National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for leaf chevrolet volt

  1. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  2. AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced ...

  3. AVTA: 2011 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Chevrolet Volt 2011. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt January 11, 2011 - 11:49am Addthis Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Last Thursday was a big day in the world of advanced vehicle batteries. On January 6, the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced that General Motors and its

  5. AVTA: 2013 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2013 Chevrolet Volt. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). The reports for download here are based on research done at Idaho National Laboratory. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  6. AVTA: Chevrolet Volt ARRA Vehicle Demonstration Project Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports summarize data collected from a project General Motors conducted to deploy 150 2011 Chevrolet Volts around the country. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Chevrolet Volt Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Benchmark Testing of the Chevrolet Volt Onboard Charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Carlson

    2012-04-01

    This is a report for public consumption, for the AVTA website, detailing the testing and analysis of the benchmark testing conducted on the Chevrolet Volt on-board charger.

  9. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  10. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  11. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  12. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  13. Connectivity-enhanced route selection and adaptive control for the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Rajagopalan, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3%, respectively. Furthermore, these represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  14. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  15. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  16. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  17. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  18. AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  19. CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION & SOLUTIONS | GREENER VEHICLES Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  20. Sky Volt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volt Jump to: navigation, search Name Sky Volt Facility Sky Volt Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Sky Volt LLC (community owned)...

  1. Microsoft Word - eGallon methodology update Jan 2016.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Trends, October 2014. 4 This includes Tesla Model S, Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, BMW ... PEV Model kWh100 Miles Combined 1 Chevrolet Volt 35 Nissan Leaf 30 Tesla Model S 34 BMW ...

  2. Data Analysis and Reporting of the 150 Chevrolet Volt ARRA Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard "Barney" Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This is the final report for the GM Vehicle Demo analysis and reporting. I'd like it to be posted to the AVTA website. It contains no new information than what is in Quarterly reports that were previously approved by GM.

  3. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-06-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance characteristics. This report covers the 1978 Chevrolet Luv Truck manual transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The portion of the test code which involved the throttle valve modulation and line pressure were deleted since they did not apply to the manual transmission. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper 90% range at rated load for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Luv Truck Manual transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

  4. HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: HelioVolt Corporation Place: Austin, Texas Zip: TX 78744 Product: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin,...

  5. Students Debut Redesigned 2016 Chevrolet Camaros at EcoCAR 3 Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The third edition of the Energy Department’s EcoCAR competition is underway, as 16 collegiate teams from across North America redesign the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact while maintaining the performance expected from the iconic American car.

  6. Slide 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Tesla) AND Compact (eg. Chevrolet Volt, Nissan Leaf) DOE's Role * 3+ decades of research on batteries * Li-Ion technologies developed under DOE-funded USABC are used in vehicles on ...

  7. Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been available in the U.S. in limited numbers for many years. The introduction of the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt at the...

  8. Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Although the Nissan Leaf is an all-electric vehicle while the Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid, both models had similar charging patterns with more than half of all charging ...

  9. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  10. Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy,

  11. SeaVolt Technologies formerly Sea Power Associates | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The company's Wave Rider system, which is still in prototype stages, uses buoys and hydraulic pumps to convert the movement of ocean waves into electricity. References: SeaVolt...

  12. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  13. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  14. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120,000 Units in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The number of plug-in vehicles sold in the United States in 2014 grew to nearly 120,000, up from 97,000 the year before. Nissan and Chevrolet had the best sellers in 2011 with the Leaf and the Volt...

  15. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The biggest plug-in sellers in 2014 were the Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, ... 1,145 Toyota RAV4 EV 0 0 192 1,005 1,184 Tesla Model S 0 0 2,400 19,400 16,750 Honda Fit ...

  16. Fact #815: February 3, 2014 Global Sales of Top 10 Plug-In Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of World Total Nissan Leaf 20,081 22,285 42,366 Chevrolet Volt 20,702 4,083 24,785 Tesla Model S 17,700 1,683 19,383 Toyota Prius Plug-In 11,169 7,197 18,366 Mitsubishi ...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 12 Volt Auxiliary Load On-road Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about 12 volt auxiliary...

  18. Battery Test Manual For 12 Volt Start/Stop Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belt, Jeffrey R.

    2015-05-01

    This manual was prepared by and for the United Stated Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Electrochemical Energy Storage Team. It is based on the targets established for 12 Volt Start/Stop energy storage development and is similar (with some important changes) to an earlier manual for the former FreedomCAR program. The specific procedures were developed primarily to characterize the performance of energy storage devices relative to the USABC requirements. However, it is anticipated that these procedures will have some utility for characterizing 12 Volt Start/Stop hybrid energy storage device behavior in general.

  19. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  20. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; Nguyen, M. N.; Reid, A. H.; Shen, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Vecchione, T.; Vetter, S. L.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Dürr, H. A.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  1. EERE Success Story-Illinois: High-Energy, Concentration-Gradient...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    These characteristics will allow manufacturers to build smaller battery packs and reduce ... The 2011 Chevrolet Volt at a charging station. Its battery is based on a cathode ...

  2. EERE Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Celebrating Electric Vehicles Electric cars are more popular than ever. Earlier...

  3. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Celebrating Electric Vehicles Electric cars are more popular than ever. Earlier...

  4. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPT’s left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a “rabbit” transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities

  5. Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Vehicles | Department of Energy 2: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles The Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) was first released in the U.S. market in January 2000 and 324 were sold in the first month. The Chevrolet Volt, a hybrid-electric plug-in, and the Nissan Leaf, an all-electric plug-in vehicle, were first released in December 2010. The

  6. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The first mass marketed PEVs were introduced in 2010 with the Nissan Leaf, which is a BEV, and the Chevrolet Volt, which is a PHEV. After four years of sales, California had the most PEV registrations of any

  7. MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Video MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video Learn how fuel cells are being used in specialty vehicles, auxiliary power, standby power generators, and for supplying power and heat to buildings and warehouse operations. Text Version MotorWeek Host: The emergence of cars like the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt have generated a lot of buzz for electric drive vehicles lately. But hydrogen fuel cells, seen by many as one of the most promising long-term clean driving solutions, are making their way into

  8. LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolsleaf-gender-mainstreaming-strategy-checklist Cost: Free Language: English LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist Screenshot Logo: LEAF Gender...

  9. Leaf Clean Energy Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Energy Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Leaf Clean Energy Company Name: Leaf Clean Energy Company Place: London, United Kingdom Website: www.leafcleanenergy.com...

  10. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor –October 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho Site

  11. Fact #685: July 25, 2011 Reasons for Buying a Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Motors has been gathering feedback from customers who purchased the 2011 Chevrolet Volt, which is the only plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) on the market today. Through May 2011, about 2,100...

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2014 BMW i3-REX 2013 Chevrolet Volt 2013 Ford Cmax Energi 2013 Ford Fusion Energi 2013 Toyota Prius 2012 Chevrolet Volt 2012 Toyota Prius Electric Vehicles Conventional Vehicles Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Facilities Publications News About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory Energy Systems Research Facilities Publications News Research Advanced Materials and

  13. Celeste

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Celebrating Electric Vehicles Celebrating Electric Vehicles September 29, 2015 - 4:01pm Addthis The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS More than 1

  14. Celebrating Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Vehicles Celebrating Electric Vehicles September 29, 2015 - 4:01pm Addthis The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS More than 1 million plug-in

  15. 12-3-09_Beaudry-Losique_Final_testimony.pdf

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American International Auto Show | Photo Courtesy of General Motors, Steve Fecht. Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American International Auto Show | Photo Courtesy of General Motors, Steve Fecht. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of

  16. 10 Questions with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher 10 Questions with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher March 3, 2015 - 3:39pm Addthis Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American International Auto Show | Photo Courtesy of General Motors, Steve Fecht. Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American

  17. AVTA: 2013 Chevrolet Malibu HEV Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    VTO's National Laboratories have tested and collected both dynamometer and fleet data for the Chevy Malibu HEV (a hybrid electric vehicle).

  18. Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle 18 Feb 2014 by Jenny Green: In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances

  19. New Leaf Biofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuel Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Leaf Biofuel Address: 1380 Garnet Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92109 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Collects...

  20. Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Chevrolet Spark EV 2015 Kia Soul Electric 2014 BMW i3 BEV 2014 Smart Electric Drive 2013 Ford Focus Electric 2013 Nissan Leaf SV 2012 Mitsubishi I-MiEV 2012 Nissan Leaf ...

  1. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Vehicle Placement Maps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following maps describe where the EV Project deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  2. AVTA- ARRA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the consumer charging behavior from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following document describes the context of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  5. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  6. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Electric Grid Impact Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the impact on the electrical grid from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. 25000 Volts Under the Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  8. EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image red_leaf_18215.png (11.54 MB) More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the plug-in hybrid electric version of the following vehicles is available: 2013 Ford Fusion Energi, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi, 2012 Chevrolet Volt, 2012 Toyota Prius, 2013 Toyota Prius, 2013 Chevrolet Volt, 2011 Chrysler Town & Country, 2010 Quantum Escape, and 2010 Ford Escape Advanced Research Vehicle.

  10. Fun Facts | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fun Fact Friday: Plug-in Hybrid Edition Fun Fact Friday: Plug-in Hybrid Edition September 27, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Plug-in electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, run on electricity for short trips but use gasoline for longer trips. | Department of Energy photo Plug-in electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, run on electricity for short trips but use gasoline for longer trips. | Department of Energy photo Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public

  11. EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers Plug-in Electric Vehicles August 13, 2015 - 12:12pm Addthis The 2011 Chevrolet Volt at a charging station. Its battery is based on a cathode technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory, which will make the battery safer, longer-lived and more powerful. Photo courtesy of General Motors The 2011 Chevrolet Volt at a

  12. Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake The research offers promise for refining Earth system models that help predict climate change impacts and feedbacks. August 30, 2016 The thermal traits of a leaf, critical for photosynthesis, may be under strong evolutionary selection that occurs in response to environmental temperatures. Here a thermal leaf image details temperature variation, which greatly affects

  13. RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project Overview of oil shale reserves, unique oil extraction issues, novel approach for cost-effective extraction deer08_patten.pdf (6.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil Shale Research in the United States EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image

  14. Turbine rotor-stator leaf seal and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, William Lee (Cincinnati, OH); Butkiewicz, Jeffrey John (Simpsonville, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A seal assembly for installation between rotating and stationary components of a machine includes a first plurality of leaf spring segments secured to the stationary component in a circumferential array surrounding the rotating component, the leaf spring segments each having a radial mounting portion and a substantially axial sealing portion, the plurality of leaf spring segments shingled in a circumferential direction.

  15. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  16. RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project Overview DEER 2008 Energy demand is exploding but "renewable energy" can't fill gap. Existing conventional oil production is "peaking" Lower extraction costs and demand have accelerated unconventional oil sands. * Unconventional Hydrocarbons - The hidden opportunity, oil industry consultancy Wood Mackenzie: "by 2025 unconventional oil is expected to supply more than 20% of global demand. Canada's UNCONVENTIONAL climb to the top of world

  17. AVTA: 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  18. HelioVolt Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dr Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78744 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film solar panel producer Website: www.heliovolt.net Coordinates: 30.216908, -97.685078...

  19. HydroVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydro Product: Aims to develop renewable energy from canals, waterways, streams, and ocean currents Website: www.hydrovolts.com Coordinates: 47.645778, -122.3257532 Show...

  20. GreenVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Others) for this property. Partnering Center within NREL National Center for Photovoltaics Partnership Year 2009 Link to project description http:www.nrel.gov...

  1. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lerner, Louise

    2011-03-28

    A revolutionary breakthrough cathode for lithium-ion batteries—the kind in your cell phone, laptop and new hybrid cars—makes them last longer, run more safely and perform better than batteries currently on the market.

  2. Photo Gallery: Argonne OutLoud: "Invisible Influence: A Bacterial Guide to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show January 27, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous

  3. Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 Washington Auto Show Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show January 27, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version,

  4. 2016 co2 cap | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  5. 20160829 FITARA Actions and Milestones Table (IDC-ready) v2.xlsx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  6. 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  7. Recovery - Strategy to Accelerate U.S. Transition to Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Richard; LoGrasso, Joseph; Monterosso, Sandra

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this project was to develop Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) advanced propulsion technology and demonstrate a fleet of 146 Volt EREVs to gather data on vehicle performance and infrastructure to understand the impacts on commercialization while also creating or retaining a significant number of jobs in the United States. This objective was achieved by developing and demonstrating EREVs in real world conditions with customers in several diverse locations across the United States and installing, demonstration and testing charging infrastructure while also continuing development on second generation EREV technology. The project completed the development of the Chevrolet Volt and placed the vehicle in the hands of consumers in diverse locations across the United States. This demonstration leveraged the unique telematics platform of OnStar, standard on all Chevrolet Volts, to capture the operating experience that lead to better understanding of customer usage. The project team included utility partners that installed, demonstrated and tested charging infrastructure located in home, workplace and public locations to understand installation issues, customer usage and interaction with the electric grid. Development and demonstration of advanced technologies such as smart charging, fast charging and battery to grid interface were completed. The recipient collected, analyzed and reported the data generated by the demonstration. The recipient also continued to advance the technology of the Chevrolet Volt technology by developing energy storage system enhancements for the next-generation vehicle. Information gathered from the first generation vehicle will be utilized to refine the technology to reduce cost and mass while also increasing energy storage capacity to enhance adoption of the second generation technology into the marketplace. The launch of the first generation Chevrolet Volt will provide additional opportunities to further enhance the RESS

  8. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: ...

  9. Fact #737: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 7: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf Fact #737: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf The all-electric Nissan Leaf does not emit tailpipe emissions like an internal combustion engine, but there are emissions associated with the production of electricity to fuel the Leaf, called upstream emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated those upstream emissions using information about the electric utility fuel sources. The graph below shows

  10. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  11. Leaf seal for gas turbine stator shrouds and a nozzle band

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis

    2002-01-01

    A leaf seal assembly is secured to the trailing edge of a shroud segment for sealing between the shroud segment and the leading edge side wall of a nozzle outer band. The leaf seal includes a circumferentially elongated seal plate biased by a pair of spring clips disposed in a groove along the trailing edge of the shroud segment to maintain the seal plate in engagement with the flange on the leading edge side wall of the nozzle outer band. The leaf seal plate and spring clips receive pins tack-welded to the shroud segment to secure the leaf seal assembly in place.

  12. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  13. AVTA: 2011 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on an all-electric 2011 Nissan Leaf. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  15. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growth analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.

  16. Spatial variation of dosimetric leaf gap and its impact on dose delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaraswamy, Lalith K.; Schmitt, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Daniel W.; Xu, Zheng Zheng; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: During dose calculation, the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) retracts the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions by half of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) value (measured at central axis) for all leaf positions in a dynamic MLC plan to accurately model the rounded leaf ends. The aim of this study is to map the variation of DLG along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair and quantify how this variation impacts delivered dose. Methods: 6 MV DLG values were measured for all MLC leaf pairs in increments of 1.0 cm (from the line intersecting the CAX and perpendicular to MLC motion) to 13.0 cm off axis distance at dmax. The measurements were performed on two Varian linear accelerators, both employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLCs. The measurements were performed at several locations in the beam with both a Sun Nuclear MapCHECK device and a PTW pinpoint ion chamber. Results: The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (each 0.5 cm width) at positions along a line through the CAX and perpendicular to MLC leaf travel direction were very similar, varying maximally by only 0.2 mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (each 1.0 cm width) have much lower DLG values, about 0.30.5 mm lower than the central MLC leaf pair, at their respective central line position. Overall, the mean and the maximum variation between the 0.5 cm width leaves and the 1.0 cm width leaf pairs are 0.32 and 0.65 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial variation in DLG is caused by the variation of intraleaf transmission through MLC leaves. Fluences centered on the CAX would not be affected since DLG does not vary; but any fluences residing significantly off axis with narrow sweeping leaves may exhibit significant dose differences. This is due to the fact that there are differences in DLG between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0 cm width outer leaves and the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation. Since there are large differences in DLG between the 0.5 cm width

  17. Leaf seal for inner and outer casings of a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Leach, David

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of arcuate, circumferentially extending leaf seal segments form an annular seal spanning between annular sealing surfaces of inner and outer casings of a turbine. The ends of the adjoining seal segments have circumferential gaps to enable circumferential expansion and contraction of the segments. The end of a first segment includes a tab projecting into a recess of a second end of a second segment. Edges of the tab seal against the sealing surfaces of the inner and outer casings have a narrow clearance with opposed edges of the recess. An overlying cover plate spans the joint. Leakage flow is maintained at a minimum because of the reduced gap between the radially spaced edges of the tab and recess, while the seal segments retain the capacity to expand and contract circumferentially.

  18. AVTA: 2013 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe early results of testing done on an all-electric 2013 Nissan Leaf. Baseline data, which provides a point of comparison for the other test results, was collected at two different research laboratories. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  19. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Nissan Leaf Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  20. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes 1 of 14 BrightLeaf Homes built this 2,880-square-foot home in a Chicago suburb, Brookfield, Illinois, to the performance criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. 2 of 14 Downspouts and proper grading help ensure water drains away from the two-story home. 3 of 14 Deep overhangs shield second-story windows from sun, rain, and snow while ultra-efficient

  1. AVTA: 2012 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports AVTA: 2012 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe early results of

  2. Students Debut Redesigned 2016 Chevrolet Camaros at EcoCAR 3...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Regenerative braking is used in hybrid electric vehicles to capture and reuse energy from the brakes that would be otherwise lost. EcoCAR 3 Students Learn and Teach at Winter ...

  3. Projections of leaf area index in earth system models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Lo, Fiona; Zheng, Yun; Harrison, Laura; Funk, Chris; Lombardozzi, Danica; Goodale, Christine

    2016-03-09

    The area of leaves in the plant canopy, measured as leaf area index (LAI), modulates key land–atmosphere interactions, including the exchange of energy, moisture, carbon dioxide (CO2), and other trace gases and aerosols, and is therefore an essential variable in predicting terrestrial carbon, water, and energy fluxes. Here our goal is to characterize the LAI projections from the latest generation of earth system models (ESMs) for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. On average, the models project increases in LAI in both RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 over most of the globe, but also show decreases in some partsmore » of the tropics. Because of projected increases in variability, there are also more frequent periods of low LAI across broad regions of the tropics. Projections of LAI changes varied greatly among models: some models project very modest changes, while others project large changes, usually increases. Modeled LAI typically increases with modeled warming in the high latitudes, but often decreases with increasing local warming in the tropics. The models with the most skill in simulating current LAI in the tropics relative to satellite observations tend to project smaller increases in LAI in the tropics in the future compared to the average of all the models. Using LAI projections to identify regions that may be vulnerable to climate change presents a slightly different picture than using precipitation projections, suggesting LAI may be an additional useful tool for understanding climate change impacts. Going forward, users of LAI projections from the CMIP5 ESMs evaluated here should be aware that model outputs do not exhibit clear-cut relationships to vegetation carbon and precipitation. Lastly, our findings underscore the need for more attention to LAI projections, in terms of understanding the drivers of projected changes and improvements to model skill.« less

  4. CyVolt Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seattle, Washington Zip: 98104 Product: Seattle-based developer fuel cell-powered battery systems for portable, hand-held consumer electronics Coordinates: 47.60356,...

  5. Sandia Energy - HelioVolt Modules Installed at RTC Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Colorado, and Florida and is providing the modules, racks (shown in the photo), and inverters. The RTCs are providing the electrical infrastructure, monitoring equipment, and...

  6. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities Yesterday, Department of Energy staff members were able to experience the newest in market-ready vehicle technology when ...

  8. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan

  9. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0

  10. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  11. SU-E-T-195: Gantry Angle Dependency of MLC Leaf Position Error

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, M; Chung, K; Kim, J; Han, Y; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Shin, E; Shin, J; Kim, H; Kim, D; Choi, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the gantry angle dependency of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position error. Methods: An automatic MLC quality assurance system (AutoMLCQA) was developed to evaluate the gantry angle dependency of the MLC leaf position error using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To eliminate the EPID position error due to gantry rotation, we designed a reference maker (RM) that could be inserted into the wedge mount. After setting up the EPID, a reference image was taken of the RM using an open field. Next, an EPID-based picket-fence test (PFT) was performed without the RM. These procedures were repeated at every 45° intervals of the gantry angle. A total of eight reference images and PFT image sets were analyzed using in-house software. The average MLC leaf position error was calculated at five pickets (-10, -5, 0, 5, and 10 cm) in accordance with general PFT guidelines using in-house software. This test was carried out for four linear accelerators. Results: The average MLC leaf position errors were within the set criterion of <1 mm (actual errors ranged from -0.7 to 0.8 mm) for all gantry angles, but significant gantry angle dependency was observed in all machines. The error was smaller at a gantry angle of 0° but increased toward the positive direction with gantry angle increments in the clockwise direction. The error reached a maximum value at a gantry angle of 90° and then gradually decreased until 180°. In the counter-clockwise rotation of the gantry, the same pattern of error was observed but the error increased in the negative direction. Conclusion: The AutoMLCQA system was useful to evaluate the MLC leaf position error for various gantry angles without the EPID position error. The Gantry angle dependency should be considered during MLC leaf position error analysis.

  12. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).

  13. SU-E-T-430: Modeling MLC Leaf End in 2D for Sliding Window IMRT and Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a 2D geometric model for MLC accounting for leaf end dose leakage for dynamic IMRT and Rapidarc therapy. Methods: Leaf-end dose leakage is one of the problems for MLC dose calculation and modeling. Dosimetric leaf gap used to model the MLC and to count for leakage in dose calculation, but may not be accurate for smaller leaf gaps. We propose another geometric modeling method to compensate for the MLC round-shape leaf ends dose leakage, and improve the accuracy of dose calculation and dose verification. A triangular function is used to geometrically model the MLC leaf end leakage in the leaf motion direction, and a step function is used in the perpendicular direction. Dose measurements with different leaf gap, different window width, and different window height were conducted, and the results were used to fit the analytical model to get the model parameters. Results: Analytical models have been obtained for stop-and-shoot and dynamic modes for MLC motion. Parameters a=0.4, lw'=5.0 mm for 6X and a=0.54, lw'=4.1 mm for 15x were obtained from the fitting process. The proposed MLC leaf end model improves the dose profile at the two ends of the sliding window opening. This improvement is especially significant for smaller sliding window openings, which are commonly used for highly modulated IMRT plans and arc therapy plans. Conclusion: This work models the MLC round leaf end shape and movement pattern for IMRT dose calculation. The theory, as well as the results in this work provides a useful tool for photon beam IMRT dose calculation and verification.

  14. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  15. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  16. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  17. Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles in the EV Project | Department of Energy 1: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project Fact #911: February 8, 2016 Workplace Charging Increases VMT of Plug-in Vehicles in the EV Project SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project conducted by Idaho National Laboratory showed that plug-in vehicle owners with access to workplace charging (WPC) had higher vehicle miles of travel (VMT) than those without. The Chevrolet Volts and Nissan

  18. EVSE Features LED Charge Indicator Cellular Modem EVSE Specifcations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Indicator Cellular Modem EVSE Specifcations Grid connection Dual NEMA 6-50P Cordsets Connector type J1772 Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 16 x 24 x 6 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 208 / 240 VAC Maximum input current 32 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 12/5/2013 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 208.6 Supply frequency (Hz) 60.00 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 8 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2012 Chevrolet Volt Battery type Li-ion Steady state

  19. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Test Report: ClipperCreek

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ClipperCreek EVSE Features LED status light EVSE Specifcations Grid connection Hardwired Connector type J1772 Test lab certifcations UL listed Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 17 x 14 x 6 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 208VAC to 240 VAC Maximum input current 32 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 2/1/2012 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 208.89 Supply frequency (Hz) 60.00 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 52 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2011 Chevrolet Volt

  20. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Test Report: Eaton

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    status lights EVSE Specifcations Grid connection Plug and cord NEMA 14-30 Connector type J1772 Test lab certifcations ETL listed Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 10 x 15 x 5 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 208 VAC to 240 VAC Maximum input current 30 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 10/24/2011 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 240.37 Supply frequency (Hz) 60.00 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 58 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2011 Chevrolet Volt Battery type

  1. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Test Report: SPX

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED status lights UART interface EVSE Specifcations Grid connection Plug and cord NEMA 6-30 Connector type J1772 Test lab certifcations ETL listed Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 5 x 14 x 4 Charge level AC Level 2 Input voltage 95VAC to 264 VAC Maximum input current 24 Amp Circuit breaker rating 40 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 10/25/2011 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 239.93 Supply frequency (Hz) 60.00 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 52 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2011 Chevrolet Volt

  2. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2016-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for themore » species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).« less

  3. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  4. Direct leaf trajectory optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy planning with sliding window delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, Dávid Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a novel optimization model for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning that directly optimizes deliverable leaf trajectories in the treatment plan optimization problem, and eliminates the need for a separate arc-sequencing step. Methods: In this model, a 360° arc is divided into a given number of arc segments in which the leaves move unidirectionally. This facilitates an algorithm that determines the optimal piecewise linear leaf trajectories for each arc segment, which are deliverable in a given treatment time. Multileaf collimator constraints, including maximum leaf speed and interdigitation, are accounted for explicitly. The algorithm is customized to allow for VMAT delivery using constant gantry speed and dose rate, however, the algorithm generalizes to variable gantry speed if beneficial. Results: The authors demonstrate the method for three different tumor sites: a head-and-neck case, a prostate case, and a paraspinal case. The authors first obtain a reference plan for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using fluence map optimization and 20 intensity-modulated fields in equally spaced beam directions, which is beyond the standard of care. Modeling the typical clinical setup for the treatment sites considered, IMRT plans using seven or nine beams are also computed. Subsequently, VMAT plans are optimized by dividing the 360° arc into 20 corresponding arc segments. Assuming typical machine parameters (a dose rate of 600 MU/min, and a maximum leaf speed of 3 cm/s), it is demonstrated that the optimized VMAT plans with 2–3 min delivery time are of noticeably better quality than the 7–9 beam IMRT plans. The VMAT plan quality approaches the quality of the 20-beam IMRT benchmark plan for delivery times between 3 and 4 min. Conclusions: The results indicate that high quality treatments can be delivered in a single arc with 20 arc segments if sufficient time is allowed for modulation in each segment.

  5. A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Argonne postdoctoral researcher Cong Liu and chemists Larry Curtiss and Peter Zapol discuss their recent research results on converting carbon dioxide into usable fuel. Photo by Wes Agresta. Argonne postdoctoral researcher Cong Liu and chemists Larry Curtiss and Peter Zapol discuss their recent research results on converting carbon dioxide into usable fuel. Photo by Wes Agresta. A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel July 29, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint As

  6. Poster Thur Eve 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 0.2 mm, 0.4 0.3 mm, and 0.5 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. ?-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  7. Leaf respiration (GlobResp) - global trait database supports Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Warren, Jeffrey; Thornton, Peter E.

    2015-03-20

    Here we detail how Atkin and his colleagues compiled a global database (GlobResp) that details rates of leaf dark respiration and associated traits from sites that span Arctic tundra to tropical forests. This compilation builds upon earlier research (Reich et al., 1998; Wright et al., 2006) and was supplemented by recent field campaigns and unpublished data.In keeping with other trait databases, GlobResp provides insights on how physiological traits, especially rates of dark respiration, vary as a function of environment and how that variation can be used to inform terrestrial biosphere models and land surface components of Earth System Models. Although an important component of plant and ecosystem carbon (C) budgets (Wythers et al., 2013), respiration has only limited representation in models. Seen through the eyes of a plant scientist, Atkin et al. (2015) give readers a unique perspective on the climatic controls on respiration, thermal acclimation and evolutionary adaptation of dark respiration, and insights into the covariation of respiration with other leaf traits. We find there is ample evidence that once large databases are compiled, like GlobResp, they can reveal new knowledge of plant function and provide a valuable resource for hypothesis testing and model development.

  8. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  9. EV Everywhere Charges Up the Workplace | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... survey (Chevy Volt), 2011 World Car of the Year (Nissan Leaf), 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year (Tesla Model S) and 2012 Green Car Vision Award Winner (Ford C-MAX Energi). ...

  10. Fact #659: January 24, 2011 Fuel Economy Ratings for Vehicles...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Leaf charges at 34 kW-hrs per 100 miles and can go 73 miles on a fully charged battery. The annual electric cost for this vehicle is 561.00. Chevy Volt Graphic of EPA window ...

  11. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; He, Mingzhu; Law, Beverly E.; Black, T. Andrew; Margolis, Hank A.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gu, Lianhong; Montagni, Leonardo; et al

    2015-02-25

    The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn), a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE), and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17) to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourlymore » and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001) than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.« less

  12. Performance of Linear and Nonlinear Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Models at Different Temporal Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaocui; Ju, Weimin; Zhou, Yanlian; He, Mingzhu; Law, Beverly E.; Black, T. Andrew; Margolis, Hank A.; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gu, Lianhong; Montagni, Leonardo; Noormets, Asko; Griffis, Timothy J.; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Valentini, Riccardo; Blanken, Peter D.; Wang, Shaoquiang; Wang, Huimin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhau; Li, Yingnian; Zhou, Bingbing; Liu, Yibo

    2015-02-25

    The reliable simulation of gross primary productivity (GPP) at various spatial and temporal scales is of significance to quantifying the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study aimed to verify the ability of a nonlinear two-leaf model (TL-LUEn), a linear two-leaf model (TL-LUE), and a big-leaf light use efficiency model (MOD17) to simulate GPP at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales using GPP derived from 58 eddy-covariance flux sites in Asia, Europe and North America as benchmarks. Model evaluation showed that the overall performance of TL-LUEn was slightly but not significantly better than TL-LUE at half-hourly and daily scale, while the overall performance of both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE were significantly better (p < 0.0001) than MOD17 at the two temporal scales. The improvement of TL-LUEn over TL-LUE was relatively small in comparison with the improvement of TL-LUE over MOD17. However, the differences between TL-LUEn and MOD17, and TL-LUE and MOD17 became less distinct at the 8-day scale. As for different vegetation types, TL-LUEn and TL-LUE performed better than MOD17 for all vegetation types except crops at the half-hourly scale. At the daily and 8-day scales, both TL-LUEn and TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 for forests. However, TL-LUEn had a mixed performance for the three non-forest types while TL-LUE outperformed MOD17 slightly for all these non-forest types at daily and 8-day scales. The better performance of TL-LUEn and TL-LUE for forests was mainly achieved by the correction of the underestimation/overestimation of GPP simulated by MOD17 under low/high solar radiation and sky clearness conditions. TL-LUEn is more applicable at individual sites at the half-hourly scale while TL-LUE could be regionally used at half-hourly, daily and 8-day scales. MOD17 is also an applicable option regionally at the 8-day scale.

  13. Flux of carbon from 14C-enriched leaf litter throughout a forest soil mesocosm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froberg, Mats J.; Hanson, Paul J; Trumbore, Susan E.; Swanston, Christopher W.; Todd Jr, Donald E

    2009-01-01

    The role of DOC for the build-up of soil organic carbon pools is still not well known, but it is thought to play a role in the transport of carbon to a greater depth where it becomes more stable. The aim of this study was to elucidate within-year dynamics of carbon transport from litter to the O (Oe and Oa) and A horizons. Mesocosms with constructed soil profiles were used to study dynamics of C transport from 14C-enriched (about 1000 ) leaf litter to the Oe/Oa and A horizons as well as the mineralization of leaf litter. The mesocosms were placed in the field for 17 months during which time fluxes and 14C content of DOC and CO2 were measured. Changes in 14C in leaf litter and bulk soil C pools were also recorded. Significant simultaneous release and immobilization of DOC occurring in both the O and A horizons was hypothesized. Contrary to our hypothesis, DOC released from the labeled Oi horizon was not retained within the Oe/Oa layer. DOC originating in the unlabeled Oe/Oa layer was also released for transport. Extensive retention of DOC occurred in the A horizon. DOC leaching from A horizon consisted of a mix of DOC from different sources, with a main fraction originating in the A horizon and a smaller fraction leached from the overlaying horizons. The C and 14C budget for the litter layer also indicated a surprisingly large amount of carbon with ambient Δ14C-signature to be respired from this layer. Data for this site also suggested significant contributions from throughfall to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transport into and respiration from the litter layer. The results from this study showed that DOC retentionwas low in the O horizon and therefore not important for the O horizon carbon budget. In the A horizon DOC retention was extensive, but annual DOC input was small compared to C stocks and therefore not important for changes in soil C on an annual timescale.

  14. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-07-21

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records asmore » unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.« less

  15. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-07-21

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records as unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.

  16. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experimentmore » in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.« less

  17. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  18. TH-E-BRE-05: Analysis of Dosimetric Characteristics in Two Leaf Motion Calculator Algorithms for Sliding Window IMRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L; Huang, B; Rowedder, B; Ma, B; Kuang, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Smart leaf motion calculator (SLMC) in Eclipse treatment planning system is an advanced fluence delivery modeling algorithm as it takes into account fine MLC features including inter-leaf leakage, rounded leaf tips, non-uniform leaf thickness, and the spindle cavity etc. In this study, SLMC and traditional Varian LMC (VLMC) algorithms were investigated, for the first time, in dosimetric characteristics and delivery accuracy of sliding window (SW) IMRT. Methods: The SW IMRT plans of 51 cancer cases were included to evaluate dosimetric characteristics and dose delivery accuracy from leaf motion calculated by SLMC and VLMC, respectively. All plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam Linac. The DVH and MUs of the plans were analyzed. Three patient specific QA tools - independent dose calculation software IMSure, Delta4 phantom, and EPID portal dosimetry were also used to measure the delivered dose distribution. Results: Significant differences in the MUs were observed between the two LMCs (p≤0.001).Gamma analysis shows an excellent agreement between the planned dose distribution calculated by both LMC algorithms and delivered dose distribution measured by three QA tools in all plans at 3%/3 mm, leading to a mean pass rate exceeding 97%. The mean fraction of pixels with gamma < 1 of SLMC is slightly lower than that of VLMC in the IMSure and Delta4 results, but higher in portal dosimetry (the highest spatial resolution), especially in complex cases such as nasopharynx. Conclusion: The study suggests that the two LMCs generates the similar target coverage and sparing patterns of critical structures. However, SLMC is modestly more accurate than VLMC in modeling advanced MLC features, which may lead to a more accurate dose delivery in SW IMRT. Current clinical QA tools might not be specific enough to differentiate the dosimetric discrepancies at the millimeter level calculated by these two LMC algorithms. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed

  19. SU-E-T-33: An EPID-Based Method for Testing Absolute Leaf Position for MLC Without Backup Jaws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, S; Whitaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Methods in common use for MLC leaf position QA are limited to measurements relative to an arbitrary reference position. The authors previously presented an EPID-based method for efficiently testing accuracy of leaf position relative to the mechanical isocenter for MLC with backup jaws. The purpose of this work is to extend that method to the general case of MLC without backup jaws. Methods: A pair of collimator walkout images is used to determine the location of the mechanical isocenter relative to the center of one field using a parameter called X-offset. The method allows for shift of the imager panel to cover subsets of MLC leaves within the limited field of view of the imager. For a shifted panel position, an image of three beam strips defined by a subset of MLC leaves allows determination of the position of each leaf relative to the isocenter. The location of the isocenter is determined by applying X-offset to an image of a single rectangular field obtained at that panel position. The method can also be used to test backup jaws instead of MLC leaves. A software tool was developed to efficiently analyze the images. Results: The software tool reports leaf position and deviation from nominal position, and provides visual displays to facilitate rapid qualitative interpretation. Test results using this method agree well with results using the previous method requiring backup jaws. Test results have been successfully used to recalibrate one model MLC (Elekta MLCi2™). Work in progress includes extension of the software tool to other MLC models, and quantification of reproducibility of the measurements. Conclusion: This work successfully demonstrates a method to efficiently and accurately measure MLC leaf position, or backup jaw position, relative to the mechanical isocenter of the collimator.

  20. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of the CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely

  1. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore » CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely

  2. Leaf Photosynthesis and Plant Competitive Success in a Mixed-grass Prairie: With Reference to Exotic Grasses Invasion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Dr. Xuejun; Patton, J.; Gu, Lianhong; Wang, J.; Patton, B.

    2014-11-26

    The widespread invasion of exotic cool-season grasses in mixed-grass rangeland is diminishing the hope of bringing back the natural native plant communities. However, ecophysiological mechanisms explaining the relative competitiveness of these invasive grasses over the native species generally are lacking. In this study, we used experimental data collected in south-central North Dakota, USA to address this issue. Photosynthetic potential was obtained from the net assimilation (A) vs. internal CO2 (Ci) response curves from plants grown in a greenhouse. Plant success was defined as the average frequency measured over 25 years (1988 to 2012) on overflow range sites across five levelsmore » of grazing intensity. In addition, estimated leaf area index of individual species under field conditions was used to indicate plant success. The correlation between photosynthetic potential based on A/Ci curves and plant frequency was negative. The correlation between leaf photosynthesis and plant success (defined as leaf area within a unit land area) was also negative, although statistically weak. These results suggest that the two cool-season grasses, Poa pratensis and Bromus inermis, do not rely on superior leaf-level photosynthesis for competitive success. Instead, some other traits, such as early and late-season growth, may be more important for them to gain dominance in the mixed-grass prairie. We propose that the negative photosynthesis-frequency relation as observed in this study results from a strong competition for limited soil nutrients in the mixed-grass prairie. In conclusion, it has implications for the stability and productivity of the grassland under various human disruptions influencing the soil nutrient status.« less

  3. EcoCAR 3: Collegiate Teams to Pump up Fuel Efficiency of Iconic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to make the Chevrolet Camaro more sustainable. | Energy Department photo Energy ... to make the Chevrolet Camaro more sustainable. | Energy Department photo The ...

  4. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  5. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C. Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup ?1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 ?OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  6. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  7. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Tu, Kevin; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and structurally overparameterized for interpreting the response of leaf net assimilation (A) to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration (Ci). The use of conventional fitting methods may lead not only to incorrect parameters but also several previously unrecognized consequences. For example, the relationships between key parameters may be fixed computationally and certain fits may be produced in which the estimated parameters result in contradictory identification of the limitation states of the data. Here we describe a new approach that is better suited to the FvCB model characteristics. It consists of four main steps: (1) enumeration of all possible distributions of limitation states; (2) fitting the FvCB model to each limitation state distribution by minimizing a distribution-wise cost function that has desirable properties for parameter estimation; (3) identification and correction of inadmissible fits; and (4) selection of the best fit from all possible limitation state distributions. The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model simulations, sampled A/Ci curves, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of different tree species. The new approach is accessible through the automated website leafweb.ornl.gov.

  8. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  9. Leaf-like nanotips synthesized on femtosecond laser-irradiated dielectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Patel, Nikunj B.; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-02-21

    Nanotips are the key nanostructures for the improvement of field emission, flat panel displays, force microscopy, and biosensor applications. We propose a single-step, rapid synthesis method to generate nanotips using femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz frequency with a background flow of nitrogen gas at ambient conditions. Two different types of leaf-like nanotips can be grown on the target surface: randomly oriented multiple tips growing from a single large droplet and single tips growing from small droplets. In this report, we explain the mechanism accountable for the formation of such nanotips using known concepts of laser breakdown of dielectric materials, plasma plume generation, plasma interactions with incoming laser pulses and surrounding gas, as well as known thermal properties of target material. Nitrogen gas plays an interesting role for the resultant structural changes on the target surface and thus it is given special attention in our discussion. Our unique fabrication technique has enabled us to produce tips with nanoscale apexes with a stem and length ranging from few hundred nanometers to few micrometers.

  10. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  11. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swarbreck, St; phanie; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  12. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions andmore » possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.« less

  13. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions and possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.

  14. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BrightLeaf Homes McCormick Avenue Brookfield, IL DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are

  15. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  16. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (130 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  17. Computer simulation of dislocation dechanneling in bent crystals at tera-electron-volt energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biryukov, V.

    1995-08-01

    The dislocation dechanneling of protons in the high-GeV and TeV energy ranges in long curved crystals has been investigated by means of computer simulation. The prospects for multi-TeV applications of bent crystals are discussed.

  18. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  19. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  20. Effect of moisture on leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to soil respiration in a temperate forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz Maria; Trumbore, Susan E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    The degree to which increased soil respiration rates following wetting is caused by plant (autotrophic) versus microbial (heterotrophic) processes, is still largely uninvestigated. Incubation studies suggest microbial processes play a role but it remains unclear whether there is a stimulation of the microbial population as a whole or an increase in the importance of specific substrates that become available with wetting of the soil. We took advantage of an ongoing manipulation of leaf litter 14C contents at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to (1) determine the degree to which an increase in soil respiration rates that accompanied wetting of litter and soil, following a short period of drought, could be explained by heterotrophic contributions; and (2) investigate the potential causes of increased heterotrophic respiration in incubated litter and 0-5 cm mineral soil. The contribution of leaf litter decomposition increased from 6 3 mg C m 2 hr 1 during a transient drought, to 63 18 mg C m 2 hr 1 immediately after water addition, corresponding to an increase in the contribution to soil respiration from 5 2% to 37 8%. The increased relative contribution was sufficient to explain all of the observed increase in soil respiration for this one wetting event in the late growing season. Temperature (13 C versus 25 C) and moisture (dry versus field capacity) conditions did not change the relative contributions of different decomposition substrates in incubations, suggesting that more slowly cycling C has at least the same sensitivity to decomposition as faster cycling organic C at the temperature and moisture conditions studied.

  1. Intensity modulated radiation therapy with irregular multileaf collimated field: A dosimetric study on the penumbra region with different leaf stepping patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, James C. L.; Grigorov, Grigor N.; Jiang Runqing

    2006-12-15

    Using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator (MLC) of 120 leaves, the penumbra regions of beam profiles within an irregular multileaf collimated fields were studied. MLC fields with different leaf stepping angles from 21.8 deg. to 68.2 deg. were used. Beam profiles in different directions: (1) along the cross-line and in-line axis (2) along the leaf stepping edges of the field, and (3) parallel to the stepping edges but in the middle of the field, were measured and calculated using Kodak XV radiographic film and Pinnacle3 treatment planning system version 7.4f. These beam profiles were measured and calculated at source to axis distance=100 cm with 5 cm of solid water slab on top. On the one hand, for both cross-line and in-line beam profiles, the penumbra widths of 20%-80% did not vary with the leaf stepping angles and were about 0.4 cm. On the other hand, the penumbra widths of 10%-90% of the above two profiles varied with the stepping angles and had maximum widths of about 1.9 cm (cross-line) and 1.65 cm (in-line) for stepping angles of 38.7 deg. and 51.3 deg., respectively. For profiles crossing the 'rippled' stepping edges of the field, the penumbra widths (10%-90%) at the regions between two opposite leaves (i.e., profile end at the Y1/Y2 jaw position) decreased with the stepping angles. At the penumbra regions between two leaf edges with the tongue-and-groove structure of the same bank (i.e., profile end at the X1/X2 jaw position), the penumbra widths increased with the stepping angles. When the penumbra widths were measured between two opposite leaf edges and at corners between two leaves, the widths first decreased with the stepping angles and then increased beyond the minimum width point at stepping angle of 45 deg. The penumbra width (10%-90%) measured at the leaf edge was larger than that at the corner. For the beam profiles calculated using Pinnacle3, it is found that the results agreed well with the measurements along the cross

  2. Method for selecting minimum width of leaf in multileaf adjustable collimator while inhibiting passage of particle beams of radiation through sawtooth joints between collimator leaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Bercovitz, John; Nyman, Mark; Chu, William

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for selecting the minimum width of individual leaves of a multileaf adjustable collimator having sawtooth top and bottom surfaces between adjacent leaves of a first stack of leaves and sawtooth end edges which are capable of intermeshing with the corresponding sawtooth end edges of leaves in a second stack of leaves of the collimator. The minimum width of individual leaves in the collimator, each having a sawtooth configuration in the surface facing another leaf in the same stack and a sawtooth end edge, is selected to comprise the sum of the penetration depth or range of the particular type of radiation comprising the beam in the particular material used for forming the leaf; plus the total path length across all the air gaps in the area of the joint at the edges between two leaves defined between lines drawn across the peaks of adjacent sawtooth edges; plus at least one half of the length or period of a single sawtooth. To accomplish this, in accordance with the method of the invention, the penetration depth of the particular type of radiation in the particular material to be used for the collimator leaf is first measured. Then the distance or gap between adjoining or abutting leaves is selected, and the ratio of this distance to the height of the sawteeth is selected. Finally the number of air gaps through which the radiation will pass between sawteeth is determined by selecting the number of sawteeth to be formed in the joint. The measurement and/or selection of these parameters will permit one to determine the minimum width of the leaf which is required to prevent passage of the beam through the sawtooth joint.

  3. Associations of Leaf Spectra with Genetic and Phylogenetic Variation in Oaks: Prospects for Remote Detection of Biodiversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Meireles, Jose; Couture, John; Kaproth, Matthew; Kingdon, Clayton; Singh, Aditya; Serbin, Shawn; Center, Alyson; Zuniga, Esau; Pilz, George; et al

    2016-03-09

    Species and phylogenetic lineages have evolved to differ in the way that they acquire and deploy resources, with consequences for their physiological, chemical and structural attributes, many of which can be detected using spectral reflectance form leaves. Recent technological advances for assessing optical properties of plants offer opportunities to detect functional traits of organisms and differentiate levels of biological organization across the tree of life. We connect leaf-level full range spectral data (400–2400 nm) of leaves to the hierarchical organization of plant diversity within the oak genus (Quercus) using field and greenhouse experiments in which environmental factors and plant agemore » are controlled. We show that spectral data significantly differentiate populations within a species and that spectral similarity is significantly associated with phylogenetic similarity among species. Furthermore, we show that hyperspectral information allows more accurate classification of taxa than spectrally-derived traits, which by definition are of lower dimensionality. Finally, model accuracy increases at higher levels in the hierarchical organization of plant diversity, such that we are able to better distinguish clades than species or populations. This pattern supports an evolutionary explanation for the degree of optical differentiation among plants and demonstrates potential for remote detection of genetic and phylogenetic diversity.« less

  4. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauziah, Faiza Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  5. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases.

  6. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5?57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1?99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26?32min) for MLC vs 45min (35?55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  7. SU-E-T-628: Effect of Dose Rate and Leakage Correction for Dosimetric Leaf Gap Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, W; Chu, A; Chi, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the dose rate response of Mapcheck and quantify/correct dose rate/leakage effect on IMRT QA. Evaluate the dose rate/leakage effect on dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) measurement. Methods: Varian Truebeam Linac with HD120 MLC was used for all measurement, it is capable to adjust dose rate from 600MU/min to 5MU/min. Fluke Advanced Therapy Doisemter and PTW 30013 Farmer chamber for chamber measurement; SunNuclear Mapcheck2 with 5cm total buildup for diode measurement. DLG was measured with both chamber and diode.Diode response was measured by varies dose rate, while fixed mapcheck setup and total MU. MLC Leakage was measured with both chamber and diode. Mapcheck measurement was saved as movie file (mcm file), which include measurement updated every 50mSec. The difference between intervals can be converted to dose and dose rate and leakage response correction can be applied to them. Results: DLG measurement results with chamber and diode were showed as follows, the DLG value is 0.36 vs. 0.24mm respectively. Diode dose rate response drops from 100% at 600MU/min to 95.5% at 5MU/min as follows. MLC Leakage measured with diode is 1.021%, which is 9% smaller than 1.112% from chamber measurement. By apply the dose rate and leakage correction, the residue error reduced 2/3. Conclusions: Diode has lower response at lower dose rate, as low as 4.5% for 5MU/min; diode has lower energy response for low energy too, 5% lower for Co-60 than 6MV. It partially explains the leakage difference of 9% between chamber and diode. Lower DLG with diode is because of the lower response at narrower gap, in Eclipse however DLG need to increase to makeup lower response, which is over correction for chamber though. Correction can reduce error by 2/3, the rest 1/3 can be corrected by scatter effect, which is under study.

  8. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; et al

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  9. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Sakuragi, Yumiko

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed and surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.

  10. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous Neotropical herbivores that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain lignocellulases that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as it is foraged by the ants. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous lignocellulases likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three-quarters of all lignocellulases identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 23 lignocellulases enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  11. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; et al

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plantmore » biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.« less

  12. Drought-influenced mortality of tree species with different predawn leaf water dynamics in a decade-long study of a central US forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-05-18

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of 1 year or more, which was correlated fairly tightly with a number of quantitative predictors formulated based on ψpd and precipitation regimes. Predictors based on temperature and vapor pressure deficit anomalies worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The exceptional drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality ofmore » all species, including drought-tolerant oaks, in the subsequent year. The drought-influenced tree mortality was related to the species position along the spectrum of ψpd regulation capacity with those in either ends of the spectrum being associated with elevated risk of death. Regardless of species and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events in all droughts. This result, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests an absence of catastrophic hydraulic disconnection in the xylem and that tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects. Species differences in the capacity of regulating ψpd and its temporal integral were magnified under moderate drought intensities but diminished towards wet and dry extremes. Severe droughts may overwhelm the capacity of even drought-tolerant species to maintain differential levels of water potential as the soil becomes exhausted of available water in the rooting zone, thus rendering them more susceptible to death if predisposed by other factors such as age.« less

  13. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J.; Horn, Heidi A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-03-21

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using materialmore » from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within general containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. Lastly, a representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.« less

  14. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  15. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  16. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  17. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D; Yu, V; Ruan, D; Semwal, H; Cao, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; O’Connor, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf patterns is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy and plan quality. Methods: 4 GBM patients, with a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy, were evaluated using the 4π algorithm using 20 beams. The MLC calculation utilized a least square minimization of the dose distribution, with an anisotropic total variation regularization term to encourage piecewise continuity in the fluence maps. Transforming the fluence to the dose domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. The fluence was stratified into even step sizes, and the MLC segments, limited to 300, were calculated. The patients studied were replanned using Eclipse with the same beam angles. Results: Compared to the original 4π plan, the stratified 4π plan increased the maximum/mean dose for, in Gy, by 1.0/0.0 (brainstem), 0.5/0.2 (chiasm), 0.0/0.0 (spinal cord), 1.9/0.3 (L eye), 0.7/0.2 (R eye), 0.4/0.4 (L lens), 0.3/0.3 (R lens), 1.0/0.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.5/0.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.3/0.2 (L Cochlea), 0.1/0.1 (R Cochlea), 4.6/0.2 (brain), 2.4/0.1 (brain-PTV), 5.1/0.9 (PTV). Compared to Eclipse, which generated an average of 607 segments, the stratified plan reduced (−) or increased (+) the maximum/mean dose, in Gy, by −10.2/−4.1 (brainstem), −10.5/−8.9 (chiasm), +0.0/−0.1 (spinal cord), −4.9/−3.4 (L eye), −4.1/−2.5 (R eye), −2.8/−2.7 (L lens), −2.1/−1.9 (R lens), −7.6/−6.5 (L Optical Nerve), −8.9/−6.1 (R Optical Nerve), −1.3/−1.9 (L Cochlea), −1.8/−1.8 (R Cochlea), +1.7/−2.1 (brain), +3.2/−2.6 (brain-PTV), +1.8/+0.3 Gy (PTV. The stratified plan was also more homogeneous in the PTV. Conclusion: This novel solver can transform

  18. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, .; Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M.

    2014-10-15

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  19. NREL Collaboration Breaks 1-Volt Barrier in CdTe Solar Technology (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) Achievements: 2015 by the Numbers VIDEO: 2015 by the numbers How did we perform this year? What did we accomplish? NNSA's nuclear security enterprise - including its laboratories, production facilities, and sites - provides unique technical solutions to solve the national security challenges of today and the future. In 2015, in addition to the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan and Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear

  20. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.; Brady, Sean

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Concurrent Design, Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... aesthetic finish-out of the structures as well. The event showcased electric cars from Tesla, Nissan, Chevrolet, Cadillac and Car2Go Concurrent Design Inc. offers engineering ...

  2. EERE Success Story—Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An EERE-supported effort to increase energy efficiency, while maintaining low emissions, has resulted in new engine valve technology on the 2014 Chevrolet Impala.

  3. Research Laboratories General Motors Corporation General Motors...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Respectfully, Robert F. Hill Radiation Safety Officer Analytical Chemistry Department Encl. I -,,. . .- . ' : * APPENDIX B RADIATION SURVEY OF THE CHEVROLET PLANT IN ADRIAN, ...

  4. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An EERE-supported effort to increase energy efficiency, while maintaining low emissions, has resulted in new engine valve technology on the 2014 Chevrolet Impala.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, Jim; Bennett, Brion; Carlson, Richard; Garretson, Thomas; Gourley, LauraLee; Karner, Donal; McGuire, Patti; Scoffield, Don; Kirkpatrick, Mindy; Shrik, Matthew; Salisbury, Shawn; Schey, Stephen; Smart, John; White, Sera; Wishard, Jeffery

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  6. Overview of the DOE Advanced Battery R&D Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery R&D Program David Howell, Program Manager Hybrid Electric Systems Vehicle Technologies Office June 16, 2014 VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 2 2013 Sales Set Record  46 EDV models were available for sale * 575,000 Sales  ~97,000 PEVs Sold. The top 6 models represent 95% of the sales : * Volt (23,094) * Leaf (22,610) * Model S (19,400) * Prius PHEV (12,088) * Cmax Energi (7,154) * Fusion Energi (6,089) Over 3.1 million EDVs on the road Jan.1, 2014 - 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000

  7. Measurement of the charge-transfer rate of Fe{sup 3+}-ion coefficients with H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at electron-volt energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Kelin; Nie Zongxiu; Li Jiaomei; Jiang Yurong

    2003-02-01

    The charge-transfer rate coefficients of Fe{sup 3+} with H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are measured by using a laser-ablation ion source and a quadrupole radio-frequency ion trap with the mean collision energy of about 5.1 eV. The rate coefficients for Fe{sup 3+} with H{sub 2} at the equivalent temperature 1.7x10{sup 3} K and Fe{sup 3+} with N{sub 2} at 1.3x10{sup 4} K are 1.64(0.22)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 4.36(0.46)x10{sup -9} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, respectively. The measured values are of the same order as the Langevin rate coefficient.

  8. EcoCAR 2 Competition: Meet the Teams Part III

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The EcoCAR 2 finale starts tomorrow! Meet five of the student teams that are designing and integrating vehicle powertrains that lower the environmental impact of a Chevrolet Malibu without compromising performance, safety and consumer acceptability.

  9. The Ohio State University Wins Year One of North American EcoCAR 3 Competition – Defending Their EcoCAR 2 Title

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Four-year collegiate engineering program gives students the chance to design, build, and demonstrate cutting-edge, eco-friendly automotive technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Camaro.

  10. Energy News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    program gives students the chance to design, build, and demonstrate cutting-edge, eco-friendly automotive technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. previous 3 4 5 6...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt ...

  12. Austin, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assets LP GT Environmental Finance LLC Gentivity, LLC Good Company Associates Inc Graphene Energy Greenward Technologies HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Inc HyEnergy Systems...

  13. Hays County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assets LP GT Environmental Finance LLC Gentivity, LLC Good Company Associates Inc Graphene Energy Greenward Technologies HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Inc HyEnergy Systems...

  14. LEAFing Through New Vehicle Technology | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The EV Project will create a network of charging stations for participants' electric vehicles and gather data on the stations' usage. "As Energy Secretary Steven Chu rightly ...

  15. A New Leaf: Scientists Turn Carbon Dioxide Back Into Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory found a way to recycle CO2 back into fuel, much the same way plants absorb and convert it.

  16. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Lewin, Gina R. 1 ; Johnson, Amanda L. 1 ; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira 2 ; Perry, Kailene 1 ; Book, Adam J. 1 ; Horn, Heidi A. 1 ; Pinto-Toms, Adrin A. 2 ; ...

  17. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  18. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... PF, Martfnez-Molina E, Velazquez E. Paenibacillus cellulosilyticus sp. nov., a cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the bract phyllosphere of Phoenix dactyli- fera. ...

  19. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  20. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  1. Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  2. Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  3. Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  4. JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

    2008-01-31

    Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

  5. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  6. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    com Texas Area HelioVolt Inc HelioVolt Inc E Riverside Dr Austin Texas Solar Thin film solar panel producer http www heliovolt net Texas Area Horizon Wind Energy Horizon Wind...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Diesel Internal Combusion Engine Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Downloadable data on the following vehicles is available: 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, 2013 Volkswagen Jetta TDI, and 2009 Volkswagen Jetta TDI.

  8. The many meanings of gross photosynthesis and their implication for photosynthesis research from leaf to globe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gu, Lianhong

    2015-06-25

    different meanings by different communities. We review the history of this term and associated concepts to clarify the terminology and make recommendations about a consistent use of terms in accordance with photosynthetic theory. We show that a widely used eddy covariance CO2 flux partitioning approach yields estimates which are quantitatively closer to the definition of true photosynthesis despite aiming at estimating apparent photosynthesis.

  9. Best Practices Case Study: Treasure Homes, Fallen Leaf at Riverbend, Sacramento, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    Case study of Treasure Homes who installed solar panels on the roofs, plus extra insulation, roof sheathing with an integrated radiant barrier, rigid foam exterior insulation, and a Smart Vent night cooling ventilation system to help cut homeowners’ utility bills an average of 58% over the average SMUD homeowner’s bills.

  10. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 8-inch poured concrete basement foundation wall, with 4 feet of wall below grade and 4 feet above to allow for significant natural light through the 36-inch-tall basement windows. ...

  11. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. ...

  12. Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    low-cost things you can do to save energy in cool weather. In addition, you can learn about conducting energy audits and how to find assistance for your energy-saving improvements. ...

  13. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    panes, and an advanced low-emissivity coating to block heat loss. 4 of 14 ... The comprehensive draft protection system includes caulking of the subfloor-sill plate ...

  14. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to apoptosis. • HC induced ROS-mediated autophagic response. • It inhibited prostate tumor growth by ∼ 72% without any observable toxicity. • Its anticancer efficacy is likely due to its selective prooxidant activity.

  15. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  16. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8”on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with 3” XPS exterior and 2: XPS under slab; a vented attic with spray foam top plates and R-60 blown cellulose; 96% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, plus fresh air intake.

  18. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived From EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.

  19. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived from EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, John

    2014-10-13

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine asmore » a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.« less

  20. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived from EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John

    2014-10-13

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology | Department of Energy 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Presentation given by Cree at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about 88 kilowatt automotive inverter with new

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: 88 Kilowatt Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology | Department of Energy 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Presentation given by Cree at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Electric Drive Systems

  3. Y

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Model Y ear 2 015: A lternative F uel a nd A dvanced T echnology V ehicles 1 (Updated 1 1/24/2014) 1 Source:http/afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search/Light---Duty V ehicle S earch MY Fuel/Powertrain T ype Make Model Vehicle T ype Engine S ize/Cylinders Transmission Emissions C lass 2 Fuel E conomy Gasoline 3,4 City/Hwy Fuel E conomy A lt Fuel 3,4 City/Hwy All E lectric Range ( mi) 2015 B20 Chevrolet Cruze Sedan 2.0L I 4 diesel Auto Tier I I B in 5 LEV I II L EV160 27/46 N/A N/A 2015 B20 Chevrolet

  4. Y-12 "Alpha" building | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Y ear 2 015: A lternative F uel a nd A dvanced T echnology V ehicles 1 (Updated 1 1/24/2014) 1 Source:http/afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search/Light---Duty V ehicle S earch MY Fuel/Powertrain T ype Make Model Vehicle T ype Engine S ize/Cylinders Transmission Emissions C lass 2 Fuel E conomy Gasoline 3,4 City/Hwy Fuel E conomy A lt Fuel 3,4 City/Hwy All E lectric Range ( mi) 2015 B20 Chevrolet Cruze Sedan 2.0L I 4 diesel Auto Tier I I B in 5 LEV I II L EV160 27/46 N/A N/A 2015 B20 Chevrolet

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Raytheon has installed fifteen dual 220-volt plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations spread across six operating locations in California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Texas ...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Territo Electric, Inc....

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    gasoline fleet. Territo expanded its fleet to include nine Volts, and installed sixteen charging stations for employees. Meet Challenge Partners More Information Territo Electric's

  7. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Workshop attendees list

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LG Chem Power, Inc. Massachusetts Institute of ... Laboratory Pellion Technologies PolyPlus Battery Company Qnovo Corporation ReVolt ...

  8. BPA-2013-00197-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Support Specialist Rian Neuber, Aerotek, Program Support Specialist Timothy Lehman, Volt Workforce Solutions, Program Support Specialist Pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.8, if...

  9. Small Business Portfolio | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings (Phase 2) - Heliotrope Technologies Lighting ... Integration of Solid-State Lighting and Building Controls (Phase 2) - VoltServer Inc. ...

  10. System Reconfiguration Analysis Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-19

    SYSRAP is a distribution automation applications software package for assessing system reconfiguration opportunities and volt/var control on radial electric distribution feeders.

  11. Enforcement Letter (WEL-2015-01) Webcor Builders

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    associated with a 277-volt electrical shock suffered by an apprentice electrician at ... light of the November 19 GPL electrical shock event and related events at LBNL involving ...

  12. Sandia Sled Track PNOV Press Release

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The violations are associated with the electrical shock event that occurred in building ... received a potentially fatal electric shock while working on a 3,570-volt direct ...

  13. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (1000 volts) LAB Analytical Laboratory LAW Low-Activity Waste MCC Motor Control Center ... on elevation 48 in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Facility and examined electrical ...

  14. National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... use include on-demand computing functionality for ... mega-electron volts per meter before the metal breaks down. ... been collaborating with earth scientists at Berkeley Lab ...

  15. NREL's Bobi Garrett Named Top Industry Executive - News Releases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... In the category of Grid Operation and Management, Sudipta Chakraborty, Andy Hoke, and Blake Lundstrom won for "Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with ...

  16. Federal Laboratory Multiplies Its Research Capacity | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., can now accelerate beams of electrons to 6 billion electron volts - more energy by half than taxpayers originally paid...

  17. EERE National Lab Impact Summit Hawaiian Electrics Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fixed Power Factor Activation Required 112016 Volt-VAR Capable of being updated within 12 months after UL 1741 Supplement A is approved Ramping Soft Start Reconnect ...

  18. shared Smart Grid Investment Grant

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Beyond Summary of Conference Proceedings 1. ... of topics such as technology readiness, customer ... via VoltVar Control Systems Driving the Integrated ...

  19. MotorMaster+ International | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    volt amps (kVA) readings Edit and modify motor rewind efficiency loss defaults Determine ... a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Premium efficiency motor. ...

  20. Current Affiliates | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NECCES) - EFRC Northern Illinois University Paraclete Energy Pellion Technologies Pennsylvania State University PlugVolt PolyPlus Battery Company Proton OnSite Renewance Inc. ...

  1. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... structured to mitigate against the risk of unrated credit, as the case may be, of the site owners. ... and service restoration (FLISR), voltVAR optimization (VVO), conservation ...

  2. San Francisco, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analytics Renewable Energy Action Project SCC Americas San Francisco Biodiesel San Francisco Community Power Scaled Solar SeaVolt Technologies formerly Sea Power Associates...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  4. Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association May 20, 2014 - 4:51pm Addthis Test Drive 1 of 5 Test Drive Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar drives a Chevrolet Spark EV during the Electric Drive Transportation Association conference in Indianapolis, Indiana on May 20, 2014. The conference brings together industry leaders who are advancing electric vehicle technologies and

  5. Connie Bezanson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connie Bezanson About Us Connie Bezanson - Education & Outreach Manager, Vehicle Technologies Program Connie Bezanson is the Education and Outreach Manager for the Vehicle Technologies Program. Most Recent Students Debut Redesigned 2016 Chevrolet Camaros at EcoCAR 3 Competition May 20 EcoCAR 3 Students Learn and Teach at Winter Workshop February 10 EcoCAR 2 Teams Cruise Forward with Second Year Finals May 20

  6. report2006.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT SIGNATURE ST CAR NO 1, MAKE TAG NUMBER ST TAG NUMBER CAR NO 2, MAKE YEARS FEDERAL SERVICE POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT INSTRUCTIONS: Complete requested information in each applicable blank. For make of car: Use Ford, Chevrolet, Plymouth, Toyota, Volkswagen, etc., Not model name. Return original

  7. ORISE: Postdoctoral research awards in energy efficiency and renewable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy Postdoc Research Awards in Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research opportunities currently available for recent Ph.D. graduates in innovative clean energy technologies Fuel cell powered Chevrolet Equinox The fuel cell vehicle pictured above is an example of one of the renewable energy and energy efficiency research areas promoted within the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Postdoctoral Research Award Program. Recent Ph.D. recipients are

  8. Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Honda Accord Hybrid 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco 2013 Ford Cmax Hybrid 2013 Honda CIvic Hybrid 2013 Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid 2011 Hyundai Sonata 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Honda CR-Z 2010 Honda Insight 2010 Mercedes S400h BlueHybrid 2010 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles Conventional Vehicles Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Facilities Publications News About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory

  9. Bus Rollover Testing and Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bus Rollover Testing And Simulation Computational Structural Mechanics Collaborator Research Highlights - Florida State University & Florida Department of Transportation Current research conducted at FAMU-FSU College of Engineering pertains to comprehensive crashworthiness and safety assessment of a paratransit bus on a Chevrolet 138" wheelbase. The design process of passenger compartment structure in paratransit buses is not regulated by any of crashworthiness standards. FAMU-FSU

  10. parking permit application - front

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT SIGNATURE ST CAR NO 1, MAKE TAG NUMBER ST TAG NUMBER CAR NO 2, MAKE YEARS FEDERAL SERVICE POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT INSTRUCTIONS: Complete requested information in each applicable blank. For make of car: Use Ford, Chevrolet, Plymouth, Toyota, Volkswagen, etc., Not model name. Return original