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  1. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  2. Leaf Clean Energy Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Energy Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Leaf Clean Energy Company Name: Leaf Clean Energy Company Place: London, United Kingdom Website: www.leafcleanenergy.com...

  3. LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolsleaf-gender-mainstreaming-strategy-checklist Cost: Free Language: English LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist Screenshot Logo: LEAF Gender...

  4. EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image Image icon red_leaf_18215.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project

  5. LEAFing Through New Vehicle Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LEAF is a five-passenger hatchback, powered by advanced lithium-ion batteries with a range of more than 100 miles on a single charge. The vehicle will cost drivers about $25,000 after a federal tax credit.

  6. Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle 18 Feb 2014 by Jenny Green: In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances

  7. New Leaf Biofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuel Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Leaf Biofuel Address: 1380 Garnet Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92109 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Collects...

  8. Turbine rotor-stator leaf seal and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, William Lee (Cincinnati, OH); Butkiewicz, Jeffrey John (Simpsonville, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A seal assembly for installation between rotating and stationary components of a machine includes a first plurality of leaf spring segments secured to the stationary component in a circumferential array surrounding the rotating component, the leaf spring segments each having a radial mounting portion and a substantially axial sealing portion, the plurality of leaf spring segments shingled in a circumferential direction.

  9. RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project Overview of oil shale reserves, unique oil extraction issues, novel approach for cost-effective extraction PDF icon deer08_patten.pdf More Documents & Publications Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil Shale Research in the United States EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image

  10. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  11. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing ...

  13. Fact #737: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf Fact #737: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf The all-electric Nissan Leaf does not emit tailpipe emissions like an internal combustion engine, but there are emissions associated with the production of electricity to fuel the Leaf, called upstream emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated those upstream emissions using information about the electric utility fuel sources. The graph below shows

  14. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf

  15. Leaf seal for gas turbine stator shrouds and a nozzle band

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A leaf seal assembly is secured to the trailing edge of a shroud segment for sealing between the shroud segment and the leading edge side wall of a nozzle outer band. The leaf seal includes a circumferentially elongated seal plate biased by a pair of spring clips disposed in a groove along the trailing edge of the shroud segment to maintain the seal plate in engagement with the flange on the leading edge side wall of the nozzle outer band. The leaf seal plate and spring clips receive pins tack-welded to the shroud segment to secure the leaf seal assembly in place.

  16. AVTA: 2011 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on an all-electric 2011 Nissan Leaf. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  18. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  19. Spatial variation of dosimetric leaf gap and its impact on dose delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaraswamy, Lalith K.; Schmitt, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Daniel W.; Xu, Zheng Zheng; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: During dose calculation, the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) retracts the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions by half of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) value (measured at central axis) for all leaf positions in a dynamic MLC plan to accurately model the rounded leaf ends. The aim of this study is to map the variation of DLG along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair and quantify how this variation impacts delivered dose. Methods: 6 MV DLG values were measured for all MLC leaf pairs in increments of 1.0 cm (from the line intersecting the CAX and perpendicular to MLC motion) to 13.0 cm off axis distance at dmax. The measurements were performed on two Varian linear accelerators, both employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLCs. The measurements were performed at several locations in the beam with both a Sun Nuclear MapCHECK device and a PTW pinpoint ion chamber. Results: The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (each 0.5 cm width) at positions along a line through the CAX and perpendicular to MLC leaf travel direction were very similar, varying maximally by only 0.2 mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (each 1.0 cm width) have much lower DLG values, about 0.30.5 mm lower than the central MLC leaf pair, at their respective central line position. Overall, the mean and the maximum variation between the 0.5 cm width leaves and the 1.0 cm width leaf pairs are 0.32 and 0.65 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial variation in DLG is caused by the variation of intraleaf transmission through MLC leaves. Fluences centered on the CAX would not be affected since DLG does not vary; but any fluences residing significantly off axis with narrow sweeping leaves may exhibit significant dose differences. This is due to the fact that there are differences in DLG between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0 cm width outer leaves and the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation. Since there are large differences in DLG between the 0.5 cm width leaf pairs and 1.0 cm width leaf pairs, there is a need to correct the TPS plans, especially those with high modulation (narrow dynamic MLC gap), with 2D variation of DLG.

  20. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Nissan Leaf Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. AVTA: 2013 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe early results of testing done on an all-electric 2013 Nissan Leaf. Baseline data, which provides a point of comparison for the other test results, was collected at two different research laboratories. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  2. Leaf seal for inner and outer casings of a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Leach, David

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of arcuate, circumferentially extending leaf seal segments form an annular seal spanning between annular sealing surfaces of inner and outer casings of a turbine. The ends of the adjoining seal segments have circumferential gaps to enable circumferential expansion and contraction of the segments. The end of a first segment includes a tab projecting into a recess of a second end of a second segment. Edges of the tab seal against the sealing surfaces of the inner and outer casings have a narrow clearance with opposed edges of the recess. An overlying cover plate spans the joint. Leakage flow is maintained at a minimum because of the reduced gap between the radially spaced edges of the tab and recess, while the seal segments retain the capacity to expand and contract circumferentially.

  3. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes 1 of 14 BrightLeaf Homes built this 2,880-square-foot home in a Chicago suburb, Brookfield, Illinois, to the performance criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. 2 of 14 Downspouts and proper grading help ensure water drains away from the two-story home. 3 of 14 Deep overhangs shield second-story windows from sun, rain, and snow while ultra-efficient

  4. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes Addthis 1 of 14 BrightLeaf Homes built this 2,880-square-foot home in a Chicago suburb, Brookfield, Illinois, to the performance criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. 2 of 14 Downspouts and proper grading help ensure water drains away from the two-story home. 3 of 14 Deep overhangs shield second-story windows from sun, rain, and snow while

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Brookfield, IL | Department of Energy BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8"on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with

  6. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... On windows sills BrightLeaf installs what Sanders refers to as a poor man's pan flashing-they place a 5.5-inch-wide cedar plank, which has a natural bevel, on the sill with the ...

  7. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan quality but can lead to less accurate dose distribution as evidenced by increasing discrepancies between the planned and the delivered doses. For example, the results from our patient-specific quality assurance measurements demonstrated that the average gamma analysis passing rate decreased from 98% to 80% when the allowable leaf motion increased from 3 to 20 mm/deg. Larger leaf motion constraints also led to longer treatment delivery times (2 to 4 folds) due to the additional MLC leaf motion. Conclusions: Leaf motion constraints significantly impact IMAT plans in terms of plan quality, delivery accuracy, and delivery efficiency with the impact magnified for more complex cases. Our studies indicate that a leaf motion constraint of 2 to 3 mm/deg of gantry rotation can provide an optimal balance between plan quality, delivery accuracy, and efficiency.

  8. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.2 1.3 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. With the heart inside the radiation field, the mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. The optimal leaf margins were ?1.0 0.6 mm for both beams. Dmax to the spinal cord showed no clear trend for changes in leaf margin. Conclusions: The differences in doses to OARs between FFF and FF beams were negligible. Conformity index, modified GI, MLD, lung V20 Gy, lung V5 Gy, and mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. There were no significant differences in optimal leaf margins to minimize these parameters between both FFF and FF beams. The authors results suggest that a leaf margin of ?1 mm achieves high conformity and minimizes doses to OARs for both FFF and FF beams.

  9. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC)

  10. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  11. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  12. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  13. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  14. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  15. Poster Thur Eve 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 0.2 mm, 0.4 0.3 mm, and 0.5 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. ?-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  16. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  17. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-07-21

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records asmore »unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.« less

  18. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-07-21

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records as unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.

  19. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experimentmore » in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.« less

  20. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  1. TH-E-BRE-05: Analysis of Dosimetric Characteristics in Two Leaf Motion Calculator Algorithms for Sliding Window IMRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L; Huang, B; Rowedder, B; Ma, B; Kuang, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Smart leaf motion calculator (SLMC) in Eclipse treatment planning system is an advanced fluence delivery modeling algorithm as it takes into account fine MLC features including inter-leaf leakage, rounded leaf tips, non-uniform leaf thickness, and the spindle cavity etc. In this study, SLMC and traditional Varian LMC (VLMC) algorithms were investigated, for the first time, in dosimetric characteristics and delivery accuracy of sliding window (SW) IMRT. Methods: The SW IMRT plans of 51 cancer cases were included to evaluate dosimetric characteristics and dose delivery accuracy from leaf motion calculated by SLMC and VLMC, respectively. All plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam Linac. The DVH and MUs of the plans were analyzed. Three patient specific QA tools - independent dose calculation software IMSure, Delta4 phantom, and EPID portal dosimetry were also used to measure the delivered dose distribution. Results: Significant differences in the MUs were observed between the two LMCs (p?0.001).Gamma analysis shows an excellent agreement between the planned dose distribution calculated by both LMC algorithms and delivered dose distribution measured by three QA tools in all plans at 3%/3 mm, leading to a mean pass rate exceeding 97%. The mean fraction of pixels with gamma < 1 of SLMC is slightly lower than that of VLMC in the IMSure and Delta4 results, but higher in portal dosimetry (the highest spatial resolution), especially in complex cases such as nasopharynx. Conclusion: The study suggests that the two LMCs generates the similar target coverage and sparing patterns of critical structures. However, SLMC is modestly more accurate than VLMC in modeling advanced MLC features, which may lead to a more accurate dose delivery in SW IMRT. Current clinical QA tools might not be specific enough to differentiate the dosimetric discrepancies at the millimeter level calculated by these two LMC algorithms. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant Professorship.

  2. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore » CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.« less

  3. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of the CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.

  4. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C. Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup ?1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 ?OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  5. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  6. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  7. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  8. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swarbreck, St; phanie; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  9. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions and possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.

  10. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions andmore » possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.« less

  11. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BrightLeaf Homes McCormick Avenue Brookfield, IL DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are

  12. Effect of moisture on leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to soil respiration in a temperate forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz Maria; Trumbore, Susan E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    The degree to which increased soil respiration rates following wetting is caused by plant (autotrophic) versus microbial (heterotrophic) processes, is still largely uninvestigated. Incubation studies suggest microbial processes play a role but it remains unclear whether there is a stimulation of the microbial population as a whole or an increase in the importance of specific substrates that become available with wetting of the soil. We took advantage of an ongoing manipulation of leaf litter 14C contents at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to (1) determine the degree to which an increase in soil respiration rates that accompanied wetting of litter and soil, following a short period of drought, could be explained by heterotrophic contributions; and (2) investigate the potential causes of increased heterotrophic respiration in incubated litter and 0-5 cm mineral soil. The contribution of leaf litter decomposition increased from 6 3 mg C m 2 hr 1 during a transient drought, to 63 18 mg C m 2 hr 1 immediately after water addition, corresponding to an increase in the contribution to soil respiration from 5 2% to 37 8%. The increased relative contribution was sufficient to explain all of the observed increase in soil respiration for this one wetting event in the late growing season. Temperature (13 C versus 25 C) and moisture (dry versus field capacity) conditions did not change the relative contributions of different decomposition substrates in incubations, suggesting that more slowly cycling C has at least the same sensitivity to decomposition as faster cycling organic C at the temperature and moisture conditions studied.

  13. Intensity modulated radiation therapy with irregular multileaf collimated field: A dosimetric study on the penumbra region with different leaf stepping patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, James C. L.; Grigorov, Grigor N.; Jiang Runqing

    2006-12-15

    Using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator (MLC) of 120 leaves, the penumbra regions of beam profiles within an irregular multileaf collimated fields were studied. MLC fields with different leaf stepping angles from 21.8 deg. to 68.2 deg. were used. Beam profiles in different directions: (1) along the cross-line and in-line axis (2) along the leaf stepping edges of the field, and (3) parallel to the stepping edges but in the middle of the field, were measured and calculated using Kodak XV radiographic film and Pinnacle3 treatment planning system version 7.4f. These beam profiles were measured and calculated at source to axis distance=100 cm with 5 cm of solid water slab on top. On the one hand, for both cross-line and in-line beam profiles, the penumbra widths of 20%-80% did not vary with the leaf stepping angles and were about 0.4 cm. On the other hand, the penumbra widths of 10%-90% of the above two profiles varied with the stepping angles and had maximum widths of about 1.9 cm (cross-line) and 1.65 cm (in-line) for stepping angles of 38.7 deg. and 51.3 deg., respectively. For profiles crossing the 'rippled' stepping edges of the field, the penumbra widths (10%-90%) at the regions between two opposite leaves (i.e., profile end at the Y1/Y2 jaw position) decreased with the stepping angles. At the penumbra regions between two leaf edges with the tongue-and-groove structure of the same bank (i.e., profile end at the X1/X2 jaw position), the penumbra widths increased with the stepping angles. When the penumbra widths were measured between two opposite leaf edges and at corners between two leaves, the widths first decreased with the stepping angles and then increased beyond the minimum width point at stepping angle of 45 deg. The penumbra width (10%-90%) measured at the leaf edge was larger than that at the corner. For the beam profiles calculated using Pinnacle3, it is found that the results agreed well with the measurements along the cross-line and in-line axis, while there was a deviation for the profiles along the leaf stepping edge of the field compared to the film measurements. The measured results in this study can help us to understand the dosimetric effect of the leaf stepping (due to finite leaf width), tongue-and-groove and rounded leaf end structure in the penumbra region of an irregular MLC field. A more dedicated penumbra model can be developed for the treatment planning system.

  14. Method for selecting minimum width of leaf in multileaf adjustable collimator while inhibiting passage of particle beams of radiation through sawtooth joints between collimator leaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard (Berkeley, CA); Bercovitz, John (Hayward, CA); Nyman, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Chu, William (Lafayette, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for selecting the minimum width of individual leaves of a multileaf adjustable collimator having sawtooth top and bottom surfaces between adjacent leaves of a first stack of leaves and sawtooth end edges which are capable of intermeshing with the corresponding sawtooth end edges of leaves in a second stack of leaves of the collimator. The minimum width of individual leaves in the collimator, each having a sawtooth configuration in the surface facing another leaf in the same stack and a sawtooth end edge, is selected to comprise the sum of the penetration depth or range of the particular type of radiation comprising the beam in the particular material used for forming the leaf; plus the total path length across all the air gaps in the area of the joint at the edges between two leaves defined between lines drawn across the peaks of adjacent sawtooth edges; plus at least one half of the length or period of a single sawtooth. To accomplish this, in accordance with the method of the invention, the penetration depth of the particular type of radiation in the particular material to be used for the collimator leaf is first measured. Then the distance or gap between adjoining or abutting leaves is selected, and the ratio of this distance to the height of the sawteeth is selected. Finally the number of air gaps through which the radiation will pass between sawteeth is determined by selecting the number of sawteeth to be formed in the joint. The measurement and/or selection of these parameters will permit one to determine the minimum width of the leaf which is required to prevent passage of the beam through the sawtooth joint.

  15. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauziah, Faiza Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  16. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases.

  17. SU-E-T-628: Effect of Dose Rate and Leakage Correction for Dosimetric Leaf Gap Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, W; Chu, A; Chi, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the dose rate response of Mapcheck and quantify/correct dose rate/leakage effect on IMRT QA. Evaluate the dose rate/leakage effect on dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) measurement. Methods: Varian Truebeam Linac with HD120 MLC was used for all measurement, it is capable to adjust dose rate from 600MU/min to 5MU/min. Fluke Advanced Therapy Doisemter and PTW 30013 Farmer chamber for chamber measurement; SunNuclear Mapcheck2 with 5cm total buildup for diode measurement. DLG was measured with both chamber and diode.Diode response was measured by varies dose rate, while fixed mapcheck setup and total MU. MLC Leakage was measured with both chamber and diode. Mapcheck measurement was saved as movie file (mcm file), which include measurement updated every 50mSec. The difference between intervals can be converted to dose and dose rate and leakage response correction can be applied to them. Results: DLG measurement results with chamber and diode were showed as follows, the DLG value is 0.36 vs. 0.24mm respectively. Diode dose rate response drops from 100% at 600MU/min to 95.5% at 5MU/min as follows. MLC Leakage measured with diode is 1.021%, which is 9% smaller than 1.112% from chamber measurement. By apply the dose rate and leakage correction, the residue error reduced 2/3. Conclusions: Diode has lower response at lower dose rate, as low as 4.5% for 5MU/min; diode has lower energy response for low energy too, 5% lower for Co-60 than 6MV. It partially explains the leakage difference of 9% between chamber and diode. Lower DLG with diode is because of the lower response at narrower gap, in Eclipse however DLG need to increase to makeup lower response, which is over correction for chamber though. Correction can reduce error by 2/3, the rest 1/3 can be corrected by scatter effect, which is under study.

  18. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5?57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1?99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26?32min) for MLC vs 45min (35?55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  19. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous Neotropical herbivores that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain lignocellulases that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as it is foraged by the ants. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous lignocellulases likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three-quarters of all lignocellulases identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 23 lignocellulases enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  20. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; et al

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plantmore » biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.« less

  1. Drought-influenced mortality of tree species with different predawn leaf water dynamics in a decade-long study of a central US forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-05-18

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of 1 year or more, which was correlated fairly tightly with a number of quantitative predictors formulated based on ψpd and precipitation regimes. Predictors based on temperature and vapor pressure deficit anomalies worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The exceptional drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality ofmore » all species, including drought-tolerant oaks, in the subsequent year. The drought-influenced tree mortality was related to the species position along the spectrum of ψpd regulation capacity with those in either ends of the spectrum being associated with elevated risk of death. Regardless of species and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events in all droughts. This result, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests an absence of catastrophic hydraulic disconnection in the xylem and that tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects. Species differences in the capacity of regulating ψpd and its temporal integral were magnified under moderate drought intensities but diminished towards wet and dry extremes. Severe droughts may overwhelm the capacity of even drought-tolerant species to maintain differential levels of water potential as the soil becomes exhausted of available water in the rooting zone, thus rendering them more susceptible to death if predisposed by other factors such as age.« less

  2. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  3. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 ?m for the commercial configuration down to ~9 ?m for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-?m spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  4. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  5. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D; Yu, V; Ruan, D; Semwal, H; Cao, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; O’Connor, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf patterns is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy and plan quality. Methods: 4 GBM patients, with a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy, were evaluated using the 4π algorithm using 20 beams. The MLC calculation utilized a least square minimization of the dose distribution, with an anisotropic total variation regularization term to encourage piecewise continuity in the fluence maps. Transforming the fluence to the dose domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. The fluence was stratified into even step sizes, and the MLC segments, limited to 300, were calculated. The patients studied were replanned using Eclipse with the same beam angles. Results: Compared to the original 4π plan, the stratified 4π plan increased the maximum/mean dose for, in Gy, by 1.0/0.0 (brainstem), 0.5/0.2 (chiasm), 0.0/0.0 (spinal cord), 1.9/0.3 (L eye), 0.7/0.2 (R eye), 0.4/0.4 (L lens), 0.3/0.3 (R lens), 1.0/0.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.5/0.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.3/0.2 (L Cochlea), 0.1/0.1 (R Cochlea), 4.6/0.2 (brain), 2.4/0.1 (brain-PTV), 5.1/0.9 (PTV). Compared to Eclipse, which generated an average of 607 segments, the stratified plan reduced (−) or increased (+) the maximum/mean dose, in Gy, by −10.2/−4.1 (brainstem), −10.5/−8.9 (chiasm), +0.0/−0.1 (spinal cord), −4.9/−3.4 (L eye), −4.1/−2.5 (R eye), −2.8/−2.7 (L lens), −2.1/−1.9 (R lens), −7.6/−6.5 (L Optical Nerve), −8.9/−6.1 (R Optical Nerve), −1.3/−1.9 (L Cochlea), −1.8/−1.8 (R Cochlea), +1.7/−2.1 (brain), +3.2/−2.6 (brain-PTV), +1.8/+0.3 Gy (PTV. The stratified plan was also more homogeneous in the PTV. Conclusion: This novel solver can transform complicated fluence maps into significantly fewer deliverable MLC segments than the commercial system while achieving superior dosimetry. Funding support partially contributed by Varian.

  6. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.; Brady, Sean

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  7. Appendix A-How the Survey Was Conducted

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a comparison between the 1994 and previous years RTECS designs; (2) the sample design; (3) the data-collection procedures; (4) the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN); (5)...

  8. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a comparison between the 1991 and previous years RTECS designs; (2) the sample design; (3) the data-collection procedures; (4) the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN); (5)...

  9. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  10. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  11. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  12. Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  13. Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  14. Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  15. AVTA: 2012 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  16. Mervyn Hine's Contribution

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Cérémonie avec plusieurs discours (qui?) et remarques pour honorer la contribution de Marvyn Hine qui prendra sa retraite. La célébration sera suivie d'un "vin d'honneur".

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8”on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with 3” XPS exterior and 2: XPS under slab; a vented attic with spray foam top plates and R-60 blown cellulose; 96% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, plus fresh air intake.

  18. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  19. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  20. Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    low-cost things you can do to save energy in cool weather. In addition, you can learn about conducting energy audits and how to find assistance for your energy-saving improvements. ...

  1. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lens), 0.30.3 (R lens), 1.00.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.50.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.30.2 (L Cochlea), 0.10.1 (R Cochlea), 4.60.2more (brain), 2.40.1 (brain-PTV), 5.10.9 (PTV). ...

  2. Efficacy of low level electric current (A-C) for controlling quagga mussles in the Welland Canal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fears, C.; Mackie, G.L.

    1995-06-01

    The efficacy of systems (for which patents are pending) which use low-voltage A-C currents for preventing settlement and attachment by zebra mussels were tested with steel rods and plates placed near the intake of a pulp and paper plant in the Welland Canal at Thorold, Ontario. Six racks made of 16 ft. (4.9 m), 2x4s (5.1 x 10.2 cm) were placed into the Welland Canal on August 5, 1994. One rack had 1/8th in (3.2 mm) diam x 12 in (30.5 cm) long steel rods, each separated by 2 in (5.1 cm) attached to pressure treated wood and concrete blocks and an A-C current of 16 v (or 8 v/in); rack 2 had steel rods of the same configuration but 12 v (or 6 v/in) was applied; rack 3 was identical to these but no current was applied and was used as a rod control. The remaining three racks had steel plates, each plate being 3 in (7.6 cm) wide X 24 in (61 cm) long X 1/4 in (6.4 mm) thick and separated by 2 in (5.1 cm); one had 12 v applied (or 6 v/in), another had 16 v applied (or 8 v/in), and the third had no current and was used as a plate control. The racks were placed on the upstream and downstream side of the intake at a depth of about 7 ft (2.1 m) where the mussels populations were heaviest (as determined by SCUBA diving). All mussels were quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). The racks were pulled in mid November after settlement was complete and the results showed: (1) complete prevention of settlement of both new recruits and translocators at 8 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and with steel plate trash bars; (2) partial prevention of settlement at 6 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and steel plates; and (3) that, at current kilowatt hr rates, total efficacy at 8 volts/in would cost approximately $10.80/day/1000 sq ft using rods to protect concrete walls and about $16.32/day/1000 sq ft to protect 3 in wide x 1/4 in thick trash bars. These costs can be reduced even further with pulse dosed AC currents.

  3. Science as Art: Materials Characterization Art | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science as Art: Materials Characterization Art Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Science as Art: Materials Characterization Art Vin Smentkowski 2012.05.08 Our next image in the series was submitted by Srinivasan Swarminathan. This is one of the more compelling and interesting photos to look at it if you

  4. Robotic Crawler | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crawler Inspects Wind Turbines Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Robotic Crawler Inspects Wind Turbines See the robotic crawler that can inspect wind turbines and climb vertical turbine poles as high as 300 feet. You Might Also Like Vin_Smentlowski_AVS_Registration AVS 61st International Symposium and

  5. AVS International Symposium | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AVS 61st International Symposium and Exhibition Focuses on Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) AVS 61st International Symposium and Exhibition Focuses on Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces Vin Smentkowski 2014.12.05 After more than two years of planning, it is hard to

  6. How Are Atoms Held Together? | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Are Atoms Held Together? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) How Are Atoms Held Together? 2012.03.30 Chief Scientist Jim Bray discusses positive and negative charges and their role in keeping matter stable. 0 Comments Comment Name Email Submit Comment You Might Also Like Vin_Smentlowski_AVS_Registration AVS

  7. Denaturing of Molecules | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Do Molecules Get Old? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Do Molecules Get Old? 2012.07.03 Chief Scientist Jim Bray explains how molecules degrade over various time periods, not unlike human aging. 0 Comments Comment Name Email Submit Comment You Might Also Like Vin_Smentlowski_AVS_Registration AVS 61st

  8. Hinge assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergriff, David Houston (Powell, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  9. Highlights | NEES - EFRC | University of Maryland Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center List view Carbonized leaf membrane as Na+ battery anode Carbonized leaf membrane as Na+ battery anode Scientific Achievement We used a single-step thermal pyrolysis procedure to transform a leaf into a carbon membrane to utilize the plant's hierarchical porosity network for electrochemical storage. Here for the first time we created a (sodium ion) battery (SIB) with a natural leaf structure for the carbon anode, without binder, additive, or additional current collector. Significance

  10. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  12. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Tyler; Shirk, Matthew; Wishart, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, Olivia S.; Fonseca, Vera C.; Darling, Eric M.

    2014-10-01

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth characteristics or multipotency. • Upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase may enable ASC methotrexate resistance. • ASCs thus pose a possible means to ameliorate long-term tissue damage.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- All-Electric Vehicle (Car) Performance Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Downloadable performance and testing data on the all-electric versions of the following vehicles is available: 2014 Smart Electric Drive Coupe, 2013 Ford Focus, 2013 Nissan Leaf, 2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV, 2012 Nissan Leaf, 2011 Nissan Leaf, 2010 USPS eLLV Conversions, and 2009 BMW Mini-E.

  16. Highlights | NEES - EFRC | University of Maryland Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center All Highlights Carbonized leaf membrane as Na+ battery anode Scientific Achievement We used a single-step thermal pyrolysis procedure to transform a leaf into a carbon membrane to utilize the plant's hierarchical porosity network for electrochemical storage. Here for the first time we created a (sodium ion) battery (SIB) with a natural leaf structure for the carbon anode, without binder, additive, or additional current collector. Significance and Impact Hierarchical capillary

  17. The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii October 6, 2010 - 6:18pm Addthis Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the all-electric Leaf in Hawaii in January 2011. Hawaii is offering incentives for the purchase of the vehicle and for home charging station development. Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the

  18. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    archive for 2004-2006, Additionally, measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, successional trends other variables were...

  19. South and South East REDD+ Atlas, Version 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Version 1 AgencyCompany Organization: USAID & LEAF Partner: Silvia Petrova, Sandra Brown, Michael Netzer, Brian Bean and Alexandre Grais Sector: Climate, Land User Interface:...

  20. Microsoft Word - eGallon methodology update Jan 2016.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends, October 2014. 4 This includes Tesla Model S, Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, BMW i3, and Ford Fusion Energi. . All fuel...

  1. EIS-0285-SA-117: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of graveled storage areas, perimeter roads and parking areas; 2) mechanical andor spot herbicide control of some broad leafs and noxious weeds; 3) mowing, fertilizing, and...

  2. International experience with REDD+ and national forest funds...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website ComplexityEase of Use: Simple Website: www.leafasia.orgleaf-news-notesnew-leaf-paper-international-experien Cost: Free Language: English International...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an opportunity for customers to increase their energy efficiency through the ReLeaf Tree Reimbursement Program. NUPU will reimbur... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  4. Ellis County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Milford, Texas Oak Leaf, Texas Ovilla, Texas Palmer, Texas Pecan Hill, Texas Red Oak, Texas Venus, Texas Waxahachie, Texas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Polygalacturonase that Degrades Pectin and Modulates Plant Cell Expansion Significance and Impact Polygalacturonases are known to function in cell separation (e.g., leaf...

  6. How Will You Save Energy This Fall? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to respond to other comments. Addthis Related Articles How Should Energy Savers Use Facebook? How Do You Light Your Home Efficiently? Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying...

  7. Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orglibraryusaid-leaf-accuracy-assessment-forest-and-lan Cost: Free Language: English Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version)...

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "œno-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  9. Methods for determining the physiological state of a plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette

    2003-09-23

    The present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter. The methods of the invention include the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer or kinetic spectrophotometer/fluorimeter to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for determining the physiological state of a plant.

  10. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report, August 1995--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1997-06-17

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focused on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The research focused on the isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  11. Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that describes the flow of liquid through a porous medium, which is how trees take in water. They found that tall plants with low hydraulic conductance and high leaf area are...

  12. New Ulm Public Utilities- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to equipment rebates, New Ulm Public Utilities offers an opportunity for customers to increase their energy efficiency through the ReLeaf Tree Reimbursement Program. NUPU will reimbur...

  13. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, Toyota Prius PHEV, and Ford Fusion Energi. ... Panamera S E-Hybrid 0 0 0 51 879 Ford Fusion Energi 0 0 0 6,089 11,550 Honda Accord 0 ...

  14. SSRL HEADLINES Jul 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Most electric cars, from the Tesla Model S to the Nissan Leaf, run on rechargeable lithium-ion batteries - a pricey technology that accounts for more than half of the vehicle's...

  15. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  16. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  17. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Treasure Homes, Sacramento, CA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Treasure Homes' Fallen Leaf at Riverbend, a 32-home development started in 2006, is the first solar community built in Sacramento. Homes in Fallen Leaf save their homeowners as much as 50% on their utility costs. Treasure Homes worked with Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and consultant ConSol, a Building America team lead on the project. The home's energy-efficient building

  18. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.

    1998-02-01

    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  19. Dynamic tumor tracking using the Elekta Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Martin F. Nill, Simeon Bedford, James L.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) for dynamic real-time tumor tracking. Methods: The authors have developed a new control software which interfaces to the Agility MLC to dynamically program the movement of individual leaves, the dynamic leaf guides (DLGs), and the Y collimators (jaws) based on the actual target trajectory. A motion platform was used to perform dynamic tracking experiments with sinusoidal trajectories. The actual target positions reported by the motion platform at 20, 30, or 40 Hz were used as shift vectors for the MLC in beams-eye-view. The system latency of the MLC (i.e., the average latency comprising target device reporting latencies and MLC adjustment latency) and the geometric tracking accuracy were extracted from a sequence of MV portal images acquired during irradiation for the following treatment scenarios: leaf-only motion, jaw + leaf motion, and DLG + leaf motion. Results: The portal imager measurements indicated a clear dependence of the system latency on the target position reporting frequency. Deducting the effect of the target frequency, the leaf adjustment latency was measured to be 38 3 ms for a maximum target speed v of 13 mm/s. The jaw + leaf adjustment latency was 53 3 at a similar speed. The system latency at a target position frequency of 30 Hz was in the range of 5661 ms for the leaves (v ? 31 mm/s), 7178 ms for the jaw + leaf motion (v ? 25 mm/s), and 5872 ms for the DLG + leaf motion (v ? 59 mm/s). The tracking accuracy showed a similar dependency on the target position frequency and the maximum target speed. For the leaves, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was between 0.61.5 mm depending on the maximum target speed. For the jaw + leaf (DLG + leaf) motion, the RMSE was between 0.71.5 mm (1.93.4 mm). Conclusions: The authors have measured the latency and geometric accuracy of the Agility MLC, facilitating its future use for clinical tracking applications.

  20. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David J. (Albuquerque, NM); McNamee, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  1. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  2. Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer, and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2004-11-02

    In one aspect, the present invention provides kinetic spectrophotometers that each comprise: (a) a light source; and (b) a compound parabolic concentrator disposed to receive light from the light source and configured to (1) intensify and diffuse the light received from the light source, and (2) direct the intensified and diffused light onto a sample. In other aspects, the present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter, the methods comprising the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer of the invention to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a value for a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data.

  3. A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

    2013-03-24

    The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially conserved. Overall phenylpropanoid composition exhibited changes due to large effects on phenolic glycosides containing a salicin moiety. There were no effects on lignin content. Efforts to publish this work continue, and depend on additional data which we are still collecting. This ongoing work is expected to strengthen our most provocative metabolic profiling data which suggests as yet unreported links controlling the balance between the two major leaf phenylpropanoid sinks, the CTs and the salicin-PGs. Objective 2: Ontogenic effects on leaf CT accrual and phenylpropanoid complexity (Objective 2) have been reported in the past and we contributed two manuscripts on how phenylpropanoid sinks in roots and stems could have an increasing effect on leaf CT as plants grow larger and plant proportions of stem, root and leaf change. Tsai C.-J., El Kayal W., Harding S.A. (2006) Populus, the new model system for investigating phenylpropanoid complexity. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 4: 221-233. We presented evidence that flavonoid precursors of CT rapidly decline in roots under conditions that favor CT accrual in leaves. Harding SA, Jarvie MM, Lindroth RL, Tsai C-J (2009) A comparative analysis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, N utilization and carbon partitioning in fast- and slow-growing Populus hybrid clones. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60:3443-3452. We presented evidence that nitrogen delivery to leaves as a fraction of nitrogen taken up by the roots is lower in high leaf CT genotypes. We presented a hypothesis from our data that N was sequestered in proportion to lignin content in stem tissues. Low leaf N content and high leaf CT in genotypes with high stem lignin was posited to be a systemic outcome of N demand in lignifiying stem tissues. Thereby, stem lignin and leaf CT accrual might be systemically linked, placing control of leaf phenylpropanoids under systemic rather than solely organ specific determinants. Analyses of total structural and non-structural carbohydrates contributed to the model presented. Harding SA, Xue L, Du L, Nyamd

  4. Dosimetric characterization of a multileaf collimator for a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head, MHI-TM2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sawada, Akira; Ishihara, Yoshitomo; Takayama, Kenji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Shuji; Yamashita, Mikiko; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To present the dosimetric characterization of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head, MHI-TM2000. Methods: MHI-TM2000 has an x-ray head composed of an ultrasmall linear accelerator guide and a system-specific MLC. The x-ray head can rotate along the two orthogonal gimbals (pan and tilt rotations) up to {+-}2.5 deg., which swings the beam up to {+-}41.9 mm in each direction from the isocenter on the isocenter plane perpendicular to the beam. The MLC design is a single-focus type, has 30 pairs of 5 mm thick leaves at the isocenter, and produces a maximum field size of 150x150 mm{sup 2}. Leaf height and length are 110 and 260 mm, respectively. Each leaf end is circular, with a radius of curvature of 370 mm. The distance that each leaf passes over the isocenter is 77.5 mm. Radiation leakage between adjacent leaves is minimized by an interlocking tongue-and-groove (T and G) arrangement with the height of the groove part 55 mm. The dosimetric characterizations including field characteristics, leaf position accuracy, leakage, and T and G effect were evaluated using a well-commissioned 6 MV photon beam, EDR2 films (Kodak, Rochester, NY), and water-equivalent phantoms. Furthermore, the field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were evaluated under conditions of pan or tilt rotation. Results: The differences between nominal and measured field sizes were within {+-}0.5 mm. Although the penumbra widths were greater with wider field size, the maximum width was <5.5 mm even for the fully opened field. Compared to the results of field characteristics without pan or tilt rotation, the variation in field size, penumbra width, flatness, and symmetry was within {+-}1 mm/1% at the maximum pan or tilt rotational angle. The leaf position accuracy was 0.0{+-}0.1 mm, ranging from -0.3 to 0.2 mm at four gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., 180 deg., and 270 deg. with and without pan or tilt rotation. The interleaf leakage was up to 0.21%, whereas the intraleaf leakage was <0.12%. T and G decreased the doses by 10.7%, on average. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MHI-TM2000 has the capability for high leaf position accuracy and low leakage, leading to highly accurate intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery. Furthermore, substantial changes in the dosimetric data on field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were not observed even at the maximum pan or tilt rotation.

  5. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  6. 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington Auto Show 2013 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:49 3 of 10 Energy

  7. Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show January 31, 2013 - 5:04pm Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity,

  8. Optical assay technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.; Lipert, R.J.; Murray, G.M.; Schuler, R.A.; Vera, J.; Wang, Z.M.; Weeks, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    Research conducted in the Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program during the period July 1, 1990 to September 30, 1990 is reviewed; included are reprints and preprints of papers written during this quarter. The first demonstration of isotopic selectivity in Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ICP-LEAFS) is reported and the application of ICP-LEAFS to U isotopic analysis is discussed. Current work in applying optical spectroscopy to the analytical determination of gas phase metal atoms is reviewed. Program administration topics are included in a separately bound Management Supplement to this report.

  9. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  10. DNA encoding for plant digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benning, Christoph; Doermann, Peter

    2003-11-04

    The cDNA encoding digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase (DGD1) is provided. The deduced amino acid sequence is also provided. Methods of making and using DGD1 to screen for new herbicides and alter a plant's leaf lipid composition are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors.

  11. Research Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards Research Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards Image icon map_postdoctoral-research_awards.png More Documents & Publications Research Site Locations for Current and Former EERE Postdoctoral Awards EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image

  12. Climate-linked mechanisms driving spatial and temporal variation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth and assemblage structure in Pacific Northwest estuaries, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Southard, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2014-11-01

    Using laboratory experiments on temperature and leaf metabolism, and field data sets from Washington, between 1991 and 2013, we developed lines of evidence showing that variations in water temperature, mean sea level, and desiccation stress appear to drive spatial and temporal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina).

  13. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120,000 Units in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The number of plug-in vehicles sold in the United States in 2014 grew to nearly 120,000, up from 97,000 the year before. Nissan and Chevrolet had the best sellers in 2011 with the Leaf and the Volt...

  14. EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image Image icon hybrid_bus_17144.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image Research Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards

  15. EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UPS Truck PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image Image icon ups_truck_18187.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image Research Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards

  16. Compact Beta Particle/Positron Imager for Plant Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Majewski, Stanislaw; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, Alec

    2011-06-01

    The 11CO2 tracer is used to facilitate plant biology research towards optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Plants typically have very thin leaves resulting in little medium for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event. For the emitted positron from 11C decay approximately 1mm of water equivalent material is needed for positron annihilation. Thus most of the positrons do not annihilate inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity for PET imaging. To address this problem we have developed a compact beta-positive beta-minus particle (BPBM) imager for 11CO2 leaf imaging. The detector is based on a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube optically coupled via optical grease and a 3mm thick glass plate to a 0.5mm thick Eljin EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is equipped with a flexible arm to allow its placement and orientation on the leaf of the plant of interest while maintaining the leaf's original orientation. We are planning to utilize the imaging device at the Duke University Phytotron to investigate dynamic carbon transport differences between invasive and native species.

  17. SU-E-T-583: Optimizing the MLC Model Parameters for IMRT in the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S; Yi, B; Xu, H; Yang, X; Prado, K; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To optimize the MLC model parameters for IMRT in the RayStation v.4.0 planning system and for a Varian C-series Linac with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC. Methods: The RayStation treatment planning system models rounded leaf-end MLC with the following parameters: average transmission, leaf-tip width, tongue-and-groove, and position offset. The position offset was provided by Varian. The leaf-tip width was iteratively evaluated by comparing computed and measured transverse dose profiles of MLC-defined fields at dmax in water. The profile comparison was also used to verify the MLC position offset. The transmission factor and leaf tongue width were derived iteratively by optimizing five clinical patient IMRT QA Results: brain, lung, pancreas, head-and-neck (HN), and prostate. The HN and prostate cases involved splitting fields. Verifications were performed with Mapcheck2 measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Finally, the MLC model was validated using five test IMRT cases from the AAPM TG119 report. Absolute gamma analyses (3mm/3% and 2mm/2%) were applied. In addition, computed output factors for MLC-defined small fields (22, 33, 44, 66cm) of both 6MV and 18MV were compared to those measured by the Radiological Physics Center (RPC). Results: Both 6MV and 18MV models were determined to have the same MLC parameters: 2.5% transmission, tongue-and-groove 0.05cm, and leaftip 0.3cm. IMRT QA analysis for five cases in TG119 resulted in a 100% passing rate with 3mm/3% gamma analysis for 6MV, and >97.5% for 18MV. With 2mm/2% gamma analysis, the passing rate was >94.6% for 6MV and >90.9% for 18MV. The difference between computed output factors in RayStation and RPC measurements was less than 2% for all MLCdefined fields, which meets the RPC's acceptance criterion. Conclusion: The rounded leaf-end MLC model in RayStation 4.0 planning system was verified and IMRT commissioning was clinically acceptable. The IMRT commissioning was well validated using guidance from the AAPMTG119 protocol.

  18. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were the same between CO{sub 2} treatments. Adjustments in photosynthetic capacity at elevated CO{sub 2} may optimize N allocation of C{sub 3} species in the Mojave Desert, which may influence plant performance and plant-plant interactions of these co-occurring species.

  19. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  20. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Asynchronous broadcast for ordered delivery between compute nodes in a parallel computing system where packet header space is limited

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sameer

    2010-06-15

    Disclosed is a mechanism on receiving processors in a parallel computing system for providing order to data packets received from a broadcast call and to distinguish data packets received at nodes from several incoming asynchronous broadcast messages where header space is limited. In the present invention, processors at lower leafs of a tree do not need to obtain a broadcast message by directly accessing the data in a root processor's buffer. Instead, each subsequent intermediate node's rank id information is squeezed into the software header of packet headers. In turn, the entire broadcast message is not transferred from the root processor to each processor in a communicator but instead is replicated on several intermediate nodes which then replicated the message to nodes in lower leafs. Hence, the intermediate compute nodes become "virtual root compute nodes" for the purpose of replicating the broadcast message to lower levels of a tree.

  2. Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbur, D.

    1998-05-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University] [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. Effects of energy related activities on the stress-sensitive microbial processes in mangrove detrital food webs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fell, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Nutrient flows from leaf litter decomposition are evaluated in terms of their contributions to the ecosystem. The roles of the stress sensitive microbial processes are being determined. Emphasis is on the following aspects: (1) nitrogen immobilization; (2) transport of particulate carbon to the estuary; (3) role of flocculent materials produced from leachates; (4) invertebrate utilization of carbon and nitrogen flows; and (5) possible effects on these systems if the Gulf oil spill reaches the south Florida coast. 19 references. (ACR)

  5. SREL Reprint #3002

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Role of Substrate Cues in Habitat Selection by Recently Metamorphosed Bufo terrestris and Scaphiopus holbrookii Brooke Baughman and Brian D. Todd University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina 29802,USA Abstract: Amphibians exhibit high rates of evaporative water loss that can affect their distribution, movements, and patterns of habitat use. Forest clearcutting alters habitat and results in environmental changes such as canopy removal and leaf litter

  6. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than models with temporally fixed parameters.« less

  7. SU-E-T-610: Comparison of Treatment Times Between the MLCi and Agility Multileaf Collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, C; Bowling, J [Thompson Cancer Survival Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The Agility is a new 160-leaf MLC developed by Elekta for use in their Infinity and Versa HD linacs. As compared to the MLCi, the Agility increased the maximum leaf speed from 2 cm/s to 3.5 cm/s, and the maximum primary collimator speed from 1.5 cm/s to 9.0 cm/s. The purpose of this study was to determine if the Agility MLC resulted in improved plan quality and/or shorter treatment times. Methods: An Elekta Infinity that was originally equipped with a 80 leaf MLCi was upgraded to an 160 leaf Agility. Treatment plan quality was evaluated using the Pinnacle planning system with SmartArc. Optimization was performed once for the MLCi and once for the Agility beam models using the same optimization parameters and the same number of iterations. Patient treatment times were measured for all IMRT, VMAT, and SBRT patients treated on the Infinity with the MLCi and Agility MLCs. Treatment times were extracted from the EMR and measured from when the patient first walked into the treatment room until exiting the treatment room. Results: 11,380 delivery times were measured for patients treated with the MLCi, and 1,827 measurements have been made for the Agility MLC. The average treatment times were 19.1 minutes for the MLCi and 20.8 minutes for the Agility. Using a t-test analysis, there was no difference between the two groups (t = 0.22). The dose differences between patients planned with the MLCi and the Agility MLC were minimal. For example, the dose difference for the PTV, GTV, and cord for a head and neck patient planned using Pinnacle were effectively equivalent. However, the dose to the parotid glands was slightly worse with the Agility MLC. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in treatment time, or any significant dosimetric difference between the Agility MLC and the MLCi.

  8. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brion D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  9. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Plant Polygalacturonase that Degrades Pectin and Modulates Plant Cell Expansion Significance and Impact Polygalacturonases are known to function in cell separation (e.g., leaf shedding) in plants; identification of their additional function in cell expansion makes them attractive targets for engineering plant size and cell-cell adhesion in bioenergy crop species to enhance biomass yield, pathogen resistance, and/or degradability for bioenergy production. Research Details - PGX1 overexpression

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Dominion Resources, Inc. | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Dominion Resources, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Dominion Resources, Inc. Dominion is actively participating in the deployment of alternative vehicle technologies to help lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign oil. Dominion Virginia Power (DVP), Dominion Resources, Inc.'s regulated electric subsidiary, currently owns several plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including Chevy Volts, a Nissan LEAF, and Toyota Prius plug-in

  11. ITP Nanomanufacturing: Manufacturing of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features Enhanced Boiling, Condensation, and Water Repellency through the Fabrication of Structured Surfaces In nature, extremely hydrophobic surfaces such as the lotus plant leaf are called superhydrophobic (SHP). These surfaces appear to be macroscopically smooth, but are actually composed of nano- and micro-structured surfaces, the key to their SHP prop- erties. The industrial production of SHP surfaces, which are not yet available commercially, would

  12. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secretary Chu

    2010-02-03

    Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. He also announced that the Department of Energy had closed on a $1.4 billion loan to Nissan to build the all-electric LEAF in Tennessee and create up to 1,300 American jobs.

  13. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    feeding strategies (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including

  14. NISSAN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN NISSAN PROJECT SUMMARY In January 2010, the Department of Energy issued a $1.45 billion loan facility to Nissan North America to construct one of the largest advanced battery manufacturing plants in the United States, construct an efficient and environmentally-friendly paint plant, and retool its Smyrna, Tennessee manufacturing facility for assembly of the all-electric LEAF vehicle. Nissan also used

  15. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale.more » Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.« less

  16. AVTA: The EV Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The EV Project AVTA: The EV Project The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 18 cities to deploy about 12,500 public and residential charging stations. It also demonstrated 8,650 plug-in electric vehicles. ARRA EV Project Overview Reports ARRA EV Project Overview Reports ARRA EV Project Annual Infrastructure Reports ARRA EV Project Charging Infrastructure Data Summary Reports ARRA EV Project Nissan Leaf Data Summary Reports ARRA EV

  17. Increasing plant growth by modulating omega-amidase expression in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2015-06-30

    The present disclosure relates to compositions and methods for increasing the leaf-to-root ratio of the signal metabolite 2-oxoglutaramate and related proline molecules in plants by modulating levels of .omega.-amidase to increase nitrogen use efficiency, resulting in enhanced growth, faster growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields.

  18. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Secretary Chu

    2010-09-01

    Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. He also announced that the Department of Energy had closed on a $1.4 billion loan to Nissan to build the all-electric LEAF in Tennessee and create up to 1,300 American jobs.

  19. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  20. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media about Center 5 Jun 2014 Solar energy: Springtime for the artificial leaf by Jessica Marshall: June 6 issue of Nature Magazine in a News Feature article highlights research progress in a field of artificial photosynthesis and presents a broad spectrum of alternative approaches of turning photons into fuel. Devens Gust, Director of the Bisfuel Center comments: "The bottom line is that nobody really knows yet what's going to win out, what's going to be practical." 30 Apr 2014

  1. Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -2016 Academic Year Spring Semester 2016 Hu and Munday Win Young Investigator Award UMD has Largest University Showing at 2016 ARPA-E Summit CREB Kicks Off its Research and Innovation Seed Grant Program You'll Never Be-Leaf What Makes up This Battery Fall Semester 2015 Rubloff Discusses UMD Energy Storage Center and Energy Science Hot Topics UMERC Announces RFPs for the 2016 Graduate Student Energy Fellowships Hu wins 2015 Junior Faculty Outstanding Research Award Gary Rubloff to receive Senior

  2. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calvin Howell Alex Crowell Publications INSPIRES List Useful Links Duke Phytotron TUNL Studies in Plant Physiology Primary plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a natural process for regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. Many of the main features of plant growth and development can be modeled by treating plants as organisms composed of modular morphological subunits with physiological functionality, e.g., leaf, shoot and root. Each subunit performs a specialized

  3. Colorado State University Video (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Colorado State University Video (Text Version) Colorado State University Video (Text Version) Steve Hultin, Executive Director, Facilities Management Colorado State University: This week in the Drive Leadership Program I drove the Cadillac DLR, a beautiful car and I also drove the Nissan Leaf, a fantastic car for getting around town. Having driven these cars for a week now I enjoyed the quietness. I think the efficiency is attractive but mostly I think our commutes are pretty brief and short

  4. NEES - EFRC | University of Maryland Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 DOE EFRC Principal Investigators' Meeting NEES Participates in DOE EFRC Principal Investigators' Meeting in Washington, DC. Carbonized leaf membrane as Na+ battery anode Improving Lithium Battery Performance by Characterizing Native Processes ALD Protection of Next-Generation Metal Anodes Single Material All-Solid-State Li-ion Batteries ALD Solid Electrolytes Nonuniform Si Loss in Nanowire Anodes during Li Cycling Precision Nanobatteries by the Billions Scaling limits for miniature

  5. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Treasure Homes,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sacramento, California | Department of Energy Treasure Homes, Sacramento, California Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Treasure Homes, Sacramento, California Case study of Treasure Homes, who worked with SMUD, DOE, NREL, and ConSol to build HERS-54 homes with high-efficiency HVAC, ducts buried in attic insulation, SmartVent cooling, and rooftop PV. PDF icon Treasure Homes: Fallen Leaf at Riverbend - Sacramento, CA More Documents & Publications Building America

  6. Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis Green Means Go for Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Taxis August 24, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Shannon Brescher Shea Communications Manager, Clean Cities Program The taxi, the icon of the bustling city, is getting a makeover. Cities nationwide are encouraging taxi fleets to turn over a new leaf and reduce their petroleum consumption. As taxis average more than 55,000 miles a year, reducing one taxi's gasoline consumption can make a big difference.

  7. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-ATVM-Nissan

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nissan North America LOCATIONS Decherd & Smyrna, Tennessee LOAN AMOUNT $1.45 Billion ISSUANCE DATE January 2010 PERMANENT U.S. JOBS SUPPORTED 1,300 GASOLINE SAVED 13,500,000 Gallons Annually CLIMATE BENEFIT 120,000 Metric Tons of C0 2 Prevented Annually NISSAN A new advanced battery manufacturing plant and facility upgrades allowed Nissan to manufacture the all-electric LEAF for America, in America. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY

  8. Interagency Advanced Power Group Solar Photovoltaic Panel Fall meeting minutes, October 22, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: Leaf, TPL, and {sup 60}Co Gamma source testing facilities; in-house photovolatic research effort; US Army`s interest developing small thermophotovoatic power source for a variety of missions; charging lead acid batteries with unregulated photovolatic panels; testing of solar array panels for space applications; polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} & CdTe PV solar cells and, current activities in the US photovolatic program.

  9. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Marion Mill Site - CO 09

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mill Site - CO 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: MARION MILL SITE (CO.09 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP - deferred to the State of Colorado for appropriate action. Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Sugar Leaf Road , Boulder , Colorado CO.09-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1983 CO.09-1 Site Operations: Milled and processed thorite and other rare earth ores in 1957 and 1958. Some of the thorium concentrate produced was shipped to Davison Chemical Company

  10. Companies pocket savings from better energy management | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Superior Energy Performance » Companies pocket savings from better energy management Companies pocket savings from better energy management ClimateWire, July 23, 2014 (Reprinted with permission from Environment & Energy Publishing, LLC.) In 2010, Nissan was looking to save money at its manufacturing plant in Smyrna, Tenn. The 5.5-million-square-foot plant made SUVs and cars, including the all-electric Leaf. However, it was the height of the recession. Cash was tight, and whatever

  11. Working Together to Reduce Our Environmental Footprint 2015 Earth Day Photo Contest

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2015 Earth Day Photo Contest Winners SUSTAINABILITY: "Pull Horse Tilling - Sustainable Farming" by Renee Manning, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ENERGY EFFICIENCY: "Mission Support Alliance Nissan Leaf and Charging Stations" by Lana Strickling, Hanford Site COMMUNITY: "The Flockers" by David Koontz, Pantex Plant ALTERNATIVE POWER: "Tour de Gila Bike Race" by Richard Banker, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CONSERVATION: "Environmental Sampling of Marine

  12. Three Sustainability Tools are Enhancing Environmental Benefits of Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Three Sustainability Tools are Enhancing Environmental Benefits of Biofuels Three Sustainability Tools are Enhancing Environmental Benefits of Biofuels October 28, 2015 - 11:20am Addthis The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF), the Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER), and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are three tools that are enabling an environmentally beneficial

  13. Long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Mediterranean forest vegetation of Northern-Central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkson, C.L.; Oechel, W.C.; Miglietta, F.

    1995-06-01

    Carbon dioxide springs offer a unique opportunity to study the effects of long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment on natural ecosystems. A CO{sub 2} spring near Laiatico (Pisa), Italy vents approximately 25 to 40% of pure CO{sub 2} and enriches about one hectare of a 30-35 year-old coppiced forest, forming a CO{sub 2} gradient with distance from the emission. A:Ci curves were measured on the upper canopy leaves of mature trees of Quercus ilex before bud-break and after new leaf production between April and July 1994. Photosynthetic rates of trees under elevated CO{sub 2} (490 to 1190 ppm) reflect 30-56% downward adjustment in April and no downward adjustment in July. Photosynthetic rates measured at respective growth CO{sub 2} concentrations were reduced in April by 41.8% and enhanced in July by 12.8% as growth CO{sub 2} concentration increased. Leaf nitrogen concentrations under higher CO{sub 2} levels were significantly less than those at ambient CO{sub 2} concentration in April (1.17 and 1.44% N {+-} 0.04%, respectively; P = 0.001). The results from this study indicate that new leaves of mature Quercus ilex may provide a metabolically active carbon sink for enhanced photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2}, but after one year, the strength of this sink decreases, resulting in reduced photosynthetic rates and leaf nitrogen concentrations.

  14. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  15. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at the site from meteorological observations. We found that the classical representation of constant roughness parameters (in space and time) as a fraction of canopy height performed relatively well. Nonetheless, of the approaches we tested, most of the empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and interannual variation of roughness length and displacement height as a function of the dynamics of canopy structure produced more precise and less biased estimates for friction velocity than models with temporally invariable parameters.« less

  16. Monte Carlo simulation based study of a proposed multileaf collimator for a telecobalt machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahani, G.; Dash Sharma, P. K.; Hussain, S. A.; Dutt Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, D. N.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of the present work was to propose a design of a secondary multileaf collimator (MLC) for a telecobalt machine and optimize its design features through Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The proposed MLC design consists of 72 leaves (36 leaf pairs) with additional jaws perpendicular to leaf motion having the capability of shaping a maximum square field size of 35 Multiplication-Sign 35 cm{sup 2}. The projected widths at isocenter of each of the central 34 leaf pairs and 2 peripheral leaf pairs are 10 and 5 mm, respectively. The ends of the leaves and the x-jaws were optimized to obtain acceptable values of dosimetric and leakage parameters. Monte Carlo N-Particle code was used for generating beam profiles and depth dose curves and estimating the leakage radiation through the MLC. A water phantom of dimension 50 Multiplication-Sign 50 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 3} with an array of voxels (4 Multiplication-Sign 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 0.6 cm{sup 3}= 0.72 cm{sup 3}) was used for the study of dosimetric and leakage characteristics of the MLC. Output files generated for beam profiles were exported to the PTW radiation field analyzer software through locally developed software for analysis of beam profiles in order to evaluate radiation field width, beam flatness, symmetry, and beam penumbra. Results: The optimized version of the MLC can define radiation fields of up to 35 Multiplication-Sign 35 cm{sup 2} within the prescribed tolerance values of 2 mm. The flatness and symmetry were found to be well within the acceptable tolerance value of 3%. The penumbra for a 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} field size is 10.7 mm which is less than the generally acceptable value of 12 mm for a telecobalt machine. The maximum and average radiation leakage through the MLC were found to be 0.74% and 0.41% which are well below the International Electrotechnical Commission recommended tolerance values of 2% and 0.75%, respectively. The maximum leakage through the leaf ends in closed condition was observed to be 8.6% which is less than the values reported for other MLCs designed for medical linear accelerators. Conclusions: It is concluded that dosimetric parameters and the leakage radiation of the optimized secondary MLC design are well below their recommended tolerance values. The optimized design of the proposed MLC can be integrated into a telecobalt machine by replacing the existing adjustable secondary collimator for conformal radiotherapy treatment of cancer patients.

  17. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; Lawrence, D.; Bonan, G.

    2015-04-29

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in Eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties determined by the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leaf trait database. Further, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked with each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate for intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments, and for the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.

  18. Comparison of small photon beams measured using radiochromic and silver-halide films in solid water phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeidan, Omar A.; Li, Jonathan G.; Low, Daniel A.; Dempsey, James F.

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we compared the dosimetric properties of four of the most commonly used films for megavoltage photon-beam dosimetry when irradiated under identical conditions by small multileaf-collimator (MLC) defined beamlets. Two silver-halide films (SHFs), Kodak XV2 and EDR2, and two radiochromic films (RCFs), Gafchromic HS and MD55-2, were irradiated by MLC-defined 1x1 cm{sup 2} beamlets from a Varian 2100 C/D linac equipped with a 120-leaf MLC. The beamlets were delivered with the accelerator gantry set laterally (90 deg. rotation) upon a solid-water compression film phantom at 100 cm source-to-surface distance which was positioned with the films parallel to the beam axis. Beamlets were delivered at central axis, 5.0 cm, and 10.5 cm off-axis for both leaf-end and leaf-side defined beamlets. The film dosimetry was performed using a quantitative optical density (OD) imaging system that was validated in a previous study. No significant differences between SHF and RCF measurements were observed in percentage depth doses, horizontal depth profiles, or two-dimension spatial isodose distributions in both the central axis and off-axis measurements. We found that regardless of the type of film used, RCF or SHF, a consistent data set for small beam dose modeling was generated. Previous validation studies based on the use of RCF and OD imaging system would indicate that all film produce an accurate result for small beam characterization.

  19. Predictors and mechanisms of the drought-influenced mortality of tree species along the isohydric to anisohydic continuum in a decade-long study of a central US temperate forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-01-19

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied along the isohydric to anisohydric continuum and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of one year or more, which was predicted by predawn leaf water potential integral (PLWPI), mean effective precipitation interval (a time period with no daily precipitation rates exceeding a threshold) with a daily threshold precipitation at 5 mm day-1 (MEPI5), and precipitation variability index (PVI).more » Positive temperature anomaly integral (PTAI) and vapor pressure deficit integral (VPDI) also worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The extreme drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality of all species in the subsequent year. Regardless of the degree of isohydry and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events. This, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests that hydraulic disconnection in the xylem was absent even during extreme drought and tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects of drought. We also found that species occupying middle positions along the isohydric to anisohydric continuum suffered less mortality than those at either extremes (i.e. extremely isohydric or extremely anisohydric). Finally, our study suggested that species differences in mortality mechanisms can be overwhelmed and masked in extreme droughts and should be examined in a broad range of drought intensity.« less

  20. Inboard seal mounting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, John R. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  1. Community structure and estimated contribution of primary consumers (Nematodes and Copepods) of decomposing plant litter (Juncus roemerianus and Rhizophora mangle) in South Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fell, J.W.; Cefalu, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the meiofauna associated with decomposing leaf litter from two species of coastal marshland plants: the black needle rush, Juncus roemerianus and the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The following aspects were investigated: (1) types of meiofauna present, especially nematodes; (2) changes in meiofaunal community structures with regard to season, station location, and type of plant litter; (3) amount of nematode and copepod biomass present on the decomposing plant litter; and (4) an estimation of the possible role of the nematodes in the decomposition process. 28 references, 5 figures, 9 tables. (ACR)

  2. Getting Inside Plants | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Inside Plants Seeing Green - This image of a rose leaf was captured with a plant imaging system that is based on the same technology used to conduct PET scans in humans. The ultimate goal of the plant imaging program is to see how plants will respond to rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Getting Inside Plants PET scans have been used for decades to help doctors diagnose disease in people - from cancers to heart problems. Now, the technology is returning to one of its

  3. Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER20038 The existence of species within the plant genus Flaveria with differing leaf cell arrangements and photosynthetic schemes (C3, C4, C3-C4) enabled us to identify genetic elements (promoters, 3'UTRs) that are responsible for the regulation of pre-existing metabolic genes in the pattern required for the

  4. FACE: Free-Air CO[sub 2] Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO)[sub 2] on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO[sub 2] fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO[sub 2] enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO[sub 2] in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO[sub 2] enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO[sub 2] enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  5. FACE: Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment for plant research in the field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrey, G.R.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO){sub 2} on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO{sub 2} fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO{sub 2} enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO{sub 2} enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  6. MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Video MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video Learn how fuel cells are being used in specialty vehicles, auxiliary power, standby power generators, and for supplying power and heat to buildings and warehouse operations. Text Version MotorWeek Host: The emergence of cars like the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt have generated a lot of buzz for electric drive vehicles lately. But hydrogen fuel cells, seen by many as one of the most promising long-term clean driving solutions, are making their way into

  7. Nissan Video 1 (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 (Text Version) Nissan Video 1 (Text Version) Narrator: Image you can cut your compute to work in half. Increase your productivity at home and in your job all with a car that is almost free to lease. Phil Libin (CEO-Evernote, Inc.): Everyone likes a free car. Narrator: Sound like fiction. It's reality for employees at Evernote, a company focused on building aps that help people remember things. Phil Libin: The Nissan Leaf actually helps our employees manage their time better. Narrator: Evernote

  8. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  10. Media Coverage - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v2.jpg Media Coverage News & Events JCAP News JCAP Events Media Coverage News & Events JCAP News JCAP Events Talks Meetings & Workshops Media Coverage Media Coverage + 2016 February 28, 2016 CNN, Fareed Zakarea GPS, JCAP is featured in Episode 207. February 17, 2016 SIERRA MAGAZINE, vol. 101., No.2, p. 31: "A New Leaf, Photosynthesis in the Factory." January 8, 2016 USA TODAY: " 'Flying wind mills' and nuclear waste: The future of energy?" USA TODAY: "Meet 3

  11. News Story | NEES - EFRC | University of Maryland Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Invalid Story ID No article found for this site Current Headlines Hu and Munday Win Young Investigator Award UMD has Largest University Showing at 2016 ARPA-E Summit CREB Kicks Off its Research and Innovation Seed Grant Program You'll Never Be-Leaf What Makes up This Battery Rubloff Discusses UMD Energy Storage Center and Energy Science Hot Topics UMERC Announces RFPs for the 2016 Graduate Student Energy Fellowships Hu wins 2015 Junior Faculty Outstanding Research Award Gary Rubloff

  12. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  13. Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Vehicles | Department of Energy 2: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles The Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) was first released in the U.S. market in January 2000 and 324 were sold in the first month. The Chevrolet Volt, a hybrid-electric plug-in, and the Nissan Leaf, an all-electric plug-in vehicle, were first released in December 2010. The

  14. Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Sales History | Department of Energy 6: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been available in the U.S. in limited numbers for many years. The introduction of the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt at the end of 2010 mark the beginning of mainstream plug-in vehicle sales in

  15. Fact #815: February 3, 2014 Global Sales of Top 10 Plug-In Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: February 3, 2014 Global Sales of Top 10 Plug-In Vehicles Fact #815: February 3, 2014 Global Sales of Top 10 Plug-In Vehicles Global sales are important in the context of new automotive technologies because each vehicle sold, regardless of the market, provides the automakers with data and experience necessary for adapting their vehicle technologies to a wide range of real-world conditions. In the first 11 months of 2013, the Nissan Leaf had by far the highest sales of

  16. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The first mass marketed PEVs were introduced in 2010 with the Nissan Leaf, which is a BEV, and the Chevrolet Volt, which is a PHEV. After four years of sales, California had the most PEV registrations of any

  17. Bluebirds

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Bluebirds Friday, March 4, 7:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Learn how to attract bluebirds by providing the preferred food, water, shelter, and nesting sites. The bluebird's color, musical warbling song, and insectivorous diet make them welcome guests to any backyard! Salamander Meander Saturday, March 5, 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Salamanders spend the majority of their lives hidden under forest soils and leaf litter. However, this time of year they are moving from their wintering sites to wetlands where

  18. Overview of the DOE Advanced Battery R&D Program

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Overview of the DOE Advanced Battery R&D Program David Howell, Program Manager Hybrid Electric Systems Vehicle Technologies Office June 16, 2014 VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 2 2013 Sales Set Record  46 EDV models were available for sale * 575,000 Sales  ~97,000 PEVs Sold. The top 6 models represent 95% of the sales : * Volt (23,094) * Leaf (22,610) * Model S (19,400) * Prius PHEV (12,088) * Cmax Energi (7,154) * Fusion Energi (6,089) Over 3.1 million EDVs on the road Jan.1, 2014 -

  19. Biomass 2012: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 2: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities Biomass 2012: Confronting Challenges, Creating Opportunities Sustaining a Commitment to Bioenergy Biomass 2012 Logo. Image consists of a curved leaf and green and yellow circles surrounding a silhouette of the US Capitol building. The text 'U.S. Department of Energy Biomass 2012' is overlayed on the image. July 10-11, 2012 Washington, D.C. Convention Center 801 Mt. Vernon Place, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 On July 10-11, 2012, the

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Eimco Corp - IL 0-01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eimco Corp - IL 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Eimco Corp. (IL.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Palatine , Illinois IL.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.0-01-1 Site Operations: Conducted laboratory leaf filtration tests IL.0-01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on the limited scope of activities at the site IL.0-01-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary

  1. Salmon, Mississippi, Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salmon, Mississippi, Site Location of the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Site Description and History The Salmon, Mississippi, Site, also called the Tatum Dome Test Site, is a 1,470-acre tract of land in Lamar County, Mississippi, 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg. The nearest town is Purvis, about 10 miles east of the site. The site is in a forested region known as the long-leaf pine belt of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Elevations in the area range from about 240 to 350 feet above sea level. The site

  2. The Facts On Electric Vehicles: Interview with Pat Davis | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Facts On Electric Vehicles: Interview with Pat Davis The Facts On Electric Vehicles: Interview with Pat Davis December 22, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Electric vehicles have been an extremely hot topic lately and no stranger to the Energy Blog. When the first public curbside electric vehicle charging station rolled out in Washington DC, we covered it. And when Secretary Chu got a first-hand look at the Nissan Leaf

  3. Technical Note: Modeling a complex micro-multileaf collimator using the standard BEAMnrc distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kairn, T.; Kenny, J.; Crowe, S. B.; Fielding, A. L.; Franich, R. D.; Johnston, P. N.; Knight, R. T.; Langton, C. M.; Schlect, D.; Trapp, J. V.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The component modules in the standard BEAMnrc distribution may appear to be insufficient to model micro-multileaf collimators that have trifaceted leaf ends and complex leaf profiles. This note indicates, however, that accurate Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beams defined by a complex collimation device can be completed using BEAMnrc's standard VARMLC component module. Methods: That this simple collimator model can produce spatially and dosimetrically accurate microcollimated fields is illustrated using comparisons with ion chamber and film measurements of the dose deposited by square and irregular fields incident on planar, homogeneous water phantoms. Results: Monte Carlo dose calculations for on-axis and off-axis fields are shown to produce good agreement with experimental values, even on close examination of the penumbrae. Conclusions: The use of a VARMLC model of the micro-multileaf collimator, along with a commissioned model of the associated linear accelerator, is therefore recommended as an alternative to the development or use of in-house or third-party component modules for simulating stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery treatments. Simulation parameters for the VARMLC model are provided which should allow other researchers to adapt and use this model to study clinical stereotactic radiotherapy treatments.

  4. Potential of Melastoma malabathricum as bio-accumulator for uranium and thorium from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saat, Ahmad; Kamsani, Ain Shaqina; Kamri, Wan Nur Aina Nadzira; Talib, Nur Hasyimah Mat; Wood, Ab Khalik; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    Uranium and Thorium are naturally occuring radionuclides. However, due to anthropogenic activities in some locations their concentrations in the soils could be elevated. This study explores the potential of Melastoma malabathricum (locally known as pokok senduduk) as bio-accumulator of uranium and thorium from soils of three different study areas, namely former tin mining, industrial and residential/commercial areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study found elevated concentrations of uranium and thorium in former tin mining soils as compared to natural abundance. However in industral and residential/commercial areas the concentrations are within the range of natural abundance. In terms of transfer factor (TF), in ex-mining areas TF > 1 for uranium in the leaf, stem and roots, indicating accumulation of uranium from soil. However for thorium TF < 1, indicating the occurence of transfer from soil to root, stem and leaf, but no accumulation. For other areas only transfer of uranium and thorium were observed. The results indicated the potential of Melastoma malabathricum to be used as bio-accumulatior of uranium, especially in areas of elevated concentration.

  5. Minnesota agripower project. Quarterly report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baloun, J.

    1997-07-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota Industrial Park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project will utilize air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. The plant will demonstrate high efficiency and environmentally compatible electric power production, as well as increased economic yield from farm operations in the region. The initial phase of the Minnesota Agripower Project (MAP) will be to perform alfalfa feedstock testing, prepare preliminary designs, and develop detailed plans with estimated costs for project implementation. The second phase of MAP will include detailed engineering, construction, and startup. Full commercial operation will start in 2001.

  6. Photoperiodic Regulation of the Seasonal Pattern of Photosynthetic Capacity and the Implications for Carbon Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauerle, William L.; Oren, Ram; Way, Danielle A.; Qian, Song S.; Stoy, Paul C.; Thornton, Peter E; Bowden, Joseph D.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Reynolds, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Although temperature is an important driver of seasonal changes in photosynthetic physiology, photoperiod also regulates leaf activity. Climate change will extend growing seasons if temperature cues predominate, but photoperiod-controlled species will show limited responsiveness to warming. We show that photoperiod explains more seasonal variation in photosynthetic activity across 23 tree species than temperature. Although leaves remain green, photosynthetic capacity peaks just after summer solstice and declines with decreasing photoperiod, before air temperatures peak. In support of these findings, saplings grown at constant temperature but exposed to an extended photoperiod maintained high photosynthetic capacity, but photosynthetic activity declined in saplings experiencing a naturally shortening photoperiod; leaves remained equally green in both treatments. Incorporating a photoperiodic correction of photosynthetic physiology into a global-scale terrestrial carbon-cycle model significantly improves predictions of seasonal atmospheric CO{sub 2} cycling, demonstrating the benefit of such a function in coupled climate system models. Accounting for photoperiod-induced seasonality in photosynthetic parameters reduces modeled global gross primary production 2.5% ({approx}4 PgC y{sup -1}), resulting in a >3% ({approx}2 PgC y{sup -1}) decrease of net primary production. Such a correction is also needed in models estimating current carbon uptake based on remotely sensed greenness. Photoperiod-associated declines in photosynthetic capacity could limit autumn carbon gain in forests, even if warming delays leaf senescence.

  7. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  8. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  9. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); amore » “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.« less

  10. Metabolic profiling reveals altered sugar and secondary metabolism in response to UGPase overexpression in Populus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Payyavula, Raja S.; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Jawdy, Sara; Sykes, Robert; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Kalluri, Udaya C.

    2014-10-07

    Background: UDP-glucose pyrophopharylase (UGPase) is a sugar metabolizing enzyme (E.C. 2.7.7.9) that catalyzes a reversible reaction of UDP-glucose and pyrophosphate from glucose-1-phosphate and uridine triphosphate glucose. UDP-glucose is a key intermediate sugar that is channeled to multiple metabolic pathways. The functional role of UGPase in woody plants such as Populus is poorly understood. Results: We characterized the functional role of UGPase in Populus deltoides by overexpressing a native gene. Overexpression of the native gene resulted in increased leaf area and leaf-to-shoot biomass ratio but decreased shoot and root growth. Metabolomic analyses showed that manipulation of UGPase results in perturbations inmore » primary as well as secondary metabolism resulting in reduced sugar and starch levels and increased phenolics such as caffeoyl- and feruloyl conjugates. While cellulose and lignin levels in the cell walls were not significantly altered, the syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio was significantly reduced. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that UGPase plays a key role in the tightly coupled primary and secondary metabolic pathways and perturbation in its function results in pronounced effects on growth and metabolism outside of cell wall biosynthesis of Populus.« less

  11. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanakya, H.N. Sharma, Isha; Ramachandra, T.V.

    2009-04-15

    The fermentation characteristics of six specific types of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were examined, with an emphasis on properties that are needed when designing plug-flow type anaerobic bioreactors. More specifically, the decomposition patterns of a vegetable (cabbage), fruits (banana and citrus peels), fresh leaf litter of bamboo and teak leaves, and paper (newsprint) waste streams as feedstocks were studied. Individual OFMSW components were placed into nylon mesh bags and subjected to various fermentation periods (solids retention time, SRT) within the inlet of a functioning plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals, and their composition was analyzed to monitor decomposition rates and changes in chemical composition. Components like cabbage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor (PFBR) as well as under a biological methane potential (BMP) assay, while other OFMSW components (leaf litter from bamboo and teak leaves and newsprint) fermented slowly with poor process stability and moderate biodegradation. For fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW), a rapid and efficient removal of pectins is the main cause of rapid disintegration of these feedstocks, which left behind very little compost forming residues (2-5%). Teak and bamboo leaves and newsprint decomposed only to 25-50% in 30 d. These results confirm the potential for volatile fatty acids accumulation in a PFBR's inlet and suggest a modification of the inlet zone or operation of a PFBR with the above feedstocks.

  12. An Insect Herbivore Microbiome with High Plant Biomass-Degrading Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Garret; Barry, Kerrie; Goodwin, Lynne; Scott, Jarrod; Aylward, Frank; Adams, Sandra; Pinto-Tomas, Adrian; Foster, Clifton; Pauly, Markus; Weimer, Paul; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Osterberger, Jolene; Harkins, Timothy; Slater, Steven; Donohue, Timothy; Currie, Cameron; Tringe, Susannah G.

    2010-09-23

    Herbivores can gain indirect access to recalcitrant carbon present in plant cell walls through symbiotic associations with lignocellulolytic microbes. A paradigmatic example is the leaf-cutter ant (Tribe: Attini), which uses fresh leaves to cultivate a fungus for food in specialized gardens. Using a combination of sugar composition analyses, metagenomics, and whole-genome sequencing, we reveal that the fungus garden microbiome of leaf-cutter ants is composed of a diverse community of bacteria with high plant biomass-degrading capacity. Comparison of this microbiome?s predicted carbohydrate-degrading enzyme profile with other metagenomes shows closest similarity to the bovine rumen, indicating evolutionary convergence of plant biomass degrading potential between two important herbivorous animals. Genomic and physiological characterization of two dominant bacteria in the fungus garden microbiome provides evidence of their capacity to degrade cellulose. Given the recent interest in cellulosic biofuels, understanding how large-scale and rapid plant biomass degradation occurs in a highly evolved insect herbivore is of particular relevance for bioenergy.

  13. Remotely estimating photosynthetic capacity, and its response to temperature, in vegetation canopies using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serbin, Shawn P.; Singh, Aditya; Desai, Ankur R.; Dubois, Sean G.; Jablonski, Andrew D.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; Kruger, Eric L.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-11

    To date, the utility of ecosystem and Earth system models (EESMs) has been limited by poor spatial and temporal representation of critical input parameters. For example, EESMs often rely on leaf-scale or literature-derived estimates for a key determinant of canopy photosynthesis, the maximum velocity of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax, ?mol m2 s1). Our recent work (Ainsworth et al., 2014; Serbin et al., 2012) showed that reflectance spectroscopy could be used to estimate Vcmax at the leaf level. Here, we present evidence that imaging spectroscopy data can be used to simultaneously predict Vcmax and its sensitivity to temperature (EV) at the canopy scale. In 2013 and 2014, high-altitude Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) imagery and contemporaneous ground-based assessments of canopy structure and leaf photosynthesis were acquired across an array of monospecific agroecosystems in central and southern California, USA. A partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was employed to characterize the pixel-level variation in canopy Vcmax (at a standardized canopy temperature of 30 C) and EV, based on visible and shortwave infrared AVIRIS spectra (4142447 nm). Our approach yielded parsimonious models with strong predictive capability for Vcmax (at 30 C) and EV (R2 of withheld data = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), both of which varied substantially in the field (? 1.7 fold) across the sampled crop types. The models were applied to additional AVIRIS imagery to generate maps of Vcmax and EV, as well as their uncertainties, for agricultural landscapes in California. The spatial patterns exhibited in the maps were consistent with our in-situ observations. As a result, these findings highlight the considerable promise of airborne and, by implication, space-borne imaging spectroscopy, such as the proposed HyspIRI mission, to map spatial and temporal variation in key drivers of photosynthetic metabolism in terrestrial vegetation.

  14. Remotely estimating photosynthetic capacity, and its response to temperature, in vegetation canopies using imaging spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Serbin, Shawn P.; Singh, Aditya; Desai, Ankur R.; Dubois, Sean G.; Jablonski, Andrew D.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; Kruger, Eric L.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2015-06-11

    To date, the utility of ecosystem and Earth system models (EESMs) has been limited by poor spatial and temporal representation of critical input parameters. For example, EESMs often rely on leaf-scale or literature-derived estimates for a key determinant of canopy photosynthesis, the maximum velocity of RuBP carboxylation (Vcmax, μmol m–2 s–1). Our recent work (Ainsworth et al., 2014; Serbin et al., 2012) showed that reflectance spectroscopy could be used to estimate Vcmax at the leaf level. Here, we present evidence that imaging spectroscopy data can be used to simultaneously predict Vcmax and its sensitivity to temperature (EV) at the canopymore » scale. In 2013 and 2014, high-altitude Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy (AVIRIS) imagery and contemporaneous ground-based assessments of canopy structure and leaf photosynthesis were acquired across an array of monospecific agroecosystems in central and southern California, USA. A partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was employed to characterize the pixel-level variation in canopy Vcmax (at a standardized canopy temperature of 30 °C) and EV, based on visible and shortwave infrared AVIRIS spectra (414–2447 nm). Our approach yielded parsimonious models with strong predictive capability for Vcmax (at 30 °C) and EV (R2 of withheld data = 0.94 and 0.92, respectively), both of which varied substantially in the field (≥ 1.7 fold) across the sampled crop types. The models were applied to additional AVIRIS imagery to generate maps of Vcmax and EV, as well as their uncertainties, for agricultural landscapes in California. The spatial patterns exhibited in the maps were consistent with our in-situ observations. As a result, these findings highlight the considerable promise of airborne and, by implication, space-borne imaging spectroscopy, such as the proposed HyspIRI mission, to map spatial and temporal variation in key drivers of photosynthetic metabolism in terrestrial vegetation.« less

  15. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmore » of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.« less

  16. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Vehicle Placement Maps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following maps describe where the EV Project deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Ahmad A

    2013-04-16

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  18. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Faraj, Daniel A

    2014-11-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer that includes: transmitting, by the logical root to all of the nodes directly connected to the logical root, a message; and for each node except the logical root: receiving the message; if that node is the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received; if that node received the message from a parent node and if that node is not a leaf node, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes; and if that node received the message from a child node and if that node is not the physical root, then transmitting the message to all of the child nodes except the child node from which the message was received and transmitting the message to the parent node.

  19. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  20. Quality assurance for online adapted treatment plans: Benchmarking and delivery monitoring simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Taoran Wu, Qiuwen; Yang, Yun; Rodrigues, Anna; Yin, Fang-Fang; Jackie Wu, Q.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: An important challenge facing online adaptive radiation therapy is the development of feasible and efficient quality assurance (QA). This project aimed to validate the deliverability of online adapted plans and develop a proof-of-concept online delivery monitoring system for online adaptive radiation therapy QA. Methods: The first part of this project benchmarked automatically online adapted prostate treatment plans using traditional portal dosimetry IMRT QA. The portal dosimetry QA results of online adapted plans were compared to original (unadapted) plans as well as randomly selected prostate IMRT plans from our clinic. In the second part, an online delivery monitoring system was designed and validated via a simulated treatment with intentional multileaf collimator (MLC) errors. This system was based on inputs from the dynamic machine information (DMI), which continuously reports actual MLC positions and machine monitor units (MUs) at intervals of 50 ms or less during delivery. Based on the DMI, the system performed two levels of monitoring/verification during the delivery: (1) dynamic monitoring of cumulative fluence errors resulting from leaf position deviations and visualization using fluence error maps (FEMs); and (2) verification of MLC positions against the treatment plan for potential errors in MLC motion and data transfer at each control point. Validation of the online delivery monitoring system was performed by introducing intentional systematic MLC errors (ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm) to the DMI files for both leaf banks. These DMI files were analyzed by the proposed system to evaluate the systems performance in quantifying errors and revealing the source of errors, as well as to understand patterns in the FEMs. In addition, FEMs from 210 actual prostate IMRT beams were analyzed using the proposed system to further validate its ability to catch and identify errors, as well as establish error magnitude baselines for prostate IMRT delivery. Results: Online adapted plans were found to have similar delivery accuracy in comparison to clinical IMRT plans when validated with portal dosimetry IMRT QA. FEMs for the simulated deliveries with intentional MLC errors exhibited distinct patterns for different MLC error magnitudes and directions, indicating that the proposed delivery monitoring system is highly specific in detecting the source of errors. Implementing the proposed QA system for online adapted plans revealed excellent delivery accuracy: over 99% of leaf position differences were within 0.5 mm, and >99% of pixels in the FEMs had fluence errors within 0.5 MU. Patterns present in the FEMs and MLC control point analysis for actual patient cases agreed with the error pattern analysis results, further validating the systems ability to reveal and differentiate MLC deviations. Calculation of the fluence map based on the DMI was performed within 2 ms after receiving each DMI input. Conclusions: The proposed online delivery monitoring system requires minimal additional resources and time commitment to the current clinical workflow while still maintaining high sensitivity to leaf position errors and specificity to error types. The presented online delivery monitoring system therefore represents a promising QA system candidate for online adaptive radiation therapy.

  1. Highly reactive light-dependent monoterpenes in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, A. B.; Jardine, K. J.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Martins, G.; Durgante, F.; Carneiro, V.; Higuchi, N.; Manzi, A. O.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2015-03-06

    Despite orders of magnitude difference in atmospheric reactivity and great diversity in biological functioning, little is known about monoterpene speciation in tropical forests. Here we report vertically resolved ambient air mixing ratios for 12 monoterpenes in a central Amazon rainforest including observations of the highly reactive cis-β-ocimene (160 ppt), trans-β-ocimene (79 ppt), and terpinolene (32 ppt) which accounted for an estimated 21% of total monoterpene composition yet 55% of the upper canopy monoterpene ozonolysis rate. All 12 monoterpenes showed a mixing ratio peak in the upper canopy, with three demonstrating subcanopy peaks in 7 of 11 profiles. Leaf level emissions of highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for up to 1.9% of photosynthesis confirming light-dependent emissions across several Amazon tree genera. These results suggest that highly reactive monoterpenes play important antioxidant roles during photosynthesis in plants and serve as near-canopy sources of secondary organic aerosol precursors through atmospheric photooxidation via ozonolysis.

  2. Energy from Water and Sunlight: Affordable Energy from Water and Sunlight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Sun Catalytix is developing wireless energy-storage devices that convert sunlight and water into renewable fuel. Learning from nature, one such device mimics the ability of a tree leaf to convert sunlight into storable energy. It is comprised of a silicon solar cell coated with catalytic materials, which help speed up the energy conversion process. When this cell is placed in a container of water and exposed to sunlight, it splits the water into bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen and oxygen can later be recombined to create electricity, when the sun goes down for example. The Sun Catalytix device is novel in many ways: it consists primarily of low-cost, earth-abundant materials where other attempts have required more expensive materials like platinum. Its operating conditions also facilitate the use of less costly construction materials, whereas other efforts have required extremely corrosive conditions.

  3. AVTA- ARRA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the consumer charging behavior from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in host plants (5,27,40). Tatineni and colleagues discovered that the HLB bacteria were unevenly distributed in phloem of bark tissue, vascular tissue of the leaf midrib, roots, and different floral and fruit parts (43). Unsuccessful attempts in culturing the pathogen are notably hampering efforts to understand its biology and pathogenesis mechanism. Using a modified Koch's Postulates approach, Jagoueix and colleagues were able to re-infect periwinkle plants from a mixed microbial community harvested from HLB diseased plants (25). Emergence of the disease in otherwise healthy plants led to the conclusion that HLB was associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp. based on its 16S rDNA sequence (18,25). Currently, three species of the pathogen are recognized from trees with HLB disease based on 16S rDNA sequence: Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), Ca. Liberibacter africanus (Laf), and Ca. Liberibacter americanus (Lam); Las is the most prevalent species among HLB diseased trees (5,12,18,25,44). Las is naturally transmitted to citrus by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and can be artificially transmitted by grafting from citrus to citrus and dodder (Cuscuta campestris) to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Xanthi) (5). Based on current research regarding the associations of Liberibacter in planta there is not enough evidence to implicate Liberibacter as the definitive causal agent of HLB disease due to its resistance to cultivation in vitro. It is possible that HLB disease may be the result of complex etiology where Liberibacter interacts with other endophytic bacteria. However, there is not enough evidence regarding its association(s) in planta to make this conclusion, nor is it known whether associated microbial communities play a role in expression of pathogenic traits. The main objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that other bacteria besides Ca. Liberibacter spp. are associated with citrus greening disease. The differences between the relative abundance, species richness and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial communitie

  5. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golestaneh, A.A.

    1980-01-21

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  6. Solid state engine using nitinol memory alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golestaneh, Ahmad A.

    1981-01-01

    A device for converting heat energy to mechanical energy includes a reservoir of a hot fluid and a rotor assembly mounted thereabove so a portion of it dips into the hot fluid. The rotor assembly may include a shaft having four spokes extending radially outwardly therefrom at right angles to each other, a floating ring and four flexible elements composed of a thermal memory material having a critical temperature between the temperature of the hot fluid and that of the ambient atmosphere extending between the ends of the spokes and the floating ring. Preferably, the flexible elements are attached to the floating ring through curved leaf springs. Energetic shape recovery of the flexible elements in the hot fluid causes the rotor assembly to rotate.

  7. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  8. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  9. Vegetation regulation on streamflow intra-annual variability through adaption to climate variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Li, Shuai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Demissie, Yonas; Ran, Qihua; Blschl, Gnter

    2015-12-16

    This study aims to provide a mechanistic explanation of the empirical patterns of streamflow intra-annual variability revealed by watershed-scale hydrological data across the contiguous United States. A mathematical extension of the Budyko formula with explicit account for the soil moisture storage change is used to show that, in catchments with a strong seasonal coupling between precipitation and potential evaporation, climate aridity has a dominant control on intra-annual streamflow variability, but in other catchments, additional factors related to soil water storage change also have important controls on how precipitation seasonality propagates to streamflow. More importantly, use of leaf area index as a direct and indirect indicator of the above ground biomass and plant root system, respectively, reveals the vital role of vegetation in regulating soil moisture storage and hence streamflow intra-annual variability under different climate conditions.

  10. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  11. Multileaf collimator performance monitoring and improvement using semiautomated quality control testing and statistical process control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ltourneau, Daniel McNiven, Andrea; Keller, Harald; Wang, An; Amin, Md Nurul; Pearce, Jim; Norrlinger, Bernhard; Jaffray, David A.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: High-quality radiation therapy using highly conformal dose distributions and image-guided techniques requires optimum machine delivery performance. In this work, a monitoring system for multileaf collimator (MLC) performance, integrating semiautomated MLC quality control (QC) tests and statistical process control tools, was developed. The MLC performance monitoring system was used for almost a year on two commercially available MLC models. Control charts were used to establish MLC performance and assess test frequency required to achieve a given level of performance. MLC-related interlocks and servicing events were recorded during the monitoring period and were investigated as indicators of MLC performance variations. Methods: The QC test developed as part of the MLC performance monitoring system uses 2D megavoltage images (acquired using an electronic portal imaging device) of 23 fields to determine the location of the leaves with respect to the radiation isocenter. The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was assessed by detecting the MLC leaf positions on 127 megavoltage images of a static field. After initial calibration, the MLC performance monitoring QC test was performed 34 times/week over a period of 1011 months to monitor positional accuracy of individual leaves for two different MLC models. Analysis of test results was performed using individuals control charts per leaf with control limits computed based on the measurements as well as two sets of specifications of 0.5 and 1 mm. Out-of-specification and out-of-control leaves were automatically flagged by the monitoring system and reviewed monthly by physicists. MLC-related interlocks reported by the linear accelerator and servicing events were recorded to help identify potential causes of nonrandom MLC leaf positioning variations. Results: The precision of the MLC performance monitoring QC test and the MLC itself was within 0.22 mm for most MLC leaves and the majority of the apparent leaf motion was attributed to beam spot displacements between irradiations. The MLC QC test was performed 193 and 162 times over the monitoring period for the studied units and recalibration had to be repeated up to three times on one of these units. For both units, rate of MLC interlocks was moderately associated with MLC servicing events. The strongest association with the MLC performance was observed between the MLC servicing events and the total number of out-of-control leaves. The average elapsed time for which the number of out-of-specification or out-of-control leaves was within a given performance threshold was computed and used to assess adequacy of MLC test frequency. Conclusions: A MLC performance monitoring system has been developed and implemented to acquire high-quality QC data at high frequency. This is enabled by the relatively short acquisition time for the images and automatic image analysis. The monitoring system was also used to record and track the rate of MLC-related interlocks and servicing events. MLC performances for two commercially available MLC models have been assessed and the results support monthly test frequency for widely accepted 1 mm specifications. Higher QC test frequency is however required to maintain tighter specification and in-control behavior.

  12. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nlscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  13. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  14. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  15. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Electric Grid Impact Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the impact on the electrical grid from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  16. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  17. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Charging Infrastructure Data Summary Reports

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports summarize data collected from the 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers deployed by the EV Project. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  18. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following document describes the context of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. SU-E-T-374: Sensitivity of ArcCHECK to Tomotherapy Delivery Errors: Dependence On Analysis Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, A; Chu, J; Turian, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear) is a cylindrical diode array detector allowing three-dimensional sampling of dose, particularly useful in treatment delivery QA of helical tomotherapy. Gamma passing rate is a common method of analyzing results from diode arrays, but is less intuitive in 3D with complex measured dose distributions. This study explores the sensitivity of gamma passing rate to choice of analysis technique in the context of its ability to detect errors introduced into the treatment delivery. Methods: Nine treatment plans were altered to introduce errors in: couch speed, gantry/sonogram synchronization, and leaf open time. Each plan was then delivered to ArcCHECK in each of the following arrangements: offset, when the high dose area of the plan is delivered to the side of the phantom so that some diode measurements will be on the order of the prescription dose, and centered, when the high dose is in the center of the phantom where an ion chamber measurement may be acquired, but the diode measurements are in the mid to low-dose region at the periphery of the plan. Gamma analysis was performed at 3%/3mm tolerance and both global and local gamma criteria. The threshold of detectability for each error type was calculated as the magnitude at which the gamma passing rate drops below 90%. Results: Global gamma criteria reduced the sensitivity in the offset arrangement (from 2.3% to 4.5%, 8 to 21, and 3ms to 8ms for couch-speed decrease, gantry-error, and leaf-opening increase, respectively). The centered arrangement detected changes at 3.3%, 5, and 4ms with smaller variation. Conclusion: Each arrangement has advantages; offsetting allows more sampling of the higher dose region, while centering allows an ion chamber measurement and potentially better use of tools such as 3DVH, at the cost of positioning more of the diodes in the sometimes noisy mid-dose region.

  20. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; et al

    2015-04-29

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in Eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties determined by the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leafmore » trait database. Further, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked with each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate for intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments, and for the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.« less

  1. Mathematical modeling of positron emission tomography (PET) data to assess radiofluoride transport in living plants following petiolar administration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modelingmore » of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.« less

  2. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn withinmore » the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  3. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermody, Orla [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Engel, Elizabeth C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allen, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  4. A retrospective analysis for patient-specific quality assurance of volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guangjun; Wu, Kui; Peng, Guang; Zhang, Yingjie; Bai, Sen

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is now widely used clinically, as it is capable of delivering a highly conformal dose distribution in a short time interval. We retrospectively analyzed patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of VMAT and examined the relationships between the planning parameters and the QA results. A total of 118 clinical VMAT cases underwent pretreatment QA. All plans had 3-dimensional diode array measurements, and 69 also had ion chamber measurements. Dose distribution and isocenter point dose were evaluated by comparing the measurements and the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. In addition, the relationship between QA results and several planning parameters, such as dose level, control points (CPs), monitor units (MUs), average field width, and average leaf travel, were also analyzed. For delivered dose distribution, a gamma analysis passing rate greater than 90% was obtained for all plans and greater than 95% for 100 of 118 plans with the 3%/3-mm criteria. The difference (mean standard deviation) between the point doses measured by the ion chamber and those calculated by TPS was 0.9% 2.0% for all plans. For all cancer sites, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric cancer have the lowest and highest average passing rates, respectively. From multivariate linear regression analysis, the dose level (p = 0.001) and the average leaf travel (p < 0.001) showed negative correlations with the passing rate, and the average field width (p = 0.003) showed a positive correlation with the passing rate, all indicating a correlation between the passing rate and the plan complexity. No statistically significant correlation was found between MU or CP and the passing rate. Analysis of the results of dosimetric pretreatment measurements as a function of VMAT plan parameters can provide important information to guide the plan parameter setting and optimization in TPS.

  5. SU-E-T-542: Comparison of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) of Brain Lesions Using Gamma Knife, VMAT, IMRT, and Conformal Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S; Charpentier, P; Chan, P; Neicu, T; Miyamoto, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare dose distributions in stereotactic radiation surgery of brain lesions using gamma Knife, VMAT, conformal arcs, and IMRT in order to provide an optimal treatment. Methods: Dose distributions from single shot of 4C model of Gamma Knife at the helmet collimation sizes of 4, 8, 14, and 18 mm in diameter were compared with full arcs with the square shapes of 4×4 (or 5×5), 8×8 (or 10×10), and spherical shapes of 16 or 20 mm in diameter using EDR3 films in the same gamma knife QA phantom. Plans for ten SRS cases with single and multiple lesions were created in gamma knife plans and Pinnacle plans. The external beam plans had enlarged field size by 2-mm and used single conformal full circle arc for solitary lesion and none coplanar arcs/beams for multiple lesions. Coverage, conformity index, dose to critical organs, and integral dose to the brain and nearby critical structures were compared on all plans. Structures and dose matrices were registered in a Velocity deformable image registration system. Results: Single full circle arc from Elekta beam-modulate MLC (4-mm leaf thickness) and agility MLC (5-mm leaf thickness) have larger penumbra and less flatness than that of Gamma Knife single shot. None-coplanar arcs or beams were required to achieve similar dose distribution. In general, Gamma Knife plans provided significant less integral dose than that of linac-based plans. Benefits of IMRT and VMAT versus gamma Knife and conformal arcs were not significant. Conclusion: Our dose measurement and treatment planning evaluation clearly demonstrated dose distribution differences amount current popular SRS modalities for small solitary and multiple brain lesions. The trend of using MLC shape beams or arcs to replace conventional cones should be revisited in order to keep lower integral dose if the late correlates with some radiation-induced side effects. Pilot grant from Elekta LLC.

  6. Commissioning of the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator: A multi-institutional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Bellon, M.; Wen, N.; Zhao, B.; Chetty, I. J.; Foster, R.; Speiser, M.; Solberg, T.; Altunbas, C.; Westerly, D.; Miften, M.; Altman, M.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Latest generation linear accelerators (linacs), i.e., TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and its stereotactic counterpart, TrueBeam STx, have several unique features, including high-dose-rate flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon modes, reengineered electron modes with new scattering foil geometries, updated imaging hardware/software, and a novel control system. An evaluation of five TrueBeam linacs at three different institutions has been performed and this work reports on the commissioning experience. Methods: Acceptance and commissioning data were analyzed for five TrueBeam linacs equipped with 120 leaf (5 mm width) MLCs at three different institutions. Dosimetric data and mechanical parameters were compared. These included measurements of photon beam profiles (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, 15X), photon and electron percent depth dose (PDD) curves (6, 9, 12 MeV), relative photon output factors (Scp), electron cone factors, mechanical isocenter accuracy, MLC transmission, and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). End-to-end testing and IMRT commissioning were also conducted. Results: Gantry/collimator isocentricity measurements were similar (0.27-0.28 mm), with overall couch/gantry/collimator values of 0.46-0.68 mm across the three institutions. Dosimetric data showed good agreement between machines. The average MLC DLGs for 6, 10, and 15 MV photons were 1.33 {+-} 0.23, 1.57 {+-} 0.24, and 1.61 {+-} 0.26 mm, respectively. 6XFFF and 10XFFF modes had average DLGs of 1.16 {+-} 0.22 and 1.44 {+-} 0.30 mm, respectively. MLC transmission showed minimal variation across the three institutions, with the standard deviation <0.2% for all linacs. Photon and electron PDDs were comparable for all energies. 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beam quality, %dd(10){sub x} varied less than 0.3% for all linacs. Output factors (Scp) and electron cone factors agreed within 0.27%, on average; largest variations were observed for small field sizes (1.2% coefficient of variation, 10 MV, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cm{sup 2}) and small cone sizes (<1% coefficient of variation, 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 cm{sup 2} cone), respectively. Conclusions: Overall, excellent agreement was observed in TrueBeam commissioning data. This set of multi-institutional data can provide comparison data to others embarking on TrueBeam commissioning, ultimately improving the safety and quality of beam commissioning.

  7. Regional CO2 and latent heat surface fluxes in the Southern Great Plains: Measurements, modeling, and scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W. J.; Biraud, S.C.; Torn, M.S.; Fischer, M.L.; Billesbach, D.P.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-08-15

    Characterizing net ecosystem exchanges (NEE) of CO{sub 2} and sensible and latent heat fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes is difficult, yet critical given expected changes in climate and land use. We report here a measurement and modeling study designed to improve our understanding of surface to atmosphere gas exchanges under very heterogeneous land cover in the mostly agricultural U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP). We combined three years of site-level, eddy covariance measurements in several of the dominant land cover types with regional-scale climate data from the distributed Mesonet stations and Next Generation Weather Radar precipitation measurements to calibrate a land surface model of trace gas and energy exchanges (isotope-enabled land surface model (ISOLSM)). Yearly variations in vegetation cover distributions were estimated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index and compared to regional and subregional vegetation cover type estimates from the U.S. Department of Agriculture census. We first applied ISOLSM at a 250 m spatial scale to account for vegetation cover type and leaf area variations that occur on hundred meter scales. Because of computational constraints, we developed a subsampling scheme within 10 km 'macrocells' to perform these high-resolution simulations. We estimate that the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility SGP region net CO{sub 2} exchange with the local atmosphere was -240, -340, and -270 gC m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} (positive toward the atmosphere) in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively, with large seasonal variations. We also performed simulations using two scaling approaches at resolutions of 10, 30, 60, and 90 km. The scaling approach applied in current land surface models led to regional NEE biases of up to 50 and 20% in weekly and annual estimates, respectively. An important factor in causing these biases was the complex leaf area index (LAI) distribution within cover types. Biases in predicted weekly average regional latent heat fluxes were smaller than for NEE, but larger than for either ecosystem respiration or assimilation alone. However, spatial and diurnal variations of hundreds of W m{sup -2} in latent heat fluxes were common. We conclude that, in this heterogeneous system, characterizing vegetation cover type and LAI at the scale of spatial variation are necessary for accurate estimates of bottom-up, regional NEE and surface energy fluxes.

  8. DNA sequence and spatial expression pattern of a drought- and ABA-induced gene in tomato

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plant, A.L.; Cohen, A.; Moses, M.S.; Bray, E.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The genomic and cDNA sequence for the previously characterized drought- and ABA-induced gene pLE16 are presented. The single open reading frame contained within the gene has the capacity to encode a polypeptide of 12.7 kD with a predicted pI of 8.73. The amino-terminus is highly hydrophobic and is characteristic of signal sequences which target polypeptides for export from the cytoplasm. There is considerable homology (51.3% identity) between the amino-terminus of pLE16 and the amino-terminal domains of a group of proteins that comprise the phospholipid transfer proteins. Although this homology breaks down at the carboxy-terminal half of pLE16, the homology that exists suggests that pLE16 may be associated with membranes and may therefore play a role in maintaining membrane integrity during drought-stress. pLE16 is expressed in drought-stressed leaf, petiole and stem tissue and to a much lower extent in the seeds and pericarp of mature green tomato fruit. No expression was detected in the seeds or pericarp of red fruit or drought-stressed roots. Expression of pLE16 is induced in leaf tissue by a variety of other environmental stresses including PEG-mediated water deficit, salt, cold stress and heat stress. These stresses did not however induce expression of pLE16 in the roots. Examination of the 5{prime} flanking DNA sequences for this gene did not reveal the presence of the consensus ABA responsive element (ABRE), implicated in ABA induction of gene expression and so far common to the 5{prime} flanking DNA sequences of many genes that are ABA responsive. The expression of pLE16 in response to drought-stress and other environmental stresses in vegetative tissue, together with the lack of a consensus ABRE, suggests that the regulation of this gene by ABA may differ from those that are seed-specific.

  9. A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ali, A. A.; Xu, C.; Rogers, A.; Fisher, R. A.; Wullschleger, S. D.; McDowell, N. G.; Massoud, E. C.; Vrugt, J. A.; Muss, J. D.; Fisher, J. B.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Although plant photosynthetic capacity as determined by the maximum carboxylation rate (i.e., Vc, max25) and the maximum electron transport rate (i.e., Jmax25) at a reference temperature (generally 25 C) is known to vary substantially in space and time in response to environmental conditions, it is typically parameterized in Earth system models (ESMs) with tabulated values associated to plant functional types. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacity at the global scale under different environmental conditions, based on the optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture,moreelectron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The LUNA model was able to reasonably well capture the observed patterns of photosynthetic capacity in view that it explained approximately 55 % of the variation in observed Vc, max25 and 65 % of the variation in observed Jmax25 across the globe. Our model simulations under current and future climate conditions indicated that Vc, max25 could be most affected in high-latitude regions under a warming climate and that ESMs using a fixed Vc, max25 or Jmax25 by plant functional types were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.less

  10. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  11. Nanosecond Mid-Infrared Detection for Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills,D.C.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.R.

    2009-07-12

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing electron pulses from accelerators, is the definitive method for adding single positive or negative charges to molecules. It is also among the most effective means for creating free radicals. Such species are particularly important in applications such as redox catalysis relevant to solar energy conversion and advanced nuclear energy systems. Coupled with fast UV-visible detection, pulse radiolysis has become an extremely powerful method for monitoring the kinetics of the subsequent reactions of these species on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, in many important contexts the radicals formed are difficult to identify due to their broad and featureless UV-visible absorption spectra. Time-resolved infrared (TRIR) absorption spectroscopy is a powerful structural probe of short-lived intermediates, which allows multiple transient species to be clearly identified and simultaneously monitored in a single process. Unfortunately, due to technical challenges the coupling of fast (sub-millisecond) TRIR with pulse radiolysis has received little attention, being confined to gas-phase studies. Taking advantage of recent developments in mid-IR laser technology, we have recently begun developing nanosecond TRIR detection methodologies for condensed-phase samples at our Laser Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF). The results of preliminary pulse radiolysis-TRIR investigations on the formation of the one-electron reduced forms of CO{sub 2} reduction catalysts (e.g. see above) and their interactions with CO{sub 2} will be presented.

  12. Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-08-29

    The present invention includes an element for use in an inductive coupler in a downhole component. The element includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped leaves that are electrically conductive. The leaves are less than about 0.0625" thick and are separated by an electrically insulating material. These leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The invention also includes an inductive coupler for use in downhole components, the inductive coupler including an annular housing having a recess with a magnetically conductive, electrically insulating (MCEI) element disposed in the recess. The MCEI element includes a plurality of segments where each segment further includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped electrically conductive leaves. Each leaf is less than about 0.0625" thick and separated from the otherwise adjacent leaves by electrically insulating material. The segments and leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The inductive coupler further includes an insulated conductor disposed within the generally circular trough. A polymer fills spaces between otherwise adjacent segments, the annular housing, insulated conductor, and further fills the circular trough.

  13. Impact of land use change on the local climate over the Tibetan Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, J.; Lu, S.; Li, S.; Miller, N.L.

    2010-04-01

    Observational data show that the remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) has a significant downward trend over the east Tibetan Plateau (TP), while a warming trend is found in the same area. Further analysis indicates that this warming trend mainly results from the nighttime warming. The Single-Column Atmosphere Model (SCAM) version 3.1 developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is used to investigate the role of land use change in the TP local climate system and isolate the contribution of land use change to the warming. Two sets of SCAM simulations were performed at the Xinghai station that is located near the center of the TP Sanjiang (three rivers) Nature Reserve where the downward LAI trend is largest. These simulations were forced with the high and low LAIs. The modeling results indicate that, when the LAI changes from high to low, the daytime temperature has a slight decrease, while the nighttime temperature increases significantly, which is consistent with the observations. The modeling results further show that the lower surface roughness length plays a significant role in affecting the nighttime temperature increase.

  14. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived From EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.

  15. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  16. A comparison between satellite and airborne multispectral data for the assessment of Mangrove areas in the eastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, E.P.; Edwards, A.J.; Mumby, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Satellite (SPOT XS and Landsat TM) and airborne multispectral (CASI) imagery was acquired from the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies. The descriptive resolution and accuracy of each image type is compared for two applications: mangrove habitat mapping and the measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics (leaf area index and canopy closure). Mangroves could be separated from non-mangrove vegetation to an accuracy of only 57% with SPOT XS data but better discrimination could be achieved with either Landsat TM or CASI (in both cases accuracy was >90%). CASI data permitted a more accurate classification of different mangrove habitats than was possible using Landsat TM. Nine mangrove habitats could be mapped to an accuracy of 85% with the high-resolution airborne data compared to 31% obtained with TM. A maximum of three mangrove habitats were separable with Landsat TM: the accuracy of this classification was 83%. Measurement of mangrove canopy characteristics is achieved more accurately with CASI than with either satellite sensor, but high costs probably make it a less cost-effective option. The cost-effectiveness of each sensor is discussed for each application.

  17. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration and its components

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L.; McVicar, Tim R.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Vaze, Jai; Liu, Changming; Lu, Xingjie; Zheng, Hongxing; Wang, Yingping; Liu, Yi Y.; et al

    2016-01-11

    In this study, evapotranspiration (ET) is the process by which liquid water becomes water vapor and energetically this accounts for much of incoming solar radiation. If this ET did not occur temperatures would be higher, so understanding ET trends is crucial to predict future temperatures. Recent studies have reported prolonged declines in ET in recent decades, although these declines may relate to climate variability. Here, we used a well-validated diagnostic model to estimate daily ET during 1981–2012, and its three components: transpiration from vegetation (Et), direct evaporation from the soil (Es) and vaporization of intercepted rainfall from vegetation (Ei). Duringmore » this period, ET over land has increased significantly (p < 0.01), caused by increases in Et and Ei, which are partially counteracted by Es decreasing. These contrasting trends are primarily driven by increases in vegetation leaf area index, dominated by greening. The overall increase in Et over land is about twofold of the decrease in Es. These opposing trends are not simulated by most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, and highlight the importance of realistically representing vegetation changes in earth system models for predicting future changes in the energy and water cycle.« less

  19. The iojap gene in maize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martienssen, Robert

    2001-12-01

    The classical maize mutant iojap (Iodent japonica) has variegated green and white leaves. Green sectors have cells with normal chloroplasts whereas white sectors have cells where plastids fail to differentiate. These mutant plastids, when transmitted through the female gametophyte, do not recover in the presence of wild type Iojap. We cloned the Ij locus, and we have investigated the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance and phenotypic expression. More recently, a modifier of this type of variegation, ''Inhibitor of striate'', has also been cloned. Both the iojap and inhibitor of striate proteins have homologs in bacteria and are members of ancient conserved families found in multiple species. These tools can be used to address fundamental questions of inheritance and variegation associated with this classical conundrum of maize genetics. Since the work of Rhoades there has been considerable speculation concerning the nature of the Iojap gene product, the origin of leaf variegation and the mechanism behind the material inheritance of defective plastids. This has made Iojap a textbook paradigm for cytoplasmic inheritance and nuclear-organellar interaction for almost 50 years. Cloning of the Iojap gene in maize, and homologs in other plants and bacteria, provides a new means to address the origin of heteroplastidity, variegation and cytoplasmic inheritance in higher plants.

  20. A limited role for carbonic anhydrase in C4 photosynthesis as revealed by a ca1ca2 double mutant in maize.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Studer, Anthony J.; Gandin, Anthony; Kolbe, Allison R.; Wang, Lin; Cousins, Asaph B.; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2014-04-04

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the first biochemical step of the carbon concentrating mechanism of C4 plants, and in C4 monocots, it has been suggested that CA activity is near limiting for photosynthesis. Here, we test this hypothesis through the characterization of transposon induced mutant alleles of Ca1 and Ca2 in Zea mays. In addition, these two isoforms account for more than 85% of the CA transcript pool. A significant change in isotopic discrimination is observed in mutant plants, which have as little as 3% of wild-type CA activity, but surprisingly, photosynthesis is not reduced under current or elevated pCO2. However,more » growth and rates of photosynthesis under sub-ambient pCO2 are significantly impaired in the mutants. These findings suggest, that while CA is not limiting for C4 photosynthesis in Z. mays at current pCO2, it likely maintains high rates of photosynthesis when CO2 availability is reduced. Current atmospheric CO2 levels now exceed 400 ppm (~40.53 Pa) and contrast the low CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) conditions under which C4 plants expanded their range ~10 million years ago when the global atmospheric CO2 was below 300 ppm (~30.40 Pa). Thus, as CO2 levels continue to rise, selective pressures for high levels of CA may be limited to arid climates where stomatal closure reduces CO2 availability to the leaf.« less

  1. Transgenic expression of the dicotyledonous pattern recognition receptor EFR in rice leads to ligand-dependent activation of defense responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Bahar, Ofir; Thomas, Nicolas; Holton, Nicolas; Nekrasov, Vladimir; Ruan, Deling; Canlas, Patrick E.; Daudi, Arsalan; Petzold, Christopher J.; Singan, Vasanth R.; et al

    2015-03-30

    Plant plasma membrane localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect extracellular pathogen-associated molecules. PRRs such as Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21 are taxonomically restricted and are absent from most plant genomes. Here we show that rice plants expressing EFR or the chimeric receptor EFR::XA21, containing the EFR ectodomain and the XA21 intracellular domain, sense both Escherichia coli- and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)-derived elf18 peptides at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Treatment of EFR and EFR::XA21 rice leaf tissue with elf18 leads to MAP kinase activation, reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression. Although expression of EFR does not lead to robust enhanced resistancemore » to fully virulent Xoo isolates, it does lead to quantitatively enhanced resistance to weakly virulent Xoo isolates. EFR interacts with OsSERK2 and the XA21 binding protein 24 (XB24), two key components of the rice XA21-mediated immune response. Rice-EFR plants silenced for OsSERK2, or overexpressing rice XB24 are compromised in elf18-induced reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression indicating that these proteins are also important for EFR-mediated signaling in transgenic rice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential feasibility of enhancing disease resistance in rice and possibly other monocotyledonous crop species by expression of dicotyledonous PRRs. Our results also suggest that Arabidopsis EFR utilizes at least a subset of the known endogenous rice XA21 signaling components.« less

  2. Small Heat Shock Protein Responses Differ between Chaparral Shrubs from Contrasting Microclimates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knight, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Smore » mall heat shock protein (sHsp) responses were studied for two evergreen perennial shrubs in the northern California chaparral; one common on warm, south-facing slopes ( Ceanothus cuneatus ), and the other on cooler, north-facing slopes ( Prunus ilicifolia ). Small Hsp expression was induced experimentally for field collected leaves. Leaf collections were made where the species co-occur. Small Hsp expression was quantified using two antibodies, one specific to a chloroplast 22 kD sHsp and another that detects a broad range of sHsps. Differences between chloroplast sHsp accumulation, which protects thermally labile proteins in PSII, and the general sHsp response were examined. The species from the cooler microclimate, Prunus , had a lower induction temperature and accumulated greater levels of sHsps at low temperatures. Both Prunus and Ceanothus reached peak sHsp expression at 42 ∘ C . The species from the warmer microclimate, Ceanothus , had greater sHsp expression at higher temperatures. Chloroplast sHsp expression generally tracked sHsp expression in Ceanothus , but in Prunus general Hsps were elevated before chloroplast sHsps. Variation between species for sHsp expression (induction temperatures, accumulation levels, and the duration of expression) coupled with the costs of Hsp synthesis, may contribute to differences in the abundance and distribution of plants across environmental gradients.« less

  3. Application of non-radiometric methods to the determination of plutonium. Literature review conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.

    1992-03-05

    This literature review was motivated by discussions that took place during a review of contamination control technologies proposed for INEL (buried waste). It should be a useful tool in identifying non-radiation measurement techniques for Pu and Am such as ICP-MS, which should fulfill the following criteria: apparatus must be field deployable; up to 100 samples per day; and lower levels of detection and required time must be listed. The sensitivity of ICP and RIMS is compared against that needed for contamination monitoring at INEL. Only Pu-241, with a required detection limit of 400 ppt, would challenge the sensitivity of ICP-MS; Pu-238 would be easily determined. The need to determine Pu-238 and Am-241 in the presence of U-238 and Pu-241 seems to preclude the possibility of using laser ablation ICP-MS for Pu monitoring. ICP-AES and -LEAFS methods may not have enough sensitivity to determine Pu-238 at 2 ppb level with confidence, but RIMS (resonance ionization mass spectroscopy) should be adequate. 47 refs, figs.

  4. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; et al

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterialmore » reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.« less

  5. Pennsylvania to require statewide recycling of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The new law, requiring trash recycling in 407 communities affecting 7.8 million Pennsylvanians, is a key component of the Casey administration's comprehensive environmental clean up plant. The new recycling law requires municipalities with more than 10,000 residents to start curb-side recycling programs within two years. Communities with 5000 to 10,000 residents must start recycling in three years. The goal is to reduce the state's volume of solid waste by 25 percent by 1997. Nine million tons of trash are generated each year in Pennsylvania, with 95 percent of it landfilled and only one percent recycled. Much of the state's solid waste must be transported over increasing distances at increasing costs to be disposed of. Average trash disposal costs have increased 150 percent in the past three years. The new law requires communities to recycle three of eight materials, including glass, colored glass, aluminum, steel and bimetallic cans, high-grade office paper, newsprint, corrugated paper and plastics. All communities must recycle leaf waste. The legislation shifts responsibility for planning solid waste disposal from municipalities to counties, reimbursing counties 80 percent of the cost of developing comprehensive recycling plans and 50 percent of the cost of hiring a recycling coordinator. The program will be self-supporting through a $2-per-ton fee on all garbage going to landfills and resource recovery.

  6. Eucalyptus plantations for energy production in Hawaii. 1980 annual report, January 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesell, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    In 1980 200 acres of eucalyptus trees were planted for a research and development biomass energy plantation bringing the total area under cultivation to 300 acres. Of this total acreage, 90 acres or 30% was planted in experimental plots. The remaining 70% of the cultivated area was closely monitored to determine the economic cost/benefit ratio of large scale biomass energy production. In the large scale plantings, standard field practices were set up for all phases of production: nursery, clearing, planting, weed control and fertilization. These practices were constantly evaluated for potential improvements in efficiency and reduced cost. Promising experimental treatments were implemented on a large scale to test their effectiveness under field production conditions. In the experimental areas all scheduled data collection in 1980 has been completed and most measurements have been keypunched and analyzed. Soil samples and leaf samples have been analyzed for nutrient concentrations. Crop logging procedures have been set up to monitor tree growth through plant tissue analysis. An intensive computer search on biomass, nursery practices, harvesting equipment and herbicide applications has been completed through the services of the US Forest Service.

  7. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  8. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  9. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    2014-09-17

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  10. Highly reactive light-dependent monoterpenes in the Amazon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, A. B.; Jardine, K. J.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Martins, G.; Durgante, F.; Carneiro, V.; Higuchi, N.; Manzi, A. O.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2015-03-06

    Despite orders of magnitude difference in atmospheric reactivity and great diversity in biological functioning, little is known about monoterpene speciation in tropical forests. Here we report vertically resolved ambient air mixing ratios for 12 monoterpenes in a central Amazon rainforest including observations of the highly reactive cis-β-ocimene (160 ppt), trans-β-ocimene (79 ppt), and terpinolene (32 ppt) which accounted for an estimated 21% of total monoterpene composition yet 55% of the upper canopy monoterpene ozonolysis rate. All 12 monoterpenes showed a mixing ratio peak in the upper canopy, with three demonstrating subcanopy peaks in 7 of 11 profiles. Leaf level emissionsmore » of highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for up to 1.9% of photosynthesis confirming light-dependent emissions across several Amazon tree genera. These results suggest that highly reactive monoterpenes play important antioxidant roles during photosynthesis in plants and serve as near-canopy sources of secondary organic aerosol precursors through atmospheric photooxidation via ozonolysis.« less

  11. Using a Regional Cluster of AmeriFlux Sites in Central California to Advance Our Knowledge on Decadal-Scale Ecosystem-Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2015-03-24

    Continuous eddy convariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat were measured continuously between an oak savanna and an annual grassland in California over a 4 year period. These systems serve as representative sites for biomes in Mediterranean climates and experience much seasonal and inter-annual variability in temperature and precipitation. These sites hence serve as natural laboratories for how whole ecosystem will respond to warmer and drier conditions. The savanna proved to be a moderate sink of carbon, taking up about 150 gC m-2y-1 compared to the annual grassland, which tended to be carbon neutral and often a source during drier years. But this carbon sink by the savanna came at a cost. This ecosystem used about 100 mm more water per year than the grassland. And because the savanna was darker and rougher its air temperature was about 0.5 C warmer. In addition to our flux measurements, we collected vast amounts of ancillary data to interpret the site and fluxes, making this site a key site for model validation and parameterization. Datasets consist of terrestrial and airborne lidar for determining canopy structure, ground penetrating radar data on root distribution, phenology cameras monitoring leaf area index and its seasonality, predawn water potential, soil moisture, stem diameter and physiological capacity of photosynthesis.

  12. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R.; Hildemann, L.M.; Mazurek, M.A.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D{sub p} {ge} 2 {mu}m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  13. Molecular marker analysis as a guide to the sources of fine organic aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogge, W.F.; Cass, G.R. ); Hildemann, L.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mazurek, M.A. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. Environmental Geochemistry Group)

    1992-07-01

    The molecular composition of fine particulate (D[sub p] [ge] 2 [mu]m) organic aerosol emissions from the most important sources in the Los Angeles area has been determined. Likewise, ambient concentration patterns for more than 80 single organic compounds have been measured at four urban sites (West Los Angeles, Downtown Los Angeles, Pasadena, and Rubidoux) and at one remote offshore site (San Nicolas Island). It has been found that cholesterol serves as a marker compound for emissions from charbroilers and other meat cooking operations. Vehicular exhaust being emitted from diesel and gasoline powered engines can be traced in the Los Angeles atmosphere using fossil petroleum marker compounds such as steranes and pentacyclic triterpanes (e.g., hopanes). Biogenic fine particle emission sources such as plant fragments abraded from leaf surfaces by wind and weather can be traced in the urban atmosphere. Using distinct and specific source organic tracers or assemblages of organic compounds characteristic for the sources considered it is possible to estimate the influence of different source types at any urban site where atmospheric data are available.

  14. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  15. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Falcón, Luisa I.

    2015-05-19

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Batsmore » with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.« less

  16. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, V.W.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

  17. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Vincent W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A device for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite.

  18. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  19. The soil microbiome influences grapevine-associated microbiota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Owens, Sarah M.; Weisenhorn, Pamela; West, Kristin; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Lax, Simon; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Mills, David A.; Martin, Gilles; Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-03-24

    Grapevine is a well-studied, economically relevant crop, whose associated bacteria could influence its organoleptic properties. In this study, the spatial and temporal dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with grapevine organs (leaves, flowers, grapes, and roots) and soils were characterized over two growing seasons to determine the influence of vine cultivar, edaphic parameters, vine developmental stage (dormancy, flowering, preharvest), and vineyard. Belowground bacterial communities differed significantly from those aboveground, and yet the communities associated with leaves, flowers, and grapes shared a greater proportion of taxa with soil communities than with each other, suggesting that soil may serve as a bacterial reservoir. A subset of soil microorganisms, including root colonizers significantly enriched in plant growth-promoting bacteria and related functional genes, were selected by the grapevine. In addition to plant selective pressure, the structure of soil and root microbiota was significantly influenced by soil pH and C:N ratio, and changes in leaf- and grape-associated microbiota were correlated with soil carbon and showed interannual variation even at small spatial scales. Diazotrophic bacteria, e.g., Rhizobiaceae and Bradyrhizobium spp., were significantly more abundant in soil samples and root samples of specific vineyards. Vine-associated microbial assemblages were influenced by myriad factors that shape their composition and structure, but the majority of organ-associated taxa originated in the soil, and their distribution reflected the influence of highly localized biogeographic factors and vineyard management.

  20. New Jersey state information handbook: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-31

    Under the implied authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, radiological surveys and research work has been conducted to determine radiological conditions at former MED/AEC sites. As of this time, 31 sites in 13 states have been identified that require or may require remedial action. This volume is one of a series produced under contract with DOE, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, by POLITECH CORPORATION to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the state of New Jersey. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations. The loose-leaf format used in these volumes will allow the material to be updated periodically as the Remedial Action Program progresses.

  1. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  2. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC`s Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available.

  3. Strontium concentrations in chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal area in Bayo Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing in a former liquid waste disposal site Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003(c) in Bayo Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were collected and analyzed for strontium ({sup 90}Sr) and total uranium. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant -- one plant, in particular, contained 90, 500 pCi {sup 90}Sr g{sup {minus}1} ash in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels; this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace area. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the Bayo Canyon/State Road 5 intersection was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  4. Sensitivity of Global Terrestrial Gross Primary Production to Hydrologic States Simulated by the Community Land Model Using Two Runoff Parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Huimin; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Dawen; Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Hayes, Daniel J.; Schwalm, C.; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi

    2014-09-01

    The terrestrial water and carbon cycles interact strongly at various spatio-temporal scales. To elucidate how hydrologic processes may influence carbon cycle processes, differences in terrestrial carbon cycle simulations induced by structural differences in two runoff generation schemes were investigated using the Community Land Model 4 (CLM4). Simulations were performed with runoff generation using the default TOPMODEL-based and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model approaches under the same experimental protocol. The comparisons showed that differences in the simulated gross primary production (GPP) are mainly attributed to differences in the simulated leaf area index (LAI) rather than soil moisture availability. More specifically, differences in runoff simulations can influence LAI through changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and their seasonality that affect the onset of the growing season and the subsequent dynamic feedbacks between terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles. As a result of a relative difference of 36% in global mean total runoff between the two models and subsequent changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and LAI, the simulated global mean GPP differs by 20.4%. However, the relative difference in the global mean net ecosystem exchange between the two models is small (2.1%) due to competing effects on total mean ecosystem respiration and other fluxes, although large regional differences can still be found. Our study highlights the significant interactions among the water, energy, and carbon cycles and the need for reducing uncertainty in the hydrologic parameterization of land surface models to better constrain carbon cycle modeling.

  5. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Drought-Tolerant CAM plants Agave deserti and Agave tequilana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Stephen M.; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Simpson, June; Wang, Zhong; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    Agaves are succulent monocotyledonous plants native to hot and arid environments of North America. Because of their adaptations to their environment, including crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM, a water-efficient form of photosynthesis) and existing technologies for ethanol production, agaves have gained attention both as potential lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstocks and models for exploring plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the lack of comprehensive Agave sequence datasets limits the scope of investigations into the molecular-genetic basis of Agave traits. Here, we present comprehensive, high quality de novo transcriptome assemblies of two Agave species, A. tequilana and A. deserti, from short-read RNA-seq data. Our analyses support completeness and accuracy of the de novo transcriptome assemblies, with each species having approximately 35,000 protein-coding genes. Comparison of agave proteomes to those of additional plant species identifies biological functions of gene families displaying sequence divergence in agave species. Additionally, we use RNA-seq data to gain insights into biological functions along the A. deserti juvenile leaf proximal-distal axis. Our work presents a foundation for further investigation of agave biology and their improvement for bioenergy development.

  7. SU-E-T-291: Sensitivity of a Simple 2D EPID in Vivo Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peca, S; Brown, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: As radiotherapy (RT) increases in complexity, so does motivation for in vivo dosimetry (IVD), which may detect errors such as: setup, beam shaping and dose delivered. We have recently developed an easy-toimplement method for two-dimensional IVD based on images taken with the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in cine mode during treatment. The purpose of this work is to characterize its sensitivity to possible RT delivery errors. Methods: We introduced a series of modifications to a simple RT field (1010, 100MU, 300RR, 20cm homogeneous phantom) to simulate errors. These modifications included multi-leaf collimator (MLC) position, number of MUs, and collimator angle. We quantified the sensitivity to inhomogeneities by inserting variable amounts of solid lung and bone. Finally we delivered realistic fields to an anthropomorphic phantom to estimate sensitivity to gantry angle and setup errors. Results: Our EPIDIVD is sensitive to MLC positioning errors of 1mm and 3mm in the closed and open directions respectively, and to 3% MU variations. Sensitivity to collimator angle depends on field shape irregularity; in the case of a 10x10 field, we are sensitive to errors of 0.8. The sensitivity to inhomogeneities is limited by the nature of MV imaging: approximately 1% signal change is noted when switching 5cm of water to equal amounts of bone or lung. This suggests that the EPID-IVD is likely not sensitive to small setup or gantry angle errors, as confirmed by anthropomorphic tests. Conclusion: We have characterized a simple method of 2D dose reconstruction at isocenter depth inside the patient, which is sensitive to possible RT delivery errors. This method may be useful as a secondary safety check, to prevent large errors from being carried on to following fractions, and to record delivered dose. By using readily available hardware, it is easily implemented and may prove especially useful in centers with limited resources.

  8. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-03-25

    Soil respiration (RS), the flux of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere, comprises the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, but its dynamics are incompletely understood, and the global flux remains poorly constrained. Ecosystem warming experiments, modelling analyses, and biokinetics all suggest that RS should change with climate. This has been difficult to confirm observationally because of the high spatial variability of RS, inaccessibility of the soil medium, and inability of remote sensing instruments to measure large-scale RS fluxes. Given these constraints, is it possible to discern climate-driven changes in regional or global RS fluxes in the extant four-decade record of RS chamber measurements? Here we use a database of worldwide RS observations, matched with high-resolution historical climate data, to show a previously unknown temporal trend in the RS record after accounting for mean annual climate, leaf area, nitrogen deposition, and changes in CO2 measurement technique. Air temperature anomaly (deviation from the 1961-1990 mean) is significantly and positively correlated with changes in RS fluxes; both temperature and precipitation anomalies exert effects in specific biomes. We estimate that the current (2008) annual global RS flux is 9812 Pg and has increased 0.1 Pg yr-1 over the last 20 years, implying a global RS temperature response (Q10) of 1.5. An increasing global RS flux does not necessarily constitute a positive feedback loop to the atmosphere; nonetheless, the available data are consistent with an acceleration of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to global climate change.

  9. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  10. SU-E-T-113: Dose Distribution Using Respiratory Signals and Machine Parameters During Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imae, T; Haga, A; Saotome, N; Kida, S; Nakano, M; Takeuchi, Y; Shiraki, T; Yano, K; Yamashita, H; Nakagawa, K; Ohtomo, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. Treatment plans for lung tumors using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) are calculated with planning computed tomography (CT) images only exhale phase. Purpose of this study is to evaluate dose distribution by reconstructing from only the data such as respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. Methods: Phantom and three patients with lung tumor underwent CT scans for treatment planning. They were treated by VMAT while acquiring projection images to derive their respiratory signals and machine parameters including positions of multi leaf collimators, dose rates and integrated monitor units. The respiratory signals were divided into 4 and 10 phases and machine parameters were correlated with the divided respiratory signals based on the gantry angle. Dose distributions of each respiratory phase were calculated from plans which were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and the machine parameters during treatment. The doses at isocenter, maximum point and the centroid of target were evaluated. Results and Discussion: Dose distributions during treatment were calculated using the machine parameters and the respiratory signals detected from projection images. Maximum dose difference between plan and in treatment distribution was −1.8±0.4% at centroid of target and dose differences of evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were no significant. Conclusion: The present method successfully evaluated dose distribution using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment. This method is feasible to verify the actual dose for moving target.

  11. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; et al

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis ofmore » the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.« less

  12. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE IN POSITION-POSITION-VELOCITY SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Goodman, Alyssa; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2013-06-20

    Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is able to create hierarchical structures in the interstellar medium (ISM) that are correlated on a wide range of scales via the energy cascade. We use hierarchical tree diagrams known as dendrograms to characterize structures in synthetic position-position-velocity (PPV) emission cubes of isothermal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We show that the structures and degree of hierarchy observed in PPV space are related to the presence of self-gravity and the global sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers. Simulations with higher Alfvenic Mach number, self-gravity and supersonic flows display enhanced hierarchical structure. We observe a strong dependency on the sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and self-gravity when we apply the statistical moments (i.e., mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis) to the leaf and node distribution of the dendrogram. Simulations with self-gravity, larger magnetic field and higher sonic Mach number have dendrogram distributions with higher statistical moments. Application of the dendrogram to three-dimensional density cubes, also known as position-position-position (PPP) cubes, reveals that the dominant emission contours in PPP and PPV are related for supersonic gas but not for subsonic. We also explore the effects of smoothing, thermal broadening, and velocity resolution on the dendrograms in order to make our study more applicable to observational data. These results all point to hierarchical tree diagrams as being a promising additional tool for studying ISM turbulence and star forming regions for obtaining information on the degree of self-gravity, the Mach numbers and the complicated relationship between PPV and PPP data.

  13. Sediment facies, depositional environments, and distribution of phytoclasts in the recent Mahakam River delta, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastaldo, R.A. ); Huc, A.Y. )

    1992-12-01

    The Mahakam River delta is a tide- and wave-dominated delta located on the edge of the Kutei basin, eastern Kalimantan, Borneo. It is a coastal deltaic sequence, Neogene to Holocene in age, from which all recoverable hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) are considered to be derived from kerogen III predecessors. However, a complete understanding of the types of sediments sourcing the hydrocarbons has not yet been achieved. A vibracoring program sampled the principal fine-grained depositional environments in two transects; one within the fluvially-dominated regime, one within the tidally-dominated regime. Ten sedimentary facies are distinguished and phytoclasts have been recovered from all environments of deposition. Canopy parts from the mixed tropical forest community are preserved throughout the delta, whereas dicotyledonous angiosperm mangroves are restricted to the subtidal zone and delta front. Nypa parts are preserved in most depositional environments. In sites where there appears to be an absence of macrodetritus, dispersed cuticle is recoverable. Identifiable plant parts include wood and fibrous tissues, Nypa petioles and leaf laminae, dicotyledonous angiosperm leaves and isolated cuticles, fruits and seeds, roots and rootlets, and moss. Dammar is found either as dispersed resin ducts or amorphous clasts. Additional biotic components found in bedded plant litters include insects, gastropods, bivalves, sand dollars, ostracods, and crabs. Fluvial channels and depositional sites associated with these systems in the delta front can be differentiated from Nypa swamps and mixed tropical hardwood-palm swamps based on their phytological components and accessory biotic elements. 39 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Optical cone beam tomography of Cherenkov-mediated signals for fast 3D dosimetry of x-ray photon beams in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Adam K. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Pogue, Brian W. E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu; Gladstone, David J.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the use of a three-dimensional (3D) optical cone beam computed tomography reconstruction algorithm, for estimation of the imparted 3D dose distribution from megavoltage photon beams in a water tank for quality assurance, by imaging the induced Cherenkov-excited fluorescence (CEF). Methods: An intensified charge-coupled device coupled to a standard nontelecentric camera lens was used to tomographically acquire two-dimensional (2D) projection images of CEF from a complex multileaf collimator (MLC) shaped 6 MV linear accelerator x-ray photon beam operating at a dose rate of 600 MU/min. The resulting projections were used to reconstruct the 3D CEF light distribution, a potential surrogate of imparted dose, using a FeldkampDavisKress cone beam back reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the reconstructed light distributions were compared to the expected dose values from one-dimensional diode scans, 2D film measurements, and the 3D distribution generated from the clinical Varian ECLIPSE treatment planning system using a gamma index analysis. A Monte Carlo derived correction was applied to the Cherenkov reconstructions to account for beam hardening artifacts. Results: 3D light volumes were successfully reconstructed over a 400 400 350 mm{sup 3} volume at a resolution of 1 mm. The Cherenkov reconstructions showed agreement with all comparative methods and were also able to recover both inter- and intra-MLC leaf leakage. Based upon a 3%/3 mm criterion, the experimental Cherenkov light measurements showed an 83%99% pass fraction depending on the chosen threshold dose. Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the use of optical cone beam computed tomography using CEF for the profiling of the imparted dose distribution from large area megavoltage photon beams in water.

  15. SU-E-T-580: Comparison of Cervical Carcinoma IMRT Plans From Four Commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y; Li, R; Chi, Z; Zhu, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Different treatment planning systems (TPS) use different treatment optimization and leaf sequencing algorithms. This work compares cervical carcinoma IMRT plans optimized with four commercial TPSs to investigate the plan quality in terms of target conformity and delivery efficiency. Methods: Five cervical carcinoma cases were planned with the Corvus, Monaco, Pinnacle and Xio TPSs by experienced planners using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. Plans were normalized for at least 95% of PTV to receive the prescription dose (Dp). Dose-volume histograms and isodose distributions were compared. Other quantities such as Dmin(the minimum dose received by 99% of GTV/PTV), Dmax(the maximum dose received by 1% of GTV/PTV), D100, D95, D90, V110%, V105%, V100% (the volume of GTV/PTV receiving 110%, 105%, 100% of Dp), conformity index(CI), homogeneity index (HI), the volume of receiving 40Gy and 50 Gy to rectum (V40,V50) ; the volume of receiving 30Gy and 50 Gy to bladder (V30,V50) were evaluated. Total segments and MUs were also compared. Results: While all plans meet target dose specifications and normal tissue constraints, the maximum GTVCI of Pinnacle plans was up to 0.74 and the minimum of Corvus plans was only 0.21, these four TPSs PTVCI had significant difference. The GTVHI and PTVHI of Pinnacle plans are all very low and show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans require significantly less segments and MUs to deliver than the other plans. Conclusion: To deliver on a Varian linear-accelerator, the Pinnacle plans show a very good dose distribution. Corvus plans received the higer dose of normal tissue. The Monaco plans have faster beam delivery.

  16. MO-F-16A-01: Implementation of MPPG TPS Verification Tests On Various Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, J; Bredfeldt, J; Geurts, M; Miller, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the implementation of the Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) for dose calculation and beam parameters verification of treatment planning systems (TPS). Methods: We implemented the draft TPS MPPG for three linacs: Varian Trilogy, TomoHDA and Elekta Infinity. Static and modulated test plans were created. The static fields are different than used in commissioning. Data was collected using ion chambers and diodes in a scanning water tank, Delta4 phantom and a custom phantom. MatLab and Microsoft Excel were used to create analysis tools to compare reference DICOM dose with scan data. This custom code allowed for the interpolation, registration and gamma analysis of arbitrary dose profiles. It will be provided as open source code. IMRT fields were validated with Delta4 registration and comparison tools. The time for each task was recorded. Results: The tests confirmed the strengths, and revealed some limitations, of our TPS. The agreement between calculated and measured dose was reported for all beams. For static fields, percent depth dose and profiles were analyzed with criteria in the draft MPPG. The results reveal areas of slight mismatch with the model (MLC leaf penumbra, buildup region.) For TomoTherapy, the IMRT plan 2%/2 mm gamma analysis revealed poorest agreement in the low dose regions. For one static test plan for all 10MV Trilogy photon beams, the plan generation, scan queue creation, data collection, data analysis and report took 2 hours, excluding tank setup. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the implementation feasibility of the TPS MPPG. This exercise generated an open source tool for dose comparisons between scan data and DICOM dose data. An easily reproducible and efficient infrastructure with streamlined data collection was created for repeatable robust testing of the TPS. The tests revealed minor discrepancies in our models and areas for improvement that are being investigated.

  17. Scaling nitrogen and carbon interactions: What are the consequences of biological buffering?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weston, David J.; Rogers, Alistair; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Heady, Lindsey E.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-25

    Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2 (eCO2; 800 ppm) on terrestrial ecosystems is a central theme in global change biology, but relatively little is known about how altered plant C and N metabolism influences higher levels of biological organization. Here, we investigate the consequences of C and N interactions by genetically modifying the N-assimilation pathway in Arabidopsis and initiating growth chamber and mesocosm competition studies at current CO2 (cCO2; 400 ppm) and eCO2 over multiple generations. Using a suite of ecological, physiological, and molecular genomic tools, we show that a single-gene mutant of a key enzyme (nia2) elicited a highly orchestrated buffering response starting with a fivefold increase in the expression of a gene paralog (nia1) and a 63% increase in the expression of gene network module enriched for N-assimilation genes. The genetic perturbation reduced amino acids, protein, and TCA-cycle intermediate concentrations in the nia2 mutant compared to the wild-type, while eCO2 mainly increased carbohydrate concentrations. The mutant had reduced net photosynthetic rates due to a 27% decrease in carboxylation capacity and an 18% decrease in electron transport rates. The expression of these buffering mechanisms resulted in a penalty that negatively correlated with fitness and population dynamics yet showed only minor alterations in our estimates of population function, including total per unit area biomass, ground cover, and leaf area index. As a result, this study provides insight into the consequences of buffering mechanisms that occur post-genetic perturbations in the N pathway and the associated outcomes these buffering systems have on plant populations relative to eCO2.

  18. MO-H-19A-02: Investigation of Modulated Electron Arc (MeArc) Therapy for the Treatment of Scalp Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldib, A; Jin, L; Martin, J; Li, J; Chibani, O; Galloway, T; Ma, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Electron arc therapy has long been proposed as the most suitable technique for the treatment of superficial tumors that follow circularly curved surfaces. However it was challenged by unsuitability of the conventional applicators and the lack of adequate 3-D dose calculation tools for arc electron beams in the treatment planning systems (TPS). Now with the availability of an electron specific multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) and an in-house Monte Carlo (MC) based TPS, we were motivated to investigate more advanced modulated electron arc (MeARC) therapy and its beneficial outcome. Methods: We initiated the study by a film measurement conducted in a head and neck phantom, where we delivered electron arcs in a step and shoot manner using the light field as a guide to avoid fields abutments. This step was done to insure enough clearance for the arcs with eMLC. MCBEAM and MCPLAN MC codes were used for the treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation, respectively. Treatment plans were generated for targets drawn in real patient CTs and head and neck phantom. We utilized beams eye view available from a commercial planning system to create beamlets having same isocenter and adjoined at the scalp surface. Then dose-deposition coefficients from those beamlets were calculated for all electron energies using MCPLAN. An in-house optimization code was then used to find the optimum weights needed from individual beamlets. Results: MeARC showed a nicely tailored dose distribution around the circular curved target on the scalp. Some hot spots were noticed and could be attributed to fields abutment problem owing to the bulging nature of electron profiles. Brain dose was shown to be at lower levels compared to photon treatment. Conclusion: MeARC was shown to be a promising modality for treating scalp cases and could be beneficial to all superficial tumors with a circular curvature.

  19. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  20. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductionsmore » in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent regional drought in the southwestern United States.« less

  1. Scaling carbon and nitrogen interactions. What are the consequences of biological buffering?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weston, David; Rogers, Alistair; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gunter, Lee E; Jawdy, Sara; Engle, Nancy L.; Heady, Lindsey E.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-25

    Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2 (eCO2; 800 ppm) on terrestrial ecosystems is a central theme in global change biology, but relatively little is known about how altered plant C and N metabolism influences higher levels of biological organization. Here, we investigate the consequences of C and N interactions by genetically modifying the N-assimilation pathway in Arabidopsis and initiating growth chamber and mesocosm competition studies at current CO2 (cCO2; 400 ppm) and eCO2 over multiple generations. Using a suite of ecological, physiological, and molecular genomic tools, we show that a single-gene mutant of a key enzyme (nia2) elicited a highlymore » orchestrated buffering response starting with a fivefold increase in the expression of a gene paralog (nia1) and a 63% increase in the expression of gene network module enriched for N-assimilation genes. The genetic perturbation reduced amino acids, protein, and TCA-cycle intermediate concentrations in the nia2 mutant compared to the wild-type, while eCO2 mainly increased carbohydrate concentrations. The mutant had reduced net photosynthetic rates due to a 27% decrease in carboxylation capacity and an 18% decrease in electron transport rates. The expression of these buffering mechanisms resulted in a penalty that negatively correlated with fitness and population dynamics yet showed only minor alterations in our estimates of population function, including total per unit area biomass, ground cover, and leaf area index. This study provides insight into the consequences of buffering mechanisms that occur post-genetic perturbations in the N pathway and the associated outcomes these buffering systems have on plant populations relative to eCO2.« less

  2. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  3. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, J.; Gu, L.; Bao, F.; Cao, Y.; Hao, Y.; He, J.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Ren, Y.; Wang, F.; et al

    2014-09-10

    A longstanding puzzle in isotope studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has anmore » exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotope ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous contents of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotope ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found, for the first time, that higher nitrogen contents in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous contents had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotope ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic – heterotrophic difference in carbon isotope compositions.« less

  4. Nitrogen control of 13C enrichment in heterotrophic organs relative to leaves in a landscape-building desert plant species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinxin [Chinese Academy of Forestry; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in isotopic studies of C3 plant species is that heterotrophic plant organs (e.g., stems, roots, seeds, and fruits) tend to be enriched in 13C compared to the autotrophic organ (leaves) that provides them with photosynthate. Our inability to explain this puzzle suggests key deficiencies in understanding post-photosynthetic metabolic processes. It also limits the effectiveness of applications of stable carbon isotope analyses in a variety of scientific disciplines ranging from plant physiology to global carbon cycle studies. To gain insight into this puzzle, we excavated whole plant architectures of Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov, a C3 species that has an exceptional capability of fixing sands and building sand dunes, in two deserts in northwestern China. We systematically and simultaneously measured carbon isotopic ratios and nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations of different parts of the excavated plants. We also determined the seasonal variations in leaf carbon isotopic ratios on nearby intact plants of N. tangutorum. We found that higher nitrogen concentrations in heterotrophic organs were significantly correlated with increased heterotrophic 13C enrichment compared to leaves. However, phosphorous concentrations had no effect on the enrichment. In addition, new leaves had carbon isotopic ratios similar to roots but were progressively depleted in 13C as they matured. We concluded that a nitrogen-mediated process, probably the refixation of respiratory CO2 by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, was responsible for the differences in 13C enrichment among different heterotrophic organs while processes within leaves or during phloem loading may contribute to the overall autotrophic heterotrophic difference in carbon isotopic compositions.

  5. Fast radiographic film calibration procedure for helical tomotherapy intensity modulated radiation therapy dose verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Yulong; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Weng Xuejun; Penagaricano, Jose; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2005-06-15

    Film dosimetry offers an advantageous in-phantom planar dose verification tool in terms of spatial resolution and ease of handling for quality assurance (QA) of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. A critical step in the success of such a technique is that the film calibration be appropriately conducted. This paper presents a fast and efficient film calibration method for a helical tomotherapy unit using a single sheet of film. Considering the unique un-flattened cone shaped profile from a helical tomotherapy beam, a custom leaf control file (sinogram) was created, to produce a valley shaped intensity pattern. There are eleven intensity steps in the valley pattern, representing varying dose values from 38 to 265 cGy. This dose range covers the most commonly prescribed doses in fractionated IMRT treatments. An ion chamber in a solid water phantom was used to measure the dose in each of the eleven steps. For daily film calibration the whole procedure, including film exposure, processing, digitization and analysis, can be completed within 15 min, making it practical to use this technique routinely. This method is applicable to film calibration on a helical tomotherapy unit and is particularly useful in IMRT planar dose verification due to its efficiency and reproducibility. In this work, we characterized the dose response of the KODAK EDR2 ready-pack film which was used to develop the step valley dose maps and the IMRT QA planar doses. A comparison between the step valley technique and multifilm based calibration showed that both calibration methods agreed with less than 0.4% deviation in the clinically useful dose ranges.

  6. TU-C-BRE-05: Clinical Implications of AAA Commissioning Errors and Ability of Common Commissioning ' Credentialing Procedures to Detect Them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McVicker, A; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Adamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the ability of the TG-119 commissioning process and RPC credentialing to detect errors in the commissioning process for a commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS). Methods: We introduced commissioning errors into the commissioning process for the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) within the Eclipse TPS. We included errors in Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG), electron contamination, flattening filter material, and beam profile measurement with an inappropriately large farmer chamber (simulated using sliding window smoothing of profiles). We then evaluated the clinical impact of these errors on clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans (head and neck, low and intermediate risk prostate, mesothelioma, and scalp) by looking at PTV D99, and mean and max OAR dose. Finally, for errors with substantial clinical impact we determined sensitivity of the RPC IMRT film analysis at the midpoint between PTV and OAR using a 4mm distance to agreement metric, and of a 7% TLD dose comparison. We also determined sensitivity of the 3 dose planes of the TG-119 C-shape IMRT phantom using gamma criteria of 3% 3mm. Results: The largest clinical impact came from large changes in the DLG with a change of 1mm resulting in up to a 5% change in the primary PTV D99. This resulted in a discrepancy in the RPC TLDs in the PTVs and OARs of 7.1% and 13.6% respectively, which would have resulted in detection. While use of incorrect flattening filter caused only subtle errors (<1%) in clinical plans, the effect was most pronounced for the RPC TLDs in the OARs (>6%). Conclusion: The AAA commissioning process within the Eclipse TPS is surprisingly robust to user error. When errors do occur, the RPC and TG-119 commissioning credentialing criteria are effective at detecting them; however OAR TLDs are the most sensitive despite the RPC currently excluding them from analysis.

  7. SU-E-J-59: Effective Adaptive DMLC Gated Radiotherapy with OAR Sparing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y; Wu, H; Zhou, Z; Sandison, MinGeorge

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient respiratory motion degrades the effectiveness of cancer radiation treatment. Advanced respiratory gating delivers radiation dose accurately yet with elongated treatment time. The goal of this research is to propose a novel adaptive dMLC dynamic gating with high delivery efficiency and precision. Methods: The dose delivery of dMLC is aided by simultaneous tracking of tumor and organ at risk (OAR). The leaf opening/closing will follow the motion trajectory of the tumor while sparing the OAR. The treatment beam turns on only when there is no overlapping between OAR and tumor in BEV. A variety of evaluation metrics were considered and calculated, including duty cycle, beam toggling rate, and direct irradiation avoidance to OAR, under various combinations of different tumor margins and the distance between the centers of the tumor and OAR in BEV (expressed as dx). Results: Retrospective simulation was performed to investigate the feasibility and superiority of this technique using four groups of synchronized tumor and OAR motion data. The simulation results indicate that the tumor and OAR motion patterns and their relative positions are the dominant influential factors. The duty cycle can be greater than 96.71% yet can be as low as 6.69% depending different motion groups. This proposed technique provides good OAR protection, especially for such cases with low duty cycle for which as high as 77.71% maximal direct irradiation to OAR can be spared. Increasing dx improves the duty cycle (treatment efficiency) and provides better OAR volume sparing, whereas, that of the tumor margins has the opposite influence. Conclusion: This real-time adaptive dMLC gated radiation treatment with synchronous tumor and OAR tracking has inherent accurate dose delivery to tumor with reduced treatment time. In addition, the OAR protection capability make it an outstanding potential treatment strategy for mobile tumors.

  8. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

  9. Middle to Late Holocene Fluctuations of C3 and C4 Vegetation in a Northern New England Salt Marsh, Sprague Marsh, Phippsburg Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B J; Moore, K A; Lehmann, C; Bohlen, C; Brown, T A

    2006-05-26

    A 3.1 meter sediment core was analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition of organic matter and higher plant leaf wax (HPLW) lipid biomarkers to determine Holocene shifts in C{sub 3} (higher high marsh) and C{sub 4} (low and/or high marsh) plant deposition at the Sprague River Salt Marsh, Phippsburg, Maine. The carbon isotope composition of the bulk sediment and the HPLW parallel each other throughout most of the core, suggesting that terrestrial plants are an important source of organic matter to the sediments, and diagenetic alteration of the bulk sediments is minimal. The current salt marsh began to form 2500 cal yr BP. Low and/or high C{sub 4} marsh plants dominated deposition at 2000 cal yr BP, 700 cal yr BP, and for the last 200 cal yr BP. Expansion of higher high marsh C{sub 3} plants occurred at 1300 and 600 cal yr BP. These major vegetation shifts result from a combination of changes in relative sea-level rise and sediment accumulation rates. Average annual carbon sequestration rates for the last 2500 years approximate 40 g C yr{sup -1} m{sup -2}, and are in strong agreement with other values published for the Gulf of Maine. Given that Maine salt marshes cover an area of {approx}79 km{sup 2}, they represent an important component of the terrestrial carbon sink. More detailed isotopic and age records from a network of sediment cores at Sprague Marsh are needed to truly evaluate the long term changes in salt marsh plant communities and the impact of more recent human activity, including global warming, on salt marsh vegetation.

  10. TU-F-17A-07: Real-Time Personalized Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize normal tissue sparing for treatments requiring motion encompassing margins. Motion mitigation techniques including DMLC or couch tracking can freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture potentially allowing for smaller treatment margins and thus better sparing of normal tissue. To enable for a safe application of this concept in the clinic we propose adapting margins dynamically in real-time during radiotherapy delivery based on personalized tumor localization confidence. To demonstrate technical feasibility we present a phantom study. Methods: We utilize a realistic anthropomorphic dynamic thorax phantom with a lung tumor model embedded close to the spine. The tumor, a 3D-printout of a patient's GTV, is moved 15mm peak-to-peak by diaphragm compression and monitored by continuous EPID imaging in real-time. Two treatment apertures are created for each beam, one representing ITV -based and the other GTV-based margin expansion. A soft tissue localization (STiL) algorithm utilizing the continuous EPID images is employed to freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture by means of DMLC tracking. Depending on a tracking confidence measure (TCM), the treatment aperture is adjusted between the ITV and the GTV leaf. Results: We successfully demonstrate real-time personalized margin adjustment in a phantom study. We measured a system latency of about 250 ms which we compensated by utilizing a respiratory motion prediction algorithm (ridge regression). With prediction in place we observe tracking accuracies better than 1mm. For TCM=0 (as during startup) an ITV-based treatment aperture is chosen, for TCM=1 a GTV-based aperture and for 0

  11. TH-E-17A-11: Tracking Tumors Boundary in MV Image Sequences for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X; Homma, N; Ichiji, K; Abe, M; Sugita, N; Yoshizawa, M; Narita, Y; Takai, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a level set method (LSM)-based algorithm to track the tumors boundary in MV image sequences for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Method: Four MV image sequences, each of which consists of 100 frames at frame rate of 7.5 Hz, are acquired by using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) (Varian Medical Systems, Pal Alto, USA) during the treatment of lung cancer. In the first frame of each sequence, we roughly delineate an initial contour of the target tumor by hand. Using a LSM-based algorithm, the initial contour can automatically shape itself to fit the tumor, and eventually detect the tumors boundary. We then employ the tumors boundary obtained from the previous frame as the initial contour in the subsequent frame, so that the LSM-based method can drive this initial contour to the tumors boundary quickly and fulfill a tracking task. Results: The proposed method has been evaluated on four MV image sequences. The mean tracking errors were 0.23, 0.29, 0.37, and 1.18 mm, and their corresponding standard deviations were 0.97, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.48 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional tumor tracking techniques, the proposed system is capable not only of tracking the tumors position, but also of detecting the tumors boundary varying with the respiration during the treatment. Considering current radiation therapy technique, for example, dynamical multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) has been widely applied in clinical treatment, this study indicates the potential for significant accuracy improvement in radiation therapy. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, California)

  12. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  13. Battery Electric Vehicles: Range Optimization and Diversification for the U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    Properly selecting the driving range is critical for accurately predicting the market acceptance and the resulting social benefits of BEVs. Analysis of transportation technology transition could be biased against battery electric vehicles (BEV) and mislead policy making, if BEVs are not represented with optimal ranges. This study proposes a coherent method to optimize the BEV driving range by minimizing the range-related cost, which is formulated as a function of range, battery cost, energy prices, charging frequency, access to backup vehicles, and the cost and refueling hassle of operating the backup vehicle. This method is implemented with a sample of 36,664 drivers, representing U.S. new car drivers, based on the 2009 National Household Travel Survey data. Key findings are: 1) Assuming the near term (2015) battery cost at $405/kWh, about 98% of the sampled drivers are predicted to prefer a range below 200 miles, and about 70% below 100 miles. The most popular 20-mile band of range is 57 to77 miles, unsurprisingly encompassing the Leaf s EPA-certified 73-mile range. With range limited to 4 or 7 discrete options, the majority are predicted to choose a range below 100 miles. 2) Found as a statistically robust rule of thumb, the BEV optimal range is approximately 0.6% of one s annual driving distance. 3) Reducing battery costs could motivate demand for larger range, but improving public charging may cause the opposite. 4) Using a single range to represent BEVs in analysis could significantly underestimate their competitiveness e.g. by $3226/vehicle if BEVs are represented with 73-mile range only or by $7404/BEV if with 150-mile range only. Range optimization and diversification into 4 or 7 range options reduce such analytical bias by 78% or 90%, respectively.

  14. An ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux. Synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C.; Arneth, A.; Bamberger, I.; Goldstein, A. H.; Gu, L.; Guenther, A.; Hansel, A.; Heinesch, B.; Holst, T.; Hrtnagl, L.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Neftel, A.; McKinney, K.; Munger, J. W.; Pallardy, S. G.; Schade, G. W.; Seco, R.; Schoon, N.

    2015-07-09

    Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the landatmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements.

  15. VEGETATION COVER ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES IN UTAH AND ARIZONA USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M.; Jungho, I.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, R.; Gladden, J.; Waugh, J.

    2012-01-17

    Remote sensing technology can provide a cost-effective tool for monitoring hazardous waste sites. This study investigated the usability of HyMap airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (126 bands at 2.3 x 2.3 m spatial resolution) to characterize the vegetation at U.S. Department of Energy uranium processing sites near Monticello, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Grass and shrub species were mixed on an engineered disposal cell cover at the Monticello site while shrub species were dominant in the phytoremediation plantings at the Monument Valley site. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate leaf-area-index (LAI) of the vegetation using three different methods (i.e., vegetation indices, red-edge positioning (REP), and machine learning regression trees), and (2) map the vegetation cover using machine learning decision trees based on either the scaled reflectance data or mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF)-derived metrics and vegetation indices. Regression trees resulted in the best calibration performance of LAI estimation (R{sup 2} > 0.80). The use of REPs failed to accurately predict LAI (R{sup 2} < 0.2). The use of the MTMF-derived metrics (matched filter scores and infeasibility) and a range of vegetation indices in decision trees improved the vegetation mapping when compared to the decision tree classification using just the scaled reflectance. Results suggest that hyperspectral imagery are useful for characterizing biophysical characteristics (LAI) and vegetation cover on capped hazardous waste sites. However, it is believed that the vegetation mapping would benefit from the use of 1 higher spatial resolution hyperspectral data due to the small size of many of the vegetation patches (< 1m) found on the sites.

  16. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  17. First Demonstration of Combined kV/MV Image-Guided Real-Time Dynamic Multileaf-Collimator Target Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Byungchul Poulsen, Per R.; Sloutsky, Alex; Sawant, Amit; Keall, Paul J.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: For intrafraction motion management, a real-time tracking system was developed by combining fiducial marker-based tracking via simultaneous kilovoltage (kV) and megavoltage (MV) imaging and a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) beam-tracking system. Methods and Materials: The integrated tracking system employed a Varian Trilogy system equipped with kV/MV imaging systems and a Millennium 120-leaf MLC. A gold marker in elliptical motion (2-cm superior-inferior, 1-cm left-right, 10 cycles/min) was simultaneously imaged by the kV and MV imagers at 6.7 Hz and segmented in real time. With these two-dimensional projections, the tracking software triangulated the three-dimensional marker position and repositioned the MLC leaves to follow the motion. Phantom studies were performed to evaluate time delay from image acquisition to MLC adjustment, tracking error, and dosimetric impact of target motion with and without tracking. Results: The time delay of the integrated tracking system was {approx}450 ms. The tracking error using a prediction algorithm was 0.9 {+-} 0.5 mm for the elliptical motion. The dose distribution with tracking showed better target coverage and less dose to surrounding region over no tracking. The failure rate of the gamma test (3%/3-mm criteria) was 22.5% without tracking but was reduced to 0.2% with tracking. Conclusion: For the first time, a complete tracking system combining kV/MV image-guided target tracking and DMLC beam tracking was demonstrated. The average geometric error was less than 1 mm, and the dosimetric error was negligible. This system is a promising method for intrafraction motion management.

  18. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an image-guided radiotherapy system to treat deforming tumors in real-time. The authors acknowledge funding support from the Australian NHMRC Australia Fellowship, Cure Cancer Australia Foundation, NHMRC Project Grant APP1042375 and US NIH/NCI R01CA93626.

  19. SU-F-BRE-16: VMAT Commissioning and Quality Assurance (QA) of An Elekta Synergy-STM Linac Using ICOM Test HarnessTM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, A; Rajaguru, P; He, R; Yang, C; Kaurin, D; Paul, T; Plowman, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a set of tests based on the iCOM software that can be used to commission and perform periodic QA of VMAT delivery on the Elekta Synergy-S, commonly known as the Beam Modulator (BM). Methods: iCOM is used to create and deliver customized treatment fields to characterize the system in terms of 1) MLC positioning accuracy under static and dynamic delivery with full gantry rotation, 2) MLC positioning with known errors, 3) Maximum dose rate, 4) Maximum MLC speed, 5) Maximum gantry speed, 6) Synchronization: gantry speed versus dose rate, and 7) Synchronization: MLC speed versus dose rate. The resulting images were captured on the iView GT and exported in DICOM format to Dosimetry Check system for visual and quantitative analysis. For the initial commissioning phase, the system tests described should be supplemented with extensive patient QAs covering all clinically relevant treatment sites. Results: The system performance test suite showed that on our Synergy-S, MLC positioning was accurate under both static and dynamic deliveries. Intentional errors of 1 mm were also easily identified on both static and dynamic picket fence tests. Maximum dose rate was verified with stop watch to be consistently between 475-480 MU/min. Maximum gantry speed and MLC speed were 5.5 degree/s and 2.5 cm/s respectively. After accounting for beam flatness, both synchronization tests, gantry versus dose rate and MLC speed versus dose rate, were successful as the fields were uniform across the strips and there were no obvious cold/hot spots. Conclusion: VMAT commissioning and quality assurance should include machine characterization tests in addition to patient QAs. Elekta iCOM is a valuable tool for the design of customized VMAT field with specific MU, MLC leaf positions, dose rate, and indirect control of MLC and gantry speed at each of its control points.

  20. SU-E-T-630: Commissioning for SRS Planning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pella, S; Smith, C; Leventouri, T; Bacala, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study will try to find optimal procedures to collect small fields beam data for commissioning in treatment planning systems (TPS), and to provide a protocol to collect output factors for very small field sizes: 0.5 cm 0.5 cm to 4.0 cm 4.0 cm.This will help in determining the correct beam configuration methods in TPS planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery SRS using mini multileaf collimation (mMLC). Methods: Data has been collected for a mMLC linear accelerator (linac) Novalis from 0.5 cm 0.5 cm to 10 cm 10 cm (its maximum field size). The TPS chosen is BrainLab, Eclipse and Cyberknife. The beam data collected was modeled and imported in the TPS. Verification plans were generated in solid water to confirm the goodness of the data. 3D and IMRT plans on regular CT scans were generated and verified using Mapcheck. All 3D plans with field sizes above 4 cm 4 cm verified excellent using a distance to agreement of 2 mm and a 2% tolerance. IMRT plans gave an error of -8%. New scans with new detectors have been taken, new field sizes were introduced, and focus has been applied on determining the dosimetric leaf gap. Results: Although this is still a work in progress, this study brings several issues to light: the importance of the correct technique in beam data collection from the correct watertank to the correct detectors. Readings for rectangular fields have to be taken especially for fields which one side is under 4 cm. Conclusion: The use of equivalent square fields will not provide correct readings for the fields with large differences between the length and the width.

  1. SU-E-T-462: Fixed-Jaw Optimization for Critical Structure Sparing in IMRT Treatment Planning: Beam Modeling Cautions for Non-Routine Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R; Veltchev, I; Cherian, G; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Multiple publications exist concerning fixed-jaw utilization to avoid linac carriage shifts and reduce intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment times. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate delivery QA discrepancies and illustrate the need for improved treatment planning system (TPS) commissioning for non-routine use. Methods: A 6cm diameter spherical target was delineated on a virtual phantom containing the Iba Matrixx linear array within the Varian Eclipse TPS. Optimization was performed for target coverage for the following 3 scenarios: a single open, zero degree field where the X and Y jaws completely cover the target; the same field using an asymmetric, fixed-jaw technique where the upper Y jaw does not cover the superior 2cm of the target; and both of the aforementioned directed at the target at 315 and 45 degree gantry angles, respectively. This final orientation was also irradiated on a linac for delivery analysis. A sarcoma patient case was also analyzed where the fixed jaw technique was utilized for kidney sparing. Results: The open beam results were as predicted but the fixed-jaw results demonstrate a pronounced fluence increase along the asymmetric, upper jaw. Analysis of the delivery of the combined beam plan Resultin 83% of pixels evaluated passing gamma criteria of 3%, 3mm DTA. Analysis for the sarcoma patient, in the plane of the shielded kidney, indicated 93% passing although the maximum dose discrepancies in this region were approximately 23%. Conclusion: Optimization within the target is routinely performed using MLC leaf-end characteristics. The fixed-jaw technique forces optimization of target coverage to utilize the penumbra profiles of the associated beamdefining jaw. If the profiles were collected using a common 0.125cc ionization chamber, the resolution may be insufficient resulting in a planvs.-delivery mismatch. It is recommended that high-resolution beam characteristics be considered when non-routine planning methods are utilized.

  2. SU-E-T-239: Monte Carlo Modelling of SMC Proton Nozzles Using TOPAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, K; Kim, J; Shin, J; Han, Y; Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, D; Kim, H; Shin, E; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Choi, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To expedite and cross-check the commissioning of the proton therapy nozzles at Samsung Medical Center using TOPAS. Methods: We have two different types of nozzles at Samsung Medical Center (SMC), a multi-purpose nozzle and a pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzle. Both nozzles have been modelled in Monte Carlo simulation by using TOPAS based on the vendor-provided geometry. The multi-purpose nozzle is mainly composed of wobbling magnets, scatterers, ridge filters and multi-leaf collimators (MLC). Including patient specific apertures and compensators, all the parts of the nozzle have been implemented in TOPAS following the geometry information from the vendor.The dedicated scanning nozzle has a simpler structure than the multi-purpose nozzle with a vacuum pipe at the down stream of the nozzle.A simple water tank volume has been implemented to measure the dosimetric characteristics of proton beams from the nozzles. Results: We have simulated the two proton beam nozzles at SMC. Two different ridge filters have been tested for the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) generation of wobbling mode in the multi-purpose nozzle. The spot sizes and lateral penumbra in two nozzles have been simulated and analyzed using a double Gaussian model. Using parallel geometry, both the depth dose curve and dose profile have been measured simultaneously. Conclusion: The proton therapy nozzles at SMC have been successfully modelled in Monte Carlo simulation using TOPAS. We will perform a validation with measured base data and then use the MC simulation to interpolate/extrapolate the measured data. We believe it will expedite the commissioning process of the proton therapy nozzles at SMC.

  3. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  4. Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Trishchenko, Alexander

    2008-01-15

    Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

  5. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  6. Water relations of differentially irrigated cotton exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The field study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plants chronically exposed to O{sub 3} may be more susceptible to drought because O{sub 3} typically inhibits root growth and increases shoot-root ratios in plants. Cotton was grown in open-top chambers on Hanford coarse sandy loam in Riverside, CA. Plants were grown under three irrigation regimes: Optimum water for lint production (OW), suboptimum or moderate drought stress (SO), and severely drought stressed (SS) and were exposed to seasonal 12 h (0800-2000) O{sub 3} centrations of 0.015, 0.074, 0.094, or 0.111/microLL. Leaf xylem pressure potentials Psi(sub 1) and soil water content Theta(sub v) were measured weekly from June to October. Mean seasonal Psi(sub 1) increased from -1.89 MPa to -1.72 MPa in low to high O{sub 3} treatments, averaged across soil water regimes. Ozone had no effect on seasonal water use of cotton, but water use efficiency was significantly reduced by O{sub 3} in OW and SO, but not in SS treatments. Drought-stressed plants extracted proportionally greater amounts of water from deeper in the soil profile than OW cotton, and O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on this redistribution of roots in the soil. Since O{sub 3} had no apparent effect on the ability of drought-stressed cotton to maintain Psi(sub 1) and to increase root growth relative to shoot growth, this suggests that O{sub 3} may have little or no effect on the potential of cotton to adapt to or tolerate drought.

  7. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  8. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  9. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  10. SU-E-T-248: Near Real-Time Analysis of Radiation Delivery and Imaging, Accuracy to Ensure Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijesooriya, K; Seitter, K; Desai, V; Read, P; Larner, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and optimize an effective software method for comparing planned to delivered control point machine parameters for all VARIAN TrueBeam treatments so as to permit (1) assessment of a large patient pool throughout their treatment course to quantify treatment technique specific systematic and random uncertainty of observables, (2) quantify the site specific daily imaging shifts required for target alignment, and (3) define tolerance levels for mechanical parameters and imaging parameters based on statistical analysis data gathered, and the dosimetric impact of variations. Methods: Treatment and imaging log files were directly compared to plan parameters for Eclipse and Pinnacle planned treatments via 3D, IMRT, control point, RapidArc, and electrons. Each control point from all beams/arcs (7984) for all fractions (1940) of all patients treated over six months were analyzed. At each control point gantry angle, collimator angle, couch angle, jaw positions, MLC positions, MU were compared. Additionally per-treatment isocenter shifts were calculated. Results were analyzed as a whole in treatment type subsets: IMRT, 3D, RapidArc; and in treatment site subsets: brain, chest/mediastinum, esophagus, H and N, lung, pelvis, prostate. Results: Daily imaging isocenter shifts from initial external tattoo alignment were dependent on the treatment site with < 0.5 cm translational shifts for H and N, Brain, and lung SBRT, while pelvis, esophagus shifts were ?1 cm. Mechanical delivery parameters were within tolerance levels for all sub-beams. The largest variations were for RapidArc plans: gantry angle 0.110.12,collimator angle 0.000.00, jaw positions 0.480.26, MLC leaf positions 0.660.08, MU 0.140.34. Conclusion: Per-control point validation reveals deviations between planned and delivered parameters. If used in a near real-time error checking system, patient safety can be improved by equipping the treatment delivery system with additional forcing functions which by-pass human error avenues.

  11. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au; OBrien, Ricky; Ng, Jin Aun [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Colvill, Emma [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark)] [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus 8000, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000 (Denmark); Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew; Booth, Jeremy T. [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)] [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: We report on the clinical process, quality assurance, and geometric and dosimetric results of the first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking which occurred on 28 November 2013 at the Northern Sydney Cancer Centre. Methods: An electromagnetic transponder-based positioning system (Calypso) was modified to send the target position output to in-house-developed MLC tracking code, which adjusts the leaf positions to optimally align the treatment beam with the real-time target position. Clinical process and quality assurance procedures were developed and performed. The first clinical implementation of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking was for a prostate cancer patient being treated with dual-arc VMAT (RapidArc). For the first fraction of the first patient treatment of electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking we recorded the in-room time and transponder positions, and performed dose reconstruction to estimate the delivered dose and also the dose received had MLC tracking not been used. Results: The total in-room time was 21 min with 2 min of beam delivery. No additional time was needed for MLC tracking and there were no beam holds. The average prostate position from the initial setup was 1.2 mm, mostly an anterior shift. Dose reconstruction analysis of the delivered dose with MLC tracking showed similar isodose and target dose volume histograms to the planned treatment and a 4.6% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60}. Dose reconstruction without motion compensation showed a 30% increase in the fractional rectal V{sub 60} from that planned, even for the small motion. Conclusions: The real-time beam-target correction method, electromagnetic transponder-guided MLC tracking, has been translated to the clinic. This achievement represents a milestone in improving geometric and dosimetric accuracy, and by inference treatment outcomes, in cancer radiotherapy.

  12. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence in Environmental Disciplines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka A.

    2014-12-17

    The establishment of the DOE-EM Dr. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence provides an excellent opportunity for Hampton University to be involved in key environmental issues in the 21st Century. The main areas of focus are on: 1. Coal gasification with respect to pollution prevention and reduction. 2. Solid waste treatment through bioremediation technology and 3. Industrial wastewater treatment Synthesizing ion catalysts suitable for use in slurry bubble column reaction was carried out. Construction of an autoclave continuous stirred tank reactor has been completed. At the initial stage of the development of this program, work was conducted in the area of formic acid recovery from waste streams, which yielded useful results. We also succeeded in the removal of priority metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium, zinc, etc., from industrial and municipal wastewater by using natural wastes. The process uses tree leaves to adsorb the metal ions in the wastewater. The ultimate goal is to develop inexpensive, highly available, effective metal ion adsorbents from natural wastes as an alternative to existing commercial adsorbents, and also to explain the possible adsorption mechanism that is taking place. This technology uses natural wastes to eliminate other wastes. Obviously, there are several advantages: (1) the negative impact on environment is eliminated, (2) the complicated regeneration step is not needed, and (3) the procedure saves money and energy. Twelve different types of leaves have been tested with lead, zinc, and nickel. The study mechanism showed that the leaf tannin is an active ingredient in the adsorption of metal ions. The ion-exchange mechanism controlled the adsorption process.

  13. Using The Corngrass1 Gene To Enhance The Biofuel Properties Of Crop Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah; Chuck, George

    2015-10-29

    The development of novel plant germplasm is vital to addressing our increasing bioenergy demands. The major hurdle to digesting plant biomass is the complex structure of the cell walls, the substrate of fermentation. Plant cell walls are inaccessible matrices of macromolecules that are polymerized with lignin, making fermentation difficult. Overcoming this hurdle is a major goal toward developing usable bioenergy crop plants. Our project seeks to enhance the biofuel properties of perennial grass species using the Corngrass1 (Cg1) gene and its targets. Dominant maize Cg1 mutants produce increased biomass by continuously initiating extra axillary meristems and leaves. We cloned Cg1 and showed that its phenotype is caused by over expression of a unique miR156 microRNA gene that negatively regulates SPL transcription factors. We transferred the Cg1 phenotype to other plants by expressing the gene behind constitutive promoters in four different species, including the monocots, Brachypodium and switchgrass, and dicots, Arabidopsis and poplar. All transformants displayed a similar range of phenotypes, including increased biomass from extended leaf production, and increased vegetative branching. Field grown switchgrass transformants showed that overall lignin content was reduced, the ratio of glucans to xylans was increased, and surprisingly, that starch levels were greatly increased. The goals of this project are to control the tissue and temporal expression of Cg1 by using different promoters to drive its expression, elucidate the function of the SPL targets of Cg1 by generating gain and loss of function alleles, and isolate downstream targets of select SPL genes using deep sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We believe it is possible to control biomass accumulation, cell wall properties, and sugar levels through manipulation of either the Cg1 gene and/or its SPL targets.

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 2 of 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  15. Transgenic expression of the dicotyledonous pattern recognition receptor EFR in rice leads to ligand-dependent activation of defense responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Bahar, Ofir; Thomas, Nicolas; Holton, Nicolas; Nekrasov, Vladimir; Ruan, Deling; Canlas, Patrick E.; Daudi, Arsalan; Petzold, Christopher J.; Singan, Vasanth R.; Kuo, Rita; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Christopher; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Zipfel, Cyril; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-03-30

    Plant plasma membrane localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect extracellular pathogen-associated molecules. PRRs such as Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21 are taxonomically restricted and are absent from most plant genomes. Here we show that rice plants expressing EFR or the chimeric receptor EFR::XA21, containing the EFR ectodomain and the XA21 intracellular domain, sense both Escherichia coli- and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)-derived elf18 peptides at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Treatment of EFR and EFR::XA21 rice leaf tissue with elf18 leads to MAP kinase activation, reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression. Although expression of EFR does not lead to robust enhanced resistance to fully virulent Xoo isolates, it does lead to quantitatively enhanced resistance to weakly virulent Xoo isolates. EFR interacts with OsSERK2 and the XA21 binding protein 24 (XB24), two key components of the rice XA21-mediated immune response. Rice-EFR plants silenced for OsSERK2, or overexpressing rice XB24 are compromised in elf18-induced reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression indicating that these proteins are also important for EFR-mediated signaling in transgenic rice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential feasibility of enhancing disease resistance in rice and possibly other monocotyledonous crop species by expression of dicotyledonous PRRs. Our results also suggest that Arabidopsis EFR utilizes at least a subset of the known endogenous rice XA21 signaling components.

  16. Target tracking using DMLC for volumetric modulated arc therapy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Baozhou; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Papiez, Lech; Oddiraju, Swetha; Yang Deshan; Li, H. Harold

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Target tracking using dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) is a promising approach for intrafraction motion management in radiation therapy. The purpose of this work is to develop a DMLC tracking algorithm capable of delivering volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the targets that experience two-dimensional (2D) rigid motion in the beam's eye view. Methods: The problem of VMAT delivery to moving targets is formulated as a control problem with constraints. The relationships between gantry speed, gantry acceleration, MLC leaf-velocity, dose rate, and target motion are derived. An iterative search algorithm is developed to find numerical solutions for efficient delivery of a specific VMAT plan to the moving target using 2D DMLC tracking. The delivery of five VMAT lung plans is simulated. The planned and delivered fluence maps in the target-reference frame are calculated and compared. Results: The simulation demonstrates that the 2D tracking algorithm is capable of delivering the VMAT plan to a moving target fast and accurately without violating the machine constraints and the integrity of the treatment plan. The average delivery time is only 29 s longer than that of no-tracking delivery, 101 versus 72 s, respectively. The fluence maps are normalized to 200 MU and the average root-mean-square error between the desired and the delivered fluence is 2.1 MU, compared to 14.8 MU for no-tracking and 3.6 MU for one-dimensional tracking. Conclusions: A locally optimal MLC tracking algorithm for VMAT delivery is proposed, aiming at shortest delivery time while maintaining treatment plan invariant. The inconsequential increase of treatment time due to DMLC tracking is clinically desirable, which makes VMAT with DMLC tracking attractive in treating moving tumors.

  17. Toward A National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Phenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2009-12-01

    We are using a statistical clustering method for delineating homogeneous ecoregions as a basis for identifying disturbances in forests through time over large areas, up to national and global extents. Such changes can be shown relative to past conditions, or can be predicted relative to present conditions, as with forecasts of future climatic change. This quantitative ecoregion approach can be used to predict destinations for populations whose local environments are forecast to become unsuitable and are forced to migrate as their habitat shifts, and is also useful for predicting the susceptibility of new locations to invasive species like Sudden Oak Death. EFETAC and our sister western center WWETAC, along with our NASA and ORNL collaborators, are designing a new national-scale early warning system for forest threats, called FIRST. Envisioned as a change-detection system, FIRST will identify all land surface cover changes at the MODIS observational scale, and then try to discriminate normal, expected seasonal changes from locations having unusual activity that may represent potential forest threats. As a start, we have developed new national data sets every 16 days from 2002 through 2008, based on land surface phenology, or timing of leaf-out in the spring and brown-down in the fall. Changes in such phenological maps will be shown to contain important information about vegetation health status across the United States. The standard deviation of the duration of fall can be mapped, showing places where length of fall is relatively constant or is variable in length from year to year.

  18. Uptake of strontium by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing over a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    A major concern of managers at low-level waste burial site facilities is that plant roots may translocate contaminants up to the soil surface. This study investigates the uptake of strontium ({sup 90}Sr), a biologically mobile element, by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), a deep-rooted shrub plant, growing in a former liquid waste disposal site (Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003[c]) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant--one plant, in particular, contained 3.35 x 10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup {minus}1} ash (9.05 x 10{sup 4} pCi g{sup {minus}1} ash) in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels (> 218 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} dry [5.90 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry]); this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace areas. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the LANL boundary was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  19. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris and Copaifera spp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skrukrud, C.L.

    1987-07-01

    Biosynthesis of triterpenoids by isolated latex of Euphorbia lathyris was investigated. The rate of in vitro incorporation of mevalonic acid into triterpenoids was thirty times greater than acetate incorporation indicating that the rate-limiting step in the pathway occurs prior to mevalonate. Both HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and HMG-CoA lyase (EC 4.1.3.4) activities were detected in isolated latex. HMG-CoA reductase was localized to a membrane-bound fraction of a 5000g pellet of latex. The rate of conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by this enzyme is comparable to the overall rate of acetate incorporation into the triterpenoids suggesting that this enzyme is rate-determining in the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in E. lathyris latex. HMG-CoA reductase of E. lathyris vegetative tissue was localized to the membrane-bound portion of a particulate fraction (18,000g), and was solubilized by treatment with 2% polyoxyethylene ether W-1. Differences in the optimal pH for activity of HMG-CoA reductase from the latex and vegetative tissue suggest that isozymes of the enzyme may be present in the two tissue types. Studies of the incorporation of various precursors into leaf discs and cuttings taken from Copaifera spp. show differences in the rate of incorporation into Copaifera sesquiterpenes suggesting that the site of sesquiterpene biosynthesis may differ in its accessibility to the different substrates and/or reflecting the metabolic controls on carbon allocation to the terpenes. Mevalonate incorporation by Copaifera langsdorfii cuttings into sesquiterpenes was a hundred-fold greater than either acetate or glucose incorporation, however, its incorporation into squalene and triterpenoids was also a hundred-fold greater than the incorporation into sesquiterpenes. 119 refs., 58 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Scaling nitrogen and carbon interactions: What are the consequences of biological buffering?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weston, David J.; Rogers, Alistair; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara A.; Engle, Nancy L.; Heady, Lindsey E.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-25

    Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2 (eCO2; 800 ppm) on terrestrial ecosystems is a central theme in global change biology, but relatively little is known about how altered plant C and N metabolism influences higher levels of biological organization. Here, we investigate the consequences of C and N interactions by genetically modifying the N-assimilation pathway in Arabidopsis and initiating growth chamber and mesocosm competition studies at current CO2 (cCO2; 400 ppm) and eCO2 over multiple generations. Using a suite of ecological, physiological, and molecular genomic tools, we show that a single-gene mutant of a key enzyme (nia2) elicited a highlymore » orchestrated buffering response starting with a fivefold increase in the expression of a gene paralog (nia1) and a 63% increase in the expression of gene network module enriched for N-assimilation genes. The genetic perturbation reduced amino acids, protein, and TCA-cycle intermediate concentrations in the nia2 mutant compared to the wild-type, while eCO2 mainly increased carbohydrate concentrations. The mutant had reduced net photosynthetic rates due to a 27% decrease in carboxylation capacity and an 18% decrease in electron transport rates. The expression of these buffering mechanisms resulted in a penalty that negatively correlated with fitness and population dynamics yet showed only minor alterations in our estimates of population function, including total per unit area biomass, ground cover, and leaf area index. As a result, this study provides insight into the consequences of buffering mechanisms that occur post-genetic perturbations in the N pathway and the associated outcomes these buffering systems have on plant populations relative to eCO2.« less

  1. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO? enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO?) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0C day/night) and growing season free-air CO? enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms? average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO? had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO?. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 64: Preliminary investigation of arc configurations for optimal sparing of normal tissue in hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HF-SRT) of multiple brain metastases using a 5mm interdigitating micro-multileaf collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavens, C; Wronski, M; Lee, YK; Ruschin, M; Soliman, H; Sahgal, A

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue sparing in intra-cranial HF-SRT, comparing various arc configurations with the Synergy Beam Modulator (SynBM) and Agility linacs, the latter incorporating leaf interdigitation and backup jaws. Methods: Five patients with multiple brain metastases (BMs), (5 BMs (n=2), 3 BMs (n=3)) treated with HF-SRT using 25 Gy (n=2) or 30 Gy (n=3) in 5 fractions, were investigated. Clinical treatment plans used the SynBM. Each patient was retrospectively re-planned on Agility, employing three planning strategies: (A) one isocenter and dedicated arc for each BM; (B) a single isocenter, centrally placed with respect to BMs; (C) the isocenter and arc configuration used in the SynBM plan, where closely spaced (<5cm) BMs used a dedicated isocenter and arcs. Agility plans were normalized for PTV coverage and heterogeneity. Results and Conclusion: Strategy A obtained the greatest improvements over the SynBM plan, where the maximum OAR dose, and mean dose to normal brain (averaged for all patients) were reduced by 55cGy and 25cGy, respectively. Strategy B was limited by having a single isocenter, hence less jaw shielding and increased MLC leakage. The maximum OAR dose was reduced by 13cGy, however mean dose to normal brain increased by 84cGy. Strategy C reduced the maximum OAR dose and mean dose to normal brain by 32cGy and 9cGy, respectively. The results from this study indicate that, for intra-cranial HF-SRT of multiple BMs, Agility plans are equal or better than SynBM plans. Further planning is needed to investigate dose sparing using Strategy A and the SynBM.

  3. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  4. Validity of Five Satellite-Based Latent Heat Flux Algorithms for Semi-arid Ecosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Fei; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Nannan; Guo, Yang; Yu, Jian; Sun, Minmin

    2015-12-09

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) is critical in characterizing semiarid ecosystems. Many LE algorithms have been developed during the past few decades. However, the algorithms have not been directly compared, particularly over global semiarid ecosystems. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five LE models over semiarid ecosystems such as grassland, shrub, and savanna using the Fluxnet dataset of 68 eddy covariance (EC) sites during the period 2000–2009. We also used a modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA) dataset, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) from the moderate resolutionmore » imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products; the leaf area index (LAI) from the global land surface satellite (GLASS) products; and the digital elevation model (DEM) from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM30) dataset to generate LE at region scale during the period 2003–2006. The models were the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer LE (MOD16) algorithm, revised remote sensing based Penman–Monteith LE algorithm (RRS), the Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL), the modified satellite-based Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm (MS-PT), and the semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm (UMD). Direct comparison with ground measured LE showed the PT-JPL and MS-PT algorithms had relative high performance over semiarid ecosystems with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of approximately 20 W/m2. Empirical parameters in the structure algorithms of MOD16 and RRS, and calibrated coefficients of the UMD algorithm may be the cause of the reduced performance of these LE algorithms with R2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and RMSE ranging from 20 to 35 W/m2 for MOD16, RRS and UMD. Sensitivity analysis showed that radiation and vegetation terms were the dominating variables affecting LE Fluxes in global semiarid ecosystem.« less

  5. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State Universitys Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  7. SU-D-19A-03: Monte Carlo Investigation of the Mobetron to Perform Modulated Electron Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emam, I; Eldib, A; Hosini, M; AlSaeed, E; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) has been proposed as a mean of delivering conformal dose to shallow tumors while sparing distal structures and surrounding tissues. In intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) utilizing Mobetron, an applicator is placed as closely as possible to the suspected cancerous tissues to be treated. In this study we investigate the characteristics of Mobetron electron beams collimated by an in-house prospective electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) and its feasibility for MERT. Methods: IntraOp Mobetron dedicated to perform radiotherapy during surgery was used in the study. It provides several energies (6, 9 and 12 MeV). Dosimetry measurements were performed to obtain percentage depth dose curves (PDD) and profiles for a 10-cm diameter applicator using the PTW MP3/XS 3D-scanning system and the semiflex ion chamber. MCBEAM/MCSIM Monte Carlo codes were used for the treatment head simulation and phantom dose calculation. The design of an electron beam collimation by an eMLC attached to the Mobetron head was also investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Isodose distributions resulting from eMLC collimated beams were compared to that collimated using cutouts. The design for our Mobetron eMLC is based on our previous experiences with eMLCs designed for clinical linear accelerators. For Mobetron the eMLC is attached to the end of a spacer-mounted rectangular applicator at 50 cm SSD. Steel will be used as the leaf material because other materials would be toxic and will not be suitable for intraoperative applications. Results: Good agreement (within 2%) was achieved between measured and calculated PDD curves and profiles for all available energies. Dose distributiosn provided by the eMLC showed reasonable agreement (?3%/1mm) with those obtained by conventional cutouts. Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulations are capable of modeling Mobetron electron beams with a reliable accuracy. An eMLC attached to the Mobteron treatment head will allow better treatment options with those machines.

  8. SU-E-T-128: Dosimetric Evaluation of MLC Modeling in Pinnacle V9.2 for Varian TrueBeam STx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otageri, P; Grant, E; Maricle, S; Mathews, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of MLC modeling after commissioning the Varian TrueBeam LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2. Methods: Stepand-shoot IMRT QAs were investigated when we observed our measured absolute dose results using ion chamber (Capintec PR-05P) were uncharacteristically low; about 45% compared to doses calculated by Pinnacle{sup 3} (Phillips, Madison, WI). This problem was predominant for large and highly modulated head and neck (HN) treatments. Intuitively we knew this had to be related to shortcomings in the MLC modeling in Pinnacle. Using film QA we were able to iteratively adjust the MLC parameters. We confirmed results by re-testing five failed IMRT QA patients; and ion chamber measurements were verified in Quasar anthropomorphic phantom. Results: After commissioning the LINAC in Pinnacle version 9.2, the MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X were 2.0%, 1.7% and 2.0%, respectively, and additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies was 0.5%. These parameters were obtained from profiles scanned with an Edge detector (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) during machine commissioning. A Verification testing with radiographic EDR2 film (Kodak, Rochester, NY) measurement was performed by creating a closed MLC leaf pattern and analyzing using RIT software (RIT, Colorado Springs, CO). This reduced MLC transmission for 6X, 10X and 15X to 0.7%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively; while increasing additional Interleaf leakage for all three energies to 1.0%. Conclusion: Radiographic film measurements were used to correct MLC transmission values for step and shoot IMRT fields used in Pinnacle version 9.2. After adjusting the MLC parameters to correlate with the film QA, there was still very good agreement between the Pinnacle model and commissioning data. Using the same QA methodology, we were also able to improve the beam models for the Varian C-series linacs, Novalis-Tx, and TrueBeam M-120 linacs.

  9. SU-E-T-367: Optimization of DLG Using TG-119 Test Cases and a Weighted Mean Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sintay, B; Vanderstraeten, C; Terrell, J; Maurer, J; Pursley, J; Wiant, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Optimization of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) is an important step in commissioning the Eclipse treatment planning system for sliding window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT) and RapidArc. Often the values needed for optimal dose delivery differ markedly from those measured at commissioning. We present a method to optimize this value using the AAPM TG-119 test cases. Methods: For SW-IMRT and RapidArc, TG-119 based test plans were created using a water-equivalent phantom. Dose distributions measured on film and ion chamber (IC) readings taken in low-gradient regions within the targets were analyzed separately. Since DLG is a single value per energy, SW-IMRT and RapidArc must be considered simultaneously. Plans were recalculated using a linear sweep from 0.02cm (the minimum DLG) to 0.3 cm. The calculated point doses were compared to the measured doses for each plan, and based on these comparisons an optimal DLG value was computed for each plan. TG-119 cases are designed to push the system in various ways, thus, a weighted mean of the DLG was computed where the relative importance of each type of plan was given a score from 0.0 to 1.0. Finally, SW-IMRT and RapidArc are assigned an overall weight based on clinical utilization. Our routine patient-QA (PQA) process was performed as independent validation. Results: For a Varian TrueBeam, the optimized DLG varied with ? = 0.044cm for SW-IMRT and ? = 0.035cm for RapidArc. The difference between the weighted mean SW-IMRT and RapidArc value was 0.038cm. We predicted utilization of 25% SW-IMRT and 75% RapidArc. The resulting DLG was ~1mm different than that found by commissioning and produced an average error of <1% for SW-IMRT and RapidArc PQA test cases separately. Conclusion: The weighted mean method presented is a useful tool for determining an optimal DLG value for commissioning Eclipse.

  10. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a pionjuniper woodland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a pion pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both pion and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in pionjuniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both pion pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent regional drought in the southwestern United States.

  11. SU-E-J-235: Varian Portal Dosimetry Accuracy at Detecting Simulated Delivery Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J; Bellon, M; Barton, K; Gulam, M; Chetty, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to quantify the Varian Portal Dosimetry (VPD) application's ability to detect delivery errors in IMRT fields. Methods: EPID and VPD were calibrated/commissioned using vendor-recommended procedures. Five clinical plans comprising 56 modulated fields were analyzed using VPD. Treatment sites were: pelvis, prostate, brain, orbit, and base of tongue. Delivery was on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at 6MV using a Millenium120 multi-leaf collimator. Image pairs (VPD-predicted and measured) were exported in dicom format. Each detection test imported an image pair into Matlab, optionally inserted a simulated error (rectangular region with intensity raised or lowered) into the measured image, performed 3%/3mm gamma analysis, and saved the gamma distribution. For a given error, 56 negative tests (without error) were performed, one per 56 image pairs. Also, 560 positive tests (with error) with randomly selected image pairs and randomly selected in-field error location. Images were classified as errored (or error-free) if percent pixels with ?

  12. CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis is not sustained during long-term (12 years) FACE treatments in Liquidambar styraciflua

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Warren, Jeffrey; Jensen, Anna M; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard J; Tissue, David Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species, although there is evidence that the increases may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following two years of ~40% enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if initial enhancement of CO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system.more » Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using consistent leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content were assessed. In 1999, light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 0.8 mol m-2 s-1, 22% higher than aCO2 treatments (P<0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50% of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 0.7 mol m-2 s-1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17% less than in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N use efficiency (Asat:N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax:Vcmax through time. Results suggest that initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 will not be sustained through time if nitrogen becomes limited.« less

  13. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more » but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.« less

  14. Validity of Five Satellite-Based Latent Heat Flux Algorithms for Semi-arid Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Fei; Chen, Jiquan; Li, Xianglan; Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Nannan; Guo, Yang; Yu, Jian; Sun, Minmin

    2015-12-09

    Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE) is critical in characterizing semiarid ecosystems. Many LE algorithms have been developed during the past few decades. However, the algorithms have not been directly compared, particularly over global semiarid ecosystems. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five LE models over semiarid ecosystems such as grassland, shrub, and savanna using the Fluxnet dataset of 68 eddy covariance (EC) sites during the period 2000–2009. We also used a modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA) dataset, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) products; the leaf area index (LAI) from the global land surface satellite (GLASS) products; and the digital elevation model (DEM) from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM30) dataset to generate LE at region scale during the period 2003–2006. The models were the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer LE (MOD16) algorithm, revised remote sensing based Penman–Monteith LE algorithm (RRS), the Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL), the modified satellite-based Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm (MS-PT), and the semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm (UMD). Direct comparison with ground measured LE showed the PT-JPL and MS-PT algorithms had relative high performance over semiarid ecosystems with the coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 and root mean squared error (RMSE) of approximately 20 W/m2. Empirical parameters in the structure algorithms of MOD16 and RRS, and calibrated coefficients of the UMD algorithm may be the cause of the reduced performance of these LE algorithms with R2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and RMSE ranging from 20 to 35 W/m2 for MOD16, RRS and UMD. Sensitivity analysis showed that radiation and vegetation terms were the dominating variables affecting LE Fluxes in global semiarid ecosystem.

  15. SU-E-T-125: Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Robotic Versus Traditional Linac Platform in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, T; Rella, J; Yang, J; Sims, C; Fung, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Recent development of an MLC for robotic external beam radiotherapy has the potential of new clinical application in conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. This study offers a dosimetric comparison of IMRT plans using Cyberknife with MLC versus conventional linac plans. Methods: Ten prostate cancer patients treated on a traditional linac with IMRT to 7920cGy at 180cGy/fraction were randomly selected. GTVs were defined as prostate plus proximal seminal vesicles. PTVs were defined as GTV+8mm in all directions except 5mm posteriorly. Conventional IMRT planning was performed on Philips Pinnacle and delivered on a standard linac with CBCT and 10mm collimator leaf width. For each case a Cyberknife plan was created using Accuray Multiplan with same CT data set, contours, and dose constraints. All dosimetric data was transferred to third party software for independent computation of contour volumes and DVH. Delivery efficiency was evaluated using total MU, treatment time, number of beams, and number of segments. Results: Evaluation criteria including percent target coverage, homogeneity index, and conformity index were found to be comparable. All dose constraints from QUANTEC were found to be statistically similar except rectum V50Gy and bladder V65Gy. Average rectum V50Gy was lower for robotic IMRT (30.07%±6.57) versus traditional (34.73%±3.62, p=0.0130). Average bladder V65Gy was lower for robotic (17.87%±12.74) versus traditional (21.03%±11.93, p=0.0405). Linac plans utilized 9 coplanar beams, 48.9±3.8 segments, and 19381±2399MU. Robotic plans utilized 38.4±9.0 non-coplanar beams, 85.5±21.0 segments and 42554.71±16381.54 MU. The average treatment was 15.02±0.60 minutes for traditional versus 20.90±2.51 for robotic. Conclusion: The robotic IMRT plans were comparable to the traditional IMRT plans in meeting the target volume dose objectives. Critical structure dose constraints were largely comparable although statistically significant differences were found in favor of the robotic platform in terms of rectum V50Gy and bladder V65Gy at a cost of 25% longer treatment time.

  16. SU-E-T-423: TrueBeam Small Field Dosimetry Using Commercial Plastic Scintillation and Other Stereotactic Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pino, R; Therriault-Proulx, F; Wang, X; Yang, J; Beddar, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform dose profile and output factor (OF) measurements with the Exradin W1 plastic scintillation detector (PSD) for small fields made by the high-definition multi-leaf collimator (MLC) on the TrueBeam STx system and to compare them to values measured with an IBA CC01 ionization chamber and a Sun Nuclear Edge detector diode for 6 MV photon beams. Methods: The Exradin W1 is a new small volume near-water equivalent and energy independent PSD manufactured by Standard Imaging, Inc. All measurements were performed in an IBA Blue Phantom water tank. Square MLC-shaped fields with sides ranging from 0.5 cm to 2 cm and jawshaped fields with sides ranging from 1 cm to 40 cm were measured using an SAD setup at 10 cm depth. Dose profile and percent depth dose (PDD) measurements were also taken under the same conditions for MLC fields 0.5×0.5 and 1×1 cm2 in size with jaws at 2×2cm2. The CC01 and W1 were vertically mounted. Results: OFs measured with the W1 for jaw only square fields were consistent with the ones measured with a Farmers PTW TN33013 ion chamber (1.8% maximum deviation). OF and penumbra measurement results are presented below. PDDs measured for all detectors are within 1.5% for the 0.5×0.5 cm2 and within 1% for the 1×1 cm2 MLC fields.Output factors:MLC size W1 CC01 EDGE0.5cm 0.555 0.541 0.5851.0cm 0.716 0.702 0.7331.5cm 0.779 0.761 0.7772.0cm 0.804 0.785 0.796Penumbras (mm):MLC size W1 CC01 EDGE0.5cm 2.7 2.9 2.51.0cm 3.0 3.4 2. Conclusion: OFs measured for small MLC fields were consistent with the ones measured with the other stereotactic detectors. Measured penumbras are consistent with detector size. The Exradin W1 PSD is an excellent choice for characterizing MLC-shaped small beam dosimetry used for stereotactic radiosurgery and body radiation therapy. Sam Beddar would like to disclose a NIH/NCI SBIR Phase II grant (2R44CA153824-02A1) with Standard Imaging, Title: “Water-Equivalent Plastic Scintillation Detectors for Small Field Radiotherapy”.

  17. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying decisions. This guide includes city and highway fuel economy estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The estimates are based on laboratory tests conducted by manufacturers in accordance with federal regulations. EPA retests about 10% of vehicle models to confirm manufacturer results. Fuel economy estimates are also available on FuelEconomy.gov. For some newer vehicle models, EPA data was not available at the time of this guide's publication; in these cases, manufacturer estimates are provided, if available.

  18. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on: stimulation of ecosystem gas exchange by elevated atmospheric CO2; the architecture and distribution of coarse roots using the novel approach of ground penetrating radar; mechanisms for the disturbance of soil carbon pools via the "priming" effect; and how interannual and seasonal variation in precipitation alters the physiological response of key species to elevated CO2. This project was a collaboration between research groups at the Smithsonian Institution, NASA, the Dynamac Corporation, Northern Arizona University, and Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia.

  19. SU-E-T-119: Dosimetric and Mechanical Characteristics of Elekta Infinity LINAC with Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J; Xu, Q; Xue, J; Zhai, Y; An, L; Chen, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Elekta Infinity is the one of the latest generation LINAC with unique features. Two Infinity LINACs are recently commissioned at our institution. The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of the machines are presented. Methods: Both Infinity LINACs with Agility MLC (160 leaves with 0.5 cm leaf width) are configured with five electron energies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV) and two photon energies (6 and 15 MV). One machine has additional photon energy (10 MV). The commissioning was performed by following the manufacturer's specifications and AAPM TG recommendations. Beam data of both electron and photon beams are measured with scanning ion chambers and linear diode array. Machines are adjusted to have the dosimetrically equivalent characteristics. Results: The commissioning of mechanical and imaging system meets the tolerances by TG recommendations. The PDD{sub 10} of various field sizes for 6 and 15 MV shows < 0.5% difference between two machines. For each electron beams, R{sub 80} matches with < 0.4 mm difference. The symmetry and flatness agree within 0.8% and 0.9% differences for photon beams, respectively. For electron beams, the differences of the symmetry and flatness are within 1.2% and 0.8%, respectively. The mean inline penumbras for 6, 10, and 15 MV are respectively 5.10.24, 5.60.07, and 5.90.10 mm for 10x10 cm at 10 cm depth. The crossline penumbras are larger than inline penumbras by 2.2, 1.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The MLC transmission factor with interleaf leakage is 0.5 % for all photon energies. Conclusion: The dosimetric and mechanical characteristics of two Infinity LINACs show good agreements between them. Although the Elekta Infinity has been used in many institutions, the detailed characteristics of the machine have not been reported. This study provides invaluable information to understand the Infinity LINAC and to compare the quality of commissioning data for other LINACs.

  20. SU-E-T-532: Validation and Implementation of Model-Based Patient Specific Quality Assurance Using Mobius3D and MobiusFX in a Clinical Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galavis, P; Osterman, K; Jozsef, G; Becker, S; Dewyngaert, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work carries out the commissioning and validation of the Mobius3D and MobiusFX software tools, which can replace the time-consuming measurement-based patient specific quality assurance (PSQA). Methods: The beam model supplied by Mobius3D was validated against a 21EX linac's beam measured data. Complex patient (VMAT) plans using Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to test the consistency between Mobius3D (calculates dose using patient image and field data) and MobiusFx (calculates dose using treatment dynalog files). Dose difference and gamma analysis (3%/3mm) between Mobius3D and MobiusFx were used to assess treatment plan and treatment delivery consistency. An end-to-end test was performed to validate Mobius3D and MobiusFx against ion chamber measurements. Effect of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) on Mobius3D dose calculation was additionally investigated. Results: Mobius3D beam model parameters matched within 1%-3% with our beam measured data. A comparison of Mobius3D and MobiusFx dose matrices for VMAT planned prostate cases showed (0.330.07)% mean dose difference with gamma values above 95%. The end-to-end test showed dose differences of 1% between Mobius3D and MobiusFx. Dependence of Mobius3D dose calculation upon DLG was explored by introducing a 0.5 mm change in the default value for DLG. This change resulted in agreement differences above 2% Conclusion: Use of reference beam data would appear to speed up commissioning process for the clinical implementation of Mobius3D. However, careful consideration is required when comparing the information provided by the software, since large dose variations can be seen when the proper parameters are not optimized. The plan and delivered dose were in good agreement; hence MobiusFx has the potential to significantly speed up the PSQA process and at the same time helps to verify treatment parameters that are not possible with measurement-based PSQA.

  1. SU-E-T-74: Commissioning of the Elekta VersaHD Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Ding, K; Hobbs, R; McNutt, T; Wang, K; Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To present the commissioning process of recently-released Elekta VersaHD linear accelerator, equipped with Agility 160-leaf multileaf collimator and flattening-filter free (FFF) photon modes. Methods: In addition to routine QA procedures, we adopted an EPID-based method to perform the table rotation and Winston-Lutz tests, and a novel multiradiation isocenter alignment check. The beam data acquired include photon percent-depth dose (PDD) of 6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, and 15X in the field size from 22 to 4040cm{sup 2}, profiles, collimator and phantom scatter factors (Sc and Sp), wedge factor, electron (6, 9, 12, and 15MeV) PDD and profiles, cone and cutout factors, and virtual SSD. Validation measurements were carried out in water tank to evaluate the accuracy of beam modeling by the Pinnacle planning system. End-to-End test and IMRT QA were performed to validate the overall delivery accuracy. A theoretical model has also been used to extract the primary dose ratio and off-axis beam softening effects by fitting photon beam profile measurements. Results: The PDDs of FFF beams with field size 1010cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth, 100cm SSD were intentionally adjusted within 1% of the non-FFF beams. The photon profiles of 3030cm{sup 2} at 10cm depth between non-FFF and FFF beams are very different, OAR(10)=0.74 and 0.63, respectively, for 6XFFF and 10XFFF. The collimator and phantom scatter factors of FFF beam demonstrated smaller variation with field sizes. The EPID-based method demonstrated the maximum deviation between the table rotation axis and radiation isocenter is within 1mm, and the radiation isocenters are within 0.4mm relative to that of 6X. The validation measurement shows less than 2% deviation between the measurement and Pinnacle modeling for most of the test conditions. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the Elekta VersaHD commissioning experience, which can be a valuable reference for the radiotherapy community.

  2. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

  3. Distribution of Clokey's Eggvetch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson

    1998-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Division of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office implements the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This program ensures compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, delineates and describes NTS ecosystems, and provides ecological information for predicting and evaluating potential impacts of proposed projects on those ecosystems. Over the last several decades, has taken an active role in providing information on the tatus of plant species proposed for protection under the Endangered Species Act(ESA). One such species is Clokey's eggvetch (Astragalus oophorus var. clokeyanus), which is a candidate species under the listing guidelines of the ESA. Surveys for this species were conducted on the NTS in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Field surveys focused on potential habitat for this species in the southern Belted range and expanded to other areas with similar habitat. Over 30 survey day s were completed; five survey days in 1996, 25 survey days in 1997, and three survey days in 1998. Clokey's eggvetch was located at several sites in the southern Belted Range. It was found through much of the northern section of Kawich Canyon, one site at the head of Gritty Gulch, and a rather extensive location in Lambs Canyon. It was also located further south at Captain Jack Springs in the Eleana Range, in much of Falcon Canyon and around Echo Peak on Pahute Mesa, and was also found in the Timber and Shoshone Mountains. Overall, the locations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appears to form a distinct bridge between populations of the species located further north in the Belted and Kawich Ranges and the population located in the Spring Mountains. Clokey's eggvetch was commonly found along washes and small draws, and typically in sandy loam soils with a covering of light tuffaceous rock. It occurs primarily above 1830 meters (6000 feet) in association with single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Overall, the populations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appear to be vigorous and do not appear threatened. It is estimated that there are approximately 2300 plants on the NTS. It should be considered as a species of concern because of its localized distribution, but it does not appear to warrant protection under the ESA.

  4. CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis is not sustained during long-term (12 years) FACE treatments in Liquidambar styraciflua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeffrey; Jensen, Anna M; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard J; Tissue, David Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) often increases photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) in field studies of temperate tree species, although there is evidence that the increases may decline through time due to biochemical and morphological acclimation, and environmental constraints. Indeed, at the free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, A was increased in 12-year-old sweetgum trees following two years of ~40% enhancement of CO2. A was re-assessed a decade later to determine if initial enhancement of CO2 was sustained through time. Measurements were conducted at prevailing CO2 and temperature on detached, re-hydrated branches using a portable gas exchange system. Photosynthetic CO2 response curves (A-Ci curves) were contrasted with earlier measurements using consistent leaf photosynthesis model equations. Relationships between maximum electron transport rate (Jmax), maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and foliar nitrogen (N) and chlorophyll content were assessed. In 1999, light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) for eCO2 treatments was 15.4 0.8 mol m-2 s-1, 22% higher than aCO2 treatments (P<0.01). By 2009, Asat declined to <50% of 1999 values, and there was no longer a significant effect of eCO2 (Asat = 6.9 or 5.7 0.7 mol m-2 s-1 for eCO2 or aCO2, respectively). In 1999, there was no treatment effect on area-based foliar N; however, by 2008, N content in eCO2 foliage was 17% less than in aCO2 foliage. Photosynthetic N use efficiency (Asat:N) was greater in eCO2 in 1999 resulting in greater Asat despite similar N content, but the enhanced efficiency in eCO2 trees was lost as foliar N declined to sub-optimal levels. There was no treatment difference in the declining linear relationships between Jmax or Vcmax with declining N, or in the ratio of Jmax:Vcmax through time. Results suggest that initial enhancement of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 will not be sustained through time if nitrogen becomes limited.

  5. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Durfee, Norman; Maxey, L Curt; Overbey, Randall M

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data by the end of government fiscal year 2012. Lessons learned from the sites completed thus far are being incorporated and are proving to be invaluable in completion of the remaining sites.

  6. TH-A-BRF-03: Evaluation of Synthetic CTs Generated Using MR-SIM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Glide-Hurst, C; Doemer, A; Wen, N; Chett, I

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel algorithm for generating synthetic CT images from MR-SIM data for dose calculations in MR-only treatment planning. Methods: A voxel-based weighted summation method was implemented to generate synthetic CT (synCT) images. MR data were acquired using Philips 1.0T Panorama high-field open MR-SIM. Retrospective patient data from seven prostate patients and one brain patient (three lesions) enrolled in an IRB-approved study were used. 3D T1-weighted fast field echo and 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences were utilized for all patients. A 3D balanced turbo field echo sequence using spectral presaturation with inversion recovery was acquired for prostate patients, but 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE)-DIXON was instead acquired for the brain patient to amplify bone signal for semi-automatic bone segmentation. Weight optimization was performed using a training subset of patients. HU value differences between planning CT and synCTs were analyzed using mean absolute error (MAE). Original patient CT-based treatment plans were mapped onto synCTs, dose was recalculated using original leaf motion and MU values, and DRRs were generated. Dosevolume metrics and gamma analysis were used for dosimetric evaluation. Results: Average whole-body MAE of synCTs across all patients was 75+12 HU. In prostate cancer patients, average HU difference between planning and synCTs was 0.9±1.0% for soft tissue structures and 4.3±2.5% for bony structures. DRRs were generated from synCTs and qualitatively showed good geometric agreement with planning CT-generated DRRs. D99, mean dose, and maximum dose to CTV calculated using the synCT remained within 1.2% of planning CT-based dose calculations. All gamma analysis evaluated at 2%/2mm dose difference/distance to agreement) pass rates were greater than 95% with an average of 99.9±0.1% for prostate patients and 98.4±2.2% for three brain lesions. Conclusion: SynCTs were generated with clinically acceptable accuracy comparable to planning CTs, enabling dose computations for MR-only simulation. Research supported in part by a grant from Philips HealthCare (Best, Netherlands)

  7. SU-E-T-489: Plan Comparisons of Re-Irradiation Treatment of Three Intensity Modulated Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, J; Tang, X; Liu, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There have been controversial reports on the comparison of dosimetric quality of TomoTherapy (Tomo), VMAT and IMRT. One of the main reasons is the sampled cases are often not dosimetrically challenging enough to test the limit of optimization/delivery modalities. We chose difficult re-irradiation cases when certain organ at risk (OAR) requires extremely low dose to examine the ability of OAR sparing of three main intensity modulated techniques. Methods: Three previous treated patients with disease site on head and neck (HN), brain and lung are planned for reirradiation treatment. The Tomo planning used jaw 2.5cm and pitch 0.3. VMAT and IMRT were planned on Pinnacle for a Varian 21iX Linac with MLC leaf width 5mm. VMAT plan used 2 Arcs and IMRT plan had beams 11–13. The dosimetric endpoints and treatment time were compared for each technique of each patient. Results: Plans of three techniques cover PTV similarly. The HN case requires PTV dose 60Gy but to limit dose of cord which is 8mm away <12Gy. The cord dose of Tomo, VMAT and IMRT plan is 11.6Gy, 11.3Gy and 11.0Gy, respectively. The brain case has PTV prescription 50.4 Gy while requiring the dose of brainstem < 28Gy. Tomo, VMAT and IMRT plan generate brainstem dose 27.6Gy, 27.6Gy and 27.1Gy respectively. For the lung case, PTV was prescribed 42.5Gy but cord dose constraint was 22.5Gy. The cord dose is optimized to 22.3Gy, 20.8Gy and 21.4Gy by Tomo, VMAT and IMRT, respectively. The delivery time if normalized to Tomo is 47.0%/145.6% (VMAT/IMRT), 33.3%/106.3% and 74.1%/245.4% for HN, brain and lung case, respectively. Conclusion: Difficult re-irradiation cases were used to test the limit of three intensity modulated techniques. Tomo, VMAT and IMRT show similar dosimetry while VMAT is the most efficient one and IMRT is the least.

  8. SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ∼ 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/−0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/−1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/−1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets.

  9. SU-E-T-629: Feasibility Study of Treating Multiple Brain Tumors with Large Number of Noncoplanar IMRT Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, P; Ma, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of treating multiple brain tumors withlarge number of noncoplanar IMRT beams. Methods: Thirty beams are selected from 390 deliverable beams separated by six degree in 4pi space. Beam selection optimization is based on a column generation algorithm. MLC leaf size is 2 mm. Dose matrices are calculated with collapsed cone convolution and superposition method in a 2 mm by 2mm by 2 mm grid. Twelve brain tumors of various shapes, sizes and locations are used to generate four plans treating 3, 6, 9 and 12 tumors. The radiation dose was 20 Gy prescribed to the 100% isodose line. Dose Volume Histograms for tumor and brain were compared. Results: All results are based on a 2 mm by 2 mm by 2 mm CT grid. For 3, 6, 9 and 12 tumor plans, minimum tumor doses are all 20 Gy. Mean tumor dose are 20.0, 20.1, 20.1 and 20.1 Gy. Maximum tumor dose are 23.3, 23.6, 25.4 and 25.4 Gy. Mean ventricles dose are 0.7, 1.7, 2.4 and 3.1 Gy.Mean subventricular zone dose are 0.8, 1.3, 2.2 and 3.2 Gy. Average Equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values for tumor are 20.1, 20.1, 20.2 and 20.2 Gy. The conformity index (CI) values are close to 1 for all 4 plans. The gradient index (GI) values are 2.50, 2.05, 2.09 and 2.19. Conclusion: Compared with published Gamma Knife treatment studies, noncoplanar IMRT treatment plan is superior in terms of dose conformity. Due to maximum limit of beams per plan, Gamma knife has to treat multiple tumors separately in different plans. Noncoplanar IMRT plans theoretically can be delivered in a single plan on any modern linac with an automated couch and image guidance. This warrants further study of using noncoplanar IMRT as a viable treatment solution for multiple brain tumors.

  10. Development of high-spatial and high-mass resolution mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) and its application to the study of small metabolites and endogenous molecules of plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Ji Hyun

    2011-11-30

    High-spatial and high-mass resolution laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric (MS) imaging technology was developed for the attainment of MS images of higher quality containing more information on the relevant cellular and molecular biology in unprecedented depth. The distribution of plant metabolites is asymmetric throughout the cells and tissues, and therefore the increase in the spatial resolution was pursued to reveal the localization of plant metabolites at the cellular level by MS imaging. For achieving high-spatial resolution, the laser beam size was reduced by utilizing an optical fiber with small core diameter (25 ?m) in a vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-linear ion trap (vMALDI-LTQ) mass spectrometer. Matrix application was greatly improved using oscillating capillary nebulizer. As a result, single cell level spatial resolution of ~ 12 ?m was achieved. MS imaging at this high spatial resolution was directly applied to a whole Arabidopsis flower and the substructures of an anther and single pollen grains at the stigma and anther were successfully visualized. MS imaging of high spatial resolution was also demonstrated to the secondary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and a high degree of localization of detected metabolites was successfully unveiled. This was the first MS imaging on the root for molecular species. MS imaging with high mass resolution was also achieved by utilizing the LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the direct identification of the surface metabolites on the Arabidopsis stem and root and differentiation of isobaric ions having the same nominal mass with no need of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS imaging at high-spatial and high-mass resolution was also applied to cer1 mutant of the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to demonstrate its usefulness in biological studies and reveal associated metabolite changes in terms of spatial distribution and/or abundances compared to those of wild-type. The spatial distribution of targeted metabolites, mainly waxes and flavonoids, was systematically explored on various organs, including flowers, leaves, stems, and roots at high spatial resolution of ~ 12-50 ?m and the changes in the abundance level of these metabolites were monitored on the cer1 mutant with respect to the wild-type. This study revealed the metabolic biology of CER1 gene on each individual organ level with very detailed high spatial resolution. The separate MS images of isobaric metabolites, i.e. C29 alkane vs. C28 aldehyde could be constructed on both genotypes from MS imaging at high mass resolution. This allows tracking of abundance changes for those compounds along with the genetic mutation, which is not achievable with low mass resolution mass spectrometry. This study supported previous hypothesis of molecular function of CER1 gene as aldehyde decarbonylase, especially by displaying hyper accumulation of aldehydes and C30 fatty acid and decrease in abundance of alkanes and ketones in several plant organs of cer1 mutant. The scope of analytes was further directed toward internal cell metabolites from the surface metabolites of the plant. MS profiling and imaging of internal cell metabolites were performed on the vibratome section of Arabidopsis leaf. Vibratome sectioning of the leaf was first conducted to remove the surface cuticle layer and it was followed by enzymatic treatment of the section to induce the digestion of primary cell walls, middle lamella, and expose the internal cells underneath to the surface for detection with the laser by LDI-MS. The subsequent MS imaging onto the enzymatically treated vibratome section allowed us to map the distribution of the metabolites in the internal cell layers, linolenic acid (C18:3 FA) and linoleic acid (C18:2 FA). The development of an assay for relative quantification of analytes at the single subcellular/organelle level by LDI-MS imaging was attempted and both plausibility and significant obstacles were seen. As a test system, native plant organelle, chloroplasts isolated from the spinach leaves were used

  11. GENOME ENABLED MODIFICATION OF POPLAR ROOT DEVELOPMENT FOR INCREASED CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busov, Victor

    2013-03-05

    DR5 as a reporter system to study auxin response in Populus Plant Cell Reports 32:453-463 Auxin responsive promoter DR5 reporter system is functional in Populus to monitor auxin response in tissues including leaves, roots, and stems. We described the behavior of the DR5::GUS reporter system in stably transformed Populus plants. We found several similarities with Arabidopsis, including sensitivity to native and synthetic auxins, rapid induction after treatment in a variety of tissues, and maximal responses in root tissues. There were also several important differences from Arabidopsis, including slower time to maximum response and lower induction amplitude. Young leaves and stem sections below the apex showed much higher DR5 activity than did older leaves and stems undergoing secondary growth. DR5 activity was highest in cortex, suggesting high levels of auxin concentration and/or sensitivity in this tissue. Our study shows that the DR5 reporter system is a sensitive and facile system for monitoring auxin responses and distribution at cellular resolution in poplar. The Populus AINTEGUMENTA LIKE 1 homeotic transcription factor PtAIL1 controls the formation of adventitious root primordia. Plant Physiol. 160: 1996-2006 Adventitious rooting is an essential but sometimes rate-limiting step in the clonal multiplication of elite tree germplasm, because the ability to form roots declines rapidly with age in mature adult plant tissues. In spite of the importance of adventitious rooting, the mechanism behind this developmental process remains poorly understood. We have described the transcriptional profiles that are associated with the developmental stages of adventitious root formation in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). Transcriptome analyses indicate a highly specific temporal induction of the AINTEGUMENTA LIKE1 (PtAIL1) transcription factor of the AP2 family during adventitious root formation. Transgenic poplar samples that overexpressed PtAIL1 were able to grow an increased number of adventitious roots, whereas RNA interference mediated the down-expression of PtAIL1 expression, which led to a delay in adventitious root formation. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 15 genes, including the transcription factors AGAMOUS-Like6 and MYB36, was overexpressed in the stem tissues that generated root primordia in PtAIL1-overexpressing plants, whereas their expression was reduced in the RNA interference lines. These results demonstrate that PtAIL1 is a positive regulator of poplar rooting that acts early in the development of adventitious roots. Genomes. 7: 91-101 Knowledge of the functional relationship between genes and organismal phenotypes in perennial plants is extremely limited. Using a population of 627 independent events, we assessed the feasibility of activation tagging as a forward genetics tool for Populus. Mutant identification after 2 years of field testing was nearly sevenfold (6.5%) higher than in greenhouse studies that employed Arabidopsis and identical transformation vectors. Approximately two thirds of all mutant phenotypes were not seen in vitro and in the greenhouse; they were discovered only after the second year of field assessment. The trees? large size (5-10 m in height), perennial growth, and interactions with the natural environment are factors that are thought to have contributed to the high rate of observable phenotypes in the field. The mutant phenotypes affected a variety of morphological and physiological traits, including leaf size and morphology, crown architecture, stature, vegetative dormancy, and tropic responses. Characterization of the insertion in more than 100 events with and without mutant phenotypes showed that tags predominantly (70%) inserted in a 13-Kbp region up- and downstream of the genes? coding regions with approximately even distribution among the 19 chromosomes. Transcriptional activation was observed in many proximal genes studied. Successful phenotype recapitulation was observed in 10 of 12 retransformed genes tested, indicating true tagging and a functional relationship between the genes and observed phenotypes for most activation lines. Our studies indicate that in addition to associating mapping and QTL approaches, activation tagging can be used successfully as an effective forward gene discovery tool in Populus. This study describes functional characterization of two putative poplar PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1) orthologues. The expression and sequence analyses indicate that the two poplar genes diverged, at least partially, in function. PtPHOR1_1 is most highly expressed in roots and induced by short days, while PtPHOR1_2 is more uniformly expressed throughout plant tissues and is not responsive to short days. The two PHOR1 genes also had distinct effects on shoot and root growth when their expression was up- and downregulated transgenically. PtPHOR1_1 effects were restricted to roots while PtPHOR1_2 had similar effects on aerial and below-ground development. Nevertheless, both genes seemed to be upregulated in transgenic poplars that are gibberellin-deficient and gibberellin-insensitive, suggesting interplay with gibberellin signalling. PHOR1 suppression led to increased starch accumulation in both roots and stems. The effect of PHOR1 suppression on starch accumulation was coupled with growth-inhibiting effects in both roots and shoots, suggesting that PHOR1 is part of a mechanism that regulates the allocation of carbohydrate to growth or storage in poplar. PHOR1 downregulation led to significant reduction of xylem formation caused by smaller fibres and vessels suggesting that PHOR1 likely plays a role in the growth of xylem cells. Species within the genus Populus are among the fastest growing trees in regions with a temperate climate. Not only are they an integral component of ecosystems, but they are also grown commercially for fuel, fiber, and forest products in rural areas of the world. In the late 1970s, they were designated as a bioenergy crop by the U.S. Department of Energy, as a result of research following the oil embargo. Populus species also serve as model trees for plant molecular biology research. In this article, we will review recent progress in the genetic improvement of Populus, considering both classical breeding and genetic engineering for bioenergy, as well as in using transgenics to elucidate gene functionality. A perspective for future improvement of Populus via functional genomics will also be presented. The role of gibberellins (GAs) in regulation of lateral root development is poorly understood. We show that GA-deficient (35S:PcGA2ox1) and GA-insensitive (35S:rgl1) transgenic Populus exhibited increased lateral root proliferation and elongation under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, and these effects were reversed by exogenous GA treatment. In addition, RNA interference suppression of two poplar GA 2-oxidases predominantly expressed in roots also decreased lateral root formation. GAs negatively affected lateral root formation by inhibiting lateral root primordium initiation. A whole-genome microarray analysis of root development in GA-modified transgenic plants revealed 2069 genes with significantly altered expression. The expression of 1178 genes, including genes that promote cell proliferation, growth, and cell wall loosening, corresponded to the phenotypic severity of the root traits when transgenic events with differential phenotypic expression were compared. The array data and direct hormone measurements suggested crosstalk of GA signaling with other hormone pathways, including auxin and abscisic acid. Transgenic modification of a differentially expressed gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier suggests that GA modulation of lateral root development is at least partly imparted by polar auxin transport modification. These results suggest a mechanism for GA-regulated modulation of lateral root proliferation associated with regulation of plant allometry during the stress response. Here we summarize progress in identification of three classes of genes useful for control of plant architecture: those affecting hormone metabolism and signaling; transcription and other regulatory factors; and the cell cycle. We focus on strong modifiers of stature and form that may be useful for directed modification of plant architecture, rather than the detailed mechanisms of gene action. Gibberellin (GA) metabolic and response genes are particularly attractive targets for manipulation because many act in a dose-dependent manner; similar phenotypic effects can be readily achieved in heterologous species; and induced pleiotropic effects--such as on nitrogen assimilation, photosynthesis, and lateral root production--are usually positive with respect to crop performance. Genes encoding transcription factors represent strong candidates for manipulation of plant architecture. For example, AINTEGUMENTA, ARGOS (auxin-regulated gene controlling organ size), and growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are strong modifiers of leaf and/or flower size. Plants overexpressing these genes had increased organ size and did not display negative pleiotropic effects in glasshouse environments. TCP-domain genes such as CINCINNATA, and the associated regulatory miRNAs such as miRJAW, may provide useful means to modulate leaf curvature and other foliage properties. There are considerable opportunities for comparative and translational genomics in nonmodel plant systems.

  12. IONIC LIQUIDS: RADIATION CHEMISTRY, SOLVATION DYNAMICS AND REACTIVITY PATTERNS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WISHART,J.F.

    2007-10-01

    energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs are generally nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of chemical reactions and product distributions. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments, where their safety advantages could be significant, requires an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of IL radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material. An understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry will also facilitate pulse radiolysis studies of general chemical reactivity in ILs, which will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increases the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alters product distributions. Parallel studies of IL solvation phenomena using coumarin-153 dynamic Stokes shifts and polarization anisotropy decay rates are done to compare with electron solvation studies and to evaluate the influence of ILs on charge transport processes. Methods. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies at BNL's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz and coworkers at ANL is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents.

  13. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart,J.F.

    2008-09-29

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs are generally nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of chemical reactions and product distributions. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments, where their safety advantages could be significant, requires an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of IL radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material. An understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry will also facilitate pulse radiolysis studies of general chemical reactivity in ILs, which will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increases the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alters product distributions. Parallel studies of IL solvation phenomena using coumarin-153 dynamic Stokes shifts and polarization anisotropy decay rates are done to compare with electron solvation studies and to evaluate the influence of ILs on charge transport processes. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies at BNL's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz at U. Wisc. Milwaukee is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents.

  14. Observations of Diurnal to Weekly Variations of Monoterpene-Dominated Fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds from Mediterranean Forests: Implications for Regional Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fares, Silvano; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Xiaoyan, Jiang; Guenther, Alex B.; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco

    2013-09-04

    Most vascular plants species, especially trees, emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Global estimates of BVOC emissions from plants range from 1 to 1.5 Pg C yr?1.1 Mediterranean forest trees have been described as high BVOC emitters, with emission depending primarily on light and temperature, and therefore being promoted by the warm Mediterranean climate. In the presence of sufficient sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the oxidation of BVOCs can lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas with detrimental effects on plant health, crop yields, and human health. BVOCs are also precursors for aerosol formation, accounting for a significant fraction of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in the atmosphere. The presidential Estate of Castelporziano covers an area of about 6000 ha located 25 km SW from the center of Rome, Italy (Figure 1) and hosts representative forest ecosystems typical of Mediterranean areas: holm oak forests, pine forests, dune vegetation, mixed oak and pine forests. Between 1995 and 2011, three intensive field campaigns were carried out on Mediterranean-type ecosystems inside the Estate. These campaigns were aimed at measuring BVOC emissions and environmental parameters, to improve formulation of basal emission factors (BEFs), that is, standardized emissions at 30 C and 1000 ?mol m?2s?1 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). BEFs are key input parameters of emission models. The first campaign in Castelporziano was a pioneering integrated study on biogenic emissions (1993? 19964). BVOC fluxes from different forest ecosystems were mainly investigated using plant- and leaf enclosures connected to adsorption tubes followed by GC?MS analysis in the laboratory. This allowed a first screening of Mediterranean species with respect to their BVOC emission potential, environmental control, and emission algorithms. In particular, deciduous oak species revealed high isoprene emissions (Quercus f rainetto, Quercus petrea, Quercus pubescens), while evergreen oaks emitted monoterpenes only, for example, Quercus ilex = holm oak. Differences in constitutive emission patterns discovered in Castelporziano supplied basic information to discriminate oak biodiversity in following studies.Ten years later, a second experimental campaign took place in spring and summer 2007 on a dune-shrubland experimental site. In this campaign, the use of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS14) provided the fast BVOC observations necessary for quasi-real-time flux measurements using Disjunct Eddy Covariance. This allowed for the first time continuous measurements and BEFs calculation at canopy level. Finally, in September 2011 a third campaign was performed with the aim of further characterizing and improving estimates of BVOC fluxes from mixed Mediterranean forests dominated by a mixed holm oak and stone pine forest, using for the first time a proton transfer reaction?time-of-flight?mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). In contrast to the standard quadrupole PTR-MS, which can only measure one m/z ratio at a discrete time, thus being inadequate to quantify fluxes of more than a handful of compounds simultaneously, PTR-TOF-MS allowed simultaneous measurements (10 Hz) of fluxes of all BVOCs at the canopy level by Eddy Covariance.17?20, 50 In this work, we reviewed BEFs from previous campaigns in Castelporziano and calculated new BEFs from the campaign based on PTR-TOF-MS analysis. The new BEFs were used to parametrize the model of emissions of gases and aerosols from nature (MEGAN v2.11).

  15. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  16. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, Wouter; Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Van Herck, Hans; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV{sub mean}), conformity (CI{sub 95%}), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical practice. Results: The proposed adaptation of a two-arc VMAT plan resulted in the intended CTV{sub mean} (Δ ≤ 3%) and TCP (ΔTCP ≤ 0.001). Moreover, the method assures the intended CI{sub 95%} (Δ ≤ 11%) resulting in lowered rectal NTCP for all cases. Compared to replanning, their adaptation is faster (13 s vs 10 min) and more intuitive. Compared to the current clinical practice, it has a better protection of the healthy tissue. Compared to IMRT, VMAT is more robust to anatomical variations, but it is also less sensitive to the different correction steps. The observed variations of the plan parameters in their database included a linear dependence on the date of treatment planning and on the target radius. The MCS is not retained as QA metric due to a contrasting behavior of its components (LSV and AAV). If three out of four plan parameters (MU, EqFS, AAV, and LSV) need to lie inside a 50% prediction interval (3/4—50%PI), all adapted plans will be accepted. In contrast, all replanned plans do not meet this loose criterion, mainly because they have no connection to the initially optimized and verified plan. Conclusions: A direct (forward) VMAT adaptation performs equally well as (inverse) replanning but is faster and can be extended to real-time adaptation. The prediction intervals for the machine parameters are equivalent to the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical practice. A 3/4—50%PI QA criterion accepts all the adapted plans but rejects all the replanned plans.

  17. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Sarah L.; Iversen, Colleen M

    2009-01-01

    The soil environment remains one of the most complex and poorly understood research frontiers in ecology. Soil organic matter (SOM), which spans a continuum from fresh detritus to highly processed, mineral-associated organic matter, is the foundation of sustainable terrestrial ecosystems. Heterogeneous SOM pools are fueled by inputs from living and dead plants, driven by the activity of micro- and mesofauna, and are shaped by a multitude of abiotic factors. The specialization required to measure unseen processes that occur on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales has led to the partitioning of soil ecology research across several disciplines. In the organized oral session 'Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum' at the annual Ecological Society of America meeting in Albuquerque, NM, USA, we joined the call for greater communication and collaboration among ecologists who work at the root-soil interface (e.g. Coleman, 2008). Our goal was to bridge the gap between scientific disciplines and to synthesize disconnected pieces of knowledge from root-centric and soil-centric studies into an integrated understanding of belowground ecosystem processes. We focused this report around three compelling themes that arose from the session: (1) the influence of the rhizosphere on SOM cycling, (2) the role of soil heterotrophs in driving the transformation of root detritus to SOM, and (3) the controlling influence of the soil environment on SOM dynamics. We conclude with a discussion of new approaches for gathering data to bridge gaps in the root-SOM continuum and to inform the next generation of ecosystem models. Although leaf litter has often been considered to be the main source of organic inputs to soil, Ann Russell synthesized a convincing body of work demonstrating that roots, rather than surface residues, control the accumulation of SOM in a variety of ecosystems. Living roots, which are chemically diverse and highly dynamic, also influence a wide range of soil processes, from the exudation of labile C compounds to the development of fungal associations. For example, Zoe Cardon demonstrated that the root-mediated redistribution of deep soil water to relatively dry shallower soil, increased soil CO{sub 2} efflux and nutrient cycling near the surface in an arid ecosystem. Andrew Kulmatiski also discussed the importance of rooting distribution throughout the soil profile for strategies of water uptake by different species in an African savanna. Later, Julie Jastrow demonstrated that living roots shape soil physical structure by promoting the formation of soil aggregates, which facilitated accrual of SOM in restored grasslands. Taken together, the evidence is compelling that living roots, and organic matter derived from root detritus, are important parts of the continuum of organic matter in the soil. Larger soil organisms (i.e. 50 {micro}m to many cm in body size) play an important role in the root-SOM continuum by grazing on roots and microbes, comminuting organic matter and aggregating soil in fecal pellets. However, litterbag and soil incubation studies necessarily exclude invertebrates, and research on faunal activity and trophic dynamics tends to be independent from research on the biogeochemistry of SOM cycling. Tim Filley used plant-derived biomarkers in invertebrate residues to bridge the gap between larger soil organisms, such as earthworms and beetle larvae, and SOM distribution. He found that larger soil organisms help to stabilize root-derived organic matter in soil aggregates. Similar coupling of biogeochemistry with food web studies could prove fruitful for describing mechanisms that underlie critical ecosystem processes. Despite considerable research efforts, the breadth of the microbial role in the root-SOM continuum remains unresolved. Using advanced pyrosequencing techniques, David Nelson demonstrated the importance of archea as nitrifiers in agricultural systems exposed to elevated [CO{sub 2}]. Rising atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and other changing environmental factors add a layer of complexity t

  18. Saint Joseph's University Institute for Environmental Stewardship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCann, Michael; Springer, Clint

    2014-06-18

    Task A: Examination of the physiological, morphological, and reproductive responses of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) cultivars identified as potential biofuel producing cultivars as well as naturally-occurring varieties of switchgrass to projected changes in climate for the central portion of the United States. This project was a multi-year project set in a field site located at the Konza Prairie Biological Station near Manhattan, KS USA. The major objective of the study was to understand the physiological and growth responses of the important biofuel grass species, Panicum virgatum (switch grass) to simulated changes in precipitation expected for the Central Plains region of the United States. Population level adaptation to broad-scale regional climates or within-population variation in genome size of this genetically and phenotypically diverse C4 grass species may influence the responses to future precipitation variability associated with climate change. Therefore, we investigated switchgrass responses to water variability between natural populations collected across latitudinal gradient and populations. P. virgatum plants from natural populations originating from Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas received frequent, small precipitation events (ambient) or infrequent, large precipitation events (altered) to simulate contrasting rainfall variability expected from this region. We measured leaf-level physiology, aboveground biomass varied significantly by population origin but did not differ by genome size. Our results suggest that trait variation in P. virgatum is primarily attributed to population-level adaptation across latitudinal gradient, not genome size, and that neither population-level adaptation nor genome size may be important predictors of P. virgatum responses to future climatic conditions. Based solely on the data presented here, the most important consideration when deciding what varieties of switchgrass to cultivate for biofuel feedstocks under future climate scenarios is local adaptation and not necessarily genome size as has been hypothesized in the literature. Task B: Installation of an extensive green roof system on the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University for research, research-training and educational outreach activities. An experimental green roof system was designed and installed by an outside contractor (Roofmeadows) on the roof of the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University. The roof system includes four test plots, each with a different drainage system, instrumentation to monitor storm water retention, roof deck temperature, heat flux into and out of the building, rain fall, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and heat emission from the roof system. The vegetative roof was planted with 26 species of plants, distributed throughout the roof area, to assess species/variety growth and coverage characteristics, both in terms of the different drain layer systems, and in terms of the different exposures along the north to south axis of the building. Analysis of the drain layer performance, in terms of storm water retention, shows that the aggregate (stone) drainage layer system performed the best, with the moisture management mat system second, and the geotextile drain layer and reservoir sheet layer systems coming in last. This information is of value in the planning and design of vegetative roof systems since the different types of drainage layer systems have different installation costs and different weights. The different drainage layer systems also seem to be having an impact on plant growth and spread with the test plot with the reservoir sheet layer actually having the poorest plant coverage and plant spread of all areas of the roof studied. Plant growth performance analysis is ongoing, but significant differences have been observed in the third growing season ('13) along the north to south axis, with most species doing better towards the northern end of the roof (in terms of percent ground coverage and plant spread and reproduction). Interestingly, plant growth in all f

  19. Saint Joseph's University Institute for Environmental Stewardship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCann, Micahel P.; Springer, Clint J.

    2014-06-03

    Task A: Examination of the physiological, morphological, and reproductive responses of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) cultivars identified as potential biofuel producing cultivars as well as naturally-occurring varieties of switchgrass to projected changes in climate for the central portion of the United States. This project was a multi-year project set in a field site located at the Konza Prairie Biological Station near Manhattan, KS USA. The major objective of the study was to understand the physiological and growth responses of the important biofuel grass species, Panicum virgatum (switch grass) to simulated changes in precipitation expected for the Central Plains region of the United States. Population level adaptation to broad-scale regional climates or within-population variation in genome size of this genetically and phenotypically diverse C4 grass species may influence the responses to future precipitation variability associated with climate change. Therefore, we investigated switchgrass responses to water variability between natural populations collected across latitudinal gradient and populations. P. virgatum plants from natural populations originating from Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas received frequent, small precipitation events (ambient) or infrequent, large precipitation events (altered) to simulate contrasting rainfall variability expected from this region. We measured leaf-level physiology, aboveground biomass varied significantly by population origin but did not differ by genome size. Our results suggest that trait variation in P. virgatum is primarily attributed to population-level adaptation across latitudinal gradient, not genome size, and that neither population-level adaptation nor genome size may be important predictors of P. virgatum responses to future climatic conditions. Based solely on the data presented here, the most important consideration when deciding what varieties of switchgrass to cultivate for biofuel feedstocks under future climate scenarios is local adaptation and not necessarily genome size as has been hypothesized in the literature. Task B: Installation of an extensive green roof system on the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University for research, research-training and educational outreach activities. An experimental green roof system was designed and installed by an outside contractor (Roofmeadows) on the roof of the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University. The roof system includes four test plots, each with a different drainage system, instrumentation to monitor storm water retention, roof deck temperature, heat flux into and out of the building, rain fall, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and heat emission from the roof system. The vegetative roof was planted with 26 species of plants, distributed throughout the roof area, to assess species/variety growth and coverage characteristics, both in terms of the different drain layer systems, and in terms of the different exposures along the north to south axis of the building. Analysis of the drain layer performance, in terms of storm water retention, shows that the aggregate (stone) drainage layer system performed the best, with the moisture management mat system second, and the geotextile drain layer and reservoir sheet layer systems coming in last. This information is of value in the planning and design of vegetative roof systems since the different types of drainage layer systems have different installation costs and different weights. The different drainage layer systems also seem to be having an impact on plant growth and spread with the test plot with the reservoir sheet layer actually having the poorest plant coverage and plant spread of all areas of the roof studied. Plant growth performance analysis is ongoing, but significant differences have been observed in the third growing season ('13) along the north to south axis, with most species doing better towards the northern end of the roof (in terms of percent ground coverage and plant spread and reproduction). Interestingly, plant growth in all f

  20. Saint Joseph's University Institute for Environmental Stewardship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCann, Michael P.; Springer, Clint J.

    2014-06-05

    Task A: Examination of the physiological, morphological, and reproductive responses of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) cultivars identified as potential biofuel producing cultivars as well as naturally-occurring varieties of switchgrass to projected changes in climate for the central portion of the United States. This project was a multi-year project set in a field site located at the Konza Prairie Biological Station near Manhattan, KS USA. The major objective of the study was to understand the physiological and growth responses of the important biofuel grass species, Panicum virgatum (switch grass) to simulated changes in precipitation expected for the Central Plains region of the United States. Population level adaptation to broad-scale regional climates or within-population variation in genome size of this genetically and phenotypically diverse C4 grass species may influence the responses to future precipitation variability associated with climate change. Therefore, we investigated switchgrass responses to water variability between natural populations collected across latitudinal gradient and populations. P. virgatum plants from natural populations originating from Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas received frequent, small precipitation events (ambient) or infrequent, large precipitation events (altered) to simulate contrasting rainfall variability expected from this region. We measured leaf-level physiology, aboveground biomass varied significantly by population origin but did not differ by genome size. Our results suggest that trait variation in P. virgatum is primarily attributed to population-level adaptation across latitudinal gradient, not genome size, and that neither population-level adaptation nor genome size may be important predictors of P. virgatum responses to future climatic conditions. Based solely on the data presented here, the most important consideration when deciding what varieties of switchgrass to cultivate for biofuel feedstocks under future climate scenarios is local adaptation and not necessarily genome size as has been hypothesized in the literature. Task B: Installation of an extensive green roof system on the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University for research, research-training and educational outreach activities. An experimental green roof system was designed and installed by an outside contractor (Roofmeadows) on the roof of the Science Center at Saint Joseph's University. The roof system includes four test plots, each with a different drainage system, instrumentation to monitor storm water retention, roof deck temperature, heat flux into and out of the building, rain fall, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and heat emission from the roof system. The vegetative roof was planted with 26 species of plants, distributed throughout the roof area, to assess species/variety growth and coverage characteristics, both in terms of the different drain layer systems, and in terms of the different exposures along the north to south axis of the building. Analysis of the drain layer performance, in terms of storm water retention, shows that the aggregate (stone) drainage layer system performed the best, with the moisture management mat system second, and the geotextile drain layer and reservoir sheet layer systems coming in last. This information is of value in the planning and design of vegetative roof systems since the different types of drainage layer systems have different installation costs and different weights. The different drainage layer systems also seem to be having an impact on plant growth and spread with the test plot with the reservoir sheet layer actually having the poorest plant coverage and plant spread of all areas of the roof studied. Plant growth performance analysis is ongoing, but significant differences have been observed in the third growing season ('13) along the north to south axis, with most species doing better towards the northern end of the roof (in terms of percent ground coverage and plant spread and reproduction). Interestingly, plant growth in all f

  1. Secure & Restore Critical Fisheries Habitat, Flathead Subbasin, FY2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DuCharme, Lynn; Tohtz, Joel

    2008-11-12

    The construction of Hungry Horse Dam inundated 125 km of adfluvial trout habitat in the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries, impacting natural fish reproduction and rearing. Rapid residential and commercial growth in the Flathead Watershed now threaten the best remaining habitats and restrict our opportunities to offset natural resource losses. Hydropower development and other land disturbances caused severe declines in the range and abundance of our focal resident fish species, bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Bull trout were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act and westslope cutthroat were petitioned for listing under ESA. Westslope cutthroat are a species of special concern in Montana and a species of special consideration by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The Secure & Protect Fisheries Habitat project follows the logical progression towards habitat restoration outlined in the Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan approved by the NWPPC in 1993. This project is also consistent with the 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program and the Flathead River Subbasin Plan that identifies the protection of habitats for these populations as one of the most critical needs in the subbasin and directs actions to offset habitat losses. The Flathead basin is one of the fastest growing human population centers in Montana. Riparian habitats are being rapidly developed and subdivided, causing habitat degradation and altering ecosystem functions. Remaining critical habitats in the Flathead Watershed need to be purchased or protected with conservation easements if westslope cutthroat and bull trout are to persist and expand within the subbasin. In addition, habitats degraded by past land uses need to be restored to maximize the value of remaining habitats and offset losses caused by the construction of Hungry Horse Dam. Securing and restoring remaining riparian habitat will benefit fish by shading and moderating water temperatures, stabilizing banks and protecting the integrity of channel dimension, improving woody debris recruitment for in-channel habitat features, producing terrestrial insects and leaf litter for recruitment to the stream, and helping to accommodate and attenuate flood flows. The purpose of this project is to work with willing landowners to protect the best remaining habitats in the Flathead subbasin as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan. The target areas for land protection activities follow the priorities established in the Flathead subbasin plan and include: (1) Class 1 waters as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; (2) Class 2 watersheds as identified in the Flathead River Subbasin Plan; and (3) 'Offsite mitigation' defined as those Class 1 and Class 2 watersheds that lack connectivity to the mainstem Flathead River or Flathead Lake. This program focuses on conserving the highest quality or most important riparian or fisheries habitat areas consistent with program criteria. The success of our efforts is subject to a property's actual availability and individual landowner negotiations. The program is guided using biological and project-based criteria that reflect not only the priority needs established in the Flathead subbasin plan, but also such factors as cost, credits, threats, and partners. The implementation of this project requires both an expense and a capital budget to allow work to be completed. This report addresses accomplishments under both budgets during FY08 as the two budgets are interrelated. The expense budget provided pre-acquisition funding to conduct activities such as surveys, appraisals, staff support, etc. The capital budget was used to purchase the interest in each parcel including closing costs. Both the pre-acquisition contract funds and the capital funds used to purchase fee title or conservation easements were spent in accordance with the terms negotiated within the FY08 through FY09 MOA between the Tribes, State, and BPA. In FY08, the focus of this project was to pursue all possible properties

  2. Forward treatment planning for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) employing Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzen, D. Manser, P.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Born, E. J.; Lssl, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Neuenschwander, H.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the development of a forward planning process for modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT). The approach is based on a previously developed electron beam model used to calculate dose distributions of electron beams shaped by a photon multi leaf collimator (pMLC). Methods: As the electron beam model has already been implemented into the Swiss Monte Carlo Plan environment, the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) can be included in the planning process for MERT. In a first step, CT data are imported into Eclipse and a pMLC shaped electron beam is set up. This initial electron beam is then divided into segments, with the electron energy in each segment chosen according to the distal depth of the planning target volume (PTV) in beam direction. In order to improve the homogeneity of the dose distribution in the PTV, a feathering process (Gaussian edge feathering) is launched, which results in a number of feathered segments. For each of these segments a dose calculation is performed employing the in-house developed electron beam model along with the macro Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm. Finally, an automated weight optimization of all segments is carried out and the total dose distribution is read back into Eclipse for display and evaluation. One academic and two clinical situations are investigated for possible benefits of MERT treatment compared to standard treatments performed in our clinics and treatment with a bolus electron conformal (BolusECT) method. Results: The MERT treatment plan of the academic case was superior to the standard single segment electron treatment plan in terms of organs at risk (OAR) sparing. Further, a comparison between an unfeathered and a feathered MERT plan showed better PTV coverage and homogeneity for the feathered plan, with V{sub 95%} increased from 90% to 96% and V{sub 107%} decreased from 8% to nearly 0%. For a clinical breast boost irradiation, the MERT plan led to a similar homogeneity in the PTV compared to the standard treatment plan while the mean body dose was lower for the MERT plan. Regarding the second clinical case, a whole breast treatment, MERT resulted in a reduction of the lung volume receiving more than 45% of the prescribed dose when compared to the standard plan. On the other hand, the MERT plan leads to a larger low-dose lung volume and a degraded dose homogeneity in the PTV. For the clinical cases evaluated in this work, treatment plans using the BolusECT technique resulted in a more homogenous PTV and CTV coverage but higher doses to the OARs than the MERT plans. Conclusions: MERT treatments were successfully planned for phantom and clinical cases, applying a newly developed intuitive and efficient forward planning strategy that employs a MC based electron beam model for pMLC shaped electron beams. It is shown that MERT can lead to a dose reduction in OARs compared to other methods. The process of feathering MERT segments results in an improvement of the dose homogeneity in the PTV.

  3. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of soil moisture) under a more variable precipitation regime, rather than reduced population numbers (A. gerardii tiller densities did not differ between altered and ambient treatments; p = 0.505) or a priori differences in genotype richness (Avolio et al.2013a). This ecological sorting of genotypes, which accounts for 40% of all sampled individuals in the altered plots, is an important legacy of the press chronic climate changes in the RaMPs experiment. Objective 2 In May 2010, we established the Climate Extremes Experiment at the Konza Prairie Biological Station. For the experiment, a gradient of temperatures, ranging from ambient to extreme, were imposed in 2010 and 2011 as a mid-season heat wave under well-watered or severe drought conditions. This study allowed us for the first time to examine species-specific thresholds of responses to climate extremes and assess how these phenotypic responses may impact selection of particular genotypes, with the ultimate goal of linking alterations in individual performance and genetic diversity to ecosystem structure and functioning. We found that tallgrass prairie was resistant to heat waves, but it was not resistant to extreme drought, which reduced aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) below the lowest level measured in this grassland in almost thirty years (Hoover et al. in press(a)). This extreme reduction in ecosystem function was a consequence of reduced productivity of both C4 grasses and C3 forbs. This reduction in biomass of the C4 grasses (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans) was, in part, due to significant reductions in photosynthesis, leaf water potential and productivity with drought in the dominant grasses species, with S. nutans was more sensitive than A. gerardii to drought (Hoover et al. in press(b)). However, the dominant forb was negatively impacted by the drought more than the dominant grasses, and this led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Although this change in community composition persisted post-drought, ANPP recovered completely the year after drought

  4. The Effects of Fire on the Function of the 200-BP-1 Engineered Surface Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Hasan, Nazmul; Draper, Kathryn E.

    2009-09-01

    A critical unknown in use of barrier technology for long-term waste isolation is performance after a major disturbance especially when institutional controls are intact, but there are no resources to implement corrective actions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of wild fire on alterations the function of an engineered barrier. A controlled burn September 26, 2008 was used to remove all the vegetation from the north side of the barrier. Flame heights exceeded 9 m and temperatures ranged from 250 oC at 1.5 cm below the surface to over 700 oC at 1 m above the surface. Post-fire analysis of soil properties show significant decreases in wettability, hydraulic conductivity, air entry pressure, organic matter, and porosity relative to pre-fire conditions whereas dry bulk density increased. Decreases in hydraulic conductivity and wettabilty immediately after the fire are implicated in a surface runoff event that occurred in January 2009, the first in 13 years. There was a significant increase in macro-nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity. After one year, hydrophobicity has returned to pre-burn levels with only 16% of samples still showing signs of decreased wettability. Over the same period, hydraulic conductivity and air entry pressure returned to pre-burn levels at one third of the locations but remained identical to values recorded immediately after the fire at the other two thirds. Soil nutrients, pH, and electrical conductivity remain elevated after 1 year. Species composition on the burned surface changed markedly from prior years and relative to the unburned surface and two analog sites. An increase in the proportion of annuals and biennials is characteristic of burned surfaces that have become dominated by ruderal species. Greenhouse seedling emergence tests conducted to assess the seed bank of pre- and post-burn soils and of two analog sites at the McGee Ranch show no difference in the number of species emerging from soils collected before and after the fire. However, there were fewer species emerging from the seed bank on the side slopes and more species emerging from two analog sites. Leaf area index measures confirmed the substantial differences in plant communities after fire. Xylem pressure potential were considerably higher on the burned half of the barrier in September 2009 suggesting that not all the water in the soil profile will be removed before the fall rains begin. The results of this study are expected to contribute to a better understanding of barrier performance after major disturbances in a post-institutional control environment. Such an understanding is needed to enhance stakeholder acceptance regarding the long-term efficacy of engineered barriers. This study will also support improvements in the design of evapotranspiration (ET) and hybrid (ET + capacitive) barriers and the performance monitoring systems.

  5. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, James; Comstock, Jack C.

    2015-11-25

    Phenotyping Methods: The accessions (which includes 21 taxa and 1,177 accessions) in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) was evaluated for the following traits: arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, Brix, stalk number and fiber. A core of 300 accessions that included each species in the World Collection was selected by using the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: The core had a higher diversity rating than random selections of 300 accessions. The ShannonWeaver Diversity Index scores of the core and whole collection were similar indicating that the majority of the diversity was captured by the core collection. The ranges and medians between the core and WCSRG were similar; only two of the trait medians were not significant at P = 0.05 using the non-parametric Wilcoxon method and the coincidence rate (CR % = 96.2) was high (>80) indicating that extreme values were retained. Thus, the phenotypic diversity of these traits in the WCSRG was well represented by the core collection. Associations Methods: Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected for 1002 accessions of the WCSRG including 209 SSR markers. Association analysis was performed using both General Linear (GLM) and Maximum Likelihood (MLM) models. Different core collections with 300 accessions each were selected based on genotypic, phenotypic and combined data based on the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: A major portion of the genotyping involving SNPs is being conducted by Dr. Jianping Wang of the University of Florida under the DOE award DE-FG 02-11ER 65214 and the genotypic and phenotypic associations will be reported separately next year. In the current, study forty one and seventeen markers were found to be associated with traits using the GLM and MLM methods respectively including associations with arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, and Sugar Cane Yellow Leaf Virus. The data indicates that each of the cores and the World Collection are similar to each other genotypically and phenotypically, but the core that was selected using only genotypic data was significantly different phenotypically. This indicates that there is not enough association between the genotypic and phenotypic diversity as to select using only genotypic diversity and get the full phenotypic diversity. Core Collection: Creation and Phenotyping Methods: To evaluate this germplasm for breeding purposes, a representative diversity panel selected from the WCSRG of approximately 300 accessions was planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the growing season and Brix and fresh biomass during harvest in 2013 and, stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix and fresh and dry biomass was determined in the ratoon crop harvest in 2014. Results: In correlations of multiple measurements, there were higher correlations for early measurements of stalk number and stalk height with harvest traits like Brix and fresh weight. Hybrids had higher fresh mass and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. The heritability of hybrid mass traits was lower in the ratoon crop. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other groups contained accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass like S. officinarum. Mass traits correlated with each other as expected but hybrids had lower correlations between fresh and dry mass. Stalk number and the mass traits correlated with each other except in S. spontaneum and hybrids in the first ratoon. There were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the commercial sugarcane checks including 10 S. spontaneum accessions. There were 27 dry and 6 fresh mass accessions significantly higher than the commercial sugarcane checks. Core Collection: Fiber analysis Methods: A biomass sample was taken from each accession then shredded and dried. Fiber analysis was then performed on each sample. The acetyl groups, acid insoluble lignin, acid soluble lignin, arabinan, glucan, holocellulose, total lignin, structural ash, and xylan were quantified on a % fiber basis and nonstructural ash on a % total basis. Results: There were significant, but not large differences between species for holocellulose, lignin, acetyl, acid soluble lignin, nonstructural ash, and glucan. For each trait, S. spontaneum had significantly more holocellulose, glucan, lignin, and nonstructural ash and less acetyl and acid soluble lignin than the other species. In all populations, glucan and was positively correlated with holocellulose were positively correlated and glucan and and holocellulose were negatively correlated with lignin. In hybrids, internode length correlated positively with holocellulose and nonstructural ash and negatively with lignin. The heritability estimates for each of the fiber component traits is low indicating that environment is an important factor in fiber composition. Principal component analysis indicated that a large amount of diversity exists within each of the species.

  6. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen-signaling proteins in pollen tubes from the lilly Agapanthus umbellatus. For the uptake of DNA pollen tubes represent a unique system since the growing tip is surrounded by a loose matrix of hemicellulose and pectins, exposing the plasma membrane7 and the first uptake of ODNs by pollen tubes was reported as early as 1994. A breakthrough in the employment of antisense ODN inhibition as a powerful approach in plant biology was recently presented through our work on intact barley leaves. As was illustrated by confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled ODNs, naked ODNs were taken up through the leaf petiole and efficiently imported into the plant cell and the nucleus. The work portrayed in that study demonstrate the applicability of antisense ODN inhibition in plant biology, e.g. as a rapid antecedent to time-consuming transgenic studies, and that it operates through RNase H degradation. We employed the antisense ODN strategy to demonstrate the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor in regulation of starch synthesis, and to depict a possible mechanism for sugar signaling in plants and how it might confer endosperm-specific gene expression during seed development. We also described the employment of the antisense ODN strategy for studies on in vitro spike cultures of barley. Here we present further evidence as to the value of the antisense ODN approach in plant biology by following the effects on starch branching enzyme (SBE) accumulation in barley leaves after suppression of individual SBE genes. In agreement with transcript analyses of SBE expression in barley leaves, a zymogram assay (Fig. 1) revealed that sucrose treatment of barley leaves increased the number of SBE activity bands as compared to sorbitol treatment. In the presence of antisense SBEI or SBEIIA ODNs, zymograms of sucrose-treated leaves displayed only a subset of these activities with bands in the top portion of the zymogram gel missing or diminished. With antisense SBEIIB ODN, all activity bands in the top portion of the gel as well as the lowest band were absent. Based on these data we provide a t

  7. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra