Sample records for lean burn mode

  1. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  2. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremer, Peer-Timo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structures in lean premixed hydrogen ?ames. Combustion andStructures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames P. -T. Bremersimulations of lean hydrogen ?ames subject to different

  3. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: coupling experimental. Beckner1, M. J. Lijewski1 1 Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification

  4. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haines, Leland Milburn (Northville, MI)

    2002-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  5. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    component of a clean-coal power plant utilizing hydrogen extracted from coal gasification. Lean premixed

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about advanced lean-burn...

  7. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas (San Antonio, TX); Dodge, Lee Gene (San Antonio, TX); Podnar, Daniel James (San Antonio, TX)

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  8. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  9. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  10. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office 2013 Merit Review: A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn (HPLB) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A presentation given by the University of Michigan at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a university consortium to research efficient and clean high-pressure lean burn engines.

  12. Combustion optimization in a hydrogen-enhanced lean burn SI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldwitz, Joshua A. (Joshua Arlen), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean operation of spark ignition (SI) automotive engines offers attractive performance incentives. Lowered combustion temperatures inhibit NO[sub]x pollutant formation while reduced manifold throttling minimizes pumping ...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced lean...

  14. Predicting the behavior of a lean-burn hydrogen-enhanced engine concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanic, Žiga, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Lean operation of a spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engine (ICE) offers attractive performance incentives. Lowered combustion temperatures inhibit formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), while reduced intake ...

  15. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  16. Knock behavior of a lean-burn hydrogen-enhanced engine concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topinka, Jennifer A. (Jennifer Ann), 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments to identify the knock trends of lean gasoline-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), were performed on a single-cylinder research engine with boosting capability. ...

  17. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  18. The effects of spark ignition parameters on the lean burn limit of natural gas combustion in an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chlubiski, Vincent Daniel

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of internal combustion engine ignition parameters on the air-fuel ratio (A/F) lean limit of combustion with compressed natural gas (CNG). Spark electrical characteristics (voltage...

  19. NO{sub x} and CO emissions from a pulse combustor operating in a lean premixed mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.O.; Bramlette, T.T.; Barr, P.K.; Alvarez, J.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission levels below 5.0 ppM NO{sub x}, with corresponding levels of 75 ppM CO (corrected to 3% O{sub 2}), were achieved in a pulse combustor operating in a lean premixed mode. Both NO{sub x} and CO concentrations were invariant with the total mass flow rate, but NO{sub x} and CO concentrations did vary with the rate of microscopic mixing.

  20. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and...

  1. Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma is a fundamental and comprehensive approach to solve at Toyota, and companies in other sectors that have followed Toyota's example, while Six Sigma evolved from, among others. This program will allow individuals with little or no knowledge of the Six Sigma or Lean

  2. Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    alternatives to traditional petroleum and natural gas fuels. Burning under lean condi- tions reduces of conditions expected from gas turbine combustors. At these higher turbulence in- tensities, hydrogen flamesTurbulence-Chemistry Interaction in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Combustion A. J. Aspden1,2 , M. S. Day2

  3. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  4. HEART SMART NUTRITION Be a Lean Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesson 6 HEART SMART NUTRITION Be a Lean Machine This Heart Smart Nutrition series can help you Heart, Lung and Blood Institute). Physical activity increases your metabolic rate, which helps to burn more calories. Plus it helps the heart and lungs function to full capacity. Exercise also helps raise

  5. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  6. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  7. Lean Transition of Emerging Industrial Capability (LeanTEC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shroyer, E.

    Lean Transition of Emerging Industrial Capability (LeanTEC) program was a cooperative agreement between the Boeing Company

  8. Lean blowoff detection sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jimmy (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Chorpening, Benjamin T. (Morgantown, WV); Huckaby, David (Morgantown, WV)

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  9. Autoignition behavior of lean mixtures: Chemical and thermodynamics effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronney, P.D.; Shoda, M.; Waida, S.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Knock characteristics of natural gas (NG), 89 octane unleaded gasoline, 2,2-dimethyl butane (22DMB), and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in stoichiometric and lean fuel-air mixtures were studied in a production 4-cylinder automotive engine. The Intake Temperature at the Knock Limit (ITKL) was different for each fuel but always higher in lean mixtures. Gasoline and 22DMB exhibited much greater increases in ITKL than MTBE and NG at lean conditions. Surprisingly, for lean mixtures 22DMB exhibited higher ITKL than MTBE and was almost as high as NG. Comparison with detailed numerical modelling was very favorable. Computations show that both differences in chemistry and end-gas temperature and pressure histories are responsible for these trends. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the Negative Temperature Coefficient behavior of hydrocarbon oxidation. The implication of these results for the specification of optimal fuels for lean-burn engine is discussed.

  10. Lean clausesets: Generalisations of minimally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Autarkies and autark subsets IV Lean clause­sets V Linear autarkies --- polynomial time VI Matching

  11. Lean, Energy, and Savings: Energy Impacts of Lean Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milward, R.; Gilless, C.; Brown, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . William Edwards Deming were taken to heart by the Japanese during the reconstruction of Japanese industry following World War II and became key concepts of Kaizen. Kaizen is a philosophy of improvement through waste elimination, productivity... of Strategic Environmental Management. 2011. Lean Thinking and Methods: Kaizen. www.epa.gov/lean/environment/methods/kaizen. htm. Washington, D.C. (3) Environmental Protection Agency. 2011. The Lean and Energy Toolkit. EPA-100-K-07-003. Prepared by Ross...

  12. Lean transformation of a supply chain organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Daniel Andres

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two basic schools of thought regarding how to approach a Lean transformation. Either start with introducing Lean tools or start with driving a Lean cultural change. Academic researchers like Steve Spear (Harvard/MIT), ...

  13. Information and Communication in Lean Product Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebsch, Martin

    In this thesis, the implications and influences that information and communication impose on lean product development in general, as well as the development of a lean Product Development Value Stream Display (lean PDVSD) ...

  14. Lean enterprise in the construction industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchini-Blanco, Juan, 1971-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the application of the Lean Enterprise Model (LEM) to construction firms. LEM is a framework derived from lean manufacturing principles by MIT's Lean Aerospace Initiative (LAI) for the aerospace industry. ...

  15. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  16. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  17. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and US06, transient accelerations plus steady state * Fuels: Gasoline and intermediate ethanol blends (E0, E10, E20) * Measurements: - Particle mass: collection on Teflon-coated...

  18. Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascucci, Valerio

    , for example, be used as one component of a clean coal power plant utilizing hydrogen extracted from coal

  20. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Lean Green Skating Machine Report No. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    Lean Green Skating Machine Report No. 1 Lean Green Skating Machine Report No. 1 Submitted by Simon Page 1 of 19 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. #12;Lean Green Skating Machine Report No. 1 Page 2 of 19 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Distribution authorized to all. #12;Lean Green Skating

  2. Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise: A Guide for Leaders, Volume II, Transition-to-Lean Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume II of this guide is a standalone reference model for assisting lean change agents and lean implementation teams in transforming the enterprise to a lean state. It is also of value to enterprise leaders and senior ...

  3. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline...

  4. Lean Transformations in Supply Chain, the autocatalytic nature of lean principles, and tactics for implementing lean tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Bryan (Bryan Jay)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expanding Lean principles beyond the manufacturing floor, ultimately to entail a comprehensive Lean Enterprise, has gained increasing attention among corporations. This thesis entails a detailed case study of initiating a ...

  5. Wat is Lean Six Sigma? Lean Six Sigma is een standaard-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rooij, Robert

    Wat is Lean Six Sigma? Lean Six Sigma is een standaard- aanpak voor het organiseren van kwaliteits standaardmodellen voor programmamanagement en de organisatiestructuur, schrijft de Lean Six Sigma aanpak een uitvoering van hun projecten en faciliteren project- tracking. Tot slot biedt Lean Six Sigma een uitgebreide

  6. Wat is Lean Six Sigma? Lean Six Sigma is een standaard-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rooij, Robert

    Wat is Lean Six Sigma? Lean Six Sigma is een standaard- aanpak voor het organiseren van kwaliteits standaardmodellen voor programmamanagement en de organisatiestructuur, schrijft de Lean Six Sigma aanpak een uitvoering van hun projecten en faciliteren project- tracking.Tot slot biedt Lean Six Sigma een uitgebreide

  7. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reduction Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + LNT + SCR NH 3 LNT NH 3 Optimization HC Slip Control Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + SCR NH 3 TWC NH 3...

  8. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels such as hydrogen or syngas. Lean premixed systems havefuels such as hydrogen or syngas, which is obtained from

  9. Planning a Prescribed Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This leaflet explains how to plan for adequate fuel for a prescribed burn, control the fire, notify the proper authority, manage the burn itself, and conduct follow-up management. A ranch checklist for prescribed burning is included....

  10. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R; Rogers, B. M; Morton, D. C

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use and burn- ing of agricultural waste in the developingmanagement, such as agricultural waste burning or prescribedDuring open field agricultural waste burning [e.g. , Yevich

  11. The role of assessment in a lean transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Raymond S. (Raymond Shing)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When starting the journey to become a Lean company, companies commonly face the problem of understanding how to manage a Lean transformation. Often times, the first step in managing a Lean transformation is to understand ...

  12. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

  13. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines...

  14. NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation from the U.S....

  15. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...

  16. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  17. Implementing Enterprise Lean A Look at Ogden Air Logistics Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebentisch, Dr. Eric E.

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the enterprise-wide lean implementation effort at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill

  18. Logistics: A Step Towards Lean Construction Proceedings IGLC-7 121

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Logistics: A Step Towards Lean Construction Proceedings IGLC-7 121 LOGISTICS: A STEP TOWARDS LEAN of these experimental operations with a special emphasis on site logistics, which is considered as a step towards lean WORDS Logistics, lean construction, quality, transport. 1 Head of project "Site and Industry

  19. Simulation of a Burning Plasma C. Kessel, PPPL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , December 11-13, 2000 #12;FIRE Burning Plasma Discharge Simulation with TSC ELMy H-mode, N2.0, Q=6 Bt=10 T, R=2.0 m, Ip=6.5 MA #12;Burning Plasma Experiment Simultaneously Needs L-H mode transition Non Alpha heating remains peaked in plasma core Divertor can pump with large heat flux and ELMs #12;FIRE

  20. Open Burning (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Mexico Environment Department's Air Quality Bureau regulates the open burning rules established by the Environmental Improvement Board. These rules are established to protect public health...

  1. Designing the lean enterprise performance measurement system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahidhar, Vikram

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research contained in this thesis explores design attributes of the enterprise performance measurement system required for the transformation to the lean enterprise and its management. Arguments are made from the ...

  2. Lean Product Development: Making Waste Transparent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauch, Christoph

    2004-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean manufacturing developed by Toyota is a production philosophy that focuses on streamlining of value added activities and eliminating waste within the process with the goal to better meet customer demand. It constitutes ...

  3. Risk Management in Lean Product Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oehmen, Josef

    This whitepaper summarizes 15 years of research conducted at MIT's Lean Advancement Initiative on the topic of risk management in product design and development. It discusses current challenges in risk management for product ...

  4. Lean transformation in aerospace assembly operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frauenberger, Douglas H

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past two decades, virtually all manufacturing companies in the United States have adopted or are in the process of adopting lean manufacturing. Globalization has resulted in the increased availability of reliable, ...

  5. Outdoor Burning Field Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or Warmth 4 Fires for Disposal or Land Clearing 5 Prescribed Burns 8 Pipeline Breaks and Oil Spills 8 Other, the regulated community, and responsible state and local officials. This document covers all aspects nuisance condi- tions through the sensible regulation of outdoor burning. Summary of the Rule The Outdoor

  6. Framework for Understanding the Relationship between Lean and Safety in Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Ramya

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    understanding of the relation between lean and safety. Because lean in construction is a relatively new phenomenon, there is not a completely developed understanding of how lean practices affect safety in construction. The Lean Construction Institute...

  7. Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for more info on RCCI concept Gasoline Tank Air Exhaust Air HXN Exhaust HXN EGR HXN Turbo Fuel Rail Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator DRIVVEN Control Conventional Diesel RCCI...

  8. Adapting the Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool for health care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Cynthia Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This tool has been applied by many organizations to gage their progress ...

  9. An application of lean principles within a semiconductor manufacturing environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildeman, Roy C

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intel Corporation's Fab 23 is committed to implementing lean manufacturing to reduce their production cycle times and cost. This thesis is focused around the development of the principles of lean that are most relevant to ...

  10. Lean transformation and relocation of jet engine assembly operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Stephen Andrew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of continuing lean transformation efforts at Pratt & Whitney, the Middletown Engine Center has turned its focus on the GP7000 turbofan engine as a target for lean implementation. Projected increases in GP7000 ...

  11. Aerospace mergers and acquisitions from a lean enterprise perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Junhong, 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past twenty years, companies in the aerospace industry experienced major transitions: mergers and acquisitions, and lean transformation initiatives. This thesis presents research about the relation of lean efforts ...

  12. Enterprise transformation & lean implementation in a globally dispersed organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katyal, Abhishek

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In July 2007, the Supply Planning Organization (SPO) decided to begin its Lean journey. Through some analysis the decision was made to take a culture first approach and then follow with the use of Lean tools. The time had ...

  13. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Progression Phase 1 Initial Concept Phase 2 Refinement Phase 3 Optimization May '10 May '11 May '12 Sep '13 May '13 2.2L NA Lean Engine Lean Boost Controls...

  14. The Effect of Turbulent Mixing on Compression Ignition of a Lean Hydrogen/Air Mixture Jacqueline H. Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Hong G.

    automotive engines known as homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI). By operating under overall fuel-lean conditions, and hence, at lower temperatures, HCCI can potentially achieve high engine, the primary mode of combustion in this regime is thought to occur by volumetric autoignition. Therefore, HCCI

  15. Lost Opportunities in Industrial Energy Efficiency: New Production Lean Manufacturing and Lean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    companies regularly increase production by adding additional manufacturing equipment, or increasing operating hours. This approach can add large new energy loads to the electrical grid and gas distribution networks. Alternately, increasing production...Lost Opportunities in Industrial Energy Efficiency: New Production, Lean Manufacturing and Lean Energy John Seryak Gary Epstein Mark DAntonio Engineer jseryak@ers-inc.com President gepstein@ers-inc.com Vice President mdantonio...

  16. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  17. Pollution Prevention and Lean Manufacturing Paper # 360

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollution Prevention and Lean Manufacturing Paper # 360 Harry W. Edwards and Jason M. Jonkman, the CSU IAC promotes energy conservation, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement. During that generated a total of 467 assessment recommendations (ARs) with pollution prevention benefits. Such benefits

  18. Ripple burn control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, D.K.; Petrie, T.W.; Peuron, U.A.; Rawls, J.M.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ripple contribution to the ion thermal conductivity is ideally suited in magnitude, temperature dependence, and spatial dependence to serve as a burn control mechanism. Furthermore, a considerable measure of automatic burn control results because of the radial shift of the plasma to a region of higher ripple. Unfortunately, the window in ripple values consistent with both ignition and a burn equilibrium is uncomfortably narrow, given the current lack of contact between the theoretical models of ripple transport and experimental observations. A survey is made of the techniques to vary the ripple and thus broaden the design window. One new technique is discussed in some detail: the use of ferromagnetic materials in the shield with magnetic properties which are sensitive functions of the operating temperature.

  19. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  20. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  1. Integrating Energy Management and Lean Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocki, M.

    Reduced Building Energy through Lean Case Study Facility floor space typically must be heated, ventilated, and illuminated. When space runs outs, a facility usually looks to expand by adding floor space. A farm equipment manufacturer was facing just... Procedures to optimize operational and production tasks ? Encouraging energy efficiency through the use of Visual Dashboards (sample in Figure 3). ? Root cause analysis to determine the underlying causes (and possible solutions) of energy wastes in a...

  2. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

  3. Quantifying Energy Savings from Lean Manufacturing Productivity Increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from existing use due to additional equipment or operating hours. Alternately, in the post-event scenario, Lean Manufacturing techniques enable production gains without increasing operating hours or adding manufacturing equipment. Hence.... The Lean Manufacturing techniques listed above improve productivity in several ways, which may or may not have impacts on energy use. Additionally, Lean Manufacturing techniques can also improve energy use in ways that have no relation to productivity...

  4. Lean Six Sigma iSO 9001:2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asaithambi, Asai

    Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma iSO 9001:2000 Lean buSineSS prOceSSeS imprOvement tOOLS StatiSticaL meth ISO/TS16949 ISO14001EMS MalcolmBaldrigeNational Quality Award Statistical Methods Statistical program implementation as wellasafullrangeofLeanSixSigma andSixSigmaservices. Our prOFeSSiOnaL StaFF can iSO

  5. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...

  6. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic...

  7. assisted lean operation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portman, Douglas 31 Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept MIT - DSpace Summary: Operating an engine with excess...

  8. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

  9. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063smith2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

  10. Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise: A Guide for Leaders, Volume III, Roadmap Explorations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozdogan, Kirk

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume III of this guide may be used as an in-depth reference source for acquiring deep knowledge about many of the aspects of transitioning to lean. Lean change agents and lean implementation leaders should find this ...

  11. Lean Implementation Considerations in Factory Operations of Low Volume/High Complexity Production Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Thomas J.

    The researchers of the Lean Aircraft Initiative developed a hypothesized lean implementation model seeking to provide its members guidance on implementing lean transitions in factory operations of low volume/high complexity ...

  12. SJTU Plasma Physics Seminar, April 10.th 2009 1 Physics of Burning Plasmas in Toroidal Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    plasma without appreciable degradation due to collective modes. The identification of burning plasma materials. Such analyses can be performed, at least in part, in present day experiments and provide nice examples of mutual positive feedbacks between theory, simulation and experiment. In a burning plasma

  13. Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using combinatorial methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    of the major reasons for this lack of progress has been the absence of a systematic and organized data base, Box 951592, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA Available online 2 November 2004 Abstract A library of about of the lack of progress in this approach, efforts were directed towards developing SCR-based technologies

  14. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Next-generation Ultra-Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Next-Generation Ultra Lean Burn Powertrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by MAHLE Powertrain, LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about next-generation ultra...

  17. Nanocomposites for nitrogen oxide emissions control in lean-burn engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitukmanorom, Pemakorn, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) reducing agent than propane in the SCR of NO. Pt-Rh/CuO/A1?O? nanocomposites capable of adsorbing SO? in oxygen-rich environment as metal sulfates and releasing SO? in reducing atmosphere were synthesized with ...

  18. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a...

  19. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 Termoelectrica U.SPRESSHeavy-duty

  20. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions,Department of Energy

  1. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandardGeneration |10 DOEGoals DuringMarkets - EAC 2011Valveof

  2. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for SMR DeploymentCommunities (FactA

  3. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for SMR DeploymentCommunities (FactA(HPLB)

  4. A University Consortium on Efficient and Clean High-Pressure, Lean Burn

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic Framework for SMR DeploymentCommunities

  5. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE Hydrogen

  6. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE

  7. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE

  8. Advanced Lean-Burn DI Spark Ignition Fuels Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of Energy LWR Nuclear Fuel2 DOE10 DOE09

  9. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  10. The role of lean manufacturing principles and strategic alternatives in achieving business goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaswamy, Dhananjay

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean Manufacturing is widely accepted as a proven method to achieve operational excellence. Many manufacturers undertake lean manufacturing implementations as a strategy to improve competitiveness and realize business ...

  11. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and...

  12. PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, S.L.; Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratorys on-going research in Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.

  13. Lean Flame Stabilization Ring - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 -of EnergyLeadership Leadership|Lean Flame

  14. High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

  15. Why Lean ?y ( QC TQC 5-7 KPI Competency HA-SHA KM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    Jidoka) 4. (Kaizen Continuous Improvement) etc. #12;Why lean Thinking in Healthcare ? 1. 80 : 80

  16. Retour d'exprience sur la mise en place du Lean dans un centre de Radiothrapie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lean management ont t utiliss et adopts par un centre de radiothrapie franais pour amliorer son dploiement du Lean en sant. Mots cls : Lean Management, efficience des soins, radiothrapie, chantier classiques : le Lean management, au-del de l'amlioration de l'efficience oprationnelle, doit contribuer

  17. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E. [PPPL; Kim, S-H. [ITER; Koechl, F. [EURATOM-OAW/ATI

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  18. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

  19. Cycle-to-Cycle Fluctuations of Burned Fuel Mass in Spark Ignition Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; G. Litak; M. Krupa

    2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fulel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process were also discussed.

  20. Application of Lean Management Principles to Election Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Tomer

    Lean was first adopted as a management technique for improving results in manufacturing environments. It is based on the 5 principles of identifying the Value to be created, mapping the Value-Stream (incremental addition ...

  1. Application of lean management principles to election systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Tomer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean was first adopted as a management technique for improving results in manufacturing environments. It is based on the 5 principles of identifying the Value to be created, mapping the Value-Stream (incremental addition ...

  2. Lean implementation across value stream in main rotor blade area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phoenix, Casey J. (Casey John)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal for this project was to help expand the existing capability of Sikorsky's main rotor blade business from raw material (titanium) through final assembly. The project helped to facilitate the ongoing lean ...

  3. Summary Report: Systematic IPT Integration in Lean Development Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, Tyson R.

    This document provides a summary report of the M.I.T. Masters Thesis, "Systematic IPT Integration in Lean Development Programs" by Tyson R. Browning. These studies argue for the inclusion of program integration principles ...

  4. LEAN ENERGY ANALYSIS: IDENTIFYING, DISCOVERING AND TRACKING ENERGY SAVINGS POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    and Fuel Cell Technologies Conference, Livonia, MI, Oct 11-13, 2004. 1 #12;For example, the anomaly, and for diagnostic purposes. Case study examples demonstrate the lean energy analysis method and its application

  5. Utilizing Industrial Engineers to Implement "Lean Enterprise" at Company A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, Jean D'Ann

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    in the implementation of continuous improvement and lean thinking. This skillset has recently allowed IEs to work outside their normal realm of manufacturing, and focus on areas more closely related to service organizations. At Company A, Industrial Engineers...

  6. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and...

  7. Lean and agile software development : a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Collin (Collin J.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper looks at agile and lean development transitions for organizations that formerly used the waterfall style of development. There has been lots written about the positive aspects of agile software development and ...

  8. Stakeholder analysis in the context of the lean enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossi, Ignacio, 1964-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis combines three different areas of study that are very active nowadays: Lean Enterprises, Stakeholder Theory, and Social Networks. Elements from these three research areas have been articulated to produce a ...

  9. Prioritization and integration of lean initiatives with theory of constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwain, Kevin D. (Kevin Douglas), 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principles of lean manufacturing have taken hold in a number of manufacturing firms as a means of achieving operational excellence through continuous improvement. Womack and Jones have suggested a generalized process ...

  10. Production Operations Level: Transition-To-Lean Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    2000-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a roadmap for transitioning an existing production operation to one that fully implements a lean manufacturing philosophy. Integration of engineering, human resources, and business viewpoints are ...

  11. Business expansion and lean transformation for helicopter blade shop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, S. Neil (Saumen Neil)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sikorsky Aircraft is undergoing a lean transformation as its helicopter blade line is relocated from Stratford to Site B. Value Stream Mapping is a vital tool to eliminate sources of waste in the existing blade shop and ...

  12. Implementing lean material management in an extended value stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Justin A., 1975-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Axle & Manufacturing, Inc. (AAM) is still in the process of transitioning to a culture of "lean manufacturing" as opposed to the current culture of "mass production". This thesis involved working with AAM employees ...

  13. The Guide to Lean Enablers for Managing Engineering Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oehmen, Josef

    This document provides the findings of the Joint MIT?PMI?INCOSE Lean in Program Management Community of Practice that are based on a 1?year project executed during 2011 and 2012. The community was made up of selected subject ...

  14. Regimes Of Helium Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. X. Timmes; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and ZND detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts which start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star, and the thin shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial directions encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamlet regime at a density of 10^8 g cm^{-3}. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^6 g cm^{-3}. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations travelling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarily, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 10^7 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that a steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existance in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations travelling in the lateral or radial directions encounter the distributed regime at densities below 10^7 g cm^{-3}, and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than 10^4 g cm^{-3}, indicating that steady-state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at 5 10^4 g cm^{-3}, suggesting that steady-state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existance in the radial direction.

  15. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  16. Rayleigh/Raman/LIF measurements in a turbulent lean premixed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandula, S.P.; Pitz, R.W. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Barlow, R.S.; Fiechtner, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Much of the industrial electrical generation capability being added worldwide is gas-turbine engine based and is fueled by natural gas. These gas-turbine engines use lean premixed (LP) combustion to meet the strict NO{sub x} emission standards, while maintaining acceptable levels of CO. In conventional, diffusion flame gas turbine combustors, large amount of NO{sub x} forms in the hot stoichiometric zones via the Zeldovich (thermal) mechanism. Hence, lean premixed combustors are rapidly becoming the norm, since they are specifically designed to avoid these hot stoichiometric zones and the associated thermal NO{sub x}. However, considerable research and development are still required to reduce the NO{sub x} levels (25-40 ppmvd adjusted to 15% O{sub 2} with the current technology), to the projected goal of under 10 ppmvd by the turn of the century. Achieving this objective would require extensive experiments in LP natural gas (or CH{sub 4}) flames for understanding the combustion phenomena underlying the formation of the exhaust pollutants. Although LP combustion is an effective way to control NO{sub x}, the downside is that it increases the CO emissions. The formation and destruction of the pollutants (NO{sub x} and CO) are strongly affected by the fluid mechanics, the finite-rate chemistry, and their (turbulence-chemistry) interactions. Hence, a thorough understanding of these interactions is vital for controlling and reducing the pollutant emissions. The present research is contributing to this goal by providing a detailed nonintrusive laser based data set with good spatial and temporal resolutions of the pollutants (NO and CO) along with the major species, temperature, and OH. The measurements reported in this work, along with the existing velocity data on a turbulent LP combustor burning CH{sub 4}, would provide insight into the turbulence-chemistry interactions and their effect on pollutant formation.

  17. PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

  18. Development and application of management tools within a high-mix, low-volume lean aerospace manufacturing environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenney, Kevin (Kevin Bryan), 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and implementation of a lean production system is a complex task requiring an intimate understanding of the fundamental lean principles. Much of the published lean literature is written at a high level of ...

  19. Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

  20. 16.660 / 16.853 / ESD.62J Introduction to Lean Six Sigma Methods, January IAP 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murman, Earll

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This course introduces the fundamental Lean Six Sigma principles that underlay modern continuous improvement approaches for industry, government and other organizations. Lean emerged from the Japanese automotive industry, ...

  1. Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayala, Ferran A. (Ferran Alberto), 1976-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating an engine with excess air, under lean conditions, has significant benefits in terms of increased engine efficiency and reduced emissions. However, under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion ...

  2. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  3. 16.852J / ESD.61J Integrating The Lean Enterprise, Fall 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nightingale, Deborah J.

    Addresses some of the important issues involved with the planning, development, and implementation of lean enterprises. People, technology, process, and management dimensions of an effective lean manufacturing company are ...

  4. Transitioning to a Lean Enterprise: A Guide for Leaders, Volume I, Executive Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mize, Joe

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Transition-To-Lean Guide is intended to help your enterprise leadership navigate your enterprises challenging journey into the promising world of lean. You have opened this guide because, in some fashion, you have ...

  5. Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool Version 1.0, Facilitator's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    This manual is intended for product development (PD) personnel working on improving their own processes, and the lean change agents working with them. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for applying lean concepts to ...

  6. Lean effectiveness model for products and services : servicing existing systems in aerospace and technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Tina Prabha

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enterprises undergo transformation for more efficient and effective performance and growth. The Lean Enterprise Self Assessment Tool (LESAT) is a product of the Lean Advancement Initiative (LAI) and the Massachusetts ...

  7. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation Process Application of the AT Research Capabilities: Investigation of Diesel Soot Oxidation and of the Catalysts Degradation...

  8. Approaches To Crisis Prevention In Lean Product Development By High Performance Teams And Through Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oehmen, Josef

    This thesis investigates crisis prevention in lean product development, focusing on high performance teams and risk management methods.

  9. Characteristics of Pt-K/MgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. Characteristics of Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. Abstract: We report the various characteristics of Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap (LNT)...

  10. Lean Blow-Out Prediction in Gas Turbine Combustors Using Symbolic Time Series Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    Lean Blow-Out Prediction in Gas Turbine Combustors Using Symbolic Time Series Analysis Achintya of lean blowout in gas turbine combustors based on symbolic analysis of time series data from optical. For the purpose of detecting lean blowout in gas turbine combustors, the state probability vector obtained

  11. Sun Life Financial announces McLean Budden will become a subsidiary of MFS Investment Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Sun Life Financial announces McLean Budden will become a subsidiary of MFS Investment Management Earlier today, Sun Life Financial announced that McLean Budden will become a subsidiary of MFS InvestmentLean Budden funds offered through Sun Life Financial's Core Investment Selection. There are no immediate

  12. FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    experiment. It is there that we confront the unresolved issues of transport scaling, self-heating, burn

  13. The Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspectiveThe Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspective We would like to describe a new illusion of perspective that to our knowledge has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    The Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion of perspectiveThe Leaning Tower illusion: a new illusion reported before. Figure 1 shows two images of the Leaning Tower of Pisa placed next to one another. One obtains a strong impression that the tower on the right leans more, as if photographed from a different

  14. Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Carol

    Mineral Scavenger Hunt 1. CONTRIBUTOR'S NAME: Johnny MacLean 2. NAME OF INQUIRY: Mineral Scavenger from minerals? What are some objects in the classroom that come from minerals? What minerals did these objects come from? b. Ecological Theme(s): Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Rocks

  15. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  16. Lean Supply Chain Management Value Stream Mapping & Logistics Costs Tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Lean Supply Chain Management Value Stream Mapping & Logistics Costs Tracking Supply Chain (physical, informational, financial) in order to have better insight on the logistics costs and the transit Stream Mapping method. The analysis is mainly focused on the global logistics and the production planning

  17. LES of a Hydrogen-Enriched Lean Turbulent Premixed Flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    LES of a Hydrogen-Enriched Lean Turbulent Premixed Flame Francisco E. Hernandez-Perez , Clinton the observed behaviour is examined. Hydrogen-hydrocarbon fuel blends appear to be a promising option to synergistically pave the way toward pure hydrogen-based combustion systems while alleviating green-house gas

  18. Towards an Integration of the Lean Enterprise System, Total Quality Management, Six Sigma and Related Enterprise Process Improvement Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozdogan, Kirkor

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The lean enterprise system, total quality management, six sigma, theory of constraints, agile manufacturing,

  19. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  20. Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Vivian Kathleen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    goes, why do we yearn to hold on? Color is its own language and my only fluency. Light filters through trees, each ruby leaf holy, illuminated. Hummingbirds hover between fading lantana blossoms. A heron flies in mist over the pond. Bees buzz... settles in the room. After slides and scholarly descriptions of sarcophagi, ash chests, bodies placed in shrines and under slabs, cremations, inhumations, and urns, thin whispers speak of bridge and canasta, how many tables there were, will be...

  1. Practical delay modeling of externally recirculated burned gas fraction for Spark-Ignited Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . INTRODUCTION AND COMPARISON WITH DIESEL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION To prevent the malicious knock phenomenon downsides. During tip-outs (defined as a transient mode during which the torque demand is suddenly decreased. Scheme of the intake burned gas fraction dynamics. In the seemingly similar context of automotive Diesel

  2. SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUBCHAPTER D. OUTDOOR BURNING Sec. 352.081. REGULATION OF OUTDOOR BURNING. (a) In this section: (A) firefighter training; (B) public utility, natural gas pipeline, or mining operations; or (C

  3. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  4. Lean and ultralean stretched propane-air counterflow flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pitz, Robert W. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Vanderbilt University, Box 1592, Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Wehrmeyer, Joseph A. [Aerospace Testing Alliance, Building 1099, Avenue C, Arnold Air Force Base, TN 37389 (United States)

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stretched laminar flame structures for a wide range of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air mixtures vs hot products are investigated by laser-based diagnostics and numerical simulation. The hot products are produced by a lean H{sub 2}-air premixed flame. The effect of stretch rate and equivalence ratio on four groups of C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structures is studied in detail by Raman scattering measurements and by numerical calculations of the major species concentration and temperature profiles. The equivalence ratio, f, is varied from a near-stoichiometric condition (f=0.86) to the sublean limit (f=0.44) and the stretch rate varies from 90 s{sup -1} to near extinction. For most of these C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air lean mixtures, hot products are needed to maintain the flame. The significant feature of these flames is the relatively low flame temperatures (1200-1800 K). For this temperature range, the predicted C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air flame structure is sensitive to the specific chemical kinetic mechanism. Two types of flame structures (a lean self-propagating flame and a lean diffusion-controlled flame) are obtained based on the combined effect of stretch and equivalence ratio. Three different mechanisms, the M5 mechanism, the Optimized mechanism, and the San Diego mechanism, are chosen for the numerical simulations. None of the propane chemical mechanisms give good agreement with the data over the entire range of flame conditions. (author)

  5. Lean Enterprise Transformation in a Job Shop Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Brian P.

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Provider project deliverables for the assessment phase were the following documents: (a) Business System Assessment, (b) Network/Hardware Assessment, and (c) Lean Enterprise Assessment. The Partner personnel provided the primary project manager... Plan Findings and Recommendations. 9 (3) The LET Project SOW assumptions and triple constraints that could potentially impact the overall project (a) scope, (b) time schedule, and (c) overall costs have been summarized. (4) The LET Leadership...

  6. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  7. Applying Lean Concepts to Waste Site Closure - 13137

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proctor, M.L. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to manage the River Corridor Closure Project, a 10-year contract in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. In the summer of 2011, with Tri-Party (DOE-RL, Environmental Protection Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology) Agreement Milestones due at the end of the calendar year, standard work practices were challenged in regards to closure documentation development. The Lean process, a concept that maximizes customer value while minimizing waste, was introduced to WCH's Sample Design and Cleanup Verification organization with the intention of eliminating waste and maximizing efficiencies. The outcome of implementing Lean processes and concepts was impressive. It was determined that the number of non-value added steps far outnumbered the value added steps. Internal processing time, document size, and review times were all reduced significantly; relationships with the customer and the regulators were also improved; and collaborative working relationships with the Tri Parties have been strengthened by working together on Lean initiatives. (authors)

  8. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; V. A. Tarasov; M. V. Eingorn; S. A. Chernezhenko; A. A. Kakaev; V. M. Vashchenko; M. E. Beglaryan

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to validate the conclusions, based on the slow wave neutron-nuclear burning criterion fulfillment depending on the neutron energy, the numerical modeling of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of a natural uranium in the epithermal region of neutron energies (0.1-7.0eV) was conducted for the first time. The presented simulated results indicate the realization of the ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning of the natural uranium for the epithermal neutrons.

  9. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2002deeraardahl.pdf More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in...

  10. Lean Transformation in the U.S. Aerospace Industry: Appreciating Interdependent Social and Technical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CUTCHER-GERSHENFELD, JOEL

    2003-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean practices and principles build on a half-century of successive initiatives aimed at transforming social and technical systems in organizations. While they are send as ...

  11. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lean NOx Catalysis l Chemistry l Reducing Agent Effects l Collaboration with LEP CRADA l Aging Studies Plasma Initiation - + Electron Avalanche e - e - e - e - e - e - e -...

  12. Robotics Science & Technology for Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robotics Science & Technology for Burning Plasma Experiments J. N. Herndon, T. W. Burgess, M. M, General Atomics, San Diego, California. #12;Robotics Challenges in Burning Plasma Experiments Control x x x x x x earthmoving equipment electric robots Conventional Machines DMHP Machines x x x x

  13. Physics Basis and Simulation of Burning Plasma Physics for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; S.C. Jardin

    2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] design for a burning plasma experiment is described in terms of its physics basis and engineering features. Systems analysis indicates that the device has a wide operating space to accomplish its mission, both for the ELMing H-mode reference and the high bootstrap current/high beta advanced tokamak regimes. Simulations with 1.5D transport codes reported here both confirm and constrain the systems projections. Experimental and theoretical results are used to establish the basis for successful burning plasma experiments in FIRE.

  14. Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning in Supernovae Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae bubble-s.jpeg Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a...

  15. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  16. actinide burning lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the ignition and burn of ICF targets Mathematics Websites Summary: and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to...

  17. Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient Cooling in Engines

  18. Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory BoardNucleate Boiling Efficient Cooling in EnginesEnergy 0 DOE

  19. The Benefit of Lean Techniques Interfaced with Modular Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douthit, Colin

    2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    to interview Marc Butler. He is the Owner of J.R. Butler, Inc., a glass and glazing contractor located in Denver, Colorado. J.R. Butler manufactures and installs unitized curtain wall. Marc is a valuable resource because he uses Lean principles in his... provides relief from the elements, wind, and dust. Also, the work is being done in an ergonomic position. When putting together glass curtain wall in the field the glazier is frequently in awkward positions that may lead to imperfect seals around...

  20. Be a Lean, Mean, Green Eating Machine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries fromThermalBe a Lean,

  1. Design and Production Interface in Lean Production: A Performance Improvement Criteria Proposition Proceedings IGLC `98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Design and Production Interface in Lean Production: A Performance Improvement Criteria Proposition Proceedings IGLC `98 DESIGN AND PRODUCTION INTERFACE IN LEAN PRODUCTION: A PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT CRITERIA PROPOSITION Eduardo L. Isatto1 and Carlos T. Formoso2 ABSTRACT Failures on transferring Japanese production

  2. Applicability of Logistics Management in Lean Construction: a Case Study Approach in Brazilian Building Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Applicability of Logistics Management in Lean Construction: a Case Study Approach in Brazilian Building Companies Proceedings IGLC-7 147 APPLICABILITY OF LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN LEAN CONSTRUCTION Cardoso2 ABSTRACT Logistics management concepts and tools currently have a great value for several

  3. The U.S. Burning Plasma Program C.M. Greenfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for burning plasma research ­ US Burning Plasma Organization (created 2005): currently 283 registered members

  4. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for todays engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  5. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...

  6. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 35 Simulation control in action. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 36 Burning a log and a Siggraph logo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 37 Two sets of quadrilateral stacks are used for different camera angles. 97 38...

  7. ELMs and the Performance of Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Institute of Tech., Pathumthani 12121, Thailand 3SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation 4-5 July 2005 #12;Predictive Modeling of Burning Plasmas IEA of burning plasma experiments using static and dynamic pedestal models IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics

  8. How the Lean Management System is Working on a Closure Project - 13242

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, Carol [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH) manages the River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP), a 10-year contract, in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Strategic planning sessions in 2009 identified key performance areas that were essential to closure and in which focused change could result in dramatic performance improvement. Lean Management Systems (Lean) was selected as the methodology to achieve the desired results. The Lean Process is built upon the fundamentals of the power of respect for people and the practice of continuous process improvement. Lean uses week-long, focused sessions that teach a selected team the techniques to recognize waste within their own work processes, propose potential solutions, and then conduct experiments during the week to test their solutions. In 2011, the Lean process was implemented in the Waste Operations organization. From there it was expanded to closure documents, field remediation, and decommissioning and demolition. WCH identified the following Lean focus areas: 1) closure document processes that required extensive internal preparation, and lengthy external review and approval cycles; 2) allocation of limited transportation and waste disposal resources to meet aggressive remediation schedules; 3) effective start-of-the-day routines in field operations; 4) improved excavation and load-out processes; and 5) approaches to strengthen safety culture and support disciplined operations. Since the introduction of Lean, RCCP has realized many successes and also gained some unexpected benefits. (authors)

  9. Pellet Fueling and Control of Burning Plasmas in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection from the inner wall is planned for use on ITER as the primary core fueling system since gas fueling is expected to be highly inefficient in burning plasmas. Tests of the inner wall guide tube have shown that 5mm pellets with up to 300 m/s speeds can survive intact and provide the necessary core fueling rate. Modeling and extrapolation of the inner wall pellet injection experiments from today's smaller tokamaks leads to the prediction that this method will provide efficient core fueling beyond the pedestal region. Using pellets for triggering of frequent small edge localized modes is an attractive additional benefit that the pellet injection system can provide. A description of the ITER pellet injection system capabilities for fueling and ELM triggering are presented and performance expectations and fusion power control aspects are discussed.

  10. On the quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Md. Manirul Ali; A. S. Majumdar; Dipankar Home; Alok Kumar Pan

    2006-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum analogue of Galileo's leaning tower experiment is revisited using wave packets evolving under the gravitational potential. We first calculate the position detection probabilities for particles projected upwards against gravity around the classical turning point and also around the point of initial projection, which exhibit mass dependence at both these points. We then compute the mean arrival time of freely falling particles using the quantum probability current, which also turns out to be mass dependent. The mass dependence of both the position detection probabilities and the mean arrival time vanish in the limit of large mass. Thus, compatibility between the weak equivalence principle and quantum mechanics is recovered in the macroscopic limit of the latter.

  11. Flashback detection sensor for lean premix fuel nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy Dean (Morgantown, WV); Richards, George Alan (Morgantown, WV); Straub, Douglas L. (Morgantown, WV); Liese, Eric Arnold (Morgantown, WV); Trader, Jr., John Lee (Morgantown, WV); Fasching, George Edward (Morgantown, WV)

    2002-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor for detecting the flame occurring during a flashback condition in the fuel nozzle of a lean premix combustion system is presented. The sensor comprises an electrically isolated flashback detection electrode and a guard electrode, both of which generate electrical fields extending to the walls of the combustion chamber and to the walls of the fuel nozzle. The sensor is positioned on the fuel nozzle center body at a location proximate the entrance to the combustion chamber of the gas turbine combustion system. The sensor provides 360.degree. detection of a flashback inside the fuel nozzle, by detecting the current conducted by the flame within a time frame that will prevent damage to the gas turbine combustion system caused by the flashback condition.

  12. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  13. Letterkenny Army Depot: The Army Teaches Business a Lesson in Lean Six Sigma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Roger K.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Letterkenny Army Depot: The Army Teaches Business a Lesson in Lean Six Sigma is a case study of Letterkenny Army Depot, one of five Army maintenance depots. Letterkenny recapitalizes missiles, HMMWV's, generators, and other ...

  14. United States Air Force Air Logistics Centers : lean enterprise transformation and associated capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jessica L. (Jessica Lauren)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean enterprise transformation entails a complementary set of initiatives and efforts executed over a substantial period of time, in a consistent and coordinated manner, at all levels of the enterprise. It builds upon ...

  15. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  16. Integrating lean principles in automotive product development : breaking down barriers in culture and process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Laura A., 1970-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean principles have been applied throughout the manufacturing industry with noted success although the process of integrating them into the entire enterprise has been complex and slow. Certain areas of the automotive ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lean Miller Cycle System Development for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lean miller cycle system...

  18. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions ofInjector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines D. Littlejohn and R.11. IC ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SHORT TITLE: Fuel

  19. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CHF Peden.2008."Excellent Sulfur Resistance of PtBaOCeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 84(3-4):545-551. doi:10.1016j.apcatb.2008.05.009...

  20. Leanness and Convenience Dimensions of Beef Products: an Exploratory Analysis Using Scanner Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Oral Jr; Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Stouffer Oriental Beef Lean Cuisine, (6) Budget Sirloin Beef, (7) Le Menu Pepper Steak, (8) Budget Gourmet Oriental Beef, (9) Classic Lite Steak Diane Mignonette, and (10) Le Menu Beef Stroganoff. Within the class of fresh beef products, by carcass...

  1. Inter-company collaboration within a large lean supply chain initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzer, Maria Ritums

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cisco and its four contract manufacturing partners are collaborating to implement a lean replenishment methodology across their supply chain. The new system is expected to result in minimized inventory exposure, increased ...

  2. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improved efficiencies in raw material presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daneshmand, Moojan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the application of the principles of lean manufacturing at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates (VSEA). The company faces the challenges of highly customized assembly as well as fluctuating ...

  3. The application of lean manufacturing principles in a high mix low volume environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, Amber Nicole

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the opportunities for the application of lean manufacturing tools in a high- mix, low-volume traditional manufacturing factory floor setting. Value stream mapping and associated analytical tools are ...

  4. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions ofCOLLOQUIM 11. IC ENGINE AND GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SHORTInjector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines D. Littlejohn and R.

  5. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : improvement of Kanban policy and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wu, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. Varian is a manufacturer of ion implantation machines, and supplies and ...

  6. Lean manufacturing in a mass customization plant : inventory correction and shortage measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raykar, Sumant (Sumant Shreechandra)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents the application of the principles of lean manufacturing and supply chain planning at Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates. The company's products are highly customizable, and the production ...

  7. Mature weights and lean maturing patterns of diverse breedtypes of cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajab, Mohammad Hasan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATURE WEIGHTS AND LEAN MATURING PATTERNS OF DIVERSE BREEDTYPES OF CATTLE A Thesis by MOHAMMAD HASAN RAJAB Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfullment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major Subject: Animal Breeding MATURE WEIGHTS AND LEAN MATURING PATTERNS OF DIVERSE BREEDTYPES OF CATTLE A Thesis by MOHAMMAD HASAN RAJAB Approved as to style and content by: (Co-Chairman of Committee) Gerald M. Smith (Co...

  8. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. D. Crounse et al. : Biomass burning pollution overChemistry and Physics Biomass burning and urban airprimary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols

  9. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  10. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nio?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  11. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009). Regulation of agricultural waste burning occurs atuse and burning of agricultural waste in the developingStates, for example, agricultural waste burning is managed

  12. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  13. THE BURNING OF BIOMASS Economy, Environment, Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOT GUARANTEED PROFITS ARE NOT LOCAL #12;BAD FOR THE ENVIRONMENT Increased CO2 global warming, ocean #12;PT COGENERATION LLC A wood-burning cogeneration power plant - Generates electricity (for sale off FOR PAPER TURBINE/ GENERATOR 25 MW MORE ELECTRICITY (currently make about 13MW) HIGH PRESSURE STEAM ADDS 15

  14. ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report+ on ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA . in a COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK presented-coil tokamak configurations that would achieve ignition under presently accepted scaling laws. Studies the extent to which these compact tokamak ignition experiments can resolve the technical issue of under

  15. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols Martin de Graaf KNMI #12; Outline Absorbing Aerosol Index - Theory Absorbing Aerosol Index - Reality Biomass burning and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY Conclusions and Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol

  16. Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program...

  17. U S Burning Plasma Organization:U.S. Burning Plasma Organization: Supporting US Scientific Contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Community (TTF,...) US Technology Community USBPO mission is to coordinate US Burning Plasma related research to advance science USBPO Director, Jim Van Dam, also serves as US IPO Chief Scientist, assuring

  18. Discussion of Alpha Particle Physics Issues for AT Burning Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    machines Projections to burning plasma #12;Alpha self-heating in AT regimes v Production and control

  19. The F/A-18 external burning flight test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yungkurth, C.; Dawson, F.; Houck, S.; Corda, S.; Trefny, C. (Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States) U.S. Navy, Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States) NASA, Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flight test program was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining external burning (EB) data in a flight environment, and to address the question of facility interference in ground test external burning data. Results showed that external burning was effective at reducing transonic base drag in a flight environment having dynamically changing conditions. The flight test program demonstrated that external burning is not just a laboratory phenomenon but is a viable technology for aerospace vehicles. 12 refs.

  20. Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July Doc. Fob. April July Fob. Figure 1. Green grass standing crop (kglha) at various dates after burning thicketized savannah on the Aransas National WiWife Refuge near AushveH, Texas. Askdbd means fran burned areas are significantly different... burning thicketized savannah on the a 200 - \\r . Aransas National Wildlife Refuge near Austwell, )v 53 Texas. Askriked means within a date of evalua- '-\\ i tion are significantly different from that of the 0 8 lmg- burned area at the 95-percent...

  1. James W. Van Dam US Burning Plasma Organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    focus: magnetically confined plasmas #12;Page 5 USBPO What is a "burning" plasma? · "Burning" plasmaJames W. Van Dam US Burning Plasma Organization US ITER Project Office Institute for Fusion Studies Plasmas -- A Tutorial -- Supported by Office of Science #12;Page 2 USBPO The next frontier · Understanding

  2. Burned Area Emergency Response Report July 8, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Executive Summary Burned Area Report Cost Benefit Analysis Soil Burn Severity Map Treatment Map Values-at-Risk The Schultz Fire was started from an abandoned campfire. The fire became a wind-driven event, burning in major. If the pipeline becomes unusable the city would have to drill wells to make up for the loss, at an estimated cost

  3. Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  4. Between the Low Road and the High Road: Logics of Valorization and Regimes of Lean Production in US Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vidal, Matt

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-as-toolbox Plastic containers No Consultativebranch plant 4. Plastic Containers 5. Precision Metalfab 6.Metalfab X X X Plus 17. Plastic X Containers 18. Precision X

  5. Thermonuclear Burning Regimes and the Use of SNe Ia in Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Sorokina; S. I. Blinnikov; O. S. Bartunov

    1999-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The calculations of the light curves of thermonuclear supernovae are carried out by a method of multi-group radiation hydrodynamics. The effects of spectral lines and expansion opacity are taken into account. The predictions for UBVI fluxes are given. The values of rise time for B and V bands found in our calculations are in good agreement with the observed values. We explain why our results for the rise time have more solid physical justification than those obtained by other authors. It is shown that small variations in the chemical composition of the ejecta, produced in the explosions with different regimes of nuclear burning, can influence drastically the light curve decline in the B band and, to a lesser extent, in the V band. We argue that recent results on positive cosmological constant Lambda, found from the high redshift supernova observations, could be wrong in the case of possible variations of the preferred mode of nuclear burning in the earlier Universe.

  6. Open air refuse burning video: Proton Dan the science man explores open air refuse burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastburn, M.D.; Sipple, J.L.; Deramo, A.R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this video is to educate school children to the potential hazards of open air trash burning; to demonstrate alternative ways to dispose of trash; and to motivate students to take action to change the behavior of their parents with regard to trash burning. The burning of household trash, although illegal, is still a common practice in rural areas of Delaware. Enforcement has been difficult because the practice is often performed at night and is done across a wide rural area that is difficult to patrol on a continuing basis. The prohibition on trash burning (revised Regulation 13 of The Delaware Code of Regulations Governing The Control of Air Pollution) has been in effect since 1968, but the public has been slow to comply because trash burning has been practiced for many generations and because much of the public is unaware of the environmental impacts and/or the human health risks. This video may be valuable for other States to use as a public outreach tool regarding their problems with open air refuse burning. The focus of the video is a 7th grade science class is given various assignments relating to Earth Day and preservation of natural resources. Two children in particular are given the assignment to research and report on the hazards of open air trash burning and are asked to investigate alternative ways to dispose of refuse. Upon brainstorming how to find information on the topic, the kids decide to contact the host of a popular children's science show on broadcast television named Proton Dan the Science Man (a fictitious character and show based on Bill Nye the Science Guy). The host then invites the kids to the studio where he films his show and takes them through the topic. The TV host character takes the children to several external locations like a landfill, recycling centers, etc..

  7. Japanese industrial research on lean combustion: A case study: International Research Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, Japanese automakers have introduced a number of successful lean-combustion engines. These engines, in addition to the general expertise in building small cars, have made the Japanese automobiles into the gas mileage champions of the US market. The lean-combustion engines also provide very satisfactory performance and acceptable emissions. United States automakers and research managers, who were probably better informed about lean-combustion than the Japanese were, actively investigated lean-combustion but did not develop an engine. This report examines the basis for the Japanese innovations, the research that took the Japanese past the US state of the art to permit engine development. A preliminary review of recent (1980s) Japanese literature did not turn up strong evidence of new research activity in the lean-combustion area, but did provide background on new engines developed by several major manufacturers. The study was conducted solely through the Japanese and US published literature, with emphasis on early research conducted in the 1970s. This report presents an example of how Japanese research progress can be examined by reviewing the Japanese research literature. Although useful information was obtained by this method, it is still difficult to get a complete picture. When reviewing the literature, as was done for this report, one must remember that the marginal use of references by Japanese researchers obscures prior work, as does the tendency of the Japanese to publish several articles on similar or identical topics. 50 refs., 15 figs.

  8. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  9. Thermonuclear Burning on Rapidly Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bildsten

    1997-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron stars in mass-transferring binaries are accreting the hydrogen and helium rich matter from the surfaces of their companions. This article simply explains the physics associated with how that material eventually fuses to form heavier nuclei and the observations of the time dependent phenomena (such as Type I X-ray bursts) associated with the thermally unstable thermonuclear reactions. We explain how the outcome depends on the composition of the accreting matter, the accretion rate and the mass, radius and thermal state of the neutron star. We also introduce many new analytic relations that are convenient for comparisons to both observations and computational results. After explaining nuclear burning for spherically symmetric accretion onto neutron stars, we discuss the possibility of asymmetric burning. In particular, we discuss some of the mysteries from EXOSAT observations of Type I X-Ray bursts and how the solution to these puzzles may lie in considering the lateral propagation of nuclear burning fronts around the star. Fully understanding this problem requires knowledge of parameters previously neglected such as the distribution of fresh fuel on the star, the magnetic field strength, and the stellar rotation. Recent RXTE observations of bursters may finally tell us some of these parameters.

  10. The Childrens Hospital X Project: A Case Study in Benefit and Cost Analysis of a Lean-IPD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ai, Di

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean processes have been utilized in healthcare design and construction, bringing both benefits and costs to the owners of healthcare projects. It is important to understand and detect the benefits and costs associated with lean processes, because...

  11. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  12. Edge-localized-modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Edge-localized-modes (ELMs) are a ubiquitous feature of H-mode in tokamaks. When gradients in the H-mode transport barrier grow to exceed the MHD stability limit the ELM instability grows explosively, rapidly transporting energy and particles onto open field lines and material surfaces. Though ELMs provide additional particle and impurity transport through the H-mode transport barrier, enabling steady operation, the resulting heat flux transients to plasma facing surfaces project to large amplitude in future low collisionality burning plasma tokamaks. Measurements of the ELM heat flux deposition onto material surfaces in the divertor and main chamber indicate significant broadening compared to inter-ELM heat flux, with a timescale for energy deposition that is consistent with sonic ion flow and numerical simulation. Comprehensive ELM simulation is highlighting the important physics processes of ELM transport including parallel transport due to magnetic reconnection and turbulence resulting from collapse of the H-mode transport barrier. Encouraging prospects for ELM control and/or suppression in future tokamaks include intrinsic modes of ELM free operation, ELM triggering with frequent small pellet injection and the application of 3D magnetic fields.

  13. ENEA F. Zonca, S. Briguglio, L. Chen, G. Fogaccia, T.S. Hahm, A.V. Milovanov, G. Vlad 1 Physics of Burning Plasmas in Toroidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    conditions require fast ion (MeV energies) and charged fusion products good confinement: Identification materials in ad- dition to degrading fusion performance 2 Mutual interactions between collective modes positive feedbacks between theory, simulation and experiment. 2 In a burning plasma, however, unique

  14. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClay Electric Cooperative,North Carolina:CleanBurn

  15. Ultraslow Wave Nuclear Burning of Uranium-Plutonium Fissile Medium on Epithermal Neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Chernezhenko, S A; Kakaev, A A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238, the investigation of fulfillment of the wave burning criterion in a wide range of neutron energies is conducted for the first time, and a possibility of wave nuclear burning not only in the region of fast neutrons, but also for cold, epithermal and resonance ones is discovered for the first time. For the first time the results of the investigation of the Feoktistov criterion fulfillment for a fissile medium, originally consisting of uranium-238 dioxide with enrichments 4.38%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.71% and 0.50% with respect to uranium-235, in the region of neutron energies 0.015-10.0eV are presented. These results indicate a possibility of ultraslow wave neutron-nuclear burning mode realization in the uranium-plutonium media, originally (before the wave initiation by external neutron source) having enrichments with respect to uranium-235, corresponding to the subcritical state, in the regions of cold, thermal, epithermal and resonance neutrons. In order to...

  16. advanced burning phases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  17. acinetobacter baumannii burn: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  18. actinide burning experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering 178 Can Consumers Escape the Market? Emancipatory Illuminations from...

  19. apparent burning area: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: The Workshop will concentrate on burning plasma research in the areas of Plasma Transport and Confinement, MHD plasma research; ...

  20. adiabatic burning velocity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Websites Summary: burning velocities under conditions for which the net heat loss of the flame is zero. Very similar values, France 2 IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et...

  1. Global estimation of burned area using MODIS active fire observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giglio, L.; van der Werf, G. R; Randerson, J. T; Collatz, G. J; Kasibhatla, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Justice, C. O. : The quantity of biomass burned in southernestimates of the quantity of biomass consumed through com-consume prodigious quantities of biomass yet leave a very

  2. Facing the transition. [Retrofitting vessels for burning coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, environmental regulations prohibiting black smoke in port and marine disposal of ashes caused many coal-burning vessels in the Great Lakes shipping industry to convert to oil-burning systems. With a return to coal-burning plants on-board, these problems and others are being addressed. Improvements are being made in stack emission control. The need for monitoring devices is discussed. Mechanisms are described which will help control dust, heat, noise and ash. To reduce the need for excessive stockpiles of various grades of coal, equipment is being designed which will burn a range of coals available in many ports. (JMT)

  3. PARTNERING, LEAN CONSTRUCTION AND HEALTH AND SAFETY WORK ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE: CO-PLAYERS OR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Ren Rydhof

    PARTNERING, LEAN CONSTRUCTION AND HEALTH AND SAFETY WORK ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE: CO Research Institute/Aalborg University, Hrsholm, Denmark (stg@sbi.dk) Each new construction project the construction process and the specific health and safety work on the construction site must therefore also

  4. Page 1 of 13 Understanding Industrial Energy Use Through Lean Energy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Page 1 of 13 11SDP-0048 Understanding Industrial Energy Use Through Lean Energy Analysis Abels, B of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio Copyright 2011 SAE International ABSTRACT This paper describes a simple statistical method to statistically disaggregate industrial energy use into production-dependent, weather

  5. Applied Catalysis A: General 226 (2002) 183192 NO reduction by urea under lean conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applied Catalysis A: General 226 (2002) 183192 NO reduction by urea under lean conditions over.V. All rights reserved. PII: S0926-860X(01)00901-2 #12;184 E. Seker et al. / Applied Catalysis A: General

  6. A LEAN METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME DOPED WITH COMPONENTS OF DIESEL FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A LEAN METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAME DOPED WITH COMPONENTS OF DIESEL FUEL PART I: N-BUTYLBENZENE E better understand the chemistry involved during the combustion of components of diesel fuel flow rate analyses. Keywords: Premixed laminar flame, methane, n-butylbenzene, modelling, diesel fuel

  7. The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, ?mer L.

    . They indicated that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas or methane resulted in an increase in NOx for most increases, and then decreases with the increase in the fraction of hydrogen. Overall, hydrogen enrichment rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogen enrichment; NOx; Extinction limit; Ultra-lean premixed flame. 1

  8. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: MODE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODE Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

  10. THE SCIENCE FRONTIER OF MFE BURNING PLASMA PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plasma and self-heating issues for magnetic fusion. #12;THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF BURNING PLASMA ISSUES PHENOMENA #12;MANY NEW AND EXCITING PHENOMENA TO STUDY IN A BP NEW ELEMENTS IN A BURNING PLASMAS: SELF-HEATED-ALFVNIC ALPHAS HIGHLY NON-LINEAR INTERACTION OF ALPHA SELF-HEATING WITH STRONGLY COUPLED ADVANCED TOKAMAK

  11. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  12. Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herwig, Falk

    ]. In these objects, a thermonuclear runaway of the helium shell on top of an electron-degenerate core (a young White implications for the production of neutron- rich elements. log Tlog Teffeff Figure 1-- A thermonuclear runaway stellar conditions. We will include a stellar equation of state as well as thermonuclear burning (TN burn

  13. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  14. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  15. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Daniel E. (Livermore, CA); Luke, S. John (Pleasanton, CA); Mauger, G. Joseph (Livermore, CA); Riot, Vincent J. (Berkeley, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  16. Intrapreneurship as a tool for lean transformation : case study of VBS, intrapreneurship in IT space by Oladapo E. Bakare.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakare, Oladapo E. (Oladapo Ehigie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean is heralded as the driving methodology for successful organizations ranging from defense to consumer industries. Its approach to reduction of waste and continuous process improvement allows a company to reduce cost, ...

  17. Reducing Heavy-Haul Railcar Maintenance Costs and Improving Terminal Performance Using Technology: A Lean Production Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    or Six Sigma)" [3,4]. The current research focuses on the concept of lean production, as applied in 1990 in a study that found Toyota production techniques to be superior to other automotive

  18. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    411422. [9] I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, AcademicB. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions ofin Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcar a a

  19. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico Edited by: S.Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico spheric ozonebenefits from air pollution control in Mexico City, Environ.

  20. PHYSICS OF BURNING PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    facilities 1. Effects of energetic -particles 2. Self-heating 3. Physics of reactor-scale plasmas Examples towards instability. Interacts with (m,n) = (1,1) modes - sawteeth & fishbones 2. Self-Heating Workshop 4 May 2000 #12;PHYSICS INACCESSABLE TO PRESENT FACILITIES: PARTICLES AND SELF-HEATING / THERMAL

  1. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  2. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  3. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  4. Investigation of NO2 Oxidation Kinetics and Burning Mode for Medium Duty

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002 InvestigationFuel Cell PerformanceDiesel

  5. Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy FutureDepartment ofBUILDING-TO-GRID

  6. Optical probe for determining the fat/lean interface in cuts of meat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Thomas M.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Spletzer, Barry L.

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for locating the boundary surface between a layer of fatty tissue and lean tissue in a cut of meat, such as beef, such as slabs of meat undergoing trimming and cutting in commercial meet processing facilitates. The invention exploits the fact that fatty tissue and lean tissue have significantly different responses to incident light energy. By gauging the degree to which a generated beam of light is scattered and reflected by the tissues under evaluation, the invention permits the character of the tissue to be ascertained. An incident beam of light, such as green light, is generated and transmitted to a probe tip, which tip is inserted into the cut of meat under investigation. The light beam is emitted into the meat tissues from the probe tip, and then is scattered and reflected by the tissues, whereupon some fraction of the emitted light returns to the probe tip. The returning light energy is transmitted to a detector; relative changes in the returning light transmitted to the detector permit the operator to determine when the probe tip is approaching or penetrating the fat/lean tissue interface.

  7. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  8. Isothermal model of ICF burn with finite alpha range treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Conner Daniel (Conner Daniel Cross)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model for simulating deuterium tritium burn in inertial confinement fusion capsules is developed. The model, called the Isothermal Rarefaction Model, is zero dimensional (represented as ordinary differential ...

  9. A Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment Dale M. Meade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capability (more advanced) Burning Plasma Self-heating (Self organization) External- heating (control) Wave be Competitive with other Future Energy Sources EPRI Electric Supply Roadmap (1/99): Business as usual Impact

  10. Storage Ring Operation Modes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longitudinal bunch profile and Up: APS Storage Ring Parameters Previous: Source Parameter Table Storage Ring Operation Modes Standard Operating Mode, top-up Fill pattern: 102 mA in...

  11. Modes of log gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  12. Pellet Fueling Technology Development for Efficient Fueling of Burning Plasmas in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection from the inner wall is planned for use on ITER as the primary core fueling system since gas fueling is expected to be highly inefficient in burning plasmas. Tests of the inner wall guide tube have shown that 5mm pellets with up to 300 m/s speeds can survive intact and provide the necessary core fueling rate. Modeling and extrapolation of the inner wall pellet injection experiments from today's smaller tokamaks leads to the prediction that this method will provide efficient core fueling beyond the pedestal region. Using pellets for triggering of frequent small edge localized modes is an attractive additional benefit that the pellet injection system can provide. A description of the ITER pellet injection system capabilities for fueling and ELM triggering are presented and performance expectations are discussed.

  13. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  14. Mixed-mode cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASHRAEs permission. Mixed-Mode Cooling Photo Credit: Paulnatural ventilation for cooling. Buildings typically had1950s of large-scale mechanical cooling, along with other

  15. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  16. Maniatis suggests that the Leaning Tower illusion (figure 1a) is not an illusion of perspective, as proposed by us (Kingdom et al 2007a, 2007b), but a variant of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    Maniatis suggests that the Leaning Tower illusion (figure 1a) is not an illusion of perspective that the Jastrow illusion is an example of simulta- neous size contrast, and that the Leaning Tower illusion is the orientation analog of the Jastrow. In other words the Leaning Tower illusion is an example of simultaneous

  17. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegna, Chris [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  18. A neural network approach to burn-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford, Nancy Lynn

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO BURN-IN A Thesis by NANCY LYNN CLIFFORD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major... Subject: Industrial Enginccring A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO BURN-IN A Thesis NANCY LYNN CLIFFORD Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by...

  19. Response of selected vertebrate populations to burning of Gulf cordgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewes, Michael Edward

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sites were established at Rob 8 Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge and Aransas National Wildlife Refuge to monitor responses of various wildlife populations to the prescribed burning of gulf cordgrass (~S~art'L~a ~st~e) ~ Research design utilized a... site was established at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Refuge (80 km north of Corpus Christi) and a 2nd at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) (120 km northeast of Corpus Christi) ~ Also, I attended a prescribed burn at San Bernard NWR...

  20. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Branter; D. A. Conley; D. R. Moser; S. J. Corrigan

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of the RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  1. Completion of the INEEL's WERF Incinerator Trial Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branter, Curtis Keith; Conley, Dennis Allen; Corrigan, Shannon James; Moser, David Roy

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the successes and challenges associated with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) hazardous and mixed waste incinerator. Topics to be discussed include facility modifications and problems, trial burn results and lessons learned in each of these areas. In addition, a number of challenges remain including completion and final issue of RCRA Permit and implementation of all the permit requirements. Results from the trial burn demonstrated that the operating conditions and procedures will result in emissions that are satisfactorily protective of human health, the environment, and are in compliance with Federal and State regulations.

  2. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  3. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  4. Architecture AddressingModes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Dat H.

    MIPS R2000 Architecture and Assembly (Part 1) 1. CPU Registers 2. Byte Order 3. AddressingModes 4endian byte order 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 Or Byte number #12; AddressingModes . MIPS is a load/store architecture . RICS -- Load/Store architecture -- All instructions have equal length of 4 bytes -- Every register can

  5. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  6. Measurements of ultrafine particles from a gas-turbine burning biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allouis, C.; Beretta, F.; Minutolo, P.; Pagliara, R. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, CNR, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Sirignano, M.; Sgro, L.A.; D'Anna, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ultrafine particles have been performed at the exhaust of a low emission microturbine for power generation. This device has been fuelled with liquid fuels, including a commercial diesel oil, a mixture of the diesel oil with a biodiesel and kerosene, and tested under different loads. Primarily attention has been focused on the measurements of the size distribution functions of the particles emitted from the system by using particle differential mobility analysis. A bimodal size distribution function of the particle emitted has been found in all the examined conditions. Burning diesel oil, the first mode of the size distribution function of the combustion-formed particles is centered at around 2-3 nm, whereas the second mode is centered at about 20-30 nm. The increase of the turbine load and the addition of 50% of biodiesel has not caused changes in the shape of size distribution of the particles. A slightly decrease of the amount of particle formed has been found. By using kerosene the amount of emitted particles increases of more than one order of magnitude. Also the shape of the size distribution function changes with the first mode shifted towards larger particles of the order of 8-10 nm but with a lower emission of larger 20-30 nm particles. Overall, in this conditions, the mass concentration of particles is increased respect to the diesel oil operation. Particle sizes measured with the diesel oil have been compared with the results on a diesel engine operated in the same power conditions and with the same fuel. Measurements have showed that the mean sizes of the formed particles do not change in the two combustion systems. However, diesel engine emits a number concentration of particles more than two orders of magnitude higher in the same conditions of power and with the same fuel. By running the engine in more premixed-like conditions, the size distribution function of the particles approaches that measured by burning kerosene in the microturbine indicating that the distribution function of the sizes of the emitted particles can be strongly affected by combustion conditions. (author)

  7. Analysis of Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    . Additionally, a sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer dispersion test was conducted by releasing SF6 from a line source within the burn and measuring SF6 concentrations at the supertower. Supertower Instrumentation (TGAPS) connected to a CO2 closed path Licor LI-6262 and a SF6 detector (7 inlet locations) Cambell CSAT

  8. More than words : a biography of Daniel Francis Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Matthew R. (Matthew Robert)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel Francis Burns was born in Ireland in 1888 and immigrated to the United States in 1912. He married Mary O'Neill in 1923 and had a family of seven children. He worked as a police officer in the Boston Police Department ...

  9. Transient Burned Gas Rate Control on VVA equipped Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of cylinder filling phenomenon is determined. It expresses, under the form of a discrete event dynamics are picked up downstream the turbine and the after-treatment system. The fresh air and burned gases mix. Recently, a new way to generate EGR has emerged. On top of these technological solutions, additional

  10. Potential Materials Science Benefits from a Burning Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Materials Science Benefits from a Burning Plasma Science Experiment S.J. Zinkle Oak Ridge;Introduction · The main materials science advances from a BPSX would occur during the R&D phase prior to construction ­e.g., CIT/BPX, ITER · Materials science opportunities during operation of a BPSX would likely

  11. BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

  12. Atmospheric dispersion index for prescribed burning. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavdas, L.G.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are given in detail. A preliminary interpretation of dispersion index values is offered. A FORTRAN subroutine package for computing the index is included.

  13. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  14. LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 , R. Bounaceur1 , H. Le Gall1 , A. Pires da Cruz2 , A. The influence of ethanol as an oxygenated additive has been investigated for these two fuels and has been found

  15. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Simulations using the model show that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning...

  16. Activities of the US Burning Plasma Organization Vice-Chair of Council,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the principal coordinating body for MFE burning plasma research · It exists to advance the scientific to advance burning plasma research · Began with the 2006-7 ITER Design Review ­ US MFE community contributed

  17. Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    =ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma research 5 Charles Greenfield (Director) Amanda Hubbard (Deputy Director) Nermin

  18. Developing shrub fire behaviour models in an oceanic climate: Burning in the British Uplands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Gwilym Matthew; Legg, Colin; Smith, Adam; MacDonald, Angus

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prescribed burning of moorland vegetation in the UK is used to provide habitat for red grouse, a game bird, and to improve grazing for sheep and deer. The peak time of fire risk corresponds to the normal legal burning ...

  19. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particulate and Gas phase Emissions from Biomass Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Seyedehsan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory, J.J. R. , and Veres, P. : Biomass burning in Siberia andOpen burning of agricultural biomass: Physical and chemical

  20. SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xianghong

    SINGULAR LEVI-FLAT REAL ANALYTIC HYPERSURFACES By DANIEL BURNS and XIANGHONG GONG Abstract. We #12;24 DANIEL BURNS AND XIANGHONG GONG Let M be a real analytic hypersurface defined by r = 0

  1. Sexual reproduction of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) at prescribed burned site: the effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helsinki, University of

    -1 Sexual reproduction of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) at prescribed burned site September 2005 Key words: Boreal forest, European aspen, Prescribed burning, Seed ecology, Seedbed conditions, Seedling emergence and survival Abstract. Aspen (Populus tremula) is capable of reproducing both

  2. A numerical investigation into the anomalous slight NOx increase when burning biodiesel; A new (old) theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Chen, J.Y.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al, 2005. The Biodiesel Handbook. AOCS Publishing,x Increase When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory GeorgeIncrease When Burning Biodiesel; A New (Old) Theory. Fuel

  3. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable. 1 #12;Nomenclature fuel

  4. Study of Reasons for the Adoption of Lean Production in the Automobile Industry: Questions for the AEC Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    Study of Reasons for the Adoption of Lean Production in the Automobile Industry: Questions IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY: QUESTIONS FOR THE AEC INDUSTRIES Scott Featherston1 ABSTRACT The primary intent in opting for an alternative? Were there pressures that gave automobile producers no option but to alter

  5. Effect of inactive impurities on the burning of ICF targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Il'in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of thermonuclear burning of the spherical deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets in the presence of low-Z impurities (such as lithium, carbon, or beryllium) with arbitrary concentrations is investigated. The effect of impurities produced due to the mixing of the thermonuclear fuel with the material of the structural elements of the target during its compression on the process of target burning is studied, and the possibility of using solid noncryogenic thermonuclear fuels in ICF targets is analyzed. Analytical dependences of the ignition energy and target thermonuclear gain on the impurity concentration are obtained. The models are constructed for homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas for the case in which the burning is initiated in the central heated region of the target and then propagates into the surrounding relatively cold fuel. Two possible configurations of an inhomogeneous plasma, namely, an isobaric configuration formed in the case of spark ignition of the target and an isochoric configuration formed in the case of fast ignition, are considered. The results of numerical simulations of the burning of the DT plasma of ICF targets in a wide range of impurity concentrations are presented. The simulations were performed using the TEPA one-dimensional code, in which the thermonuclear burning kinetics is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. It is shown that the strongest negative effect related to the presence of impurities is an increase in the energy of target ignition. It is substantiated that the most promising solid noncryogenic fuel is DT hydride of beryllium (BeDT). The requirements to the plasma parameters at which BeDT can be used as a fuel in noncryogenic ICF targets are determined. Variants of using noncryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel are proposed.

  6. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Guzdar, P. N. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  7. Major Conclusions of the MFE Study 1. Why a burning plasma Navratil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of scientific maturity that we are ready to undertake the essential step of burning plasma research. · Present

  8. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    example, coal burning and petrochemical industries are alsofuel-oil fired) and petrochemical complex in Tula, north of

  9. Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Prescribed Burning Costs: Trends and Influences in the National Forest System1 David A. Cleaves,2 Service's National Forest System prescribed burning activity and costs are examined. Fuels management officers from 95 National Forests reported costs and acreage burned for 4 types of prescribed fire

  10. Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations of Asian outflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Biomass burning emission inventory with daily resolution: Application to aircraft observations for biomass burning using AVHRR satellite observations of fire activity corrected for data gaps and scan angle biomass burning in SE Asia was a major contributor to the outflow of Asian pollution observed in TRACE

  11. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Highwood, Ellie

    Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern Africa Steven Met Office C-130 within a distinct biomass burning plume during the Southern AFricAn Regional science, and P. R. Buseck, Evolution of biomass burning aerosol properties from an agricultural fire in southern

  12. Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , steam, burning velocity, chemiluminescence, OH Introduction In ultra-wet gas turbines, the heatExperimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen

  13. Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spatial and temporal scale issues in determining biomass burning regimes in Bolivia and Peru A. V and Bolivia to analyse the spatial distribution of burning and its intra- and inter-annual variability Santa Cruz, Bolivia and in north-west Peru). Particular attention was paid to biomass burning in high

  14. Catalytic combustion of very lean mixtures in a reverse flow reactor using an internal electrical heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunill, F.; Beld, L. van de; Westerterp, K.R. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)] [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study of the reverse flow reactor, equipped with an internal electrical heater, for the autothermal combustion of very dilute organic compounds, in particular ethene, propane, and their mixtures, has been carried out. The influence of several operating parameters like electrical heater power, cycle period, chemical character, and concentration of the pollutants on the maximum temperature and on the shape of temperature profiles in the stationary state is discussed. Experimental results show that an internal electrical heater can be successfully used to oxidize completely very lean mixtures which would not be able to maintain an autothermal process only by themselves. The predictions with a heterogeneous one-dimensional model without using fit parameters show a good agreement with experiments except for critical situations.

  15. Catalytic igniters and their use to ignite lean hydrogen-air mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, William J. (Oakland, CA); Thorne, Lawrence R. (Livermore, CA); Volponi, Joanne V. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic igniter which can ignite a hydrogen-air mixture as lean as 5.5% hydrogen with induction times ranging from 20 s to 400 s, under conditions which may be present during a loss-of-liquid-coolant accident at a light water nuclear reactor comprises (a) a perforate catalytically active substrate, such as a platinum coated ceramic honeycomb or wire mesh screen, through which heated gases produced by oxidation of the mixture can freely flow and (b) a plurality of thin platinum wires mounted in a thermally conductive manner on the substrate and positioned thereon so as to be able to receive heat from the substrate and the heated gases while also in contact with unoxidized gases.

  16. Regression equations that predict the yield of pork four lean cuts and primals as influenced by cutting method and trim level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grams, David Wayne

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levels of 1. 27 and . 64 cm of external fat including a partially skinned ham and picnic shoulder, along with separable lean from the four lean cuts. Grisdale et al. (1984a) reported fat-standardized lean as a percentage of the carcass weight..., a bootjack is formed in the belly at a 20 degree angle. The foot was removed perpendicular to the length of the shank 1. 27 cm below the proximal end of the tuber calcis. Pelvic fat, flank musde, and lymph glands and associated fat were removed...

  17. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  18. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

  19. Gulf Cordgrass Production, Utilization, and Nutritional Value Following Burning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oefinger, R.D.; Scifres, F.J.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to the same criteria on the unburned areas. Soils on each site were characterized relative to selected chemical and physical characteristics . The study areas were evaluated, based on the selected variables, approximately at monthly intervals... and species of Acacia) on the uplands to the west. Soil Characteristics Physical and Chemical Components The loamy sand sites, burned in fall 1974 were characterized by a near neutral soil surface, becoming more basic to 30 centimeters deep (Table 1...

  20. Data Summary Report D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to verify that all analytical data collected at the D-Area Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site for use in developing risk assessment and potential remediation procedures have been validated at the appropriate level. Any discrepancies or reasons why the data should be rejected for this purpose will be addressed. This report documents the data validation procedures used by Environmental Monitoring Section, Exploration Resources, and RUST Environment {ampersand} Infrastructure for Assigning qualifiers.

  1. Early cavity growth during forward burn. [Hoe Creek III problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, M.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Hill, R.W.

    1980-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    During the early portion of the forward burn phase of the Hoe Creek III field experiment, the cavity progagated rapidly down the deviated borehole and to the top of the coal seam. As a first step to understanding this phenomena we have conducted small scale coal block experiments. Drying as well as combustion tests were performed. This paper describes the test hardware and the experimental results.

  2. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nttil, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  3. Burning tires for fuel and tire pyrolysis: air implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C.; Meardon, K.; Russell, D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document was developed in response to increasing inquiries into the environmental impacts of burning waste tires in process equipment. The document provides information on the use of whole, scrap tires and tire-derived-fuel (TDF) as combustion fuel and on the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The use of whole tires and TDF as a primary fuel is discussed for dedicated tire-to-energy facilities. The use of whole tires and TDF as a supplemental fuel is discussed for cement manufacturing plants, electric utilities, pulp and paper mills, and other industrial processes. The focus of the document is on the impact of burning whole tires and TDF on air emissions. Test data are presented and, in most instances, compared with emissions under baseline conditions (no tires or TDF in the fuel). The control devices used in these industries are discussed and, where possible, their effectiveness in controlling emissions from the burning of whole tires or TDF is described. In addition, the report provides information on the processes themselves that use whole tires or TDF, the modifications to the processes that allowed the use of whole tires or TDF, and the operational experiences of several facilities using whole tires or TDF. The economic feasibility of using whole tires and TDF for the surveyed industries is discussed. Finally, contacts for State waste tire programs are presented.

  4. Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. R. Gasques; A. V. Afanasjev; E. F. Aguilera; M. Beard; L. C. Chamon; P. Ring; M. Wiescher; D. G. Yakovlev

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rate between equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones, and the intermediate regime). The rate is determined by Coulomb barrier penetration in dense environments and by the astrophysical S-factor at low energies. We evaluate previous studies of the Coulomb barrier problem and propose a simple phenomenological formula for the reaction rate which covers all cases. The parameters of this formula can be varied, taking into account current theoretical uncertainties in the reaction rate. The results are illustrated for the example of the ^{12}C+^{12}C fusion reaction. This reaction is very important for the understanding of nuclear burning in evolved stars, in exploding white dwarfs producing type Ia supernovae, and in accreting neutron stars. The S-factor at stellar energies depends on a reliable fit and extrapolation of the experimental data. We calculate the energy dependence of the S-factor using a recently developed parameter-free model for the nuclear interaction, taking into account the effects of the Pauli nonlocality. For illustration, we analyze the efficiency of carbon burning in a wide range of densities and temperatures of stellar matter with the emphasis on carbon ignition at densities rho > 10^9 g/cc.

  5. High frequency electromagnetic burn monitoring for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Hill, R.W.; Laine, E.F.

    1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of high frequency electromagnetic waves to monitor an in-situ coal gasification burn process, and presents some recent results obtained with the method. Both the technique, called HFEM (high frequency electromagnetic) probing, the HFEM hardware used are described, and some of the data obtained from the LLNL Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment conducted near Gillette, Wyoming are presented. HFEM was found to be very useful for monitoring the burn activity found in underground coal gasification. The technique, being a remote sensing method which does not require direct physical contact, does not suffer from burnout problems as found with thermocouples, and can continue to function even as the burn progresses on through the region of interest. While HFEM does not replace more conventional instrumentation such as thermocouples, the method does serve to provide data which is unobtainable by other means, and in so doing it complements the other data to help form a picture of what cannot be seen underground.

  6. An Assessment of the Degree of Implementation of the Lean Aerospace Initiative Principles and Practices within the US Aerospace and Defense Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Thomas E.

    This report is a formal documentation of the results of an assessment of the degree to which Lean Principles and Practices have been implemented in the US Aerospace and Defense Industry. An Industry Association team prepared ...

  7. The implementation dynamics of continuous improvement throughout the corporate hierarchy based on lean six sigma at DTE energy by Timothy David Quinn.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Timothy David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation comprises a case study and formal simulation model of DTE Energy's Lean Six Sigma continuous-improvement (CI) program from its inception in 1998 through the end of 2009. The case history is based on ...

  8. D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL-TIME CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona, July 2005 INTEGRATED REAL. Sartori, and many other JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics AT burning plasma integrated control #12;D. Moreau IEA W60 Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation, Tarragona

  9. ELM Suppression in Low Edge Collisionality H-Mode Discharges Using n=3 Magnetic Perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B; Thomas, P R; West, W P; Boedo, J A; Garofalo, A M; Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J; Lasnier, C J; Reimerdes, H; Rhodes, T L; Scoville, J T; Solomon, W M; Thomas, D M; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Zeng, L

    2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces the edge pressure gradient and pedestal current density below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.

  10. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  11. Emissions from burning tire-derived fuel (TDF): Comparison of batch combustion of tire chips and continuous combustion of tire crumb mixed with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Carlson, J.B. [Army Natick R, Natick, MA (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This laboratory study investigated the emissions of waste automobile tire-derived fuel (TDF). This fuel was burned in two different modes, either segmented in small pieces (tire chunks) or in pulverized form (tire crumb). Tire chunks were burned in fixed beds in batch mode in a horizontal furnace. Tire crumb was burned in a continous flow mode, dispersed in air, either alone or mixed with pulverized coal, in a verical furnace. The gas flow was laminar, the gas temperature was 1000{degrees}C in all cases, and the residence times of the combustion products in the furnaces were similar. Chunks of waste tires had dimensions in the range of 3-9 {mu}m, tire crumb was size-classified to be 180-212 {mu}m and the high volatile bituminous coal, used herein, was 63-75. The fuel mass loading in the furnaces was varied. The following emissions were monitored at the exit of the furnaces: CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and particulates. Results showed that combustion of TDF in fixed beds resulted in large yields (emissions per mass of fuel burned) of CO, soot and PAHs. Such yields increased with the size of the bed. CO, soot and PAHs yields from batch combustion of fixed beds of coal were lower by more than an order of magnitude than those from fixed beds of TDF. Continuous pulverized fuel combustion of TDF (tire crumb) resulted in dramatically lower yields of CO, soot and PAHs than those from batch combustion, especially when TDF was mixed with pulverized coal. To the contrary, switching the mode of combustion of coal (from fixed beds to pulverized fuel) did not result in large differences in the aforementioned emissions. CO{sub 2}, and, especially, NO{sub x} yields from batch combustion of TDF were lower than those from coal. Emissions of NO{sub x} were somewhat lower from batch combustion than from pulverized fuel combustion of TDF and coal.

  12. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  13. Impact of prescribed burning on Gulf Coast tick populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Thomas Walter

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee; Or. C. J. Scffres Th GlfC*stt1k (~Abl 0 tt K h) i pst f g animals along the Gul f Coast and as far inland as Oklahoma and Kansas. Prescribed burns during winter, fall or spring on four plant communities at the Rob and Bessie Welder... encouragement and expertise with the ticks; J. W. Stuth and D. N. Ueckert for their patience during this study and to each for their comments on this thesis. I thank the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation for their generous financial support...

  14. On the burning of his library, and On medical travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholin, Thomas

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lections of an old man, and what he has to say of physicians, hospitals, sugar-refining, viticulture, his own investigations of Aetna, somnolent Salerno and pious therapy are all of interest and some historical value. His advice to his sons and nephew... to Theodoras from bk. 11, ep. 94. Flames carried off the Pierian Penates of the poet Bar tholin. Does this please the Muses and you Phoebus? Thanks to the favor of the god, this great crime did not burn both domicile and dominus. A sacrifice was made of my...

  15. Height Replacement of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Kitchen, L.M.; Scifres, C.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    periods. %e e ' riment was designed as a rm=trd cmnplete+bloCL deskgn with t a o repticatbms. T h g S i g h empioped 9 h e - 'hie -wewin bo:*iriny of the l&a ' dfded o P - the plots (Scifps 1ss81. i?w ~rmeYIt l~p-m~tr lLed ltjeIt'trcwMs, 3.T by...- tions accounted for 87 pecmt of the variation in height change of blackbrush acacia. Burning did -@t affect height increase based on comparison with unburned blackbrush acacia. Blackbrush acacia height replacement was slower than that of honey mes...

  16. Lab scientists Burns, Hay named new AAAS Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5 - -/e),,s -Labgrants DecisionLab schoolBurns,

  17. Simulation of lean NOx trap performance with microkinetic chemistry and without mass transfer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Rich; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Chakravarthy, V. Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microkinetic chemical reaction mechanism capable of describing both the storage and regeneration processes in a fully formulated lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT) is presented. The mechanism includes steps occurring on the precious metal, barium oxide (NO{sub x} storage), and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites of the catalyst. The complete reaction set is used in conjunction with a transient plug flow reactor code to simulate not only conventional storage/regeneration cycles with a CO/H{sub 2} reductant, but also steady flow temperature sweep experiments that were previously analyzed with just a precious metal mechanism and a steady state code. The results show that NO{sub x} storage is not negligible during some of the temperature ramps, necessitating a re-evaluation of the precious metal kinetic parameters. The parameters for the entire mechanism are inferred by finding the best overall fit to the complete set of experiments. Rigorous thermodynamic consistency is enforced for parallel reaction pathways and with respect to known data for all of the gas phase species involved. It is found that, with a few minor exceptions, all of the basic experimental observations can be reproduced with these purely kinetic simulations, i.e., without including mass-transfer limitations. In addition to accounting for normal cycling behavior, the final mechanism should provide a starting point for the description of further LNT phenomena such as desulfation and the role of alternative reductants.

  18. The wrong kind of general: the resignation of union brigadier general William W. Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, David Earl

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    . 8 Brian K. Burton, Extraordinary Circumstances: The Seven Days Battles (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001), 223. 9 William Wallace Burns Papers, Cushing Memorial Library, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (hereafter Burns... in his massive history of the California regiment, but he cannot provide any clues as to why the general sank into obscurity instead of going on to greater things.7 Other historians who mention Burns at all, such as Brian K. Burton in Extraordinary...

  19. affordable near-term burning-plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ons USBPO - Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scienfic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science...

  20. Observations of nonmethane organic compounds during ARCTAS - Part 1: Biomass burning emissions and plume enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    burning in Siberia and Kazakhstan as an important source forgrassland fires in Kazakhstan (Warneke et al. , 2009) duringfires from East Asia/Kazakhstan. Likewise there was no sta-

  1. Plasma Proteome Response to Severe Burn Injury Revealed by 18O...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein...

  2. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. : Biomass burning pollution over Central Mexico Editedburning and urban air pollution over the Central MexicanJ. : The characterisation of pollution aerosol in a changing

  3. Influences of carrier diffusion and radial mode field pattern on high speed characteristics for microring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn; Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3?dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15??m, which accords with the simulation results.

  4. The Caw Burn SUDS: performance of a settlement pond/wetland SUDS retrofit Kate Heal1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Kate

    ) to remediate pollution of the Caw Burn by runoff from the Houston Industrial Estate, Livingston, Scotland-study of a retrofit SUDS constructed in 1996 to remediate pollution in the Caw Burn originating in runoff from runoff from the Houston Industrial Estate, where construction commenced in the 1960s, and two residential

  5. Microstructural Characterization of High Burn-up Mixed Oxide Fast Reactor Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissa C. Teague; Brian P. Gorman; Steven L. Hayes; Douglas L. Porter; Jeffrey King

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High burn-up mixed oxide fuel with local burn-ups of 3.423.7% FIMA (fissions per initial metal atom) were destructively examined as part of a research project to understand the performance of oxide fuel at extreme burn-ups. Optical metallography of fuel cross-sections measured the fuel-to-cladding gap, clad thickness, and central void evolution in the samples. The fuel-to-cladding gap closed significantly in samples with burn-ups below 79% FIMA. Samples with burn-ups in excess of 79% FIMA had a reopening of the fuel-to-cladding gap and evidence of joint oxide-gain (JOG) formation. Signs of axial fuel migration to the top of the fuel column were observed in the fuel pin with a peak burn-up of 23.7% FIMA. Additionally, high burn-up structure (HBS) was observed in the two highest burn-up samples (23.7% and 21.3% FIMA). The HBS layers were found to be 35 times thicker than the layers found in typical LWR fuel. The results of the study indicate that formation of JOG and or HBS prevents any significant fuel-cladding mechanical interaction from occurring, thereby extending the potential life of the fuel elements.

  6. Butterfly species richness and community composition in forests affected by ENSO-induced burning and habitat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooers, Arne

    shown to be sensitive to global climate change (Dennis 1993); non-migrat@hotmail.com. Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Canada V5A 1S6. 1 To whom surrounded by the burned forest this indicates that the habitat (burned or unburned) overrides geographical

  7. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    period. This burn-in degradation is a severe limita- tion for the efficiency of organic photovoltaic of organic photovoltaics. Several different degradation mechanisms of organic solar cells can to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which

  8. Issues in "Burning Plasma Science" S. J. Zweben, D. S. Darrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development issues => big issue: local burn control in an AT Our conclusions Alternate path #12;Burning, not fusion energy development (i.e. reactor-relevance) General issues: What are the interesting plasma a viable fusion reactor (or, should it be)? #12;What are Fusion Energy Development Issues Which Could

  9. On the Galois cohomology of ideal class groups David Burns and Soogil Seo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Colin J.

    1 On the Galois cohomology of ideal class groups David Burns and Soogil Seo Abstract. We use ??etale # . For each such M we also #12; 2 David Burns and Soogil Seo write M [0] for the complex C · which has C 0 = M

  10. Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Impact of prescribed burning on endophytic insect communities of prairie perennials (Asteraceae be threatened. Because they inhabit the `fuel layer' of prairies, endophytic insects would seem particularly susceptible to this management tactic. In this paper, we assess the impact of prescribed burning on endophytic

  11. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols M. de (UV) absorbing aerosols, mainly desert dust and biomass burning aerosols. The AAI is not an aerosol quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering

  12. RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS IRRADIATED IN DR3 C. Bagger of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially of the data. INIS Descriptors . BURN-UP, CALORIMETRY, COMPUTER CALCULATIONS, DR-3, FISSION, FUEL ASSEMBLIES

  13. Outcrop-scale physical properties of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outcrop-scale physical properties of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars Amanda L. Nahm1 October 2007. [1] A rock mass rating (RMR) analysis was performed on an outcrop of Burns Formation conditions (RMR = 52). For present-day dry conditions, the rock mass has an in situ modulus of deformation (E

  14. Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation B. E. Brooks1 , C the mould surface and entrain onto the surface of the mould. A method has been developed to predict likely, burn-on and penetration defects can be predicted. The method is validated through comparison

  15. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  16. Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

  17. Fusion burn dynamics in dense Z-pinches (DZP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Werley, K.A.; Hagenson, R.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion burn dynamics and energy yield of the dense Z-pinch (DZP) are examined using a profile-averaged, zero-dimensional time-dependent model. A range of conditions (fuel, line density, voltage, fusion-product heating, enthalpy endless, density and temperature profiles, current rise rate, electrode impurities) are examined. Magneto-hydrodynamic stability is assumed, and initial conditions are based on those ideally existing after the melting and ionization of a solid fiber of fusion fuel. Plasma-conditions required of neutron sources for materials testing ({dot S}{sub n} {ge} 10{sup 19} n/s) and for possible commercial power production are examined. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  19. Aspirin as a promoter of phenylpropanolamine-induced weight loss in lean and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerma, Margaret Susan

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . &May 1988) Margaret 'Susan Lerma, B. A. , Saint Mary' s University Chairperson oi Advisory Comndttee: Dr. Paul J. Wellman The purpose ot this study was to demonstrate the possible potentiating effects of aspirin to PPA-induced anorexia. Neither a... low &0. 5 g/kg) PPA dose nor a high (1, 0 g/kg) PPA dose, separately, or in combination with aspirin (8. 0 g/kg) when administered in diet produced any significant etfects on body weight in either lean or obese &ob/ob) mice. The mice in both...

  20. Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; D. Meade; C. Neumeyer

    2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study.

  1. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Sloane, Thompson M. (Oxford, MI); Hilden, David L. (Shelby Township, MI); Mulawa, Patricia A. (Clinton Township, MI); Lee, Jong H. (Rochester Hills, MI); Cheng, Shi-Wai S. (Troy, MI)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  2. Electron geodesic acoustic modes in electron temperature gradient mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Johan; Nordman, Hans [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Singh, Raghvendra; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the first demonstration of an electron branch of the geodesic acoustic mode (el-GAM) driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes is presented. The work is based on a fluid description of the ETG mode retaining non-adiabatic ions and the dispersion relation for el-GAMs driven nonlinearly by ETG modes is derived. A new saturation mechanism for ETG turbulence through the interaction with el-GAMs is found, resulting in a significantly enhanced ETG turbulence saturation level compared to the mixing length estimate.

  3. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  4. Micro-Mixing Lean-Premix System for Ultra-Low Emission Hydrogen/Syngas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlendur Steinthorsson; Brian Hollon; Adel Mansour

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this project was to develop the next generation of fuel injection technologies for environmentally friendly, hydrogen syngas combustion in gas turbine engines that satisfy DOE's objectives of reducing NOx emissions to 3 ppm. Building on Parker Hannifin's proven Macrolamination technology for liquid fuels, Parker developed a scalable high-performing multi-point injector that utilizes multiple, small mixing cups in place of a single conventional large-scale premixer. Due to the small size, fuel and air mix rapidly within the cups, providing a well-premixed fuel-air mixture at the cup exit in a short time. Detailed studies and experimentation with single-cup micro-mixing injectors were conducted to elucidate the effects of various injector design attributes and operating conditions on combustion efficiency, lean stability and emissions and strategies were developed to mitigate the impact of flashback. In the final phase of the program, a full-scale 1.3-MWth multi-cup injector was built and tested at pressures from 6.9bar (100psi) to 12.4bar (180psi) and flame temperatures up to 2000K (3150 F) using mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas as fuel with nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The injector operated without flash back on fuel mixtures ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% hydrogen and emissions were shown to be insensitive to combustor pressure. NOx emissions of 3-ppm were achieved at a flame temperature of 1750K (2690 F) when operating on a fuel mixture containing 50% hydrogen and 50% natural gas by volume with 40% nitrogen dilution and 1.5-ppm NOx was achieved at a flame temperature of 1680K (2564 F) using only 10% nitrogen dilution. NOx emissions of 3.5-ppm were demonstrated at a flame temperature of 1730K (2650 F) with only 10% carbon dioxide dilution. Finally, 3.6-ppm NOx emissions were demonstrated at a flame temperature over 1600K (2420 F) when operating on 100% hydrogen fuel with 30% carbon dioxide dilution. Superior operability was demonstrated for the hydrogen-natural gas fuel. The micro-mixing fuel injectors show great promise for use in future gas turbine engines operating on hydrogen, syngas or other fuel mixtures of various compositions, supporting the Department of Energy goals related to increased energy diversity while reducing greenhouse gases.

  5. Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta-analysis of Four Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    Characterizing the Aging of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol by Use of Mixing Ratios: A Meta: Characteristic organic aerosol (OA) emission ratios (ERs) and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) for biomass and combustion conditions in determining OA loadings from biomass burning. 1. INTRODUCTION Biomass burning

  6. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  7. Emission and transport of cesium-137 from boreal biomass burning in the summer of 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strode, S.; Ott, Lesley E.; Pawson, Steven; Bowyer, Ted W.

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    While atmospheric concentrations of cesium-137 have decreased since the nuclear testing era, resuspension of Cs-137 during biomass burning provides an ongoing emission source. The summer of 2010 was an intense biomass burning season in western Russia, with high levels of particulate matter impacting air quality and visibility. A radionuclide monitoring station in western Russia shows enhanced airborne Cs-137 concentrations during the wildfire period. Since Cs-137 binds to aerosols, satellite observations of aerosols and fire occurrences can provide a global-scale context for Cs-137 emissions and transport during biomass burning events.

  8. Conceptual development of a continuous burning system for oil spill remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataramaiah, Ramesh H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system for channelization of burning oil. TOW BOAT TOW BOAT TETHER TO MAINTAIN ~ V - V 0 N F I G U R A T I 0 N IGNITION SLED WITH FUEL TANK, RADIO CONTROL IGNITION SYSTEM AND BURNERS RADIO CONTROL BY VESSEL BURNING OIL IN FIRE CHANNEL BXI FEET... of Co 'ttee) Tom D. l s (Member) R. B. Igonz (Metnber) mes T, P. ao (Head of De tment) December 1992 111 ABSTRACT Conceptual Development of a Continuous Burning System for Oil Spill Remediation . (December 1992) Rsmesh H. Venkataramaiah, B. E...

  9. Hawking radiation and Quasinormal modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SangChul Yoon

    2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum of Hawking radiation by quantum fields in the curved spacetime is continuous, so the explanation of Hawking radiation using quasinormal modes can be suspected to be impossible. We find that quasinormal modes do not explain the relation between the state observed in a region far away from a black hole and the short distance behavior of the state on the horizon.

  10. Mediating Religion: Modes of Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Mediating Religion: Modes of Communication in Religious Contexts Keynote: Dr. Lerone Martin, particularly given recent innovations in mass media and digital communications technologies. Turning attention to modes of communication in religious contexts, this conference will address ways in which mass media have

  11. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  12. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Burning Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ion fuel species (H, D, T, Li) and impurities (e.g. He, Be, C, W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on ITER and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPX). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and {gamma}-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can address machine protection and plasma control diagnostic tasks, as well as plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma facing component temperatures.

  13. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  14. Effects of actinide burning on waste disposal at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschfelder, J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain to the water table. Discharge rates at the water table are calculated and used in a model for transport to the accessible environment, defined to be five kilometers from the repository edge. Concentrations and dose rates at the accessible environment from spent fuel and wastes from reprocessing, with partitioning and transmutation, are calculated. Partitioning and transmutation of LWR and ALMR spent fuel reduces the inventories of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium in the high-level waste by factors of 40 to 500. However, because release rates of all of the actinides except curium are limited by solubility and are independent of package inventory, they are not reduced correspondingly. Only for curium is the repository release rate much lower for reprocessing wastes.

  15. Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming contributed at least 10­30% of the 0.40 ± 0.04 K global surface warming) depends crucially on the adoption, because it lacks any upward trend between solar cycles 21­23, the solar contribution to the global warming

  16. The University has a number of dedicated automotive research centres, including the Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre, the Turbo Centre and LARG (Lean and Agile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    The University has a number of dedicated automotive research centres, including the Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre, the Turbo Centre and LARG (Lean and Agile Research Group) Automotive. The research carried out through these centres addresses the broad issues associated with the automotive

  17. R. Nicholas Burns Professor of the Practice of Diplomacy and International Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategy Group, Senior Counselor at the Cohen Group, serves on the Board of Directors of Entegris, Inc Nation. Professor Burns served in the United States Government for twenty-seven years. As a career

  18. Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Gill-Ran

    The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

  19. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, W.

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire ...

  20. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, G.

    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM[subscript 2.5] in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using ...

  1. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an improved model of char burning during black liquor combustion that is capable of predicting net rates of sulfate reduction to sulfide as well as carbon burnup rates. Enhancements include a proper ...

  2. Water quality as affected by season and prescribed burning, Post Oak Savannah, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Mark S

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variation in nutrient and sediment loss via runoff is responsive to precipitation patterns, site characteristics, and disturbance. Fire is necessary for natural maintenance of most grasslands and savannahs. Prescribed burning is an effective...

  3. Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, under Department of Energy sponsorship, is developing a wet oxidation system to generate steam for industrial processes by burning industrial waste materials and low-grade fuels. The program involves...

  4. What Caused the Lead burn-out in Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MICE Note 324 What Caused the Lead burn-out in SpectrometerThe magnet failed because a lead to coil M2 failed before itof the magnet when the lead failure occurred. The lead that

  5. Proton emission imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCiantis, Joseph Loreto

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proton core imaging system has been developed and extensively used for measuring the nuclear burn regions of inertial confinement fusion implosions. These imaging cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility, use ...

  6. Laboratory-Scale Burning and Characterizing of Composite Solid Propellant for Studying Novel Nanoparticle Synthesis Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Tyler Winston

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the effects of nanoparticle, metal-oxide additives on the burning rate of composite solid propellants. Recent advancements in chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for the production of improved solid rocket propellant nano...

  7. General analysis of breed-and-burn reactors and limited-separations fuel cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Robert C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new theoretical framework is introduced, the "neutron excess" concept, which is useful for analyzing breed-and-burn (B&B) reactors and their fuel cycles. Based on this concept, a set of methods has been developed which ...

  8. Damage patterns caused by the burning of liquids on wood surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, David

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the damage caused to timber floors by the burning of liquids is of importance in the investigation of fires where the use of accelerants is suspected. This project has examined the damage caused to a piece of ...

  9. Fuel Burn and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Power/Low Drag Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. This study quantifies ...

  10. Multi-mode radio frequency device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Ronald W. (Morgan Hill, CA); Carrender, Curtis Lee (Morgan Hill, CA); Anderson, Gordon A. (Benton City, WA); Steele, Kerry D. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A transponder device having multiple modes of operation, such as an active mode and a passive mode, wherein the modes of operation are selected in response to the strength of a received radio frequency signal. A communication system is also provided having a transceiver configured to transmit a radio frequency signal and to receive a responsive signal, and a transponder configured to operate in a plurality of modes and to activate modes of operation in response to the radio frequency signal. Ideally, each mode of operation is activated and deactivated independent of the other modes, although two or more modes may be concurrently operational.

  11. The use of reduced-moderation light water reactors for transuranic isotope burning in thorium fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindley, Benjamin A.

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    THE USE OF REDUCED-MODERATION LIGHT WATER REACTORS FOR TRANSURANIC ISOTOPE BURNING IN THORIUM FUEL Benjamin Andrew Lindley St Catharine?s College Department of Engineering University of Cambridge A thesis... of Engineering as stated in the Memorandum to Graduate Students. Benjamin Andrew Lindley The Use of Reduced-moderation Light Water Reactors for Transuranic Isotope Burning in Thorium Fuel B. A. Lindley Light water reactors (LWRs) are the world...

  12. Vegetation response to burning thicketized live oak savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, David Mitchell

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VEGETATION RESPONSE TO BURNING THICKETIZED LIVE OAK SAVANNAH ON THE ARANSAS NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE A Thesi. s by DAVID MITCHELL KELLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 6 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... irma f Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) ( lambe-) (Member) Memos Memoerl '. !ay 98O ABSTRACT Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge (May 1980) David Mitchell Kelley, B. S...

  13. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with Curculio that survived the fire had 20 percent lower germination rates than unburned acorns.

  14. s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Advanced Burning Phases of Massive Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lih-Sin The; Mounib F. El Eid; Bradley S. Meyer

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed study of s-process nucleosynthesis in massive stars of solar-like initial composition and masses 15, 20,25, and 30 Msun. We update our previous results of s-process nucleosynthesis during the core He-burning of these stars and then focus on an analysis of the s-process under the physical conditions encountered during the shell-carbon burning. We show that the recent compilation of the Ne22(alpha,n)Mg25 rate leads to a remarkable reduction of the efficiency of the s-process during core He-burning. In particular, this rate leads to the lowest overproduction factor of Kr80 found to date during core He-burning in massive stars. The s-process yields resulting from shell carbon burning turn out to be very sensitive to the structural evolution of the carbon shell. This structure is influenced by the mass fraction of C12 attained at the end of core helium burning, which in turn is mainly determined by the C12(alpha,gamma)O16 reaction. The still present uncertainty in the rate for this reaction implies that the s-process in massive stars is also subject to this uncertainty. We identify some isotopes like Zn70 and Rb87 as the signatures of the s-process during shell carbon burning in massive stars. In determining the relative contribution of our s-only stellar yields to the solar abundances, we find it is important to take into account the neutron exposure of shell carbon burning. When we analyze our yields with a Salpeter Initial Mass Function, we find that massive stars contribute at least 40% to s-only nuclei with mass A 90, massive stars contribute on average ~7%, except for Gd152, Os187, and Hg198 which are ~14%, \\~13%, and ~11%, respectively.

  15. Evolution of Massive Stars Up to the End of Central Oxygen Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mounib F. El Eid; Bradley S. Meyer; Lih-Sin The

    2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed study of the evolution of massive stars of masses 15, 20, 25 and 30 $\\msun$ assuming solar-like initial chemical composition. The stellar sequences were evolved through the advanced burning phases up to the end of core oxygen burning. We present a careful analysis of the physical characteristics of the stellar models. In particular, we investigate the effect of the still unsettled reaction $^{12}$C($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{16}$O on the advanced evolution by using recent compilations of this rate. We find that this rate has a significant impact on the evolution not only during the core helium burning phase, but also during the late burning phases, especially the shell carbon-burning. We have also considered the effect of different treatment of convective instability based on the Ledoux criterion in regions of varying molecular weight gradient during the hydrogen and helium burning phases. We compare our results with other investigations whenever available. Finally, our present study constitutes the basis of analyzing the nucleosynthesis processes in massive stars. In particular we will present a detail analysis of the {\\it s}-process in a forthcoming paper.

  16. Combustion characteristics in a pre-vaporizing pre-mixing lean combustor for an automotive ceramic gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Yusaku; Oguchi, Makoto

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-vaporizing pre-mixing lean combustor (PPL) was developed for an automotive ceramic gas turbine which had high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. This study has been performed to obtain design data by investigating the basic characteristics of this combustor. Experiments were conducted under a high combustor inlet air temperature of 973K since the combustor inlet air was heated by regenerators to achieve high thermal efficiency. At first, the following measurements were conducted to survey the phenomena in the PPL combustion system; the required distance of vaporizing tube for complete evaporation and uniform mixture formation, and the flow pattern and velocity distribution and flame behaviors in the combustion chamber. Then it has clarified how the emission characteristics were influenced by non-uniformity of the mixture that flew into the combustion chamber. And also the possibility of reducing NOx emission by introducing dilution air into the post flame region has been shown.

  17. DIFFUSIVE NUCLEAR BURNING OF HELIUM ON NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Philip [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.c, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: pla7y@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusive nuclear burning (DNB) of H by an underlying material capable of capturing protons can readily consume H from the surface of neutron stars (NSs) during their early cooling history. In the absence of subsequent accretion, it will be depleted from the photosphere. We now extend DNB to He, motivated by the recent observation by Ho and Heinke of a carbon atmosphere on the NS in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. We calculate the equilibrium structure of He on an underlying {alpha} capturing material, accounting for thermal, mass defect, and Coulomb corrections on the stratification of material with the same zeroth order {mu}{sub e} = A/Z. We show that Coulomb corrections dominate over thermal and mass defect corrections in the highly degenerate part of the envelope. We also show that the bulk of the He sits deep in the envelope rather than near the surface. Thus, even if the photospheric He abundance is low, the total He column could be substantially larger than the photospheric column, which may have implications for rapid surface evolution ({approx}1 yr timescales) of NSs. When nuclear reactions are taken into account, we find that for base temperatures {approx}>1.6 x 10{sup 8} K, He is readily captured onto C. As these high temperatures are present during the early stages of NS evolution, we expect that the primordial He is completely depleted from the NS surface like the case for primordial H. We also find that magnetic fields {approx}<10{sup 12} G do not affect our conclusions. Armed with the results of this work and our prior efforts, we expect that primordial H and He are depleted, and so any observed H or He on the surfaces of these NS must be due to subsequent accretion (with or without spallation). If this subsequent accretion can be prevented, the underlying mid-Z material would be exposed.

  18. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON RED AND BLUE HELIUM BURNING SEQUENCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001-Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z = 0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically, we find (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M{sub V} {approx} -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2) blue HeB stars fainter than M{sub V} {approx} -3 mag are bluer than predicted; (3) the slope of the red HeB sequence is shallower than predicted by a factor of {approx}3; and (4) the models overpredict the ratio of the most luminous blue to red HeB stars corresponding to ages {approx}< 50 Myr. Additionally, we find that for the more metal-rich galaxies in our sample (Z {approx}> 0.5 Z{sub sun}), the red HeB stars overlap with the red giant branch stars in the color-magnitude diagrams, thus reducing their usefulness as indicators of star formation for ages {approx}> 100 Myr.

  19. Advancing the environmental acceptability of open burning/open detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, K.D.; Tope, T.J. [Radian Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturers and users of energetic material (e.g., propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics (PEP)) generate unserviceable, obsolete, off-specification, damaged, and contaminated items that are characterized as reactive wastes by definition, and therefore regulated under RCRA, Subtitle C, as hazardous waste. Energetic wastes, to include waste ordnance and munitions items, have historically been disposed of by open burning/open detonation (OB/OD), particularly by the Department of Defense (DoD). However, increasing regulatory constraints have led to the recent reduction and limited use of OB/OD treatment. DoD maintains that OB/OD is the most viable treatment option for its energetic waste streams, and has spurred research and development activities to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD. DoD has funded extensive testing to identify and quantify contaminant releases from OB/OD of various PEP materials. These data are actively being used in risk assessment studies to evaluate the impact of OB/OD on human health and the environment. Additionally, in an effort to satisfy regulatory concerns, DoD has been forced to reevaluate its current PEP disposal operations as they relate to the environment. As a result, numerous pollution prevention initiatives have been identified and initiated, and life cycle analyses of treatment options have been conducted. Many of the DoD initiatives can be applied to the commercial explosives industry as well. Implementation of proactive and innovative pollution prevention strategies and the application of sound technical data to evaluate risk will serve to advance the environmental acceptability of OB/OD amongst the regulatory community and the public and can result in significant cost savings as well.

  20. TIME-VARYING FLAME IONIZATION SENSING APPLIED TO NATURAL GAS AND PROPANE BLENDS IN A PRESSURIZED LEAN PREMIXED (LPM) COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Straub; B. T. Chorpening; E. D. Huckaby; J. D. Thornton; W. L. Fincham

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ monitoring of combustion phenomena is a critical need for optimal operation and control of advanced gas turbine combustion systems. The concept described in this paper is based on naturally occurring flame ionization processes that accompany the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Previous work has shown that flame ionization techniques may be applied to detect flashback, lean blowout, and some aspects of thermo-acoustic combustion instabilities. Previous work has focused on application of DC electric fields. By application of time-varying electric fields, significant improvements to sensor capabilities have been observed. These data have been collected in a lean premixed combustion test rig operating at 0.51-0.76 MPa (5-7.5 atm) with air preheated to 588 K (600F). Five percent of the total fuel flow is injected through the centerbody tip as a diffusion pilot. The fuel composition is varied independently by blending approximately 5% (volume) propane with the pipeline natural gas. The reference velocity through the premixing annulus is kept constant for all conditions at a nominal value of 70 m/s. The fuel-air equivalence ratio is varied independently from 0.46 0.58. Relative to the DC field version, the time-varying combustion control and diagnostic sensor (TV-CCADS) shows a significant improvement in the correlation between the measured flame ionization current and local fuel-air equivalence ratio. In testing with different fuel compositions, the triangle wave data show the most distinct change in flame ionization current in response to an increase in propane content. Continued development of this sensor technology will improve the capability to control advanced gas turbine combustion systems, and help address issues associated with variations in fuel supplies.

  1. Vibrational Modes of Adsorbed Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LAWRENCE, WR; Allen, Roland E.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of adsorbed atoms. vi rational modes *Present address: S h University of H c ool of Scienc City, Tex. ouston at Clear La ', r e e and Technology Lake City, Clea Lak %. R. wrence and R. E. Allen published). Allen, Phys. Rev. B (to be 2G. P... are about t r Ne on Kr. The d ou he same as fo mode labeled 2V a as large in the f' t X is almost erst (adsorbate) la e od( b t t)l pure surface mod e ayer. The 1H mode at X is a 4, this mode bec m e. Just to the r'right of X in Fig. e ecomes a...

  2. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn in ICF Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of ICF targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to treat fusion products (suprathermal -particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield. I. MOTIVATION AND CONTEXT

  3. Burn Scar Mapping in Attica, Greece using the dNBR (differenced Normalised Burn Ratio) Index on Landsat TM/ETM+ Satellite Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratoulias, Dimitris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an attempt to map burn scars from 1984 to present around the city of Athens, Greece from a remote sensing perspective. Fine spatial resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery was used favoured by an extensive available archive. The input...

  4. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  5. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 15 Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building RetrofitsEngineers. 2000. Mixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE ApplicationsMichael. 2000. Hybrid Ventilation Systems: An Arup Approach

  6. Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.Department of Environmental Building Research Establishment

  7. Occupant satisfaction in mixed-mode buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Baker, Lindsay

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Quality in Green Buildings. Indoor Air; 14 (Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings, Summary Report, CenterCBE). 2006. Website: Mixed-Mode Building Case Studies.

  8. Scissors modes: The first overtone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatada, Keisuke [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, c.p. 13, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Hayakawa, Kuniko [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, c.p. 13, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Centro Fermi, Compendio Viminale, Roma I-00184 (Italy); Palumbo, Fabrizio [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, c.p. 13, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scissors modes were predicted in the framework of the two-rotor model. This model has an intrinsic harmonic spectrum, so that the level above the scissors mode, the first overtone, has excitation energy twice that of the scissors mode. Because the latter is of the order of 3 MeV in the rare-earth region, the energy of the overtone is below threshold for nucleon emission, and its width should remain small enough for the overtone to be observable. We find that B(E2){up_arrow}{sub overtone}=(1/64 {theta}{sub 0}{sup 2})B(E2){up_arrow}{sub scissors}, where {theta}{sub 0} is the zero-point oscillation amplitude, which in the rare-earth region is of order 10{sup -1}.

  9. Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor Fuel Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEachern, D

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the workscope, schedule and cost for the technology development tasks needed to satisfy the fuel and fission product transport Design Data Needs (DDNs) for the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR), operating in its role of transmuting transuranic (TRU) nuclides in spent fuel discharged from commercial light-water reactors (LWRs). In its application for transmutation, the GT-MHR is referred to as the Deep-Burn MHR (DB-MHR). This Fuel Development Plan (FDP) describes part of the overall program being undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), utilities, and industry to evaluate the use of the GT-MHR to transmute transuranic nuclides from spent nuclear fuel. The Fuel Development Plan (FDP) includes the work on fuel necessary to support the design and licensing of the DB-MHR. The FDP is organized into ten sections. Section 1 provides a summary of the most important features of the plan, including cost and schedule information. Section 2 describes the DB-MHR concept, the features of its fuel and the plan to develop coated particle fuel for transmutation. Section 3 describes the knowledge base for fabrication of coated particles, the experience with irradiation performance of coated particle fuels, the database for fission product transport in HTGR cores, and describes test data and calculations for the performance of coated particle fuel while in a repository. Section 4 presents the fuel performance requirements in terms of as-manufactured quality and performance of the fuel coatings under irradiation and accident conditions. These requirements are provisional because the design of the DB-MHR is in an early stage. However, the requirements are presented in this preliminary form to guide the initial work on the fuel development. Section 4 also presents limits on the irradiation conditions to which the coated particle fuel can be subjected for the core design. These limits are based on past irradiation experience. Section 5 describes the Design Data Needs to: (1) fabricate the coated particle fuel, (2) predict its performance in the reactor core, (3) predict the radionuclide release rates from the reactor core, and (4) predict the performance of spent fuel in a geological repository. The heart of this fuel development plan is Section 6, which describes the development activities proposed to satisfy the DDNs presented in Section 5. The development scope is divided into Fuel Process Development, Fuel Materials Development, Fission Product Transport, and Spent Fuel Disposal. Section 7 describes the facilities to be used. Generally, this program will utilize existing facilities. While some facilities will need to be modified, there is no requirement for major new facilities. Section 8 states the Quality Assurance requirements that will be applied to the development activities. Section 9 presents detailed costs organized by WBS and spread over time. Section 10 presents a list of the types of deliverables that will be prepared in each of the WBS elements. Four Appendices contain supplementary information on: (a) design data needs, (b) the interface with the separations plant, (c) the detailed development schedule, and (d) the detailed cost estimate.

  10. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ahmed, Iqbal, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Nadeem, Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ali, Shahid, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  11. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  12. The influence of prescribed burning on small mammal populations of the Texas Gulf Coastal Prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Wennona Ann

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -existant in the wip ter and increased to its highest point, 2e8 percentp -'n spring. After spring, forb cover declined to 1. 6 per- cent; of the relative otal cover in summer and continued to de& ine to 1. 3 percent in the fall, , I':~1. 1 19'+4 ~B~ ~, The two... College Chairman of Advisory Committees Dr. Brian W. Cain Experimental burning for brush control was conducted on a 2, 025 ha area of the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Aransas County, Texas. Three burns of approximately equal size were conducted...

  13. Atmospheric-dispersion index for prescribed burning. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavdas, L.G.

    1986-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical index that estimates the atmosphere's capacity to disperse smoke from prescribed burning is described. The physical assumptions and mathematical development of the index are described in detail. The index is expressed as a positive integer in such a way that doubling the index implies a doubling of the estimated atmospheric capacity. The dispersion index is conceptually similar to ventilation factor but is better able to describe diurnal changes within the lower atmosphere. The index provides a guide to the effect of prescribed burning activity on atmospheric smoke concentration during a portion of a day.

  14. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegg, D.A.; Radke, L.F.; Hobbs, P.V.; Brock, C.A.; Riggan, P.J.

    1987-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NO/sub X/, SO/sub 2/, and particulate NO/sub 3//sup -/ than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the high emissions are due to the revolatilization of previoulsy deposited pollutants. Implications for pollutant source inventories and the nuclear winter hypothesis are briefly discussed.

  15. Conversion from interchange-type modes to tearing modes: an explanation of tokamak anomalous transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Atsushi

    Conversion from interchange-type modes to tearing modes: an explanation of tokamak anomalous of non-classical tearing mode exists in tokamaks: viz., current interchange tearing modes (CITMs). CITMs type (e.g., interchange/ballooning modes, drift waves, etc.) due to resistivity gradient in tokamaks

  16. A Lean Methane Prelixed Laminar Flame Doped witg Components of Diesel Fuel. Part I: n)Butylbenzene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pousse, Emir; Fournet, Ren; Battin-Leclerc, Frdrique; 10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.09.012

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the chemistry involved during the combustion of components of diesel fuel, the structure of a laminar lean premixed methane flame doped with n-butylbenzene has been investigated. The inlet gases contained 7.1% (molar) of methane, 36.8% of oxygen and 0.96% of n-butylbenzene corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 0.74 and a ratio C10H14 / CH4 of 13.5%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as diluent, with a gas velocity at the burner of 49.2 cm/s at 333 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C0-C2 combustion products, but also 16 C3-C5 hydrocarbons, 7 C1-C3 oxygenated compounds, as well as 20 aromatic products, namely benzene, toluene, phenylacetylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, allylbenzene, propylbenzene, cumene, methylstyrenes, butenylbenzenes, indene, indane, naphthalene, phenol, benzaldehyde, anisole, benzylalcohol, benzofuran, and isomers of C10H10 (1-methylindene, dihydronaphtalene, butadienylbenzene). A new mechanism for the...

  17. Workshop (W60) on "Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation" 4-5 July 2005, University Campus, Tarragona, Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Workshop will concentrate on burning plasma research in the areas of Plasma Transport and Confinement, MHD plasma research; · identify the need for further research; and · propose a road map for burning plasma research. Venue, Dates and Accommodation The Workshop will take place in University Campus, Tarragona

  18. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  19. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhardt, T.E.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on firefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds relative to workplace standards are discussed.

  20. Short-Term Effects of Experimental Burning and Thinning on Soil Respiration in an Old-Growth,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Malcolm

    sustainability and CO2 sequestration, we evaluated the effects of burning and thin- ning treatments on soil application of these forest management practices. Soil respiration, including autotrophic and hetero- trophic and Schlesinger 1992), forest management activities, such as burning and thinning, can also change soil environ

  1. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    . Starting now, multiply solar power by 20 by 2054. Replace 700 gigawatts of coal-fired power plants by wind. Starting now, double existing nuclear power. Replace 1400 gigawatts of coal-burning power plants with gas-burning plants. #12;Double the average efficiency of all coal-fired power plants. Make all cars worldwide twice

  2. L. John Perkins LLNL 5/8/01 Ignition/Burn is a Done Deal Or is It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burn control systems Control rods Shutdown control (killer pellets...) Scram rods Neutron wall loading. "Exploring Possible High Fusion Power Regimes with the IFS-PPPL Model", UFA Worshop on Burning Plasma critical mass 1942 Fermi (US) CP-1 zero power pile critical in Chicago 1943 Fermi/Compton/DuPont (US) X-10

  3. The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from camelina and tallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from the biofuels due to its higher aromatic content. " Droplet burning rates of camelina and tallow HRJ fuel Available online 1 March 2013 Keywords: Alternative jet fuel Hydroprocessed biofuel Spherically symmetric

  4. Progress Report for Proposal entitled " The Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols: Investigations during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress Report for Proposal entitled " The Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols irradiances (DSWI) at the surface and the atmospheric heating/cooling rate profiles. For example, the DSWI the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring

  5. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by light fuel oil. The annual light oil consumption is approx. 50 tons and the maximum heat demand capacity and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier oil fuelling) and 26NOVA (with the capacity 700 kW with light oil fuelling). The boilers are fuelled

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 72, 025806 (2005) Nuclear fusion in dense matter: Reaction rate and carbon August 2005) In this paper we analyze the nuclear fusion rates among equal nuclei for all five different nuclear burning regimes in dense matter (two thermonuclear regimes, two pycnonuclear ones

  7. CO2 transport over complex terrain Jielun Sun a,*, Sean P. Burns a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    CO2 transport over complex terrain Jielun Sun a,*, Sean P. Burns a , Anthony C. Delany a , Steven P; accepted 15 February 2007 Abstract CO2 transport processes relevant for estimating net ecosystem exchange investigated during a pilot experiment. We found that cold, moist, and CO2- rich air was transported downslope

  8. Impact of Trash Burning on Air Quality in Mexico City C. Wiedinmyer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    . Air pollution causes serious health effects for Mexico City inhabitants.5 According to ref 6 Mexico Observations,7 ) provided detailed chemical characterization of the pollution and sources in Mexico CityImpact of Trash Burning on Air Quality in Mexico City A. Hodzic, C. Wiedinmyer, D. Salcedo,, and J

  9. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

  10. An Interactive Simulation Framework for Burning Objects Zeki Melek John Keyser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    simulator injects fuel into the fluid simulation. We also present a simple yet effective method for modeling is simulated as a single moving fluid. Solid objects inside the simulation domain can catch fire and start burning. Heat information is transferred from the fluid simulator to a solid simulator, while the solid

  11. Proton core imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proton core imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion implosions J. L. De; published online 7 April 2006 A proton emission imaging system has been developed and used extensively the penetrating 14.7 MeV protons produced from D 3 He fusion reactions to produce emission images of the nuclear

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN BURNED AREAS Paul M. Santi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTIVENESS OF DEBRIS FLOW MITIGATION METHODS IN BURNED AREAS Paul M. Santi1 , Victor G. deWolfe2 generate debris flows and floods in response to relatively small rainstorms, is common in the Western United States. To reduce the likelihood and magnitude of these debris flows, hillslopes and channels

  13. Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert spring ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    Remote sensing approaches for reconstructing fire perimeters and burn severity mosaics in desert wildfires in these often remote areas has been inconsistent and proxy records are often not available. Remote sensing methods have been used in other environments to gain information about fires that have

  14. Tailoring the plateau burning rates of composite propellants by the use of nanoscale additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Matthew Aaron

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount...

  15. TAILORING THE PLATEAU BURNING RATES OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS BY THE USE OF NANOSCALE ADDITIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Matthew

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount...

  16. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world Rosemarie Yevich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41% and 51% of the biofuel use.9Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small, but non-negligible when

  17. An assessment of biofuel use and burning of agricultural waste in the developing world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    in Asia, and 21% and 13% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Agricultural waste supplies about 33% of total biofuel use, providing 39%, 29%, and 13% of biofuel use in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, and 41 and industry. The emission of 0.9 Pg C (as CO2) from burning of biofuels and field residues together is small

  18. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  19. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

  20. Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    Burning Velocities in Catalytically Assisted Self-Propagating High-Temperature Combustion Synthesis of catalytically assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of the tantalum/carbon material system. © 2001 by The Combustion Institute INTRODUCTION Self-propagating high-temperature combustion synthesis

  1. Reaction Rate and Composition Dependence of the Stability of Thermonuclear Burning on Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keek, L; Heger, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of thermonuclear burning of hydrogen and helium accreted onto neutron stars is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate. The burning behavior is observed to change from Type I X-ray bursts to stable burning, with oscillatory burning occurring at the transition. Simulations predict the transition at a ten times higher mass accretion rate than observed. Using numerical models we investigate how the transition depends on the hydrogen, helium, and CNO mass fractions of the accreted material, as well as on the nuclear reaction rates of triple alpha and the hot-CNO breakout reactions 15O(a,g)19Ne and 18Ne(a,p)21Na. For a lower hydrogen content the transition is at higher accretion rates. Furthermore, most experimentally allowed reaction rate variations change the transition accretion rate by at most 10%. A factor ten decrease of the 15O(a,g)19Ne rate, however, produces an increase of the transition accretion rate of 35%. None of our models reproduce the transition at the observed rate, and depend...

  2. Burning Forest Residues231 Corstorphine Road www.forestry.gov.uk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    control. The others are: Planning controlled burning operations in forestry and Forest and moorland fire to use, planning and techniques to ensure good management. The necessary legislation is specified. Allow cut material to dry to reduce smoke production. Ensure material is heaped and surrounded

  3. TAILORING THE PLATEAU BURNING RATES OF COMPOSITE PROPELLANTS BY THE USE OF NANOSCALE ADDITIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Matthew

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount...

  4. Tailoring the plateau burning rates of composite propellants by the use of nanoscale additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Matthew Aaron

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    tailoring additive may be due to differences in how the additive was produced. Doping the TiO2 with small amounts of metallic elements (Al, Fe, or Gd) showed additional effects on the burning rate that depend on the doping material and the amount...

  5. Burn cavity growth during the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.

    1981-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed history is given of the growth of the burn cavity during the first month of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment near Gillette, Wyoming, in 1979. The changing shape of the cavity with time is inferred from data from three types of instruments installed throughout the experimental zone: (1) thermocouples at various levels in a number of holes, to map temperatures; (2) extensometers at various levels in other holes, to detect motions of the overburden material; and (3) high-frequency electromagnetic (HFEM) scans made between various pairs of holes, to detect cavities and zones of burning coal. Additional data on the final shape of the underground cavity are derived from the results of a core drilling program carried out from the surface after the burn had ended. This study of cavity growth history has contributed significantly to our understanding of how the in situ coal gasification process operates in sites like Hoe Creek. The diagnostic system provided invaluable information on cavity growth and on the interaction between the two coal seams. Some new problems with injection well survival and slag production in oxygen-steam burns were brought out, and the importance of understanding and controlling heat loss mechanisms was amply demonstrated. Although no one system of underground diagnostics can give all of the information needed to fully describe the in situ process, a combination of several diagnostic systems can be used to deduce a self-consistent description.

  6. Burn cavity growth during the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground-coal-gasification experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.

    1981-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed history is given of the growth of the burn cavity during the first month of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment near Gillette, Wyoming, in 1979. The changing shape of the cavity with time is inferred from data from three types of instruments installed throughout the experimental zone: (1) thermocouples at various levels in a number of holes, to map temperatures; (2) extensometers at various levels in other holes, to detect motions of the overburden material; and (3) high-frequency electromagnetic scans made between various pairs of holes, to detect cavities and zones of burning coal. Additional data on the final shape of the underground cavity is derived from the results of a core drilling program carried out from the surface after the burn had ended. This study of cavity growth history has contributed significantly to our understanding of how the in-situ coal gasification process operates in sites like Hoe Creek. The diagnostic system provided invaluable information on cavity growth and on the interaction between the two coal seams. Some new problems with injection well survival and slag production in oxygen-steam burns were brought out, and the importance of understanding and controlling heat loss mechanisms was amply demonstrated. Although no one system of underground diagnostics can give all of the information needed to fully describe the in-situ process, a combination of several diagnostic systems can be used to deduce a self-consistent description.

  7. Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    at tissue temperature (kPa) mQ Metabolic rate of tissue (W/m3 ) R Ideal gas constant (J/molK) Re Reynolds1 Theoretical evaluation on burn injury of human respiratory tract due to inhalation of hot gas to predict the thermal impact of inhaled hot air during the early stage of fires. Influences of individual

  8. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive allsky direct 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers

  9. Quantum simulation of Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode in cavity QED lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujit Sarkar

    2014-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum simulation aims to simulate a quantum system using a controble laboratory system that underline the same mathematical model. Cavity QED lattice system is that prescribe system to simulate the relativistic quantum effect. We quantum simulate the Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode and a crossover between them in cavity QED lattice. We also present the different analytical relations between the field operators for different mode excitations.

  10. Continuous scanning mode for ptychography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Harder, Ross J.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline how ptychographic imaging can be performed without the need for discrete scan positions. Through an idealized experiment, we demonstrate how a discrete-position scan regime can be replaced with a continuously scanned one with suitable modification of the reconstruction scheme based on coherent modes. The impact of this is that acquisition times can be reduced, significantly aiding ptychographic imaging with x rays, electrons, or visible light.

  11. Transition between Two Oscillation Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Lopez-Ruiz; Yves Pomeau

    2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the symmetric coupling of two self-oscillators is presented. The nonlinearities cause the system to vibrate in two modes of different symmetries. The transition between these two regimes of oscillation can occur by two different scenarios. This might model the release of vortices behind circular cylinders with a possible transition from a symmetric to an antisymmetric Benard-von Karman vortex street.

  12. Revisiting impacts of nuclear burning for reviving weak shocks in neutrino-driven supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Nishimura, Nobuya [Astrophysics Group, iEPSAM, Keele University, Keele, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit potential impacts of nuclear burning on the onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D, respectively) models with or without a 13 isotope ? network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for 4 progenitor models; 3 for 15.0 M {sub ?} stars and 1 for an 11.2 M {sub ?} star. We find that the energy supply due to the nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion, especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models are energized by nuclear energy deposition when the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer and/or later as it touches the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the diagnostic energy of the explosion increases up to a few times 10{sup 50} erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. We point out that these features are most remarkable for the Limongi-Chieffi progenitor in both 1D and 2D because the progenitor model possesses a massive oxygen layer, with an inner-edge radius that is smallest among the employed progenitors, which means that the shock can touch the rich fuel on a shorter timescale after bounce. The energy difference is generally smaller (?0.1-0.2 10{sup 51} erg) in 2D than in 1D (at most ?0.6 10{sup 51} erg). This is because neutrino-driven convection and the shock instability in 2D models enhance the neutrino heating efficiency, which makes the contribution of nuclear burning relatively smaller compared to 1D models. Considering uncertainties in progenitor models, our results indicate that nuclear burning should remain one of the important ingredients to foster the onset of neutrino-driven explosions.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  14. Application of spectral hole burning to the study of in vitro cellular systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milanovich, Nebojsa

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1 of this thesis describes the various stages of tumor development and a multitude of diagnostic techniques used to detect cancer. Chapter 2 gives an overview of the aspects of hole burning spectroscopy important for its application to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 3 gives general descriptions of cellular organelles, structures, and physical properties that can serve as possible markers for the differentiation of normal and cancerous cells. Also described in Chapter 3 are the principles of cryobiology important for low temperature spectroscopy of cells, characterization of MCF-10F (normal) and MCF-7 (cancer) cells lines which will serve as model systems, and cellular characteristics of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (APT), which was used as the test probe. Chapters 4 and 5 are previously published papers by the author pertaining to the results obtained from the application of hole burning to the study of cellular systems. Chapter 4 presents the first results obtained by spectral hole burning of cellular systems and Chapter 5 gives results for the differentiation of MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells stained with APT by an external applied electric (Stark) field. A general conclusion is presented in Chapter 6. Appendices A and B provide additional characterization of the cell/probe model systems. Appendix A describes the uptake and subcellular distribution of APT in MCF-10F and MCF-7 cells and Appendix B compares the hole burning characteristics of APT in cells when the cells are in suspension and when they are examined while adhering to a glass coverslip. Appendix C presents preliminary results for a novel probe molecule, referred to as a molecular thumbtack, designed by the authors for use in future hole burning applications to cellular systems.

  15. Optical waveguides having flattened high order modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Messerly, Michael Joseph; Beach, Raymond John; Heebner, John Edward; Dawson, Jay Walter; Pax, Paul Henry

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A deterministic methodology is provided for designing optical fibers that support field-flattened, ring-like higher order modes. The effective and group indices of its modes can be tuned by adjusting the widths of the guide's field-flattened layers or the average index of certain groups of layers. The approach outlined here provides a path to designing fibers that simultaneously have large mode areas and large separations between the propagation constants of its modes.

  16. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high enough temperatures to initiate a propagating reaction in the waste. However, system failure that coincides in a waste layer with high organic content and low moisture may initiate an exothermic reaction in the waste. Consequently, a conservative approach based on the current state of the knowledge resulted in limiting the drilling process to a subset of the flammable-gas tanks. Accidents from the chemical reactions and criticality category are shown to result in acceptable risk. A number of accidents are shown to potentially result in containment (tank liner) breach below the waste level. Mitigative features are provided for these accidents. Gas-release events without burn also are analyzed, and radiological and toxicological consequences are shown to be within risk guidelines. Finally, the consequences of potential spills are shown to be within the risk guidelines.

  17. Broadband frequency mode entanglement in waveguided PDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Eckstein; Christine Silberhorn

    2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of beatings of the coincidence event rate in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) between signal and idler photons from a parametric downconversion (PDC) process inside a multi-mode KTP waveguide. As explanation we introduce bi-photonic states entangled in their broadband frequency modes generated by waveguide mode triples and propose a suitable entanglement detection scheme.

  18. Hydrodynamic Lyapunov Modes in Translation Invariant Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov Modes in Translation Invariant Systems Jean­Pierre Eckmann and Omri Gat De modes in the slowly growing part of the Lyapunov spectrum, which are analogous to the hydrodynamic modes)]. The hydrodynamic Lyapunov vectors loose the typical random structure and exhibit instead the structure of weakly

  19. Hydrodynamic Lyapunov Modes in Translation Invariant Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov Modes in Translation Invariant Systems JeanPierre Eckmann and Omri Gat De modes in the slowly growing part of the Lyapunov spectrum, which are analogous to the hydrodynamic modes)]. The hydrodynamic Lyapunov vectors loose the typical random structure and exhibit instead the structure of weakly

  20. The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution of carbonaceous aerosols in mainland Southeast Asia: A review and synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Tao

    1 The relationships between biomass burning, land-cover/use change, and the distribution. 793, The Ohio State University March 3, 2007 Biomass burning is a major source of black carbon directly and indirectly. Uncertainty regarding the contribution of biomass burning to the concentration

  1. Batch-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehenkel, Louis

    Batch-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN-mode vs Online-mode Supervised Learning Motivations for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN Models for Artificial Neural Networks Linear ANN Models Single neuron models Single layer models Nonlinear ANN Models

  2. Excitation of Kaluza-Klein gravitational mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunihito Uzawa; Yoshiyuki Morisawa; Shinji Mukohyama

    2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate excitation of Kaluza-Klein modes due to the parametric resonance caused by oscillation of radius of compactification. We consider a gravitational perturbation around a D-dimensional spacetime, which we compactify on a (D-4)-sphere to obtain a 4-dimensional theory. The perturbation includes the so-called Kaluza-Klein modes, which are massive in 4-dimension, as well as zero modes, which is massless in 4-dimension. These modes appear as scalar, vector and second-rank symmetric tensor fields in the 4-dimensional theory. Since Kaluza-Klein modes are troublesome in cosmology, quanta of these Kaluza-Klein modes should not be excited abundantly. However, if radius of compactification oscillates, then masses of Kaluza-Klein modes also oscillate and, thus, parametric resonance of Kaluza-Klein modes may occur to excite their quanta. In this paper we consider part of Kaluza-Klein modes which correspond to massive scalar fields in 4-dimension and investigate whether quanta of these modes are excited or not in the so called narrow resonance regime of the parametric resonance. We conclude that at least in the narrow resonance regime quanta of these modes are not excited so catastrophically.

  3. Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomber, Brenda Jean

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    URAN1IUM MINERALIZATION ALONG A FAULT PLANE IN TERTIARY SEDIMENTARY ROCKS IN THE MCLEAN 5 MINE, LIVE OAK COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by BRENDA JEAN BOMBER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committee Member Memb r H o De artment December 1980 ABSTRACT Uranium Mineralization along a Fault Plane in Tertiary Sedimentary Rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak County, Texas. (December 1980) Brenda Jean...

  4. Evidence for R-Mode Oscillations in Super-Kamiokande Solar Neutrino Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Sturrock

    2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    There has for some time been evidence of variability in radiochemical solar neutrino measurements, but this evidence has seemed suspect since the cerenkov experiments have not shown similar evidence of variability. The present re-analysis of Super-Kamiokande data shows strong evidence of r-mode oscillations. The frequencies of these oscillations correspond to a region with a sidereal rotation rate of 13.97 year-1, not far from the value 13.88 year-1 found some time ago in Homestake data, or 13.87 year-1 found recently in GALLEX data. These estimates are incompatible with the rotation rate in the convection zone, but fully compatible with current estimates of the rotation rate in the radiative zone, including the solar core. These results are suggestive of variability originating in the core from fluctuating and asymmetric nuclear burning.

  5. A multi-mode combustion diagram for spark assisted compression ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoie, George A.; Martz, J.; Wooldridge, M.; Assanis, D. [University of Michigan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential utility of spark discharges to assist low temperature, compression ignited engines has resulted in a number of experimental studies. These show mixed results; sometimes spark is effective at controlling heat release timing, sometimes it only stabilizes combustion, and sometimes it has no effect at all. In order to help understand the spark assisted process we propose a multi-mode combustion diagram to delineate the regimes of spark ignition, flame propagation, compression ignition, knocking combustion and spark-assisted combustion, in terms of unburned and burned gas temperatures near top dead center. An analysis of existing experimental data suggests that the effectiveness of spark assist is best at higher and middle loads and decreases as load is reduced. (author)

  6. Influence of gas compression on flame acceleration in the early stage of burning in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valiev, Damir; Kuznetsov, Mikhail; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Law, Chung K; Bychkov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of finger flame acceleration at the early stage of burning in tubes has been observed experimentally by Clanet and Searby [Combust. Flame 105: 225 (1996)] for slow propane-air flames, and elucidated analytically and computationally by Bychkov et al. [Combust. Flame 150: 263 (2007)] in the limit of an incompressible flow. We analytically, experimentally and computationally study herein the finger flame acceleration for fast burning flames, when the gas compressibility assumes an important role. Specifically, we have developed a theory through small Mach number expansion up to the first-order terms, demonstrating that gas compression reduces the acceleration rate and thereby moderates the finger flame acceleration noticeably. We have also conducted experiments for hydrogen-oxygen mixtures with considerable initial values of the Mach number, showing finger flame acceleration with the acceleration rate much smaller than those obtained previously for hydrocarbon flames. Furthermore, we have performed...

  7. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

  8. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  9. Evaluation and Parameter Analysis of Burn up Calculations for the Assessment of Radioactive Waste - 13187

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Ivan; Aksyutina, Yuliya; Tietze-Jaensch, Holger [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [Product Quality Control Office for Radioactive Waste (PKS) at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Research, IEK-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Burn up calculations facilitate a determination of the composition and nuclear inventory of spent nuclear fuel, if operational history is known. In case this information is not available, the total nuclear inventory can be determined by means of destructive or, even on industrial scale, nondestructive measurement methods. For non-destructive measurements however only a few easy-to-measure, so-called key nuclides, are determined due to their characteristic gamma lines or neutron emission. From these measured activities the fuel burn up and cooling time are derived to facilitate the numerical inventory determination of spent fuel elements. Most regulatory bodies require an independent assessment of nuclear waste properties and their documentation. Prominent part of this assessment is a consistency check of inventory declaration. The waste packages often contain wastes from different types of spent fuels of different history and information about the secondary reactor parameters may not be available. In this case the so-called characteristic fuel burn up and cooling time are determined. These values are obtained from a correlations involving key-nuclides with a certain bandwidth, thus with upper and lower limits. The bandwidth is strongly dependent on secondary reactor parameter such as initial enrichment, temperature and density of the fuel and moderator, hence the reactor type, fuel element geometry and plant operation history. The purpose of our investigation is to look into the scaling and correlation limitations, to define and verify the range of validity and to scrutinize the dependencies and propagation of uncertainties that affect the waste inventory declarations and their independent verification. This is accomplished by numerical assessment and simulation of waste production using well accepted codes SCALE 6.0 and 6.1 to simulate the cooling time and burn up of a spent fuel element. The simulations are benchmarked against spent fuel from the real reactor Obrigheim in Germany for which sufficiently precise experimental reference data are available. (authors)

  10. Conceptual development of a continuous burning system for oil spill remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataramaiah, Ramesh H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the combustion process mainly attributed to the field of fire safety and thermodynamics. However, the process concept of combustion of oil on water has been changing and a more acceptable theory is Equilibriuin Flash Vaporization (EFV). The analysis of EFV...CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS BURNING SYSTEM FOR OIL SPILL REMEDIATION A Thesis RAMESH H. VENKATARAMAIAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  11. Smoke emissions from prescribed burning of southern California Chaparral. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, C.C.; Conard, S.G.; Regelbrugge, J.C.; Teesdale, D.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a comprehensive study characterizing the smoke emissions from small scale prescribed burns in southern California chaparral. In situ measurements of smoke emissions were made from 12 fires. Three replicate tests were performed in each of four distinct fuel and treatment types. Emission factors for each treatment are presented and also are combined with data from previous tests for general application to fires in standing chaparral.

  12. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit Keynote Presentation (Ursula Burns, Xerox Corporation)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Burns, Ursula (Xerox Corporation, Chairman and CEO)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Ursula Burns, Chairman and CEO of the Xerox Corporation, gave the second keynote address of the third day's sessions on February 29.

  13. ADVANCED BURNING STAGES AND FATE OF 8-10 M{sub Sun} STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S.; Hirschi, R. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard Jones Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Nomoto, K. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Fischer, T.; Martinez-Pinedo, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Timmes, F. X. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, University of Arizona, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Herwig, F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paxton, B. [KITP and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Toki, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Lam, Y. H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertolli, M. G., E-mail: s.w.jones@keele.ac.uk [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stellar mass range 8 {approx}< M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 12 corresponds to the most massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and the most numerous massive stars. It is host to a variety of supernova (SN) progenitors and is therefore very important for galactic chemical evolution and stellar population studies. In this paper, we study the transition from super-AGB (SAGB) star to massive star and find that a propagating neon-oxygen-burning shell is common to both the most massive electron capture supernova (EC-SN) progenitors and the lowest mass iron-core-collapse supernova (FeCCSN) progenitors. Of the models that ignite neon-burning off-center, the 9.5 M{sub Sun} star would evolve to an FeCCSN after the neon-burning shell propagates to the center, as in previous studies. The neon-burning shell in the 8.8 M{sub Sun} model, however, fails to reach the center as the URCA process and an extended (0.6 M{sub Sun }) region of low Y{sub e} (0.48) in the outer part of the core begin to dominate the late evolution; the model evolves to an EC-SN. This is the first study to follow the most massive EC-SN progenitors to collapse, representing an evolutionary path to EC-SN in addition to that from SAGB stars undergoing thermal pulses (TPs). We also present models of an 8.75 M{sub Sun} SAGB star through its entire TP phase until electron captures on {sup 20}Ne begin at its center and of a 12 M{sub Sun} star up to the iron core collapse. We discuss key uncertainties and how the different pathways to collapse affect the pre-SN structure. Finally, we compare our results to the observed neutron star mass distribution.

  14. Smokes from the burning of aviation fuel and their self-lofting by solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.; Lyons, J.H.; Hobbs, P.V. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission factors and optical properties of smokes produced by the burning of aviation fuel were determined from airborne measurements. These rather large fires (30 m in diameter and containing as much as 4.5 {times} 10{sup 4} liters of fuel) produced dark columns of smoke. On several occasions the smoke was observed to continue to rise slowly after its initial stabilization at a temperature inversion. This rise was evidently due to the absorption of solar radiation by the smoke.

  15. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  16. Can the third dredge-up extinguish hot-bottom burning in massive AGB stars?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paola Marigo

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Marigo (2002) has highlighted the crucial importance of molecular opacities in modelling the evolution of AGB stars at varying surface C/O ratio. In particular, it has been shown the large inadequacy of solar-scaled opacities when applied to models of carbon stars, and hence the need for correctly coupling the molecular opacities to the current surface chemical composition of AGB stars. The aim of the present follow-up study is to investigate the effects of variable molecular opacities on the evolutionary properties of luminous AGB stars with massive envelopes, i.e. with initial masses from ~3.5 Msun up to 5-8 Msun, which are predicted to experience both the third dredge-up and hot-bottom burning. It is found that if the dredge-up of carbon is efficient enough to lead to an early transition from C/O1, then hot-bottom burning may be weakened, extinguished, or even prevented. The physical conditions for this occurrence are analysed and a few theoretical and observational implications are discussed. Importantly, it is found that the inclusion of variable molecular opacities could significantly change the current predictions for the chemical yields contributed by intermediate-mass AGB stars, with M~3.5 - 4.0 Msun that make as much as ~ 30-50 % of all stars expected to undergo hot-bottom burning.

  17. The rp Process Ashes from Stable Nuclear Burning on an Accreting Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrik Schatz; Lars Bildsten; Andrew Cumming; Michael Wiescher

    1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the nucleosynthesis during stable nuclear burning on an accreting neutron star. This is appropriate for weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting at near-Eddington rates in low mass X-ray binaries, and for most accreting X-ray pulsars. We show that the nuclear burning proceeds via the rapid proton capture process (rp process), and makes nuclei far beyond the iron group. The final mixture of nuclei consists of elements with a range of masses between approximately A=60 and A=100. The average nuclear mass of the ashes is set by the extent of helium burning via (alpha,p) reactions, and depends on the local accretion rate. Our results imply that the crust of these accreting neutron stars is made from a complex mixture of heavy nuclei, with important implications for its thermal, electrical and structural properties. A crustal lattice as impure as our results suggest will have a conductivity set mostly by impurity scattering, allowing more rapid Ohmic diffusion of magnetic fields than previously estimated.

  18. Studies on Plutonium Burning in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Monju

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehmann, Udo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Center (Japan); Kinjo, Hidehito [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Center (Japan); Kageyama, Takeshi [Nuclear Energy System, Inc. (Japan)

    2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies have been performed on plutonium burning in the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The main aims of these studies were to illustrate the plutonium-burning capabilities of fast reactors and to investigate the consequences of the related core design measures on the main core characteristics of Monju. Burner cores with diluting pins, with diluting subassemblies (also called diluents), and with an internal slice of inert material have been investigated; these require an increased average plutonium enrichment and thus offer an enhanced plutonium-burning rate. On the other hand, the consequences of the elimination of the radial and/or axial blanket have been investigated.Among the burner concepts, the B{sub 4}C containing diluents have been found to be preferable because they cause the smallest maximum linear rating increase and offer the largest flexibility to adapt their reactivity via a modification of the B{sub 4}C content. They also do not require a new fuel subassembly concept.For the case of the blanket elimination, the replacement of the blankets by steel reflectors has been found to be the best solution. The main consequence of the elimination of both blankets is the increase of the maximum linear rating by up to 11%. Whether this increase may lead to problems will depend on the actual linear power level of the core.

  19. Comparison of nuclear data uncertainty propagation methodologies for PWR burn-up simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Javier Diez; Oliver Buss; Axel Hoefer; Dieter Porsch; Oscar Cabellos

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methodologies using different levels of approximations have been developed for propagating nuclear data uncertainties in nuclear burn-up simulations. Most methods fall into the two broad classes of Monte Carlo approaches, which are exact apart from statistical uncertainties but require additional computation time, and first order perturbation theory approaches, which are efficient for not too large numbers of considered response functions but only applicable for sufficiently small nuclear data uncertainties. Some methods neglect isotopic composition uncertainties induced by the depletion steps of the simulations, others neglect neutron flux uncertainties, and the accuracy of a given approximation is often very hard to quantify. In order to get a better sense of the impact of different approximations, this work aims to compare results obtained based on different approximate methodologies with an exact method, namely the NUDUNA Monte Carlo based approach developed by AREVA GmbH. In addition, the impact of different covariance data is studied by comparing two of the presently most complete nuclear data covariance libraries (ENDF/B-VII.1 and SCALE 6.0), which reveals a high dependency of the uncertainty estimates on the source of covariance data. The burn-up benchmark Exercise I-1b proposed by the OECD expert group "Benchmarks for Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) for the Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs" is studied as an example application. The burn-up simulations are performed with the SCALE 6.0 tool suite.

  20. Experimental investigation of burning rates of pure ethanol and ethanol blended fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag, Shintre; Raghavan, Vasudevan [Thermodynamics and Combustion Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, 600036 (India)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental experimental study to determine the burning rates of ethanol and ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Pure liquid ethanol or its blends with liquid fossil fuels such as gasoline or diesel, has been transpired to the surface a porous sphere using an infusion pump. Burning of the fuel takes place on the surface of the porous sphere, which is placed in an air stream blowing upwards with a uniform velocity at atmospheric pressure and temperature under normal gravity conditions. At low air velocities, when ignited, a flame envelopes the sphere. For each sphere size, air stream velocity and fuel type, the fuel feed rate will vary and the same is recorded as the burning rate for that configuration. The flame stand-off distances from the sphere surface are measured by post-processing the digital image of the flame photograph using suitable imaging software. The transition velocity at which the flame moves and establishes itself at the wake region of the sphere has been determined for different diameters and fuel types. Correlations of these parameters are also presented. (author)

  1. Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning RID B-8648-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Ariel; Wang, Christine Y.; Diehl, L.; Kaertner, F. X.; Belyanin, Alexey; Bour, D.; Corzine, S.; Hoefler, G.; Liu, H. C.; Schneider, H.; Maier, T.; Troccoli, M.; Faist, J.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical and experimental study of multimode operation regimes in quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. It is shown that the fast gain recovery of QCLs promotes two multimode regimes: One is spatial hole burning (SHB) and the other one...

  2. Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyatt Jaegl

    Received 10th February 2005, Accepted 22nd February 2005 First published as an Advance Article on the web and biofuel), biomass burning and soils by exploiting the spatio-temporal distribution of remotely sensed

  3. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning: 1. Lagrangian parcel studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matthew James

    We have developed a new model of the gas- and aerosol-phase chemistry of biomass burning smoke plumes called Aerosol Simulation Program (ASP). Here we use ASP combined with a Lagrangian parcel model to simulate the chemistry ...

  4. The effects of technological change, experience and environmental regulation on the construction of coal-burning generating units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the technological, regulatory and organizational factors that have influenced the costs of building coal-burning steam-electric generating units over the past twenty year. We ...

  5. Mirror Modes in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurutani, B. T. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Guarnieri, F. L. [UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Echer, E. E. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Verkhoglyadova, O. P. [CSPAR, Univ. Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirror mode (MM) structures are identified in the Voyager 1 heliosheath magnetic field data. Their characteristics are: (1) quasiperiodic structures with a typical scale size of {approx}57 {rho}{sub p}(proton gyroradii), (2) little or no angular changes across the structures ({approx}3 deg. longitude and {approx}3 deg. latitude), and (3) a lack of sharp boundaries at the magnetic dip edges. It is proposed that the pickup of interstellar neutrals in the upstream region of the termination shock (TS) is the likely cause of MM instability during intervals when the IMF is nearly orthogonal to the solar wind flow direction. Concomitant (quasiperpendicular) shock compression of the MM structures at the TS and additional injection of pickup ions (PUIs) throughout the heliosheath will enhance MM growth.

  6. Water relations strategies of two grass and shrub species as influenced by prescribed burning in a semiarid ecosystem in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Ali Ramadhan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WATER RELATIONS STRATEGIES OF TWO GRASS AND SHRUB SPECIES AS INFLUENCED BY PRESCRIBED BURNING IN A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM IN KENYA A Thesis by ALI RAMADHAN ALI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Range Science WATER RELATIONS STRATEGIES OF TWO GRASS AND SHRUB SPECIES AS INFLUENCED BY PRESCRIBED BURNING IN A SEMIARID ECOSYSTEM IN KENYA A Thesis by ALI RAMADHAN ALI...

  7. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A86YI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis by JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH...

  8. IEA Workshop (W60) on Burning Plasmas and Simulation Name Institute Speaker/ C Title talk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasmas 11.50 12.10 Jardin S. PPPL chair Introduction 12.10 12.30 Fish N. PPPL speaker A Hot-ion-Mode RF

  9. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and burn TRU in a thermal spectrum, while satisfying top-level operational and safety constraints. Various assembly designs have been proposed to assess the TRU burning potential of Th-based fuel in PWRs. In addition to typical homogeneous loading patterns, heterogeneous configurations exploiting the breeding potential of thorium to enable multiple cycles of TRU irradiation and burning have been devised. The homogeneous assembly design, with all pins featuring TRU in Th, has the benefit of a simple loading pattern and the highest rate of TRU transmutation, but it can be used only for a few cycles due to the rapid rise in the TRU content of the recycled fuel, which challenges reactivity control, safety coefficients and fuel handling. Due to its simple loading pattern, such assembly design can be used as the first step of Th implementation, achieving up to 3 times larger TRU transmutation rate than conventional U-MOX, assuming same fraction of MOX assemblies in the core. As the next step in thorium implementation, heterogeneous assemblies featuring a mixed array of Th-U and Th-U-TRU pins, where the U is in-bred from Th, have been proposed. These designs have the potential to enable burning an external supply of TRU through multiple cycles of irradiation, recovery (via reprocessing) and recycling of the residual actinides at the end of each irradiation cycle. This is achieved thanks to a larger breeding of U from Th in the heterogeneous assemblies, which reduces the TRU supply and thus mitigates the increase in the TRU core inventory for the multi-recycled fuel. While on an individual cycle basis the amount of TRU burned in the heterogeneous assembly is reduced with respect to the homogeneous design, TRU burning rates higher than single-pass U-MOX fuel can still be achieved, with the additional benefits of a multi-cycle transmutation campaign recycling all TRU isotopes. Nitride fuel, due its higher density and U breeding potential, together with its better thermal properties, ideally suits the objectives and constraints of the heterogeneous assemblies. However, signi

  10. Tensor B mode and stochastic Faraday mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massimo Giovannini

    2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the Faraday effect as a different source of B mode polarization. The E mode polarization is Faraday rotated provided a stochastic large-scale magnetic field is present prior to photon decoupling. In the first part of the paper we discuss the case where the tensor modes of the geometry are absent and we argue that the B mode recently detected by the Bicep2 collaboration cannot be explained by a large-scale magnetic field rotating, through the Faraday effect, the well established E mode polarization. In this case, the observed temperature autocorrelations would be excessively distorted by the magnetic field. In the second part of the paper the formation of Faraday rotation is treated as a stationary, random and Markovian process with the aim of generalizing a set of scaling laws originally derived in the absence of the tensor modes of the geometry. We show that the scalar, vector and tensor modes of the brightness perturbations can all be Faraday rotated even if the vector and tensor parts of the effect have been neglected, so far, by focussing the attention on the scalar aspects of the problem. The mixing between the power spectra of the E mode and B mode polarizations involves a unitary transformation depending nonlinearly on the Faraday rotation rate. The present approach is suitable for a general scrutiny of the polarization observables and of their frequency dependence.

  11. Leaning, Merging, Overlapping, Translucently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bank, Rachel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    42 F. 21: CNC router cutting foam board for Black andLeaners. 43 F. 22: CNC router cutting foam board for sent this drawing to the CNC router. CNC stands for computer

  12. Mode I - mode II delamination fractrue toughness of a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderkley, Peter Stephen

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODE I - MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by PETER STEPHEN VANDERKLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Demember 1981 Najor Subject: Mechanical Engineering MODE I - MODE II DELAMINATION FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by PETER STEPHEN VANDERKLEY Approved as to style and content by...

  13. Praha 12/04/2007 Physics challenges and open issues of burning plasma physics in ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    of the fast ion source build-up: multi-scale approach Multi-mode simulations: so far mostly one or a few (AEs) (IV.2) Nonlinear physics of EP Modes (EPMs) (V) Long time scale behaviors and turbulence cross scale couplings (VI) ITER Applications (VII) Summary and Discussions #12;Praha 12/04/2007 Physics

  14. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers `95, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Goldman, STS Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS David L laser model was baselined to existing oxygen-iodine research assessment and device improvement chemical(1) generator. It may be possible to improve high pressure RADICL performance by increasing the number of large

  15. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 2000, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Corcoran, STS Press, McLean VA, 2001, pp. 265-272.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) singlet oxygen generator (SOG) based on discharge excitation of molecular/2). Historically, this pumping reaction has been fed by a liquid chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG, STS Press, McLean VA, 2001, pp. 265-272. 265 ElectriCOIL: Preliminary Experiments of Excited Oxygen

  16. Normalizable fermion modes in a holographic superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven S. Gubser; Fabio D. Rocha; Pedro Talavera

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider fermions in a zero-temperature superconducting anti-de Sitter domain wall solution and find continuous bands of normal modes. These bands can be either partially filled or totally empty and gapped. We present a semi-classical argument which approximately captures the main features of the normal mode spectrum.

  17. Theory of longitudinal modes in semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of longitudinal mode lasing spectrum of semiconductor lasers is developed which takes into account the nonuniform carrier and photon distributions and local gain spectrum shifts inside lasers with low end mirror reflectivities. The theory gives results consistent with observed longitudinal mode behavior in lasers with reduced facet reflectivity.

  18. Broadband frequency mode entanglement in waveguided PDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckstein, Andreas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the observation of beatings of the coincidence event rate in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) between signal and idler photons from a parametric downconversion process inside a multi-mode KTP waveguide. As explanation we introduce bi-photonic states entangled in their broadband frequency modes and propose a suitable entanglement witness.

  19. Nonlinear mode coupling in rotating stars and the r-mode instability in neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Katrin Schenk; Phil Arras; Eanna E. Flanagan; Saul A. Teukolsky; Ira Wasserman

    2001-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop the formalism required to study the nonlinear interaction of modes in rotating Newtonian stars in the weakly nonlinear regime. The formalism simplifies and extends previous treatments. At linear order, we elucidate and extend slightly a formalism due to Schutz, show how to decompose a general motion of a rotating star into a sum over modes, and obtain uncoupled equations of motion for the mode amplitudes under the influence of an external force. Nonlinear effects are added perturbatively via three-mode couplings. We describe a new, efficient way to compute the coupling coefficients, to zeroth order in the stellar rotation rate, using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. We apply this formalism to derive some properties of the coupling coefficients relevant to the nonlinear interactions of unstable r-modes in neutron stars, postponing numerical integrations of the coupled equations of motion to a later paper. From an astrophysical viewpoint, the most interesting result of this paper is that many couplings of r-modes to other rotational modes (modes with zero frequencies in the non-rotating limit) are small: either they vanish altogether because of various selection rules, or they vanish to lowest order in the angular velocity. In zero-buoyancy stars, the coupling of three r-modes is forbidden entirely and the coupling of two r-modes to one hybrid rotational mode vanishes to zeroth order in rotation frequency. In incompressible stars, the coupling of any three rotational modes vanishes to zeroth order in rotation frequency.

  20. Surface plasmon modes and the Casimir energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Intravaia; A. Lambrecht

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show the influence of surface plasmons on the Casimir effect between two plane parallel metallic mirrors at arbitrary distances. Using the plasma model to describe the optical response of the metal, we express the Casimir energy as a sum of contributions associated with evanescent surface plasmon modes and propagative cavity modes. In contrast to naive expectations, the plasmonic modes contribution is essential at all distances in order to ensure the correct result for the Casimir energy. One of the two plasmonic modes gives rise to a repulsive contribution, balancing out the attractive contributions from propagating cavity modes, while both contributions taken separately are much larger than the actual value of the Casimir energy. This also suggests possibilities to tailor the sign of the Casimir force via surface plasmons.