Integral Fast Reactor programs. These programs primarily focused on oxide and metallic fuels and the development process provided sufficient evidence for licensing of the 20%Pu-MOX oxide fuel and the ternary U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy. The development of a transuranic, actinide burning fuel system will require significant development including the investigation and testing of the behavior of candidate fuel systems under transient conditions. This paper will review the historical status of both metallic and oxide fuel transient testing completed under previous U.S. fast reactor fuel development programs. (authors)

  13. Recovery of the actinides by electrochemical methods in molten chlorides using solid aluminium cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malmbeck, R.; Mendes, E.; Serp, J.; Soucek, P.; Glatz, J.P.; Cassayre, L.

    2007-07-01

    An electrorefining process in molten chloride salts is being developed at ITU to reprocess the spent nuclear fuel. According to the thermochemical properties of the system, aluminium is the most promising electrode material for the separation of actinides (An) from lanthanides (Ln). The actinides are selectively reduced from the fission products and stabilized by the formation of solid and compact actinide-aluminium alloys with the reactive cathode material. In this work, the maximum loading of aluminium with actinides was investigated by potentiostatic and galvano-static electrorefining of U-Pu- Zr alloys. A very high aluminium capacity was achieved, as the average loading was 1.6 g of U and Pu into 1 g of aluminium and the maximum achieved loading was 2.3 g. For recovery of the actinides from aluminium, a process based on chlorination and a subsequent sublimation of AlCl{sub 3} is proposed. (authors)

  14. The production and certification of a plutonium equal-atom reference material: NBL CRM 128

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.W. . Office of Safeguards and Security); Gradle, C.G.; Soriano, M.D. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the design, production, and certification of the New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium equal-atom certified reference material (CRM), NBL CRM 128. The primary use of this CRM is for the determination of bias corrections encountered in the operation of a mass spectrometer. This reference material is available to the US Department of Energy contractor-operated and government-operated laboratories, as well as to the international nuclear safeguards community. The absolute, or unbiased, certified value for the CRM's Pu-242/Pu-239 ratio is 1.00063 {plus minus} 0.00026 (95% confidence interval) as of October 1, 1984. This value was obtained through the quantitative blending of high-purity, chemically and isotopically characterized separated isotopes, as well as through intercomparisons of CRM samples with calibration mixtures using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 32 tabs.

  15. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; Ezold, Julie G.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Hogle, Susan L.

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing themore » production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.« less

  16. Separation of technetium and rare earth metals for co-decontamination process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riddle, Catherine; Martin, Leigh

    2015-05-01

    Poster. In the US there are several technologies under consideration for the separation of the useful components in used nuclear fuel. One such process is the co-decontamination process to separate U, Np and Pu in a single step and produce a Np/ Pu and a U product stream. Although the behavior of the actinide elements is reasonably well defined in this system, the same is not true for the fission products, mainly Zr, Mo, Ru and Tc. As these elements are cationic and anionic they may interact with each other to extract in a manner not predicted by empirical models such as AMUSE. This poster presentation will discuss the initial results of batch contact testing under flowsheet conditions and as a function of varying acidity and flowsheet conditions to optimize recovery of Tc and minimize extraction of Mo, Zr and Ru with the goal of developing a better understanding of the behavior of these elements in the co-decontamination process.

  17. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-05-20

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or /sup 233/U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of /sup 238/U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical.

  18. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  19. Stabilization of Plutonium in Subsurface Environments via Microbial Reduction and Biofilm Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim Boukhalfa; Gary A. Icopini; Sean D. Reilly; Mary P. Neu

    2007-04-19

    Plutonium has a long half-life (2.4 x 104 years) and is of concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity, high-energy alpha radioactive decay. A full understanding of its speciation and interactions with environmental processes is required in order to predict, contain, or remediate contaminated sites. Under aerobic conditions Pu is sparingly soluble, existing primarily in its tetravalent oxidation state. To the extent that pentavalent and hexavalent complexes and small colloidal species form they will increase the solubility and resultant mobility from contamination sources. There is evidence that in both marine environments and brines substantial fractions of the plutonium in solution is present as hexavalent plutonyl, PuO2 2+.

  20. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (Macrobatch) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. preliminary) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.