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  1. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  2. AVTA: 2011 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a Chevrolet Volt 2011. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt January 11, 2011 - 11:49am Addthis Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Last Thursday was a big day in the world of advanced vehicle batteries. On January 6, the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced that General Motors and its

  4. AVTA: 2013 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2013 Chevrolet Volt. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). The reports for download here are based on research done at Idaho National Laboratory. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  5. AVTA: Chevrolet Volt ARRA Vehicle Demonstration Project Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports summarize data collected from a project General Motors conducted to deploy 150 2011 Chevrolet Volts around the country. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  6. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Chevrolet Volt Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  7. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Benchmark Testing of the Chevrolet Volt Onboard Charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Carlson

    2012-04-01

    This is a report for public consumption, for the AVTA website, detailing the testing and analysis of the benchmark testing conducted on the Chevrolet Volt on-board charger.

  8. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  9. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  10. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  11. Connectivity-enhanced route selection and adaptive control for the Chevrolet Volt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Rajagopalan, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3%, respectively. Furthermore, these represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  12. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  13. Actual Versus Estimated Utility Factor of a Large Set of Privately Owned Chevrolet Volts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Thomas Bradley; Stephen Schey

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the overall fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the amount of operation in charge depleting (CD) versus charge sustaining modes must be determined. Mode of operation is predominantly dependent on customer usage of the vehicle and is therefore highly variable. The utility factor (UF) concept was developed to quantify the distance a group of vehicles has traveled or may travel in CD mode. SAE J2841 presents a UF calculation method based on data collected from travel surveys of conventional vehicles. UF estimates have been used in a variety of areas, including the calculation of window sticker fuel economy, policy decisions, and vehicle design determination. The EV Project, a plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration being conducted across the United States, provides the opportunity to determine the real-world UF of a large group of privately owned Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicles. Using data collected from Volts enrolled in The EV Project, this paper compares the real-world UF of two groups of Chevrolet Volts to estimated UF's based on J2841. The actual observed fleet utility factors (FUF) for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups studied were observed to be 72% and 74%, respectively. Using the EPA CD ranges, the method prescribed by J2841 estimates a FUF of 65% and 68% for the MY2011/2012 and MY2013 Volt groups, respectively. Volt drivers achieved higher percentages of distance traveled in EV mode for two reasons. First, they had fewer long-distance travel days than drivers in the national travel survey referenced by J2841. Second, they charged more frequently than the J2841 assumption of once per day - drivers of Volts in this study averaged over 1.4 charging events per day. Although actual CD range varied widely as driving conditions varied, the average CD ranges for the two Volt groups studied matched the EPA CD range estimates, so CD range variation did not affect FUF results.

  14. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  15. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  16. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  17. AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  18. CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CHEVROLET | ELECTRIC | GREEN | SPARK EV | TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATION & SOLUTIONS | GREENER VEHICLES Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  19. The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery Stories of Discovery & Innovation The Breakthrough Behind the Chevy Volt Battery Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of General Motors The 2011 Chevrolet Volt's 16 kWh battery can be recharged using a 120V or 240V outlet. The car's lithium-ion battery is based on technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Enlarge Photo Illustration courtesy Argonne National Laboratory This illustration shows the inner workings of a lithium-ion battery. When

  20. Sky Volt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volt Jump to: navigation, search Name Sky Volt Facility Sky Volt Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Sky Volt LLC (community owned)...

  1. Data Analysis and Reporting of the 150 Chevrolet Volt ARRA Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard "Barney" Carlson

    2014-07-01

    This is the final report for the GM Vehicle Demo analysis and reporting. I'd like it to be posted to the AVTA website. It contains no new information than what is in Quarterly reports that were previously approved by GM.

  2. Microsoft Word - eGallon methodology update Jan 2016.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends, October 2014. 4 This includes Tesla Model S, Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, BMW i3, and Ford Fusion Energi. . All fuel...

  3. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bujold, M.P.

    1980-06-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance characteristics. This report covers the 1978 Chevrolet Luv Truck manual transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The portion of the test code which involved the throttle valve modulation and line pressure were deleted since they did not apply to the manual transmission. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper 90% range at rated load for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Luv Truck Manual transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

  4. HelioVolt Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: HelioVolt Corporation Place: Austin, Texas Zip: TX 78744 Product: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV module manufacturer based in Austin,...

  5. Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters December 9, 2010 - 7:05pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities Yesterday, ...

  6. Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been available in the U.S. in limited numbers for many years. The introduction of the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt at the...

  7. Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Although the Nissan Leaf is an all-electric vehicle while the Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid, both models had similar charging patterns with more than half of all charging ...

  8. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  9. Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Federal Test Procedure Emissions Test Results from Ethanol Variable-Fuel Vehicle Chevrolet Luminas Kenneth J. Kelly, Brent K. Bailey, and Timothy C. Coburn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wendy Clark Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. Peter Lissiuk Environmental Research and Development Corp. Presented at Society for Automotive Engineers International Spring Fuels and Lubricants Meeting Dearborn, MI May 6-8, 1996 The work described here was wholly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy,

  10. SeaVolt Technologies formerly Sea Power Associates | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The company's Wave Rider system, which is still in prototype stages, uses buoys and hydraulic pumps to convert the movement of ocean waves into electricity. References: SeaVolt...

  11. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  12. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; J. Argueta; M. Wehrey; D. Karner; L. Tyree

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  13. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The biggest plug-in sellers in 2014 were the Nissan Leaf, Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, ... 1,145 Toyota RAV4 EV 0 0 192 1,005 1,184 Tesla Model S 0 0 2,400 19,400 16,750 Honda Fit ...

  14. Fact #873: May 18, 2015 Plug-In Vehicle Sales Total Nearly 120,000 Units in 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The number of plug-in vehicles sold in the United States in 2014 grew to nearly 120,000, up from 97,000 the year before. Nissan and Chevrolet had the best sellers in 2011 with the Leaf and the Volt...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 12 Volt Auxiliary Load On-road Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about 12 volt auxiliary...

  16. Battery Test Manual For 12 Volt Start/Stop Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belt, Jeffrey R.

    2015-05-01

    This manual was prepared by and for the United Stated Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Electrochemical Energy Storage Team. It is based on the targets established for 12 Volt Start/Stop energy storage development and is similar (with some important changes) to an earlier manual for the former FreedomCAR program. The specific procedures were developed primarily to characterize the performance of energy storage devices relative to the USABC requirements. However, it is anticipated that these procedures will have some utility for characterizing 12 Volt Start/Stop hybrid energy storage device behavior in general.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  18. EERE Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Celebrating Electric Vehicles Electric cars are more popular than ever. Earlier...

  19. Energy Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Celebrating Electric Vehicles Electric cars are more popular than ever. Earlier...

  20. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.; Chase, T. F.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Eichner, J. P.; Frisch, J. C.; Fry, A. R.; Gühr, M.; Hartmann, N.; Hast, C.; Hettel, R.; Jobe, R. K.; Jongewaard, E. N.; Lewandowski, J. R.; Li, R. K.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Makasyuk, I.; May, J. E.; McCormick, D.; Nguyen, M. N.; Reid, A. H.; Shen, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Vecchione, T.; Vetter, S. L.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Dürr, H. A.; Wang, X. J.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  1. The Department of Energy's Management of Contractor Responsibility Determinations

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt The Department of Energy's Innovation in GM's Chevrolet Volt January 11, 2011 - 11:49am Addthis Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Chevy Volt and replica battery | Photo Courtesy of Argonne Lab's Flickr Last Thursday was a big day in the world of advanced vehicle batteries. On January 6, the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory announced that General Motors and its

  2. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Dennis E. Raunig; Sean S. Cunningham

    2014-10-01

    On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the Room 130 Glovebox in HFEF, per HFEF OI 3165 section 3.5, Field Preparations. This activity involves an HPT setting up and climbing a portable ladder to remove the 14-C meter probe from above ball valve HBV-7. The HPT source checks the meter and probe and then replaces the probe above HBV-7, which is located above Hood ID# 130 HP. At approximately 13:20, while reaching past the HBV-7 valve position indicator switches in an attempt to place the 14-C meter probe in the desired location, the HPT’s left forearm came in contact with one of the three sets of exposed terminals on the valve position indication switches for HBV 7. This resulted in the HPT receiving an electrical shock from a 120 Volt AC source. Upon moving the arm, following the electrical shock, the HPT noticed two exposed electrical connections on a switch. The HPT then notified the HFEF HPT Supervisor, who in turn notified the MFC Radiological Controls Manager and HFEF Operations Manager of the situation. Work was stopped in the area and the hazard was roped off and posted to prevent access to the hazard. The HPT was escorted by the HPT Supervisor to the MFC Dispensary and then preceded to CFA medical for further evaluation. The individual was evaluated and released without any medical restrictions. Causal Factor (Root Cause) A3B3C01/A5B2C08: - Knowledge based error/Attention was given to wrong issues - Written Communication content LTA, Incomplete/situation not covered The Causal Factor (root cause) was attention being given to the wrong issues during the creation, reviews, verifications, and actual performance of HFEF OI-3165, which covers the need to perform the weekly source check and ensure placement of the probe prior to performing a “rabbit” transfer. This resulted in the hazard not being identified and mitigated in the procedure. Work activities with in HFEF-OI-3165 placed the HPT in proximity of an unmitigated hazard directly resulting in this event. Contributing Factor A3B3C04/A4B5C04: - Knowledge Based Error, LTA Review Based on Assumption That Process Will Not Change - Change Management LTA, Risks/consequences associated with change not adequately reviewed/assessed Prior to the pneumatic system being out of service, the probe and meter were not being source checked together. The source check issue was identified and addressed during the period of time when the system was out of service. The corrective actions for this issue resulted in the requirement that a meter and probe be source checked together as it is intended to be used. This changed the activity and required an HPT to weekly, when in use, remove and install the probe from above HBV-7 to meet the requirement of LRD 15001 Part 5 Article 551.5. Risks and consequences associated with this change were not adequately reviewed or assessed. Failure to identify the hazard associated with this change directly contributed to this event.

  3. MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Video MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video Learn how fuel cells are being used in specialty vehicles, auxiliary power, standby power generators, and for supplying power and heat to buildings and warehouse operations. Text Version MotorWeek Host: The emergence of cars like the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt have generated a lot of buzz for electric drive vehicles lately. But hydrogen fuel cells, seen by many as one of the most promising long-term clean driving solutions, are making their way into

  4. Leaf Clean Energy Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Energy Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Leaf Clean Energy Company Name: Leaf Clean Energy Company Place: London, United Kingdom Website: www.leafcleanenergy.com...

  5. LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orgtoolsleaf-gender-mainstreaming-strategy-checklist Cost: Free Language: English LEAF Gender Mainstreaming Strategy & Checklist Screenshot Logo: LEAF Gender...

  6. Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles vs. Plug-in Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) was first released in the U.S. market in January 2000 and 324 were sold in the first month. The Chevrolet Volt, a hybrid-electric plug-in, and the...

  7. EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Both the original and next-generation Chevrolet Volt use batteries with this technology, as well as the Ford Focus EV. In fact, LG Chem has further improved on this chemistry for ...

  8. EERE Success Story-Battery Cathode Developed by Argonne Powers...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Today, batteries in both the Chevrolet Volt and the Ford Focus EV use technology that was ... research at Argonne to develop a new type of cathode for lithium-ion PEV batteries. ...

  9. Fact #685: July 25, 2011 Reasons for Buying a Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Motors has been gathering feedback from customers who purchased the 2011 Chevrolet Volt, which is the only plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) on the market today. Through May 2011, about 2,100...

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Freudenberg-NOK Sealing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Levitex can thus reduce the CO2 emissions of vehicles by 0.5 to 1 gram per kilometer. On the first generation Chevrolet Volt alone, more than 600 of the company's seals are used, ...

  11. Celebrating Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Vehicles Celebrating Electric Vehicles September 29, 2015 - 4:01pm Addthis The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS More than 1 million plug-in

  12. Celebrating NFRR success | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Celebrating Electric Vehicles Celebrating Electric Vehicles September 29, 2015 - 4:01pm Addthis The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors The United States has the largest electric vehicle fleet in the world, which includes cars like the Chevrolet Volt. | Photo courtesy of General Motors Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs KEY FACTS More than 1

  13. 10 Questions with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher 10 Questions with Advanced Tech Vehicle Engineer, Pam Fletcher March 3, 2015 - 3:39pm Addthis Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American International Auto Show | Photo Courtesy of General Motors, Steve Fecht. Pamela Fletcher, GM Executive Chief Engineer for Electrified Vehicles, poses with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt at the 2015 North American

  14. AVTA: 2013 Chevrolet Malibu HEV Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    VTO's National Laboratories have tested and collected both dynamometer and fleet data for the Chevy Malibu HEV (a hybrid electric vehicle).

  15. LEAFing Through New Vehicle Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The LEAF is a five-passenger hatchback, powered by advanced lithium-ion batteries — with a range of more than 100 miles on a single charge. The vehicle will cost drivers about $25,000 after a federal tax credit.

  16. Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center Objective The Science Center Publications Graduate Research opportunities Undergraduate research opportunities EFRC-501 graduate class Seminar schedules Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Artificial leaf jumps developmental hurdle 18 Feb 2014 by Jenny Green: In a recent early online edition of Nature Chemistry, ASU scientists, along with colleagues at Argonne National Laboratory, have reported advances

  17. New Leaf Biofuel | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuel Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Leaf Biofuel Address: 1380 Garnet Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92109 Region: Southern CA Area Sector: Biofuels Product: Collects...

  18. AVTA- ARRA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the consumer charging behavior from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Charging Infrastructure Data Summary Reports

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports summarize data collected from the 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers deployed by the EV Project. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  20. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Electric Grid Impact Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following report describes lessons learned about the impact on the electrical grid from the EV Project. The EV Project partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following document describes the context of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  2. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Vehicle Placement Maps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following maps describe where the EV Project deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  3. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  4. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  5. EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    red_leaf_18215.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project

  6. 25000 Volts Under the Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the plug-in hybrid electric version of the following vehicles is available: 2013 Ford Fusion Energi, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi, 2012 Chevrolet Volt, 2012 Toyota Prius, 2013 Toyota Prius, 2013 Chevrolet Volt, 2011 Chrysler Town & Country, 2010 Quantum Escape, and 2010 Ford Escape Advanced Research Vehicle.

  8. Pngv

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Charge Up | Department of Energy Plugged In: Understanding How and Where Plug-in Electric Vehicle Drivers Charge Up Plugged In: Understanding How and Where Plug-in Electric Vehicle Drivers Charge Up December 2, 2015 - 12:15pm Addthis A Chevrolet Volt charges in Rhode Island thanks to a ChargePoint station installed using funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. | Photo courtesy of NREL A Chevrolet Volt charges in Rhode Island thanks to a ChargePoint station installed using

  9. Fun Facts | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fun Fact Friday: Plug-in Hybrid Edition Fun Fact Friday: Plug-in Hybrid Edition September 27, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Plug-in electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, run on electricity for short trips but use gasoline for longer trips. | Department of Energy photo Plug-in electric vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt, run on electricity for short trips but use gasoline for longer trips. | Department of Energy photo Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public

  10. Fact #737: July 23, 2012 Upstream Emissions for Nissan Leaf

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The all-electric Nissan Leaf does not emit tailpipe emissions like an internal combustion engine, but there are emissions associated with the production of electricity to fuel the Leaf, called...

  11. Turbine rotor-stator leaf seal and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, William Lee (Cincinnati, OH); Butkiewicz, Jeffrey John (Simpsonville, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A seal assembly for installation between rotating and stationary components of a machine includes a first plurality of leaf spring segments secured to the stationary component in a circumferential array surrounding the rotating component, the leaf spring segments each having a radial mounting portion and a substantially axial sealing portion, the plurality of leaf spring segments shingled in a circumferential direction.

  12. Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

    2013-04-16

    The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

  13. AVTA: 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  14. Photo Gallery: Argonne OutLoud: "Invisible Influence: A Bacterial Guide to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show Photo Gallery: 2016 Washington Auto Show January 27, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous

  15. 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  16. 2016 crosscutting meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  17. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and

  18. GreenVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Others) for this property. Partnering Center within NREL National Center for Photovoltaics Partnership Year 2009 Link to project description http:www.nrel.gov...

  19. HydroVolts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydro Product: Aims to develop renewable energy from canals, waterways, streams, and ocean currents Website: www.hydrovolts.com Coordinates: 47.645778, -122.3257532 Show...

  20. HelioVolt Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dr Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78744 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Thin-film solar panel producer Website: www.heliovolt.net Coordinates: 30.216908, -97.685078...

  1. Recovery - Strategy to Accelerate U.S. Transition to Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, Richard; LoGrasso, Joseph; Monterosso, Sandra

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this project was to develop Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) advanced propulsion technology and demonstrate a fleet of 146 Volt EREVs to gather data on vehicle performance and infrastructure to understand the impacts on commercialization while also creating or retaining a significant number of jobs in the United States. This objective was achieved by developing and demonstrating EREVs in real world conditions with customers in several diverse locations across the United States and installing, demonstration and testing charging infrastructure while also continuing development on second generation EREV technology. The project completed the development of the Chevrolet Volt and placed the vehicle in the hands of consumers in diverse locations across the United States. This demonstration leveraged the unique telematics platform of OnStar, standard on all Chevrolet Volts, to capture the operating experience that lead to better understanding of customer usage. The project team included utility partners that installed, demonstrated and tested charging infrastructure located in home, workplace and public locations to understand installation issues, customer usage and interaction with the electric grid. Development and demonstration of advanced technologies such as smart charging, fast charging and battery to grid interface were completed. The recipient collected, analyzed and reported the data generated by the demonstration. The recipient also continued to advance the technology of the Chevrolet Volt technology by developing energy storage system enhancements for the next-generation vehicle. Information gathered from the first generation vehicle will be utilized to refine the technology to reduce cost and mass while also increasing energy storage capacity to enhance adoption of the second generation technology into the marketplace. The launch of the first generation Chevrolet Volt will provide additional opportunities to further enhance the RESS (Rechargeable Energy Storage System) with each additional generation. Lessons learned from the launch of the first generation RESS will be demonstrated in the second generation to enhance adoption into the marketplace.

  2. RedLeaf Resources Ecoshale Project | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of oil shale reserves, unique oil extraction issues, novel approach for cost-effective extraction PDF icon deer08_patten.pdf More Documents & Publications Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands Oil Shale Research in the United States EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image

  3. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Overview Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the EV Project, which partnered with city, regional and state governments, utilities, and other organizations in 16 cities to deploy about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. It also deployed 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs and 2,600 plug-in hybrid electric Chevrolet Volts. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy ChargePoint AC Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory. PDF icon ChargePoint AC Level 2 - February 2012 More Documents & Publications AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand AVTA: 2012 Chevrolet Volt PHEV Downloadable Dynamometer Database Reports AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act project map of charging units

  5. AVTA: Schneider AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Test Plan PDF icon DRAFT - Integrated Test Plan and Evaluation Program for Review for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) More Documents & Publications AVTA: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Specifications and Test Procedures Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report AVTA: 2011 Chevrolet Volt Testing Results

    SPX Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This

  6. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Marine Drive by Clifton View Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Marine Drive by Clifton View Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Marine Drive by Clifton View Department of Energy

    McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf

  7. Leaf seal for gas turbine stator shrouds and a nozzle band

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis

    2002-01-01

    A leaf seal assembly is secured to the trailing edge of a shroud segment for sealing between the shroud segment and the leading edge side wall of a nozzle outer band. The leaf seal includes a circumferentially elongated seal plate biased by a pair of spring clips disposed in a groove along the trailing edge of the shroud segment to maintain the seal plate in engagement with the flange on the leading edge side wall of the nozzle outer band. The leaf seal plate and spring clips receive pins tack-welded to the shroud segment to secure the leaf seal assembly in place.

  8. AVTA: 2011 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on an all-electric 2011 Nissan Leaf. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison for the other test results. Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  9. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  10. The relationship between leaf area growth and biomass accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Chen, Jin; Anozie, Fransisca C.; Morales, Alejandro; Weise, Sean E.; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    2015-04-09

    Leaf area growth determines the light interception capacity of a crop and is often used as a surrogate for plant growth in high-throughput phenotyping systems. The relationship between leaf area growth and growth in terms of mass will depend on how carbon is partitioned among new leaf area, leaf mass, root mass, reproduction, and respiration. A model of leaf area growth in terms of photosynthetic rate and carbon partitioning to different plant organs was developed and tested with Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and a mutant line, gigantea-2 (gi-2), which develops very large rosettes. Data obtained from growthmore » analysis and gas exchange measurements was used to train a genetic programming algorithm to parameterize and test the above model. The relationship between leaf area and plant biomass was found to be non-linear and variable depending on carbon partitioning. The model output was sensitive to the rate of photosynthesis but more sensitive to the amount of carbon partitioned to growing thicker leaves. The large rosette size of gi-2 relative to that of Col-0 resulted from relatively small differences in partitioning to new leaf area vs. leaf thickness.« less

  11. Spatial variation of dosimetric leaf gap and its impact on dose delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumaraswamy, Lalith K.; Schmitt, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Daniel W.; Xu, Zheng Zheng; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: During dose calculation, the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) retracts the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions by half of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) value (measured at central axis) for all leaf positions in a dynamic MLC plan to accurately model the rounded leaf ends. The aim of this study is to map the variation of DLG along the travel path of each MLC leaf pair and quantify how this variation impacts delivered dose. Methods: 6 MV DLG values were measured for all MLC leaf pairs in increments of 1.0 cm (from the line intersecting the CAX and perpendicular to MLC motion) to 13.0 cm off axis distance at dmax. The measurements were performed on two Varian linear accelerators, both employing the Millennium 120-leaf MLCs. The measurements were performed at several locations in the beam with both a Sun Nuclear MapCHECK device and a PTW pinpoint ion chamber. Results: The measured DLGs for the middle 40 MLC leaf pairs (each 0.5 cm width) at positions along a line through the CAX and perpendicular to MLC leaf travel direction were very similar, varying maximally by only 0.2 mm. The outer 20 MLC leaf pairs (each 1.0 cm width) have much lower DLG values, about 0.30.5 mm lower than the central MLC leaf pair, at their respective central line position. Overall, the mean and the maximum variation between the 0.5 cm width leaves and the 1.0 cm width leaf pairs are 0.32 and 0.65 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The spatial variation in DLG is caused by the variation of intraleaf transmission through MLC leaves. Fluences centered on the CAX would not be affected since DLG does not vary; but any fluences residing significantly off axis with narrow sweeping leaves may exhibit significant dose differences. This is due to the fact that there are differences in DLG between the true DLG exhibited by the 1.0 cm width outer leaves and the constant DLG value utilized by the TPS for dose calculation. Since there are large differences in DLG between the 0.5 cm width leaf pairs and 1.0 cm width leaf pairs, there is a need to correct the TPS plans, especially those with high modulation (narrow dynamic MLC gap), with 2D variation of DLG.

  12. Leaf seal for inner and outer casings of a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Leach, David

    2002-01-01

    A plurality of arcuate, circumferentially extending leaf seal segments form an annular seal spanning between annular sealing surfaces of inner and outer casings of a turbine. The ends of the adjoining seal segments have circumferential gaps to enable circumferential expansion and contraction of the segments. The end of a first segment includes a tab projecting into a recess of a second end of a second segment. Edges of the tab seal against the sealing surfaces of the inner and outer casings have a narrow clearance with opposed edges of the recess. An overlying cover plate spans the joint. Leakage flow is maintained at a minimum because of the reduced gap between the radially spaced edges of the tab and recess, while the seal segments retain the capacity to expand and contract circumferentially.

  13. AVTA: 2013 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe early results of testing done on an all-electric 2013 Nissan Leaf. Baseline data, which provides a point of comparison for the other test results, was collected at two different research laboratories. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  14. AVTA: ARRA EV Project Nissan Leaf Data Summary Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports provide summary overviews of the 5,700 all-electric Nissan Leafs deployed through the EV Project. It also deployed about 14,000 Level 2 PEV chargers and 300 DC fast chargers. Background data on how this data was collected is in the EV Project: About the Reports. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brookfield, IL | Department of Energy BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8"on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Via del Cielo, Santa Fe, NM DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick ...

  17. Students Debut Redesigned 2016 Chevrolet Camaros at EcoCAR 3 Competition |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    22nd National Science Bowl | Department of Energy Student Teams from Massachusetts and California Win Energy Department's 22nd National Science Bowl Student Teams from Massachusetts and California Win Energy Department's 22nd National Science Bowl April 30, 2012 - 3:17pm Addthis Washington D.C. - Underscoring the Obama Administration's investments in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and ensuring educational opportunities are available to students across the nation, U.S.

  18. Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Chevrolet Spark EV 2015 Kia Soul Electric 2014 BMW i3 BEV 2014 Smart Electric Drive 2013 Ford Focus Electric 2013 Nissan Leaf SV 2012 Mitsubishi I-MiEV 2012 Nissan Leaf Conventional Vehicles Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Facilities Publications News About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory Energy Systems Research Facilities Publications News Research Advanced Materials and Manufacturing

  19. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  20. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.2 1.3 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. With the heart inside the radiation field, the mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. The optimal leaf margins were ?1.0 0.6 mm for both beams. Dmax to the spinal cord showed no clear trend for changes in leaf margin. Conclusions: The differences in doses to OARs between FFF and FF beams were negligible. Conformity index, modified GI, MLD, lung V20 Gy, lung V5 Gy, and mean heart dose showed a V-shaped relationship with leaf margins. There were no significant differences in optimal leaf margins to minimize these parameters between both FFF and FF beams. The authors results suggest that a leaf margin of ?1 mm achieves high conformity and minimizes doses to OARs for both FFF and FF beams.

  1. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan quality but can lead to less accurate dose distribution as evidenced by increasing discrepancies between the planned and the delivered doses. For example, the results from our patient-specific quality assurance measurements demonstrated that the average gamma analysis passing rate decreased from 98% to 80% when the allowable leaf motion increased from 3 to 20 mm/deg. Larger leaf motion constraints also led to longer treatment delivery times (2 to 4 folds) due to the additional MLC leaf motion. Conclusions: Leaf motion constraints significantly impact IMAT plans in terms of plan quality, delivery accuracy, and delivery efficiency with the impact magnified for more complex cases. Our studies indicate that a leaf motion constraint of 2 to 3 mm/deg of gantry rotation can provide an optimal balance between plan quality, delivery accuracy, and efficiency.

  2. SU-E-T-195: Gantry Angle Dependency of MLC Leaf Position Error

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, S; Hong, C; Kim, M; Chung, K; Kim, J; Han, Y; Ahn, S; Chung, S; Shin, E; Shin, J; Kim, H; Kim, D; Choi, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the gantry angle dependency of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position error. Methods: An automatic MLC quality assurance system (AutoMLCQA) was developed to evaluate the gantry angle dependency of the MLC leaf position error using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). To eliminate the EPID position error due to gantry rotation, we designed a reference maker (RM) that could be inserted into the wedge mount. After setting up the EPID, a reference image was taken of the RM using an open field. Next, an EPID-based picket-fence test (PFT) was performed without the RM. These procedures were repeated at every 45° intervals of the gantry angle. A total of eight reference images and PFT image sets were analyzed using in-house software. The average MLC leaf position error was calculated at five pickets (-10, -5, 0, 5, and 10 cm) in accordance with general PFT guidelines using in-house software. This test was carried out for four linear accelerators. Results: The average MLC leaf position errors were within the set criterion of <1 mm (actual errors ranged from -0.7 to 0.8 mm) for all gantry angles, but significant gantry angle dependency was observed in all machines. The error was smaller at a gantry angle of 0° but increased toward the positive direction with gantry angle increments in the clockwise direction. The error reached a maximum value at a gantry angle of 90° and then gradually decreased until 180°. In the counter-clockwise rotation of the gantry, the same pattern of error was observed but the error increased in the negative direction. Conclusion: The AutoMLCQA system was useful to evaluate the MLC leaf position error for various gantry angles without the EPID position error. The Gantry angle dependency should be considered during MLC leaf position error analysis.

  3. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E. )

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Sandia Energy - HelioVolt Modules Installed at RTC Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Colorado, and Florida and is providing the modules, racks (shown in the photo), and inverters. The RTCs are providing the electrical infrastructure, monitoring equipment, and...

  5. CyVolt Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seattle, Washington Zip: 98104 Product: Seattle-based developer fuel cell-powered battery systems for portable, hand-held consumer electronics Coordinates: 47.60356,...

  6. SU-E-T-430: Modeling MLC Leaf End in 2D for Sliding Window IMRT and Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, X; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a 2D geometric model for MLC accounting for leaf end dose leakage for dynamic IMRT and Rapidarc therapy. Methods: Leaf-end dose leakage is one of the problems for MLC dose calculation and modeling. Dosimetric leaf gap used to model the MLC and to count for leakage in dose calculation, but may not be accurate for smaller leaf gaps. We propose another geometric modeling method to compensate for the MLC round-shape leaf ends dose leakage, and improve the accuracy of dose calculation and dose verification. A triangular function is used to geometrically model the MLC leaf end leakage in the leaf motion direction, and a step function is used in the perpendicular direction. Dose measurements with different leaf gap, different window width, and different window height were conducted, and the results were used to fit the analytical model to get the model parameters. Results: Analytical models have been obtained for stop-and-shoot and dynamic modes for MLC motion. Parameters a=0.4, lw'=5.0 mm for 6X and a=0.54, lw'=4.1 mm for 15x were obtained from the fitting process. The proposed MLC leaf end model improves the dose profile at the two ends of the sliding window opening. This improvement is especially significant for smaller sliding window openings, which are commonly used for highly modulated IMRT plans and arc therapy plans. Conclusion: This work models the MLC round leaf end shape and movement pattern for IMRT dose calculation. The theory, as well as the results in this work provides a useful tool for photon beam IMRT dose calculation and verification.

  7. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  8. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  9. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  10. The Paris Motor Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Paris Motor Show The Paris Motor Show October 4, 2010 - 9:39am Addthis David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow David Sandalow Former Under Secretary of Energy (Acting) and Assistant Secretary for Policy & International Affairs At the Paris Motor Show today, electric cars are everywhere. Chevrolet is showing off the Volt, its plug-in hybrid due in U.S. showrooms this December. (Motown music blared as a Chevy rep

  11. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  12. Direct leaf trajectory optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy planning with sliding window delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, Dávid Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a novel optimization model for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning that directly optimizes deliverable leaf trajectories in the treatment plan optimization problem, and eliminates the need for a separate arc-sequencing step. Methods: In this model, a 360° arc is divided into a given number of arc segments in which the leaves move unidirectionally. This facilitates an algorithm that determines the optimal piecewise linear leaf trajectories for each arc segment, which are deliverable in a given treatment time. Multileaf collimator constraints, including maximum leaf speed and interdigitation, are accounted for explicitly. The algorithm is customized to allow for VMAT delivery using constant gantry speed and dose rate, however, the algorithm generalizes to variable gantry speed if beneficial. Results: The authors demonstrate the method for three different tumor sites: a head-and-neck case, a prostate case, and a paraspinal case. The authors first obtain a reference plan for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using fluence map optimization and 20 intensity-modulated fields in equally spaced beam directions, which is beyond the standard of care. Modeling the typical clinical setup for the treatment sites considered, IMRT plans using seven or nine beams are also computed. Subsequently, VMAT plans are optimized by dividing the 360° arc into 20 corresponding arc segments. Assuming typical machine parameters (a dose rate of 600 MU/min, and a maximum leaf speed of 3 cm/s), it is demonstrated that the optimized VMAT plans with 2–3 min delivery time are of noticeably better quality than the 7–9 beam IMRT plans. The VMAT plan quality approaches the quality of the 20-beam IMRT benchmark plan for delivery times between 3 and 4 min. Conclusions: The results indicate that high quality treatments can be delivered in a single arc with 20 arc segments if sufficient time is allowed for modulation in each segment.

  13. Poster Thur Eve 19: Performance assessment of a 160-leaf beam collimation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, E. S. M.; La Russa, D. J.; Vandervoort, E.

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the performance of the new beam collimation system with 160 leaves, each with a 5 mm leaf width projected at isocenter, is evaluated in terms of positional accuracy and plan/delivery quality. Positional accuracy was evaluated using a set of static and dynamic MLC/jaw delivery patterns at different gantry angles, dose rates, and MLC/jaw speeds. The impact on IMRT plan quality was assessed by comparing against a previous generation collimation system using the same optimization parameters, while delivery quality was quantified using a combination of patient-specific QA measurements with ion chambers, film, and a bi-planar diode array. Positional accuracy for four separate units was comparable. The field size accuracy, junction width, and total displacement over 16 cm leaf travel are 0.3 0.2 mm, 0.4 0.3 mm, and 0.5 0.2 mm, respectively. The typical leaf minor offset is 0.05 0.04 mm, and MLC hysteresis effects are 0.2 0.1 mm over 16 cm travel. The dynamic output is linear with MU and MLC/jaw speed, and is within 0.7 0.3 % of the planning system value. Plan quality is significantly improved both in terms of target coverage and OAR sparing due, in part, to the larger allowable MLC and jaw speeds. ?-index pass rates for the patient-specific QA measurements exceeded 97% using criteria of 2%/2 mm. In conclusion, the performance of the Agility system is consistent among four separate installations, and is superior to its previous generations of collimation systems.

  14. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  15. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-07-21

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records as unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.

  16. A Phenological Legacy: Leafing and flowering data for lilacs and honeysuckles 1956-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; Denny, Ellen G.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Marsh, Lee; Wilson, Bruce E; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    The dataset is comprised of leafing and flowering data collected across the continental United States from 1956 to 2014 for purple common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), a cloned lilac cultivar (S. x chinensis Red Rothomagensis ) and two cloned honeysuckle cultivars (Lonicera tartarica Arnold Red and L. korolkowii Zabeli ). Applications of this observational dataset range from detecting regional weather patterns to understanding the impacts of global climate change on the onset of spring at the national scale. While minor changes in methods have occurred over time, and some documentation is lacking, outlier analyses identified fewer than 3% of records asmore » unusually early or late. Lilac and honeysuckle phenology data have proven robust in both model development and climatic research.« less

  17. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experimentmore » in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.« less

  18. Moderate forest disturbance as a stringent test for gap and big-leaf models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Fisk, Justin P.; Holm, Jennifer; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bohrer, Gil; Gough, Christopher

    2015-01-27

    Disturbance-induced tree mortality is a key factor regulating the carbon balance of a forest, but tree mortality and its subsequent effects are poorly represented processes in terrestrial ecosystem models. It is thus unclear whether models can robustly simulate moderate (non-catastrophic) disturbances, which tend to increase biological and structural complexity and are increasingly common in aging US forests. We tested whether three forest ecosystem models – Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles), a classic big-leaf model, and the ZELIG and ED (Ecosystem Demography) gap-oriented models – could reproduce the resilience to moderate disturbance observed in an experimentally manipulated forest (the Forest Accelerated Succession Experiment in northern Michigan, USA, in which 38% of canopy dominants were stem girdled and compared to control plots). Each model was parameterized, spun up, and disturbed following similar protocols and run for 5 years post-disturbance. The models replicated observed declines in aboveground biomass well. Biome-BGC captured the timing and rebound of observed leaf area index (LAI), while ZELIG and ED correctly estimated the magnitude of LAI decline. None of the models fully captured the observed post-disturbance C fluxes, in particular gross primary production or net primary production (NPP). Biome-BGC NPP was correctly resilient but for the wrong reasons, and could not match the absolute observational values. ZELIG and ED, in contrast, exhibited large, unobserved drops in NPP and net ecosystem production. The biological mechanisms proposed to explain the observed rapid resilience of the C cycle are typically not incorporated by these or other models. It is thus an open question whether most ecosystem models will simulate correctly the gradual and less extensive tree mortality characteristic of moderate disturbances.

  19. TH-E-BRE-05: Analysis of Dosimetric Characteristics in Two Leaf Motion Calculator Algorithms for Sliding Window IMRT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L; Huang, B; Rowedder, B; Ma, B; Kuang, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The Smart leaf motion calculator (SLMC) in Eclipse treatment planning system is an advanced fluence delivery modeling algorithm as it takes into account fine MLC features including inter-leaf leakage, rounded leaf tips, non-uniform leaf thickness, and the spindle cavity etc. In this study, SLMC and traditional Varian LMC (VLMC) algorithms were investigated, for the first time, in dosimetric characteristics and delivery accuracy of sliding window (SW) IMRT. Methods: The SW IMRT plans of 51 cancer cases were included to evaluate dosimetric characteristics and dose delivery accuracy from leaf motion calculated by SLMC and VLMC, respectively. All plans were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam Linac. The DVH and MUs of the plans were analyzed. Three patient specific QA tools - independent dose calculation software IMSure, Delta4 phantom, and EPID portal dosimetry were also used to measure the delivered dose distribution. Results: Significant differences in the MUs were observed between the two LMCs (p≤0.001).Gamma analysis shows an excellent agreement between the planned dose distribution calculated by both LMC algorithms and delivered dose distribution measured by three QA tools in all plans at 3%/3 mm, leading to a mean pass rate exceeding 97%. The mean fraction of pixels with gamma < 1 of SLMC is slightly lower than that of VLMC in the IMSure and Delta4 results, but higher in portal dosimetry (the highest spatial resolution), especially in complex cases such as nasopharynx. Conclusion: The study suggests that the two LMCs generates the similar target coverage and sparing patterns of critical structures. However, SLMC is modestly more accurate than VLMC in modeling advanced MLC features, which may lead to a more accurate dose delivery in SW IMRT. Current clinical QA tools might not be specific enough to differentiate the dosimetric discrepancies at the millimeter level calculated by these two LMC algorithms. NIH/NIGMS grant U54 GM104944, Lincy Endowed Assistant Professorship.

  20. SU-E-T-33: An EPID-Based Method for Testing Absolute Leaf Position for MLC Without Backup Jaws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, S; Whitaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Methods in common use for MLC leaf position QA are limited to measurements relative to an arbitrary reference position. The authors previously presented an EPID-based method for efficiently testing accuracy of leaf position relative to the mechanical isocenter for MLC with backup jaws. The purpose of this work is to extend that method to the general case of MLC without backup jaws. Methods: A pair of collimator walkout images is used to determine the location of the mechanical isocenter relative to the center of one field using a parameter called X-offset. The method allows for shift of the imager panel to cover subsets of MLC leaves within the limited field of view of the imager. For a shifted panel position, an image of three beam strips defined by a subset of MLC leaves allows determination of the position of each leaf relative to the isocenter. The location of the isocenter is determined by applying X-offset to an image of a single rectangular field obtained at that panel position. The method can also be used to test backup jaws instead of MLC leaves. A software tool was developed to efficiently analyze the images. Results: The software tool reports leaf position and deviation from nominal position, and provides visual displays to facilitate rapid qualitative interpretation. Test results using this method agree well with results using the previous method requiring backup jaws. Test results have been successfully used to recalibrate one model MLC (Elekta MLCi2™). Work in progress includes extension of the software tool to other MLC models, and quantification of reproducibility of the measurements. Conclusion: This work successfully demonstrates a method to efficiently and accurately measure MLC leaf position, or backup jaw position, relative to the mechanical isocenter of the collimator.

  1. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of the CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.

  2. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore » CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.« less

  3. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  4. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swarbreck, St; phanie; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  5. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  6. Leaf-like nanotips synthesized on femtosecond laser-irradiated dielectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Patel, Nikunj B.; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-02-21

    Nanotips are the key nanostructures for the improvement of field emission, flat panel displays, force microscopy, and biosensor applications. We propose a single-step, rapid synthesis method to generate nanotips using femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz frequency with a background flow of nitrogen gas at ambient conditions. Two different types of leaf-like nanotips can be grown on the target surface: randomly oriented multiple tips growing from a single large droplet and single tips growing from small droplets. In this report, we explain the mechanism accountable for the formation of such nanotips using known concepts of laser breakdown of dielectric materials, plasma plume generation, plasma interactions with incoming laser pulses and surrounding gas, as well as known thermal properties of target material. Nitrogen gas plays an interesting role for the resultant structural changes on the target surface and thus it is given special attention in our discussion. Our unique fabrication technique has enabled us to produce tips with nanoscale apexes with a stem and length ranging from few hundred nanometers to few micrometers.

  7. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-27

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore » unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm⁻¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ~40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ~100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. As a result, this new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  8. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, David C. Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F.; Bernstein, Herbert J.

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup ?1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 ?OD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  9. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  10. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions and possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.

  11. Improved evidence-based genome-scale metabolic models for maize leaf, embryo, and endosperm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seaver, Samuel M.D.; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Frelin, Océane; Zarecki, Raphy; Ruppin, Eytan; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-03-10

    There is a growing demand for genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for plants, fueled by the need to understand the metabolic basis of crop yield and by progress in genome and transcriptome sequencing. Methods are also required to enable the interpretation of plant transcriptome data to study how cellular metabolic activity varies under different growth conditions or even within different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. Such methods depend extensively on the accuracy with which genes have been mapped to the biochemical reactions in the plant metabolic pathways. Errors in these mappings lead to metabolic reconstructions with an inflated number of reactions andmore » possible generation of unreliable metabolic phenotype predictions. Here we introduce a new evidence-based genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of maize, with significant improvements in the quality of the gene-reaction associations included within our model. We also present a new approach for applying our model to predict active metabolic genes based on transcriptome data. This method includes a minimal set of reactions associated with low expression genes to enable activity of a maximum number of reactions associated with high expression genes. We apply this method to construct an organ-specific model for the maize leaf, and tissue specific models for maize embryo and endosperm cells. We validate our models using fluxomics data for the endosperm and embryo, demonstrating an improved capacity of our models to fit the available fluxomics data. All models are publicly available via the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase and PlantSEED, and our new method is generally applicable for analysis transcript profiles from any plant, paving the way for further in silico studies with a wide variety of plant genomes.« less

  12. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BrightLeaf Homes McCormick Avenue Brookfield, IL DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are

  13. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (130 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  14. Computer simulation of dislocation dechanneling in bent crystals at tera-electron-volt energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biryukov, V.

    1995-08-01

    The dislocation dechanneling of protons in the high-GeV and TeV energy ranges in long curved crystals has been investigated by means of computer simulation. The prospects for multi-TeV applications of bent crystals are discussed.

  15. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  16. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  17. Effect of MLC leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Sen; Li, Guangjun; Wang, Maojie; Jiang, Qinfeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position, collimator rotation angle, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors on intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. To compare dosimetric differences between the simulating plans and the clinical plans with evaluation parameters, 6 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected for simulation of systematic and random MLC leaf position errors, collimator rotation angle errors, and accelerator gantry rotation angle errors. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for systematic MLC leaf position errors in response to field size. When the systematic MLC position errors were 0.5, 1, and 2 mm, respectively, the maximum values of the mean dose deviation, observed in parotid glands, were 4.63%, 8.69%, and 18.32%, respectively. The dosimetric effect was comparatively small for systematic MLC shift errors. For random MLC errors up to 2 mm and collimator and gantry rotation angle errors up to 0.5°, the dosimetric effect was negligible. We suggest that quality control be regularly conducted for MLC leaves, so as to ensure that systematic MLC leaf position errors are within 0.5 mm. Because the dosimetric effect of 0.5° collimator and gantry rotation angle errors is negligible, it can be concluded that setting a proper threshold for allowed errors of collimator and gantry rotation angle may increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment time.

  18. Effect of moisture on leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to soil respiration in a temperate forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz Maria; Trumbore, Susan E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    The degree to which increased soil respiration rates following wetting is caused by plant (autotrophic) versus microbial (heterotrophic) processes, is still largely uninvestigated. Incubation studies suggest microbial processes play a role but it remains unclear whether there is a stimulation of the microbial population as a whole or an increase in the importance of specific substrates that become available with wetting of the soil. We took advantage of an ongoing manipulation of leaf litter 14C contents at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to (1) determine the degree to which an increase in soil respiration rates that accompanied wetting of litter and soil, following a short period of drought, could be explained by heterotrophic contributions; and (2) investigate the potential causes of increased heterotrophic respiration in incubated litter and 0-5 cm mineral soil. The contribution of leaf litter decomposition increased from 6 3 mg C m 2 hr 1 during a transient drought, to 63 18 mg C m 2 hr 1 immediately after water addition, corresponding to an increase in the contribution to soil respiration from 5 2% to 37 8%. The increased relative contribution was sufficient to explain all of the observed increase in soil respiration for this one wetting event in the late growing season. Temperature (13 C versus 25 C) and moisture (dry versus field capacity) conditions did not change the relative contributions of different decomposition substrates in incubations, suggesting that more slowly cycling C has at least the same sensitivity to decomposition as faster cycling organic C at the temperature and moisture conditions studied.

  19. Intensity modulated radiation therapy with irregular multileaf collimated field: A dosimetric study on the penumbra region with different leaf stepping patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, James C. L.; Grigorov, Grigor N.; Jiang Runqing

    2006-12-15

    Using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator with a multileaf collimator (MLC) of 120 leaves, the penumbra regions of beam profiles within an irregular multileaf collimated fields were studied. MLC fields with different leaf stepping angles from 21.8 deg. to 68.2 deg. were used. Beam profiles in different directions: (1) along the cross-line and in-line axis (2) along the leaf stepping edges of the field, and (3) parallel to the stepping edges but in the middle of the field, were measured and calculated using Kodak XV radiographic film and Pinnacle3 treatment planning system version 7.4f. These beam profiles were measured and calculated at source to axis distance=100 cm with 5 cm of solid water slab on top. On the one hand, for both cross-line and in-line beam profiles, the penumbra widths of 20%-80% did not vary with the leaf stepping angles and were about 0.4 cm. On the other hand, the penumbra widths of 10%-90% of the above two profiles varied with the stepping angles and had maximum widths of about 1.9 cm (cross-line) and 1.65 cm (in-line) for stepping angles of 38.7 deg. and 51.3 deg., respectively. For profiles crossing the 'rippled' stepping edges of the field, the penumbra widths (10%-90%) at the regions between two opposite leaves (i.e., profile end at the Y1/Y2 jaw position) decreased with the stepping angles. At the penumbra regions between two leaf edges with the tongue-and-groove structure of the same bank (i.e., profile end at the X1/X2 jaw position), the penumbra widths increased with the stepping angles. When the penumbra widths were measured between two opposite leaf edges and at corners between two leaves, the widths first decreased with the stepping angles and then increased beyond the minimum width point at stepping angle of 45 deg. The penumbra width (10%-90%) measured at the leaf edge was larger than that at the corner. For the beam profiles calculated using Pinnacle3, it is found that the results agreed well with the measurements along the cross-line and in-line axis, while there was a deviation for the profiles along the leaf stepping edge of the field compared to the film measurements. The measured results in this study can help us to understand the dosimetric effect of the leaf stepping (due to finite leaf width), tongue-and-groove and rounded leaf end structure in the penumbra region of an irregular MLC field. A more dedicated penumbra model can be developed for the treatment planning system.

  20. Method for selecting minimum width of leaf in multileaf adjustable collimator while inhibiting passage of particle beams of radiation through sawtooth joints between collimator leaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Bercovitz, John; Nyman, Mark; Chu, William

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for selecting the minimum width of individual leaves of a multileaf adjustable collimator having sawtooth top and bottom surfaces between adjacent leaves of a first stack of leaves and sawtooth end edges which are capable of intermeshing with the corresponding sawtooth end edges of leaves in a second stack of leaves of the collimator. The minimum width of individual leaves in the collimator, each having a sawtooth configuration in the surface facing another leaf in the same stack and a sawtooth end edge, is selected to comprise the sum of the penetration depth or range of the particular type of radiation comprising the beam in the particular material used for forming the leaf; plus the total path length across all the air gaps in the area of the joint at the edges between two leaves defined between lines drawn across the peaks of adjacent sawtooth edges; plus at least one half of the length or period of a single sawtooth. To accomplish this, in accordance with the method of the invention, the penetration depth of the particular type of radiation in the particular material to be used for the collimator leaf is first measured. Then the distance or gap between adjoining or abutting leaves is selected, and the ratio of this distance to the height of the sawteeth is selected. Finally the number of air gaps through which the radiation will pass between sawteeth is determined by selecting the number of sawteeth to be formed in the joint. The measurement and/or selection of these parameters will permit one to determine the minimum width of the leaf which is required to prevent passage of the beam through the sawtooth joint.

  1. Accumulation of Pb and Cu heavy metals in sea water, sediment, and leaf and root tissue of Enhalus sp. in the seagrass bed of Banten Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauziah, Faiza Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-24

    Banten Bay in Indonesia is a coastal area which has been highly affected by human activity. Previous studies have reported the presence of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) heavy metals in the seawater of this area. This study was conducted to measure the accumulation of Pb and Cu in seawater, sediment, leaf tissue, and root tissue of the seagrass species Enhalus sp. Sampling was conducted at two observation stations in Banten Bay: Station 1 (St.1) was located closer to the coastline and to industrial plants as source of pollution, while Station 2 (St.2) was located farther away offshore. At each station, three sampling points were established by random sampling. Field sampling was conducted at two different dates, i.e., on 29 May 2012 and 30 June 2012. Samples were processed by wet ashing using concentrated HNO{sub 3} acid and measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Accumulation of Pb was only detected in sediment samples in St.1, while Cu was detected in all samples. Average concentrations of Cu in May were as follows: sediment St.1 = 0.731 ppm, sediment St.2 = 0.383 ppm, seawater St.1 = 0.163 ppm, seawater St.2 = 0.174 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.102 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.132 ppm, root St.1= 0.139 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.075 ppm. Average measurements of Cu in June were: sediment St.1 = 0.260 ppm, leaf St.1 = 0.335 ppm, leaf St.2 = 0.301 ppm, root St.1= 0.047 ppm, and root St.2 = 0.060 ppm. In June, Cu was undetected in St.2 sediment and seawater at both stations. In May, Cu concentration in seawater exceeded the maximum allowable threshold for water as determined by the Ministry of the Environment. Spatial and temporal variation in Pb and Cu accumulation were most probably affected by distance from source and physical conditions of the environment (e.g., water current and mixing)

  2. SU-E-T-428: Dosimetric Impact of Multileaf Collimator Leaf Width On Single and multiple Isocenter Stereotactic IMRT Treatment Plans for multiple Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giem, J; Algan, O; Ahmad, S; Ali, I; Young, J; Hossain, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts that multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf width has on the dose conformity and normal brain tissue doses of single and multiple isocenter stereotactic IMRT (SRT) plans for multiple intracranial tumors. Methods: Fourteen patients with 2–3 targets were studied retrospectively. Patients treated with multiple isocenter treatment plans using 9 to 12 non-coplanar beams per lesion underwent repeat planning using single isocenter and 10 to 12 non-coplanar beams with 2.5mm, 3mm and 5mm MLC leaf widths. Brainlab iPlan treatment planning system for delivery with the 2.5mm MLC served as reference. Identical contour sets and dose-volume constraints were applied. The prescribed dose to each target was 25 Gy to be delivered over 5 fractions with a minimum of 99% dose to cover ≥ 95% of the target volume. Results: The lesions and normal brains ranged in size from 0.11 to 51.67cc (median, 2.75cc) and 1090 to 1641cc (median, 1401cc), respectively. The Paddick conformity index for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) was (0.79±0.08 vs. 0.79±0.07 and 0.77±0.08) and (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.77±0.09 and 0.76±0.08), respectively. The average normal brain volumes receiving 15 Gy for single and multiple isocenter (2.5mm vs. 3mm and 5mm MLCs) were (3.65% vs. 3.95% and 4.09%) and (2.89% vs. 2.91% and 2.92%), respectively. Conclusion: The average dose conformity observed for the different leaf width for single and multiple isocenter plans were similar, throughout. However, the average normal brain volumes receiving 2.5 to 15 Gy were consistently lower for the 2.5mm MLC leaf width, especially for single isocenter plans. The clinical consequences of these integral normal brain tissue doses are still unknown, but employing the use of the 2.5mm MLC option is desirable at sparing normal brain tissue for both single and multiple isocenter cases.

  3. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5?57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1?99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26?32min) for MLC vs 45min (35?55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  4. SU-E-T-628: Effect of Dose Rate and Leakage Correction for Dosimetric Leaf Gap Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, W; Chu, A; Chi, Y; Hu, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the dose rate response of Mapcheck and quantify/correct dose rate/leakage effect on IMRT QA. Evaluate the dose rate/leakage effect on dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) measurement. Methods: Varian Truebeam Linac with HD120 MLC was used for all measurement, it is capable to adjust dose rate from 600MU/min to 5MU/min. Fluke Advanced Therapy Doisemter and PTW 30013 Farmer chamber for chamber measurement; SunNuclear Mapcheck2 with 5cm total buildup for diode measurement. DLG was measured with both chamber and diode.Diode response was measured by varies dose rate, while fixed mapcheck setup and total MU. MLC Leakage was measured with both chamber and diode. Mapcheck measurement was saved as movie file (mcm file), which include measurement updated every 50mSec. The difference between intervals can be converted to dose and dose rate and leakage response correction can be applied to them. Results: DLG measurement results with chamber and diode were showed as follows, the DLG value is 0.36 vs. 0.24mm respectively. Diode dose rate response drops from 100% at 600MU/min to 95.5% at 5MU/min as follows. MLC Leakage measured with diode is 1.021%, which is 9% smaller than 1.112% from chamber measurement. By apply the dose rate and leakage correction, the residue error reduced 2/3. Conclusions: Diode has lower response at lower dose rate, as low as 4.5% for 5MU/min; diode has lower energy response for low energy too, 5% lower for Co-60 than 6MV. It partially explains the leakage difference of 9% between chamber and diode. Lower DLG with diode is because of the lower response at narrower gap, in Eclipse however DLG need to increase to makeup lower response, which is over correction for chamber though. Correction can reduce error by 2/3, the rest 1/3 can be corrected by scatter effect, which is under study.

  5. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo; Atwell, Susanna; Martens, Helle J.; Pedas, Pai R.; Hansen, Sara F.; Nawrath, Christiane; Scheller, Henrik V.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; et al

    2015-07-22

    Here we report that the epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION 2 (rwa2), previously identified as having reduced O-acetylation of both pectins and hemicelluloses, exhibit pleiotrophic phenotype on the leaf surface. The cuticle layer appeared diffused and was significantly thicker and underneath cell wall layer was interspersed with electron-dense deposits. A large number of trichomes were collapsed andmore » surface permeability of the leaves was enhanced in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. A massive reprogramming of the transcriptome was observed in rwa2 as compared to the wild type, including a coordinated up-regulation of genes involved in responses to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis.« less

  6. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous Neotropical herbivores that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain lignocellulases that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as it is foraged by the ants. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous lignocellulases likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three-quarters of all lignocellulases identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 23 lignocellulases enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  7. Drought-influenced mortality of tree species with different predawn leaf water dynamics in a decade-long study of a central US forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, L.; Pallardy, S. G.; Hosman, K. P.; Sun, Y.

    2015-05-18

    Using decade-long continuous observations of tree mortality and predawn leaf water potential (ψpd) at the Missouri Ozark AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) site, we studied how the mortality of important tree species varied and how such variations may be predicted. Water stress determined inter-annual variations in tree mortality with a time delay of 1 year or more, which was correlated fairly tightly with a number of quantitative predictors formulated based on ψpd and precipitation regimes. Predictors based on temperature and vapor pressure deficit anomalies worked reasonably well, particularly for moderate droughts. The exceptional drought of the year 2012 drastically increased the mortality ofmore » all species, including drought-tolerant oaks, in the subsequent year. The drought-influenced tree mortality was related to the species position along the spectrum of ψpd regulation capacity with those in either ends of the spectrum being associated with elevated risk of death. Regardless of species and drought intensity, the ψpd of all species recovered rapidly after sufficiently intense rain events in all droughts. This result, together with a lack of immediate leaf and branch desiccation, suggests an absence of catastrophic hydraulic disconnection in the xylem and that tree death was caused by significant but indirect effects. Species differences in the capacity of regulating ψpd and its temporal integral were magnified under moderate drought intensities but diminished towards wet and dry extremes. Severe droughts may overwhelm the capacity of even drought-tolerant species to maintain differential levels of water potential as the soil becomes exhausted of available water in the rooting zone, thus rendering them more susceptible to death if predisposed by other factors such as age.« less

  8. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; et al

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plantmore » biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.« less

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cree at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about 88 kilowatt automotive inverter with new...

  10. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 ?m for the commercial configuration down to ~9 ?m for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-?m spatial resolution using an oversampling method. There are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.

  11. Subcellular-level resolution MALDI-MS imaging of maize leaf metabolites by MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-01-25

    A significant limiting factor in achieving high spatial resolution for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging is the size of the laser spot at the sample surface. We present modifications to the beam-delivery optics of a commercial MALDI-linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument, incorporating an external Nd:YAG laser, beam-shaping optics, and an aspheric focusing lens, to reduce the minimum laser spot size from ~50 μm for the commercial configuration down to ~9 μm for the modified configuration. This improved system was applied for MALDI-MS imaging of cross sections of juvenile maize leaves at 5-μm spatial resolution using an oversampling method. Theremore » are a variety of different metabolites including amino acids, glycerolipids, and defense-related compounds were imaged at a spatial resolution well below the size of a single cell. Such images provide unprecedented insights into the metabolism associated with the different tissue types of the maize leaf, which is known to asymmetrically distribute the reactions of C4 photosynthesis among the mesophyll and bundle sheath cell types. The metabolite ion images correlate with the optical images that reveal the structures of the different tissues, and previously known and newly revealed asymmetric metabolic features are observed.« less

  12. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  13. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for Highly Complicated 4Ï€ IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D; Yu, V; Ruan, D; Semwal, H; Cao, M; Low, D; Sheng, K; O’Connor, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Highly conformal non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy plans typically require more than 20 intensity-modulated fields to deliver. A novel method to calculate multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf patterns is introduced to maximize delivery efficiency, accuracy and plan quality. Methods: 4 GBM patients, with a prescription dose of 59.4 Gy or 60 Gy, were evaluated using the 4π algorithm using 20 beams. The MLC calculation utilized a least square minimization of the dose distribution, with an anisotropic total variation regularization term to encourage piecewise continuity in the fluence maps. Transforming the fluence to the dose domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. The fluence was stratified into even step sizes, and the MLC segments, limited to 300, were calculated. The patients studied were replanned using Eclipse with the same beam angles. Results: Compared to the original 4π plan, the stratified 4π plan increased the maximum/mean dose for, in Gy, by 1.0/0.0 (brainstem), 0.5/0.2 (chiasm), 0.0/0.0 (spinal cord), 1.9/0.3 (L eye), 0.7/0.2 (R eye), 0.4/0.4 (L lens), 0.3/0.3 (R lens), 1.0/0.8 (L Optical Nerve), 0.5/0.3 (R Optical Nerve), 0.3/0.2 (L Cochlea), 0.1/0.1 (R Cochlea), 4.6/0.2 (brain), 2.4/0.1 (brain-PTV), 5.1/0.9 (PTV). Compared to Eclipse, which generated an average of 607 segments, the stratified plan reduced (−) or increased (+) the maximum/mean dose, in Gy, by −10.2/−4.1 (brainstem), −10.5/−8.9 (chiasm), +0.0/−0.1 (spinal cord), −4.9/−3.4 (L eye), −4.1/−2.5 (R eye), −2.8/−2.7 (L lens), −2.1/−1.9 (R lens), −7.6/−6.5 (L Optical Nerve), −8.9/−6.1 (R Optical Nerve), −1.3/−1.9 (L Cochlea), −1.8/−1.8 (R Cochlea), +1.7/−2.1 (brain), +3.2/−2.6 (brain-PTV), +1.8/+0.3 Gy (PTV. The stratified plan was also more homogeneous in the PTV. Conclusion: This novel solver can transform complicated fluence maps into significantly fewer deliverable MLC segments than the commercial system while achieving superior dosimetry. Funding support partially contributed by Varian.

  14. EERE Success Story—Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An EERE-supported effort to increase energy efficiency, while maintaining low emissions, has resulted in new engine valve technology on the 2014 Chevrolet Impala.

  15. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An EERE-supported effort to increase energy efficiency, while maintaining low emissions, has resulted in new engine valve technology on the 2014 Chevrolet Impala.

  16. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.; Brady, Sean

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  17. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, .; Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M.

    2014-10-15

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  18. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, Jim; Bennett, Brion; Carlson, Richard; Garretson, Thomas; Gourley, LauraLee; Karner, Donal; McGuire, Patti; Scoffield, Don; Kirkpatrick, Mindy; Shrik, Matthew; Salisbury, Shawn; Schey, Stephen; Smart, John; White, Sera; Wishard, Jeffery

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the vehicles and recharging decisions made. Data is reported for the use of more than 25,000 vehicles and charging units.

  19. Overview of the DOE Advanced Battery R&D Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery R&D Program David Howell, Program Manager Hybrid Electric Systems Vehicle Technologies Office June 16, 2014 VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 2 2013 Sales Set Record  46 EDV models were available for sale * 575,000 Sales  ~97,000 PEVs Sold. The top 6 models represent 95% of the sales : * Volt (23,094) * Leaf (22,610) * Model S (19,400) * Prius PHEV (12,088) * Cmax Energi (7,154) * Fusion Energi (6,089) Over 3.1 million EDVs on the road Jan.1, 2014 - 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000

  20. Energy News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    program gives students the chance to design, build, and demonstrate cutting-edge, eco-friendly automotive technologies in the all-new 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. previous 3 4 5 6...

  1. EcoCAR 2 Competition: Meet the Teams Part III

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The EcoCAR 2 finale starts tomorrow! Meet five of the student teams that are designing and integrating vehicle powertrains that lower the environmental impact of a Chevrolet Malibu without compromising performance, safety and consumer acceptability.

  2. Austin, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assets LP GT Environmental Finance LLC Gentivity, LLC Good Company Associates Inc Graphene Energy Greenward Technologies HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Inc HyEnergy Systems...

  3. Hays County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assets LP GT Environmental Finance LLC Gentivity, LLC Good Company Associates Inc Graphene Energy Greenward Technologies HelioVolt Corporation HelioVolt Inc HyEnergy Systems...

  4. JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

    2008-01-31

    Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

  5. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  6. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  7. Papua New Guinea-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  8. Laos-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  9. Thailand-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  10. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  11. AVTA: 2012 Nissan Leaf All-Electric Vehicle Testing Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. ...

  12. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  13. EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals in Seattle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals in Seattle EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals in Seattle Addthis 1 of 11 As part of the EcoCAR 3 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition, university teams from throughout North America will redesign a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact while maintaining its "muscle car" performance. Image: Courtesy of EcoCAR 3 2 of 11 As part of EcoCAR 3, university teams will receive a set of keys to a brand new Chevrolet Camaro from General Motors to re-engineer

  14. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    com Texas Area HelioVolt Inc HelioVolt Inc E Riverside Dr Austin Texas Solar Thin film solar panel producer http www heliovolt net Texas Area Horizon Wind Energy Horizon Wind...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Diesel Internal Combusion Engine Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Downloadable data on the following vehicles is available: 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Diesel, 2013 Volkswagen Jetta TDI, and 2009 Volkswagen Jetta TDI.

  16. EcoCAR 2: Meet the Teams Part II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As college graduation season draws near, so too does EcoCAR 2, the Energy Department competition that challenges the next generation of engineers and scientists to reduce the environmental impact of a Chevrolet Malibu without compromising performance, safety and consumer acceptability. Meet five of the 15 teams.

  17. Fact #712: January 30, 2012 Top Vehicles in the U.S., 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size pickup trucks remain at the top of the list for best-selling models in 2011. The Ford F-Series was the top-selling model followed by the Chevrolet Silverado in second place and the Dodge...

  18. Chief Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Officer Report for FY2009

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters Chevy Volt Electrifies DOE Headquarters December 9, 2010 - 7:05pm Addthis Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities Yesterday, Department of Energy staff members were able to experience the newest in market-ready vehicle technology when representatives from General Motors brought two Chevy Volts to Department headquarters. Officials and engineers alike, including the Department's Chief Financial Officer, Steve Isakowitz, test drove the Volt, and

  19. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to apoptosis. • HC induced ROS-mediated autophagic response. • It inhibited prostate tumor growth by ∼ 72% without any observable toxicity. • Its anticancer efficacy is likely due to its selective prooxidant activity.

  20. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This, in turn, is installed over a foundation floor water ... The builder engineered a precise roof pitch (6.2512) to ... to an airtightness level nearly 70% lower than ...

  1. Get Ready for Fall: Leaf Peeping, Staying Warm, and Saving Money |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Get Pumped about Pumped Storage Get Pumped about Pumped Storage April 27, 2015 - 9:11am Addthis Get Pumped about Pumped Storage Charlton I. Clark Integration Team Lead, Wind and Water Power Program Hydropower plays an important role as the backbone of America's electrical grid. It is highly flexible and can rapidly respond to fluctuations in the demand for electricity with pumped storage. Often described as "giant batteries," pumped storage hydropower (PSH) plants account for the bulk

  2. DOE Tour of Zero: McCormick Avenue by BrightLeaf Homes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    panes, and an advanced low-emissivity coating to block heat loss. 4 of 14 ... The comprehensive draft protection system includes caulking of the subfloor-sill plate ...

  3. DOE ZERH Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes, McCormick Avenue, Brookfield, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 38 without PV, with staggered 2x4 studs every 8”on a 2x6 plate with dense-packed R-25 cellulose, basement with 3” XPS exterior and 2: XPS under slab; a vented attic with spray foam top plates and R-60 blown cellulose; 96% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, plus fresh air intake.

  4. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. ...

  5. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: BrightLeaf Homes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... On top of the foam insulation is a single continuous sheet of 10-mil polyethylene vapor barrier. The primary water protection for the wall is a dimpled high-density polyethylene ...

  6. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  7. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  8. Y

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Y ear 2 015: A lternative F uel a nd A dvanced T echnology V ehicles 1 (Updated 1 1/24/2014) 1 Source:http/afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search/Light---Duty V ehicle S earch MY Fuel/Powertrain T ype Make Model Vehicle T ype Engine S ize/Cylinders Transmission Emissions C lass 2 Fuel E conomy Gasoline 3,4 City/Hwy Fuel E conomy A lt Fuel 3,4 City/Hwy All E lectric Range ( mi) 2015 B20 Chevrolet Cruze Sedan 2.0L I 4 diesel Auto Tier I I B in 5 LEV I II L EV160 27/46 N/A N/A 2015 B20 Chevrolet

  9. Y

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Model Y ear 2 015: A lternative F uel a nd A dvanced T echnology V ehicles 1 (Updated 1 1/24/2014) 1 Source:http/afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/search/Light---Duty V ehicle S earch MY Fuel/Powertrain T ype Make Model Vehicle T ype Engine S ize/Cylinders Transmission Emissions C lass 2 Fuel E conomy Gasoline 3,4 City/Hwy Fuel E conomy A lt Fuel 3,4 City/Hwy All E lectric Range ( mi) 2015 B20 Chevrolet Cruze Sedan 2.0L I 4 diesel Auto Tier I I B in 5 LEV I II L EV160 27/46 N/A N/A 2015 B20 Chevrolet

  10. Chicago Office Manager's Signature Log Privacy Impact Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association May 20, 2014 - 4:51pm Addthis Test Drive 1 of 5 Test Drive Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar drives a Chevrolet Spark EV during the Electric Drive Transportation Association conference in Indianapolis, Indiana on May 20, 2014. The conference brings together industry leaders who are advancing electric vehicle technologies and

  11. Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Honda Accord Hybrid 2013 Chevrolet Malibu Eco 2013 Ford Cmax Hybrid 2013 Honda CIvic Hybrid 2013 Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid 2011 Hyundai Sonata 2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Honda CR-Z 2010 Honda Insight 2010 Mercedes S400h BlueHybrid 2010 Toyota Prius Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles Conventional Vehicles Conventional Start-Stop Vehicles Alternative Fuel Vehicles Facilities Publications News About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory About Us For ES Employees Staff Directory

  12. Bus Rollover Testing and Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bus Rollover Testing And Simulation Computational Structural Mechanics Collaborator Research Highlights - Florida State University & Florida Department of Transportation Current research conducted at FAMU-FSU College of Engineering pertains to comprehensive crashworthiness and safety assessment of a paratransit bus on a Chevrolet 138" wheelbase. The design process of passenger compartment structure in paratransit buses is not regulated by any of crashworthiness standards. FAMU-FSU

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  14. Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association Charging Up with the Electric Drive Transportation Association May 20, 2014 - 4:51pm Addthis Test Drive 1 of 5 Test Drive Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar drives a Chevrolet Spark EV during the Electric Drive Transportation Association conference in Indianapolis, Indiana on May 20, 2014. The conference brings together industry leaders who are advancing electric vehicle technologies and

  15. parking permit application - front

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT SIGNATURE ST CAR NO 1, MAKE TAG NUMBER ST TAG NUMBER CAR NO 2, MAKE YEARS FEDERAL SERVICE POSITION TITLE MI FIRST NAME LAST NAME HOME ADDRESS (Street, City, State) EMPLOYER DOE ROUTE SYMBOL WORK PHONE EXT INSTRUCTIONS: Complete requested information in each applicable blank. For make of car: Use Ford, Chevrolet, Plymouth, Toyota, Volkswagen, etc., Not model name. Return original

  16. EcoCAR the Next Challenge | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EcoCAR 3 Pushes the Vehicle Efficiency Envelope On April 24, 2014, the Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office announced its continuing partnership with Argonne National Laboratory and General Motors as we rev up the EcoCAR 3 competition. EcoCAR 3 challenges students nationwide to design, build and optimize eco-friendly powertrains over the course of the next four years. Sixteen universities will rebuild their own Chevrolet Camaro with increased energy efficiency and lower

  17. Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test Drive 1 of 5 Test Drive Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Reuben Sarkar drives a Chevrolet Spark EV during the Electric Drive Transportation Association conference in Indianapolis, Indiana on May 20, 2014. The conference brings together industry leaders who are advancing electric vehicle technologies and expanding the nation's charging infrastructure. Image: Photo courtesy of Electric Drive Transportation Association Panel Discussion 2 of 5 Panel Discussion Loan Programs Office

  18. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived From EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.

  19. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived from EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, John

    2014-10-13

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine asmore » a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.« less

  20. Drive Cycle Powertrain Efficiencies and Trends Derived from EPA Vehicle Dynamometer Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John

    2014-10-13

    Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study explores quantifying recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent). A methodology is outlined to estimate powertrain efficiency for the U.S city and highway cycle tests using data from the EPA vehicle database. Comparisons of common conventional gasoline powertrains for similar MY 2005 and 2013 vehicles are presented, along with results for late-model hybrid electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and other selected vehicles.

  1. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Management of the Safety-Related

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor -October 2015 | Department of Energy Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor -October 2015 Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review, Management of the Safety-Related 480 Volt Diesel Bus Battery-Backed Power System of the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor -October 2015 October 2015

  2. Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Causal Analysis of the Inadvertent Contact with an Uncontrolled Electrical Hazardous Energy Source (120 Volts AC) On September 25, 2013, a Health Physics Technician (HPT) was performing preparations to support a pneumatic transfer from the HFEF Decon Cell to the

  3. San Francisco, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Analytics Renewable Energy Action Project SCC Americas San Francisco Biodiesel San Francisco Community Power Scaled Solar SeaVolt Technologies formerly Sea Power Associates...

  4. Enforcement Letter, Webcor Builders - February 12, 2015 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Letter (WEL-2015-01) to Webcor Builders relating to a 277-volt electrical shock received by a subcontractor apprentice electrician at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ...

  5. Department of Energy Cites the University of California and Pacific...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The violations are associated with a 277-volt electrical shock received by a PDE apprentice electrician at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on November 19, 2013. The PNOV ...

  6. Preliminary Notice of Violation, University of California - February...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    program requirements (10 C.F.R. 851) relating to a 277-volt electrical shock received by a UC subcontractor's apprentice electrician at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ...

  7. Current Affiliates | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NECCES) - EFRC Northern Illinois University Paraclete Energy Pellion Technologies Pennsylvania State University PlugVolt PolyPlus Battery Company Proton OnSite Renewance Inc. ...

  8. 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Hybrid Vehicle Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (FMVSS) and compliance testing, and development of the Volt's smartphone application. ... A smartphone was used for the driver to receive information, but no safety countermeasure ...

  9. THIRD SUPPLEMENT TO LOAN GUARANTEE SOLICITATION ANNOUNCEMENT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... structured to mitigate against the risk of unrated credit, as the case may be, of the site owners. ... and service restoration (FLISR), voltVAR optimization (VVO), conservation ...

  10. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (1000 volts) LAB Analytical Laboratory LAW Low-Activity Waste MCC Motor Control Center ... on elevation 48 in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Facility and examined electrical ...

  11. System Reconfiguration Analysis Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-19

    SYSRAP is a distribution automation applications software package for assessing system reconfiguration opportunities and volt/var control on radial electric distribution feeders.

  12. BPA-2013-00197-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Support Specialist Rian Neuber, Aerotek, Program Support Specialist Timothy Lehman, Volt Workforce Solutions, Program Support Specialist Pursuant to 10 CFR 1004.8, if...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Presentation given by Cree at 2015 DOE Hydrogen ...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - IEEE IAS PES 102313.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... - Voltage and frequency control - VoltVAR balance - Automated load balancing Demand response & consumer behavior Outage management Remote services (e.g., reading, connection) ...

  15. Opportunities for Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer ...

  16. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CITES THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AND PACIFIC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The violations are associated with a 277-volt electrical shock received by a PDE apprentice electrician at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on November 19, 2013. The PNOV ...

  17. The Ohio State University Wins Year One of North American EcoCAR 3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition - Defending Their EcoCAR 2 Title | Department of Energy The Ohio State University Wins Year One of North American EcoCAR 3 Competition - Defending Their EcoCAR 2 Title The Ohio State University Wins Year One of North American EcoCAR 3 Competition - Defending Their EcoCAR 2 Title June 5, 2015 - 9:55am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov 16 Teams Receive Keys to 2016 Chevrolet Camaro SEATTLE - The U.S. Department of Energy and General Motors Co. (NYSE:GM)

  18. EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals Power Up University Teams | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals Power Up University Teams EcoCAR 3: Year 1 Finals Power Up University Teams June 4, 2015 - 12:30pm Addthis 1 of 11 As part of the EcoCAR 3 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition, university teams from throughout North America will redesign a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact while maintaining its "muscle car" performance. Image: Courtesy of EcoCAR 3 2 of 11 As part of EcoCAR 3, university teams will receive a set of keys to a brand new

  19. Technology demonstration of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.A.; Yost, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A technology demonstration program of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles was conducted at FL Bliss, Texas to demonstrate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel. The demonstration program at FL Bliss was the first Army initiative with CNG-fueled vehicles under the legislated Alternative Motor Fuels Act. This Department of Energy (DOE)-supported fleet demonstration consisted of 48 General Services Administration (GSA)-owned, Army-leased 1992 dedicated CNG General Motors (GM) 3/4-ton pickup trucks and four 1993 gasoline-powered Chevrolet 3/4-ton pickup trucks.

  20. EcoCAR 2 Year 1 Winners Announced! | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Year 1 Winners Announced! EcoCAR 2 Year 1 Winners Announced! May 25, 2012 - 1:21pm Addthis EcoCAR 2: Pluggin in to the Future challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by minimizing the vehicles' fuel consumption and reducing its emissions while retaining the vehicle's performance, safety, and consumer appeal. | Photo by Myles Regan. EcoCAR 2: Pluggin in to the Future challenges 15 universities across North America to reduce the

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will develop a coordinated real-time sub-transmission volt-var control tool (CReST-VCT) to optimize the use of reactive power control devices for stabilizing voltage fluctuations caused by intermittent photovoltaic (PV) outputs. In order to capture the full value of the volt-var optimization, the project team will couple this tool with an optimal future sub-transmission volt-var planning tool (OFuST-VPT) for short- and long-term planning analyses. Together, these real-time control and planning tools will remove a major roadblock in the increased penetrations of utility scale and residential PV.

  2. MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE The working group ... use a 12 volt start-stop system and provide no motive ... for the largest size class and 4 3.5 percent for the ...

  3. CX-000474: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Operation and Maintenance of 3-Mega Electron-Volt Van De Graaf AcceleratorCX(s) Applied: B3.10Date: 12/16/2009Location(s): IllinoisOffice(s): Science, Argonne Site Office

  4. Harbec: A Fifteen Year Journey to the Beginning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or efficiency: 1 Chevy Volt electric plug-in hybrid 2 Toyota Prius Hybrid ElectricGas cars 1 Biodiesel delivery Sprinter window van 1 Bio-diesel fueled ...

  5. LANSCE | About | History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History The History of LANSCE Since 1972, the 800-million-electron-volt (MeV) accelerator and its attendant facilities at Technical Area 53 (TA-53, often referred to as "the Mesa")...

  6. Sandia Sled Track PNOV Press Release

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a 3,570-volt direct current electronic detonator in a trainer device that resulted in a first- degree burn on a finger and second-degree burns on a thumb, finger and abdomen. ...

  7. Preliminary Notice of Violation, Pacific Data Electric, Inc....

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and health program requirements (10 C.F.R. 851) relating to a 277-volt electrical shock received by a PDE apprentice electrician at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. ...

  8. BPA-2012-00718-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the aforesaid documentation at , jsimpson(volt.com or (714) 921-5416. Regards, Janella Simpson Associate General Counsel FOIA for BPA FOIA Control number HQ-2012-0 51 Page 1 of 1...

  9. Errata Sheet for Nevada National Security Site Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... These tests were performed with a 14-million electron volt neutron generator mounted on a ... around the NNSS. The goal is to capture and collar four pumas and track them for a year. ...

  10. EIS-0365: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    230,000-volt (230-kV) electric transmission lines across the U.S. border with Mexico. In addition, right-of-way grants were issued to each company by the Department of...

  11. Local scrape-off layer control using biased electrodes in NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volts, and the radial profile of the plasma between them was measured by an array of Langmuir probes. The biasing caused large changes in the local SOL profiles at least...

  12. EIS-0414: Record of Decision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    construct, operate, maintain, and connect a double-circuit, 230,000-volt (230-kV) electric transmission line across the U.S.-Mexico border in eastern San Diego County, California. ...

  13. Microsoft Word - Table_1_2_PC_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 1-2. Photon energies, in electron volts, of principal K-, L-, and M-shell emission lines. Element K 1 K 2 K 1 L 1 L ...

  14. First observations of proton induced power MOSFET burnout in space: The CRUX experiment on APEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adolphsen, J.W.; Barth, J.L.

    1996-12-01

    Ground testing has shown that power MOSFETs are susceptible to burnout when irradiated with heavy ions and protons. Satellite data from the Cosmic Ray Upset Experiment (CRUX) demonstrate that single event burnouts (SEBs) on 100-volt and 200-volt power MOSFETs can and do occur in space. Few SEBs occurred on the 100-volt devices, all at L{sup 1} > 3. The 200-volt devices experience many SEBs at L < 3 when drain-to-source voltage (V{sub D-S}) was greater than 85% of maximum rated voltage. CRUX flight lot devices were ground tested with protons. The SEB rates calculated with the cross-sections from the ground tests show close agreement with the measured rates.

  15. CX-013399: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 12 Volt Start-Stop Lithium Polymer Battery Pack CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 02/18/2015 Location(s): MichiganOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. PPPL Scientists Bring Mysterious Process Down to Earth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PPPL) sends 10,000 volts of electricity into a chamber filled with hydrogen gas. ... Researchers at PPPL have brought this basic process down to earth in miniature where it ...

  17. CX-001897: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    VoltStar Energy Efficiency ProjectCX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1Date: 04/21/2010Location(s): Schaumburg, IllinoisOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  18. Device - MST - UW Plasma Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    support from: Department of Energy National Science Foundation Anatomy of an MST shot The five capacitor banks behind the wall are charged from 2000 to 5000 Volts by the main power...

  19. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-30

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  20. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    examine proton radiography of brain mockup March 25, 2013 Los Alamos researchers and German collaborators have investigated the application of giga-electron volt (GeV, or billion electron volts) energy proton beams for medical imaging in combination with proton radiation treatment for cancer. The use of such a high-energy proton beam is ideal for imaging small tumors within patients for targeted proton therapy. Proton radiography, which was invented at Los Alamos, employs a high- energy proton

  1. Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2014-11-01

    The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

  2. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 20 3.50 3.55 3.60 3.65 4.3V 4.4V 4.5V 4.6V 4.7V Average Voltage, V Cycle Cut-off volt corrected LiHE5050 cell 1.2M LiPF6 ECEMC (37) 4.7V formation Less Volt fade Capacity ...

  3. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  4. Impacts of Multileaf Collimators Leaf Width on Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Analysis of Two Commercial Elekta Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Shichao; Gong Youling; Xu Qingfeng; Bai Sen; Lu You; Jiang Qingfeng; Chen Nianyong

    2011-07-01

    We compared the impacts of multileaf collimator (MLC) widths (standard MLC width of 10 mm [SMLC] and micro-MLC width of 4 mm [MMLC]) on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with NPC were recruited in this study. In each patient's case, plans were generated with the same machine setup parameter and optimizing methods in a treatment planning system according to 2 commercial Elekta MLC devices. All of the parameters were collected from dose-volume histograms of paired plans and evaluated. The average conformity index (CI) and homogeneous index (HI) for the planning gross target volume in IMRT plans with MMLC were 0.790 {+-} 0.036 and 1.062 {+-} 0.011, respectively. Data in plans with SMLC were 0.754 {+-} 0.038 and 1.070 {+-} 0.010, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Compared with CI and HI for planning target volume in paired plans, data with MMLC obviously were better than those with SMLC (CI: 0.858 {+-} 0.026 vs. 0.850 {+-} 0.021, p < 0.05; and HI: 1.185 {+-} 0.011 vs. 1.195 {+-} 0.011, p < 0.05). However, there was no statistical significance between evaluated parameters (Dmean, Dmax, D{sub 5}, gEUD, or NTCP) for organs at risk (OARs) in the 2 paired IMRT plans. According to these two kinds of Elekta MLC devices, IMRT plans with the MMLC have significant advantages in dose coverage for the targets, with more efficiency in treatment for NPC but fail to improve dose sparing of the OARs.

  5. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying decisions. This guide includes city and highway fuel economy estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The estimates are based on laboratory tests conducted by manufacturers in accordance with federal regulations. EPA retests about 10% of vehicle models to confirm manufacturer results. Fuel economy estimates are also available on FuelEconomy.gov. For some newer vehicle models, EPA data was not available at the time of this guide's publication; in these cases, manufacturer estimates are provided, if available.

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Experimental validation of the metabolic circuitry expected in mature leaf (characterized by photosynthesis and carbon fixation) compared to young leaf (characterized by rapid ...

  7. Evaluation of aftermarket LPG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, E.A.

    1993-06-01

    SwRI was contracted by NREL to evaluate three LPG conversion kits on a Chevrolet Lumina. The objective of the project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of these kits, and compare their performance to gasoline-fueled operation and to each other. Varying LPG fuel blends allowed a preliminary look at the potential for fuel system disturbance. The project required kit installation and adjustment according to manufacturer`s instructions. A limited amount of trouble diagnosis was also performed on the fuel systems. A simultaneous contract from the Texas Railroad Commission, in cooperation with NREL, provided funds for additional testing with market fuels (HD5 propane and industry average gasoline) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions speciation to determine the ozone-forming potential of LPG HC emissions. This report documents the procurement, installation, and testing of these LPG conversion kits.

  8. Hinge assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergriff, David Houston (Powell, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  9. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); James, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Pai, Robert Y. (Concord, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  10. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power of the Tevatron Question: How powerful is Fermilab's accelerator in volts, amperes and watts? Aaron Nelson Answer: Dear Aaron, Fermilab's most powerful accelerator, the Tevatron, accelerates protons to an energy of 1,000 gigaelectronvolts(1,000 GeV), or 1,000 billion electronvolts. This energy corresponds to each proton traversing a voltage of 1,000 billion volts. In practical terms, the protons achieve this energy by traveling in a circle and passing an electric field 47,000 times per

  11. From the Lab to the Showroom: How the Electric Car Came to Life |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy From the Lab to the Showroom: How the Electric Car Came to Life From the Lab to the Showroom: How the Electric Car Came to Life October 17, 2011 - 11:02am Addthis An illustration of the 2011 Chevy Volt, whose lithium-ion battery is based on technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory. | Image courtesy of General Motors. An illustration of the 2011 Chevy Volt, whose lithium-ion battery is based on technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory. | Image

  12. Frontiers in Advanced Storage Technologies (FAST) project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy From the Lab to the Showroom: How the Electric Car Came to Life From the Lab to the Showroom: How the Electric Car Came to Life October 17, 2011 - 11:02am Addthis An illustration of the 2011 Chevy Volt, whose lithium-ion battery is based on technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory. | Image courtesy of General Motors. An illustration of the 2011 Chevy Volt, whose lithium-ion battery is based on technology developed at Argonne National Laboratory. | Image

  13. Doubly Fed Induction Generator in an Offshore Wind Power Plant Operated at Rated V/Hz: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of constant Volt/Hz operation of offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore WPPs requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cables, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current transmission, which is economical for transmission distances longer than 50 kilometers. In the concept presented here, the onshore substation is operated at 60 Hz synced with the grid, and the offshore substation is operated at variable frequency and voltage, thus allowing the WPP to be operated at constant Volt/Hz.

  14. Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Model Year 2006: Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles Fuel Type EPAct Compliant? Model Vehicle Type Emission Class Powertrain Fuel Capacity Range American Honda Motor Corporation 888-CCHONDA www.honda.com CNG Dedicated EPAct Yes Civic GX Compact Sedan SULEV Tier 2 Bin II 1.7L, 4-cylinder 8 GGE 200 mi HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Accord Hybrid Sedan ULEV 3.0L V6 144 volt NiMH + 17.1 Gal Gasoline TBD HEV (NiMH) EPAct No Civic Hybrid Sedan CA ULEV 1.3L, 4-cylinder 144 volt NiMH + 13.2 Gal

  15. Detonating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

  16. LANL: AOT & LANSCE The Pulse November 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oF new Phys- ics in leAD-zirconium- titAnium voltAge bArs 5 los AlAmos lenDs its ... Discovery of new physics in lead-zirconium-titanium voltage bars A team of Los Alamos ...

  17. CX-003072: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ReVolt Technology LLC - Zinc Flow Air Battery Metal-Air Battery System for Electric VehiclesCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/02/2010Location(s): OregonOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  18. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  19. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  20. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  1. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  2. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSteese, John G [Kennewick, WA; Olsen, Larry C [Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA

    2010-12-14

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  3. EA-2010: Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Complex Improvements at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Upton, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is proposing to upgrade the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Complex to ensure long-term operational efficiencies of the complex and to increase the energy level of the Accelerator Test Facility Upgrade up to 10 Giga-electron-volt while expanding its use as a user facility.

  4. 405th Brookhaven Lecture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Vadim Ptitsyn

    2010-09-01

    "E-RHIC - Future Electron-Ion Collider at BNL. While RHIC scientists continue their quest to look deep into nuclear phenomena resulting from collisions of ion beams and beams of polarized protons, new design work is under way for a possible extension of RHIC to include e-RHIC, a 10-billion electron volt, high-intensity polarized proton beam.

  5. November 18 PSERC Webinar: Quantifying and Mitigating the Impacts of PV in Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting a simulation-based investigation of PV impacts on distribution systems and discussing a new approach for volt-VAR optimization with reactive power capabilities of PV inverters.

  6. Fact #683: July 11, 2011 Federal Tax Credits for the Purchase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leaf 2011 Nissan Leaf 2011 Smart For Two 2011 Smart For Two 2008-2010 Tesla Roadster 2008-2010 Tesla Roadster 2011 Wheego 2011 Wheego LiFe Hybrids 2005 - 2010 3,400 Purchases ...

  7. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... A leaf moving in the wind, a pot of boiling water, and a school bus traveling to school ... A leaf moving in the wind, a pot of boiling water, and a school bus traveling to school ...

  8. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What is a MeV in grams? What is a MeV in grams? In the unlikely event that I fuse a couple of hydrogen nucleii what is the weight lost by the system? My reference says it's 3.2 MeV but that's not helpful. Hi, Let us start with eV (electron-volt). It is an energy unit used in High-energy physics. A MeV is the Mega electron-volt, e.g. million times more than eV. One eV is defined as the energy, that an electron ( or an other single-charged(q=1.6*10^-19 Coulombs) particle) gains when it undergoes a

  9. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  10. Silicon field-effect transistors as radiation detectors for the Sub-THz range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    But, D. B. Golenkov, O. G.; Sakhno, N. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Korinets, S. V.; Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J. V.; Reva, V. P.; Bunchuk, S. G.

    2012-05-15

    The nonresonance response of silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (Si-MOSFETs) with a long channel (1-20 {mu}m) to radiation in the frequency range 43-135 GHz is studied. The transistors are fabricated by the standard CMOS technology with 1-{mu}m design rules. The volt-watt sensitivity and the noise equivalent power (NEP) for such detectors are estimated with the calculated effective area of the detecting element taken into account. It is shown that such transistors can operate at room temperature as broadband direct detectors of sub-THz radiation. In the 4-5 mm range of wavelengths, the volt-watt sensitivity can be as high as tens of kV/W and the NEP can amount to 10{sup -11} - 10{sup -12}W/{radical}Hz . The parameters of detectors under study can be improved by the optimization of planar antennas.

  11. Thermally conductive alumina/organic composites for photovoltaic concentrator cell isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.; Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited styrene-acrylate films were studied. These yield marginally useful thermal conductivities of 0.1--0.2 watts/meter-Kelvin, but have useful dielectric strengths over 2500 volts for 40 micrometer thick coatings. Thin, 25 micrometer, coatings of anodically grown Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films were also investigated. These films have thermal conductivities of approximately 6--8 watts/meter-Kelvin. Although these Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films have greater thermal conductivity than the polymer films, they exhibit porosity which typically limits their dielectric strength to less than 1000 volts. In the current study we have determined that styrene-acrylate can be electrophoretically deposited in porous anodic aluminum oxide films to form an alumina-organic composite with improved electrical breakdown strengths as well as higher thermal conductivity than styrene-acrylate films. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Generation of electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. R. Zirker; J. E. Francfort; J. J. Fielding

    2006-03-01

    This Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation final report documents the feasibility of using oil bypass filters on 17 vehicles in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) fleet during a 3-year test period. Almost 1.3 million test miles were accumulated, with eleven 4-cycle diesel engine buses accumulating 982,548 test miles and six gasoline-engine Chevrolet Tahoes accumulating 303,172 test miles. Two hundred and forty oil samples, taken at each 12,000-mile bus servicing event and at 3,000 miles for the Tahoes, documented the condition of the engine oils for continued service. Twenty-eight variables were normally tested, including the presence of desired additives and undesired wear metals such as iron and chrome, as well as soot, water, glycol, and fuel. Depending on the assumptions employed, the INL found that oil bypass filter systems for diesel engine buses have a positive payback between 72,000 and 144,000 miles. For the Tahoes, the positive payback was between 66,000 and 69,000 miles.

  14. Long-term methanol vehicle test program. Final subcontract report, 1 November 1992--1 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.C.; Maxwell, T.T.

    1995-09-01

    Work was sperformed to determine effects of methanol fuel on engine performance and exhaust emissions during long-term use in a 1988 Chevrolet Corsica. Engine wear, gasket performance, fuel economy, emissions level, oil consumption, and overall vehicle performance were monitored over 22,000 miles. Baselines were established at the beginning for comparison: engine was disassembled, bearing/ring clearances and cam profiles were measured. Higher flow rate fuel injectors from AC Rochester were installed and the computer system calibrated for M100 fuel. The vehicle durability test increased oil consumption by 26% under cold-start conditions, 9% under hot start. Oil consumption under hot start was higher than under cold start by as much as 56%; effect of component temperatures on oil viscosity appears to be the cause. It is recommended that oil consumption of a gasoline-fueled vehicle be measured in order to normalize the effect of methanol operation on oil consumption, and to study the effect of steady-state and transient conditions on oil consumption.

  15. Evaluation of aftermarket CNG conversion kits in light-duty vehicle applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Rowley, P.F.; Grimes, J.W.

    1995-07-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) was contracted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate three compressed natural gas (CNG) conversion systems using a 1993 Chevrolet Lumina baseline vehicle. A fourth conversion system was added to the test matrix through funding support from Brooklyn Union. The objective of this project was to measure the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions and fuel economy of the different conversion systems, and to compare the performance to gasoline-fueled operation and each other. Different natural gas compositions were selected to represent the 10th percentile, mean, and 90th percentile compositions distributed in the Continental United States. Testing with these different compositions demonstrated the systems` ability to accommodate the spectrum of gas found in the United States. Each compressed natural gas conversion system was installed and adjusted according to the manufacturer`s instructions. In addition to the FTP testing, an evaluation of the comparative installation times and derivability tests (based on AGA and CRC guidelines) were conducted on each system.

  16. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  17. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 2 Report Comparison of Performance and Emissions from Near-Term Hydrogen Fueled Light Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ng, Henry K.; Waller, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    An investigation was conducted on the emissions and efficiency from hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (CNG) in light duty vehicles. The different blends used in this investigation were 0%, 15%, 30%, 50%, 80%, 95%, and ~100% hydrogen, the remainder being compressed natural gas. The blends were tested using a Ford F-150 and a Chevrolet Silverado truck supplied by Arizona Public Services. Tests on emissions were performed using four different driving condition tests. Previous investigation by Don Karner and James Frankfort on a similar Ford F-150 using a 30% hydrogen blend showed that there was substantial reduction when compared to gasoline in carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions while the reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emissions was minimal. This investigation was performed using different blends of CNG and hydrogen to evaluate the emissions reducing capabilities associated with the use of the different fuel blends. The results were then tested statistically to confirm or reject the hypotheses on the emission reduction capabilities. Statistically analysis was performed on the test results to determine whether hydrogen concentration in the HCNG had any effect on the emissions and the fuel efficiency. It was found that emissions from hydrogen blended compressed natural gas were a function of driving condition employed. Emissions were found to be dependent on the concentration of hydrogen in the compressed natural gas fuel blend.

  18. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEVs fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  19. Electric vehicle test report, Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The work described was part of the effort to characterize vehicles for the state-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The vehicle was based on a standard production 1967 chassis and body. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The remainder of the vehicle, and in particular the remainder of the drive-train (clutch, driveshaft, and differential), was stock, except for the transmission. The overall objective of the tests was to develop performance data at the system and subsystem level. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. There was no evaluation of other aspects of the vehicle such as braking, ride, handling, passenger accomodations, etc. Included are a description of the vehicle, the tests performed and a discussion of the results. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant-speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed. (LCL)

  20. Federal Laboratory Multiplies Its Research Capacity | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Laboratory Multiplies Its Research Capacity Federal Laboratory Multiplies Its Research Capacity September 21, 2000 Thanks to high-tech development work and some creative tuning and tweaking, the $650 million Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., can now accelerate beams of electrons to 6 billion electron volts - more energy by half than taxpayers originally paid for. With higher-energy electron beams, researchers using this U.S. Department of Energy

  1. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-08-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  2. ELECTROLYTIC CLADDING OF ZIRCONIUM ON URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wick, J.J.

    1959-09-22

    A method is presented for coating uranium with zircoalum by rendering the uranium surface smooth and oxidefree, immersing it in a molten electrolytic bath in NaCI, K/sub 2/ZrF/sub 6/, KF, and ZrO/sub 2/, and before the article reaches temperature equilibrium with the bath, applying an electrolyzing current of 60 amperes per square dectmeter at approximately 3 volts to form a layer of zirconium metal on the uranium.

  3. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leemans, Wim [LOASIS Program, AFRD

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Raytheon Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon Joined the Challenge: February 2013 Headquarters: Waltham, MA Charging Locations: El Segundo, CA; Dulles, VA; Tewksbury, MA; Aurora, CO; McKinney, TX; Woburn, MA; Largo, FL Domestic Employees: 60,000 Raytheon has installed fifteen dual 220-volt plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations spread across six operating locations in California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Texas and Virginia.

  5. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PET Power Distribution System | Department of Energy High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Lead Performer: VoltServer Inc. - East Greenwich, RI DOE Total Funding: $999,122 Project Term: July 28, 2015 - July 27, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project will demonstrate a novel

  6. A Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis of corrosion products associated with sulfate reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadowski, R.A.; Chen, G.; Clayton, C.R.; Kearns, J.R.; Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    A Scanning Auger Microprobe analysis was performed on the corrosion products of an austenitic AISI type 304 SS after a potentiostatic polarization of one volt for ten minutes in a modified Postgate`s C media containing sulfate reducing bacteria. The corrosion products were characterized and mapped in local regions where pitting was observed. A critical evaluation of the applicability of this technique for the examination of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is presented.

  7. Slide 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GREENBERG TRAURIG, LLP  ATTORNEYS AT LAW  WWW.GTLAW.COM ©2011. All rights reserved. Transmission Policy and Regulation Primer: Overview of Jurisdictional Authorities & Current Policy Trends Tribal Jurisdiction & Policy Trends Jennifer H. Weddle, Greenberg Traurig LLP, Denver, Colorado February 7, 2012 - 2 - Definition: Transmission  A transmission line is generally defined as a high voltage electric line operating at or above 22,000 volts used for moving electric energy in bulk

  8. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Feng Wang

    2010-01-08

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  9. Thermophotovoltaic conversion using selective infrared line emitters and large band gap photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandhorst, Jr., Henry W.; Chen, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Efficient thermophotovoltaic conversion can be performed using photovoltaic devices with a band gap in the 0.75-1.4 electron volt range, and selective infrared emitters chosen from among the rare earth oxides which are thermally stimulated to emit infrared radiation whose energy very largely corresponds to the aforementioned band gap. It is possible to use thermovoltaic devices operating at relatively high temperatures, up to about 300.degree. C., without seriously impairing the efficiency of energy conversion.

  10. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  11. Accelerating Into the Future: From 0 to GeV in a Few Centimeters (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leemans, Wim [LOASIS Program, AFRD

    2009-09-01

    July 8, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: By exciting electric fields in plasma-based waveguides, lasers accelerate electrons in a fraction of the distance conventional accelerators require. The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division's LOASIS program, headed by Wim Leemans, has used 40-trillion-watt laser pulses to deliver billion-electron-volt (1 GeV) electron beams within centimeters. Leemans looks ahead to BELLA, 10-GeV accelerating modules that could power a future linear collider.

  12. Preliminary Notice of Violation (WEA-2015-01) University of California

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2, 2015 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Dr. Kimberly Budil Vice President for Laboratory Management University of California Office of the President 1111 Franklin Street Oakland, California 94607 WEA-2015-01 Dear Dr. Budil: This letter refers to the Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement investigation into the facts and circumstances associated with a 277-volt electrical shock received by a University of California (UC) subcontractor's apprentice electrician at the

  13. Preliminary Notice of Violation (WEA-2015-02) Pacific Data Electric, Inc.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2, 2015 CERTIFIED MAIL RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Ms. Shelley Keltner Chief Executive Officer Pacific Data Electric, Inc. 9970 Bell Ranch Drive #109 Santa Fe Springs, California 90670 WEA-2015-02 Dear Ms. Keltner: This letter refers to the Office of Enterprise Assessments' Office of Enforcement investigation into the facts and circumstances associated with a 277-volt electrical shock received by a Pacific Data Electric (PDE) apprentice electrician at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  14. NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells November 12, 2003 Golden, Colo. - An Austin, Tex.-based company is moving toward commercial production of advanced solar cells by using unique facilities and capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). HelioVolt Corp. is attempting to prove the viability of patented technology it has developed for making thin-film Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) solar

  15. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Vehicle-to-Grid Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle-to-Grid Project NREL engineers test and analyze electrical vehicle charging and discharging to the electric grid, known as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). Testing is conducted at NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility, where researchers connect, instrument, and test V2G platforms. NREL provides calibrated, high-resolution data acquisition, grid simulation, and 240 volt alternating current residential transformer connect-ability for real world analysis. NREL is currently working with

  16. EIS-0336: Presidential Permit Application, Tucson Electric Power Company, Sahuarita, AZ

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to approve a Presidential Permit application to construct a double-circuit 345,000 volt (345-kV) electric transmission line to transmit 500 MW of electricity. The transmission line would begin south of Tucson, Arizona, in the vicinity of Sahuarita, cross the U.S.-Mexico border near Nogales, Arizona, and continue into Mexico. The proponent anticipates using 400 MW of capability for transport of energy between the United States and Mexico.

  17. Fermilab | Tevatron | Tevatron Operation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tevatron Operation Fermilab's Accelerator Complex Fermilab's Accelerator Complex has 10 accelerators. The Tevatron, which shuts down on Sept. 30, is one of those accelerators. The Cockcroft Walton accelerates negative hydrogen ions to 740 kilo electron volts (KeV). The negative ions are then accelerated down the LINAC to 400 MeV. The particles enter the booster where the electrons are stripped off, leaving the protons. In the Booster, the protons are then accelerated to 8 GeV. Once the protons

  18. How Bilayer Graphene Got a Bandgap

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng

    2013-05-29

    Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. But theres a catch: graphene has no bandgap. Now Feng Wang and his colleagues at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley have engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene that can be precisely controlled from 0 to 250 milli-electron volts, which is the energy of infrared radiation.

  19. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  20. Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon; Otagawa, Takaaki; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1986-01-01

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  1. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, David A.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Olson, John E.

    1997-01-01

    A current measuring system comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device.

  2. Current measuring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahl, D.A.; Appelhans, A.D.; Olson, J.E.

    1997-09-09

    A current measuring system is disclosed comprising a current measuring device having a first electrode at ground potential, and a second electrode; a current source having an offset potential of at least three hundred volts, the current source having an output electrode; and a capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the output electrode of the current source and having a second electrode electrically connected to the second electrode of the current measuring device. 4 figs.

  3. Locking mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Gary L.; Goin, Jr., Jesse L.; Kirby, Patrick G.; McKenna, John P.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a motorized linkage for operating a door strike. A six volt power source, controlled by a security code, rotates a small electric motor when a proper security code is given. The motor rotates a shaft which engages a coil spring. This moves a locking cam. When a catch on the locking cam separates from the locking lever catch, the latch bolt keeper may be manipulated by a user.

  4. EIS-0301: NRG Energy Services, Inc., Arizona-Baja California 500 kV Transmission Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to approve NRG Energy, Inc. (NRG) for a Presidential permit to construct a 500,000-volt transmission line originating at the switchyard of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station near Phoenix, Arizona, and extending approximately 177 miles to the southwest, where it would cross the United States (U.S.) border with Mexico in the vicinity of Calexico, California.

  5. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almon, Amy C.

    1997-01-01

    Method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  6. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  7. Enforcement Letter - ELBN022603

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    12, 2015 Mr. Richard A. Lamb Executive Vice President/Chief Operating Officer Webcor Builders 207 King Street, Suite 300 7000 East Avenue San Francisco, California 94107 WEL-2015-01 Dear Mr. Lamb: This letter refers to the Office of Enterprise Assessment's Office of Enforcement investigation into the facts and circumstances associated with a 277-volt electrical shock suffered by an apprentice electrician at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) General Purpose Laboratory (GPL),

  8. America's Home Energy Education Challenge | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs How can I participate? Registration is open now for school principals and teachers until September 30, 2011. From September through December, energy data will be measured, and the awards will be announced in January 2012. Let's be honest. Many of us probably had trouble paying attention one or two times in middle school science class. While the occasional frog dissection and "potato-volt" experiments were cool,

  9. ARM Instrumentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    999 Lightning Safety and ARM Instrumentation Last month we discussed the way lightning forms and then strikes. This month we will look at ways to protect ourselves and our property from the damaging threat of a lightning strike, as well as what ARM does to protect its array of scientific instrumentation and buildings. About Lightning Lightning packs a punch equal to 100 million volts of electricity, a force powerful enough to tear through roofs and explode walls and chimneys. A lightning strike

  10. Configurations The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Testing Configurations The PSEL's infrastructure addresses critical issues of PV reliability and power availability. The lab offers four different load configuration capabilities, combining various levels of system amps, volts, and watts, and both indoor and outdoor testing and calibration facilities where laboratory-controlled experiments can be conducted with a wide variety of realistic PV systems scenarios. Expertise, Knowledge, and Partnerships PSEL's systems-level approach provides

  11. THERMAL RELAY DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murdoch, R.O.; Record, F.A.

    1963-01-29

    This invention relates to a fast-acting spring-loaded electrical switch which can break a 1500-volt circuit in one millisecond without arcing. In particular, a springloaded shorting bar is held in tension by a fusible wire. Passage of an electrical current pulse through the fusible wire breaks the fuse thereby releasing the shorting bar to open one and close another electrical circuit. (AEC)

  12. Design Parameters of a Miniaturized Piezoelectric Underwater Acoustic Transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Yuan, Yong; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-02

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) project supported by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, has yielded the smallest acoustic fish tag transmitter commercially available to date. In order to study even smaller fish populations and make the transmitter injectable by needles, the JSATS acoustic micro transmitter needs to be further downsized. As part of the transmitter downsizing effort some of the design parameters of the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic tube transducer in the transmitter were studied, including the type of PZT, the backing material, the necessary drive voltage, the transmitting bandwidth and the length of the transducer. It was found that, to satisfy the 156-dB source level requirement of JSATS, a square wave with a 10-volt amplitude is required to drive 'soft' PZT transducers. PZT-5H demonstrated the best source level performance. For Navy types I and II, 16 volts or 18 volts were needed. Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) closed-cell foam was found to be the backing material providing the highest source level. The effect of tube length on the source level is also demonstrated in this paper, providing quantitative information for downsizing of small piezoelectric transmitters.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- All-Electric Vehicle (Car) Performance Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Downloadable performance and testing data on the all-electric versions of the following vehicles is available: 2014 Smart Electric Drive Coupe, 2013 Ford Focus, 2013 Nissan Leaf, 2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV, 2012 Nissan Leaf, 2011 Nissan Leaf, 2010 USPS eLLV Conversions, and 2009 BMW Mini-E.

  14. The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii The Asia Pacific Clean Energy Summit in Honolulu, Hawaii October 6, 2010 - 6:18pm Addthis Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the all-electric Leaf in Hawaii in January 2011. Hawaii is offering incentives for the purchase of the vehicle and for home charging station development. Assistant Secretary Patricia Hoffman test drives the new Nissan Leaf. Nissan will introduce the

  15. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Plant Polygalacturonase that Degrades Pectin and Modulates Plant Cell Expansion Significance and Impact Polygalacturonases are known to function in cell separation (e.g., leaf ...

  16. International experience with REDD+ and national forest funds...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website ComplexityEase of Use: Simple Website: www.leafasia.orgleaf-news-notesnew-leaf-paper-international-experien Cost: Free Language: English International...

  17. Potential of Melastoma malabathricum as bio-accumulator for uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    > 1 for uranium in the leaf, stem and roots, indicating accumulation of uranium from soil. ... Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam (Malaysia) (Malaysia) ...

  18. South and South East REDD+ Atlas, Version 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Version 1 AgencyCompany Organization: USAID & LEAF Partner: Silvia Petrova, Sandra Brown, Michael Netzer, Brian Bean and Alexandre Grais Sector: Climate, Land User Interface:...

  19. Home - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphic of a tree sapling with a single leaf. Browse 979 Technology Marketing Summaries ... Solar applications (FARMS) Device and Software to Measure Thermal Impedance of ...

  20. Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.leafasia.orglibraryusaid-leaf-accuracy-assessment-forest-and-lan Cost: Free Language: English Accuracy Assessment for Forest and Land Use Maps (English version)...

  1. Bisfuel - Subtask 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with knowledge to construct better water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel production. ... Designing an artificial leaf that uses solar energy to convert water cheaply and ...

  2. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with knowledge to construct better water oxidation catalysts for solar fuel production. ... Designing an artificial leaf that uses solar energy to convert water cheaply and ...

  3. Ellis County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas Milford, Texas Oak Leaf, Texas Ovilla, Texas Palmer, Texas Pecan Hill, Texas Red Oak, Texas Venus, Texas Waxahachie, Texas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. EIS-0285-SA-117: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of graveled storage areas, perimeter roads and parking areas; 2) mechanical andor spot herbicide control of some broad leafs and noxious weeds; 3) mowing, fertilizing, and...

  5. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    archive for 2004-2006, Additionally, measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, successional trends other variables were...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an opportunity for customers to increase their energy efficiency through the ReLeaf Tree Reimbursement Program. NUPU will reimbur... Eligibility: Commercial, Industrial,...

  7. Workplace Charging Management Policies: Pricing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... RESOURCES Workplace Charging Management Webinar - Hear three employers discuss the ... Charging and Driving Behavior of Nissan Leaf Drivers in The EV Project with Access to ...

  8. CleanFleet. Final report: Volume 4, fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel economy estimates are provided for the CleanFleet vans operated for two years by FedEx in Southern California. Between one and three vehicle manufacturers (Chevrolet, Dodge, and Ford) supplied vans powered by compressed natural gas (CNG), propane gas, California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol (M-85), and unleaded gasoline as a control. Two electric G-Vans, manufactured by Conceptor Corporation, were supplied by Southern California Edison. Vehicle and engine technologies are representative of those available in early 1992. A total of 111 vans were assigned to FedEx delivery routes at five demonstration sites. The driver and route assignments were periodically rotated within each site to ensure that each vehicle would experience a range of driving conditions. Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between vehicle fuel economy and factors such as the number of miles driven and the number of delivery stops made each day. The energy adjusted fuel economy (distance per energy consumed) of the alternative fuel vans operating on a typical FedEx duty cycle was between 13 percent lower and 4 percent higher than that of control vans from the same manufacturer. The driving range of vans operating on liquid and gaseous alternative fuels was 1 percent to 59 percent lower than for vans operating on unleaded gasoline. The driving range of the electric G-Vans was less than 50 miles. These comparisons are affected to varying degrees by differences in engine technology used in the alterative fuel and control vehicles. Relative fuel economy results from dynamometer emissions tests were generally consistent with those obtained from FedEx operations.

  9. Highway vehicle MPG and market shares report: Model year 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, L.S. ); Hu, P.S. )

    1991-04-01

    This issue of Highway Vehicle MPG and Market Shares Report: Model Year 1990 reports the estimated sales-weighted fuel economies, sales, market shares, and other vehicle characteristics of new automobiles and light trucks. The estimates are made on a make and model basis (e.g., Chevrolet is a make and Corsica is a model), from model year 1976 to model year 1990. Vehicle sales data are used as weighting factors in the sales-weighted estimation procedure. Thus, the estimates represent averages of the overall new vehicle fleet, reflecting the composition of the fleet. Highlights are provided on the trends in the vehicle characteristics from one model year to the next. Analyses are also made on fuel economy changes to determine what caused the changes. The new automobile fleet experienced a fuel economy loss of 0.4 mpg from the previous model year, dropping to 27.6 mpg. This is the second consecutive decline in the fuel economy of new automobiles since model year 1983. The main reason for the fuel economy decline in automobiles was that the compact, midsize, and large size classes, which together claimed more than 75% of the new automobile market, each experienced fuel economy declines of 0.4 mpg or more. In contrast, the new light truck fleet showed an increase of 0.3 mpg from the previous year to a current mpg of 20.5. The fuel economy increase in light trucks was primarily due to the fact that the large pickup class, which represents 35.0% of the new 1990 light truck market experienced a gain of 0.7 mpg in its fuel economy. Overall, the sales-weighted fuel economy of the new light-duty vehicle fleet (automobiles and light trucks) dropped to 24.8 mpg in model year 1990, a reduction of 0.2 mpg from model year 1989. 9 refs., 29 figs., 55 tabs.

  10. Light-duty vehicle MPG (miles per gallon) and market shares report, Model year 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, L.S. ); Hu, P.S. )

    1990-04-01

    This issue of Light-Duty Vehicle MPG and Market Shares Report: Model Year 1989 reports the estimated sales-weighted fuel economies, sales, market shares, and other vehicle characteristics of automobiles and light trucks. The estimates are made on a make and model basis (e.g., Chevrolet is a make and Corsica is a model), from model year 1976 to model year 1989. Vehicle sales data are used as weighting factors in the sales-weighted estimation procedure. Thus, the estimates represent averages of the overall new vehicle fleet, reflecting the composition of the fleet. Highlights are provided on the trends in the vehicle characteristics from one model year to the next. Analyses are also made on fuel economy changes to determine what caused the changes. Both new automobile and new light truck fleets experienced fuel economy losses of 0.5 mpg from the previous model year, dropping to 28.0 mpg for automobiles and 20.2 mpg for light trucks. This is the first observed decline in fuel economy of new automobiles since model year 1983 and the largest decline since model year 1976. The main reason for the fuel economy decline in automobiles was that every automobile size class showed either losses or no change in their fuel economies. The fuel economy decline in light trucks was primarily due to the fact that two popular size classes, large pickup and small utility vehicle, both experienced losses in their fuel economies. Overall, the sales-weighted fuel economy of the entire light-duty vehicle fleet (automobiles and light trucks) dropped to 25.0 mpg, a reduction of 0.5 mpg from model year 1988. 9 refs., 32 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  12. Reactant gas composition for fuel cell potential control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Calvin L.; Davis, Christopher L.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell (10) system in which a nitrogen (N.sub.2) gas is used on the anode section (11) and a nitrogen/oxygen (N.sub.2 /O.sub.2) gaseous mix is used on the cathode section (12) to maintain the cathode at an acceptable voltage potential during adverse conditions occurring particularly during off-power conditions, for example, during power plant shutdown, start-up and hot holds. During power plant shutdown, the cathode section is purged with a gaseous mixture of, for example, one-half percent (0.5%) oxygen (O.sub.2) and ninety-nine and a half percent (99.5%) nitrogen (N.sub.2) supplied from an ejector (21) bleeding in air (24/28) into a high pressure stream (27) of nitrogen (N.sub.2) as the primary or majority gas. Thereafter the fuel gas in the fuel processor (31) and the anode section (11) is purged with nitrogen gas to prevent nickel (Ni) carbonyl from forming from the shift catalyst. A switched dummy electrical load (30) is used to bring the cathode potential down rapidly during the start of the purges. The 0.5%/99.5% O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 mixture maintains the cathode potential between 0.3 and 0.7 volts, and this is sufficient to maintain the cathode potential at 0.3 volts for the case of H.sub.2 diffusing to the cathode through a 2 mil thick electrolyte filled matrix and below 0.8 volts for no diffusion at open circuit conditions. The same high pressure gas source (20) is used via a "T" juncture ("T") to purge the anode section and its associated fuel processor (31).

  13. Four SBIR Grants Awarded for Solid-State Lighting Technology | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Four SBIR Grants Awarded for Solid-State Lighting Technology Four SBIR Grants Awarded for Solid-State Lighting Technology May 14, 2014 - 11:25am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science has awarded four Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants targeting advances in solid-state lighting (SSL) technology: VoltServer, Inc. - Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Innotec, Corp. - Integrating

  14. PPPL Scientists bring mysterious process down to earth | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab Bottling Magnetic Reconnection: PPPL Scientists bring mysterious process down to earth By John Greenwald September 30, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook With the click of a computer mouse, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) sends 10,000 volts of electricity into a chamber filled with hydrogen gas. The charge heats the gas to 100,000 degrees Centigrade. In an instant -- one-thousandth of a second, to be

  15. Audit Report: OAS-RA-L-11-13 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Audit Report: OAS-RA-L-11-13 September 30, 2011 The 12 GeV CEBAF Upgrade Project at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility In September 2008, the Department of Energy's (Department) Office of Science approved a construction project to double the electron beam energy of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) from 6 to 12 billion electron volts (GeV). We found that the 12 GeV Upgrade Project (Upgrade

  16. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  17. America's Home Energy Education Challenge | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    America's Home Energy Education Challenge America's Home Energy Education Challenge June 6, 2011 - 12:41pm Addthis Andy Oare Andy Oare Former New Media Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. Let's be honest. Many of us probably had trouble paying attention one or two times in middle school science class. While the occasional frog dissection and "potato-volt" experiments were cool, not all of us got up in the morning,

  18. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  19. Jefferson Lab Upgrade named near-term priority in Department of Energy's

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20-year facility plan | Jefferson Lab Upgrade named near-term priority in Department of Energy's 20-year facility plan Jefferson Lab Upgrade named near-term priority in Department of Energy's 20-year facility plan November 11, 2003 The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's 12 GeV (billion electron-volt) Upgrade was among the 12 projects identified as near-term priorities when Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham outlined the Department of Energy's 20-year facility plan on Nov. 10.

  20. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  1. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almon, A.C.

    1997-03-18

    Method and device are disclosed for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrolytic cell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria. 2 figs.

  2. NREL: Workforce Development and Education Programs - Kit and Component

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplier List Kit and Component Supplier List Learn about available kits and component suppliers for NREL's Car Competitions, a classroom-based, hands-on educational program for 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. Please contact suppliers for pricing. Junior Solar Sprint Suppliers Products Solar Made 2807 North Prospect Colorado Springs, CO 80907 Tel: 1-800-246-7012 Fax: 719-635-5398 Email: Sales@SolarMade.com Website: Solar Made JSS Kit Includes solar electric panel (3 Volts @ 3 watts),

  3. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  4. Very compact, high-stability electrostatic actuator featuring contact-free self-limiting displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator utilizes stationary and moveable electrodes, with the stationary electrodes being formed on a substrate and the moveable electrodes being supported above the substrate on a frame. The frame provides a rigid structure which allows the electrostatic actuator to be operated at high voltages (up to 190 Volts) to provide a relatively large actuation force compared to conventional electrostatic comb actuators which are much larger in size. For operation at its maximum displacement, the electrostatic actuator is relatively insensitive to the exact value of the applied voltage and provides a self-limiting displacement.

  5. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  6. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, Gary D.

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  7. METHOD OF ELECTROPOLISHING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1959-07-14

    A method of electropolishing the surface of uranium articles is presented. The process of this invention is carried out by immersing the uranium anticle into an electrolyte which contains from 35 to 65% by volume sulfuric acid, 1 to 20% by volume glycerine and 25 to 50% by volume of water. The article is made the anode in the cell and polished by electrolyzing at a voltage of from 10 to 15 volts. Discontinuing the electrolysis by intermittently withdrawing the anode from the electrolyte and removing any polarized film formed therein results in an especially bright surface.

  8. New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power New Accelerator Will Study Steps on the Path to Fusion Power Unusual Machine Tailor-made to Examine Heavy-ion Fusion May 10, 2012 The accelerator, looking "downstream." In the foreground is the grounded cage th The accelerator, looking "downstream." In the foreground is the grounded cage that encloses the 150,000-volt injector. See more photos at http://newscenter.lbl.gov/news-releases/2012/05/08/ndcx-accelerator/

  9. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  10. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerators Bringing particles to almost the speed of light Peeling off atoms? "Hi, I am 11...When I grow up I want to work at Fermilab. I was wondering if you could explain to me about how you let only one atom in the accelerator, if everything is made out of atoms?" The Power of the Tevatron " How powerful is Fermilab's accelerator in volts, amperes and watts? " The Impact of the Accelerator on the Environment " How many studies have been done to figure out what

  11. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  12. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  13. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W. ); Sims, R.E. )

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ring'' the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  14. A design for a high voltage magnet coil ringer test set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koska, W.; Sims, R.E.

    1992-04-01

    By discharging a bank of charged capacitors through a high power SCR switch into an SSC dipole magnet assembly, it is possible to ``ring`` the coil and develop a voltage stress of greater than 50 volts turn-to-turn, thereby verifying the insulation integrity. We will present an overview of the test set design for a 2 kV isolated SCR firing circuit, including safety features, selectable capacitor banks, and digital waveform storage system. Results from testing typical coils and magnets will be included. Possible upgrades are also discussed.

  15. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  16. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-05-13

    A micropower RF transponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life. 13 figs.

  17. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Mikesell, Harvey E.; Jha, Kamal N.

    1998-01-01

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  18. EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mersman, C.R.

    1993-09-01

    The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure thru a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

  19. Basic Research Needs for High Energy Density Laboratory Physics

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    On the cover: Invisible infrared light from the 200-trillion watt Trident Laser enters from the bottom to interact with a one-micrometer thick foil target in the center of the photo. The laser pulse produces a plasma - an ionized gas - many times hotter than the center of the sun, which lasts for a trillionth of a second. During this time some electrons from the foil are accelerated to virtually the speed of light, and some ions are accelerated to energies of tens of millions of volts. In this

  20. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  1. PHYSISCOPE

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Peut-on survivre à une décharge de 100000 volts? Le corps humain est-il conducteur? Qu'est-ce la charge électrique? L'air est-il conducteur? Quel est le meilleur conducteur connu? Autant de question que l'on se posera durant cette découverte de la physique et le l'électricité, par une approche originale, ludique et participative.  Venez glisser en lévitation sur une trottinette supraconductrice !

  2. Micropower RF transponder with superregenerative receiver and RF receiver with sampling mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A micropower RF transdponder employs a novel adaptation of the superregenerative receiver wherein the quench oscillator is external to the regenerative transistor. The quench oscillator applies an exponentially decaying waveform rather than the usual sinewave to achieve high sensitivity at microampere current levels. Further improvements include circuit simplifications for antenna coupling, extraction of the detected signal, and a low-voltage bias configuration that allows operation with less than a 1-volt rail voltage. The inventive transponder is expected to operate as long as the battery shelf life.

  3. G-1 Payload

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Payload List of instruments provided by the Research Aircraft Facility. Instrument Weight (lbs) Size (inches) (19" panel or other) Power Required (watts, amperes) Type of power (volts DC, AC) External Sensor/Probe Requirements Check to Select Permanent RAF Instruments GPS (TANS & DSM) Fuselage & Data Rack 28VDC 12VDC Fuselage top antennas Particle size (PCASP-300) 40 On Nose Boom 215 W 180 W 28 VDC 110 VAC Nose boom Temperature (Rosemount Pt) In Power Rack 3 W 28 VDC Fuselage

  4. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "œno-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  6. Hardware Architecture for Measurements for 50-V Battery Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Bald; Evan Juras; Jon P. Christophersen; William Morrison

    2012-06-01

    Energy storage devices, especially batteries, have become critical for several industries including automotive, electric utilities, military and consumer electronics. With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. Because many of the systems these batteries integrated into are critical, there is an increased need for an accurate in-situ method of monitoring battery state-of-health. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of a compact IMB system that will perform rapid accurate measurements of a battery impedance spectrum working with higher voltage batteries of up to 300 volts. This paper discusses the successful realization of a system that will work up to 50 volts.

  7. An Adaptable Multiple Power Source for Mass Spectrometry and other Scientific Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Anderson, Gordon A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Leach, Franklin E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-18

    Power supplies are commonly used in the operation of many types of scientific equipment, including mass spectrometers and ancillary instrumentation. A generic modern mass spectrometer comprises an ionization source, such as electrospray ionization (ESI), ion transfer devices such as ion funnels and multipole ion guides, and ion signal detection apparatus. Very often such platforms include, or are interfaced with ancillary elements in order to manipulate samples before or after ionization. In order to operate such scientific instruments, numerous direct current (DC) channels and radio frequency (RF) signals are required, along with other controls such as temperature regulation. In particular, DC voltages in the range of ±400 V, along with MHz range RF signals with peak-to-peak amplitudes in the hundreds of volts range are commonly used to transfer ionized samples under vacuum. Additionally, an ESI source requires a high voltage (HV) DC source capable of producing several thousand volts and heaters capable of generating temperatures up to 300°C. All of these signals must be properly synchronized and managed in order to carry out ion trapping, accumulation and detection.

  8. Laboratory measurement verification of laser hazard analysis for miles weapon simulators used in force on force exercises.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the change in the batteries used with the Small Arm Laser Transmitters (SALT) from 3-volts dc to 3.6-volts dc and changes to SNL MILES operating conditions, the associated laser hazards of these units required re-evaluation to ensure that the hazard classification of the laser emitters had not changed as well. The output laser emissions of the SNL MILES, weapon simulators and empire guns, used in Force-On-Force (FOF) training exercises, was measured in accordance to the ANSI Standard Z136.4-2005, ''Recommended Practice for Laser Safety Measurements for Hazard Evaluation''. The laser hazard class was evaluated in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, ''Safe Use of Lasers'', using ''worst'' case conditions associated with these MILES units. Laser safety assessment was conducted in accordance with the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2005, ''Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors''. The laser hazard evaluation of these MILES laser emitters was compared to and supersedes SAND Report SAND2002-0246, ''Laser Safety Evaluation of the MILES and Mini MILES Laser Emitting Components'', which used ''actual'' operating conditions of the laser emitters at the time of its issuance.

  9. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  10. Causal Analysis For Occurrence Report OR NA-SS-SNL-2000-2015-0005 Unexpected Type of Failure of Thermal Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forbes, Elizabeth H.

    2015-08-01

    On 6/26/2015 at approximately 1445 in 894/136, a pulse thermal battery (approximately the size of a commercial size C cell) experienced an unexpected failure following an electrical performance test that is routinely conducted on thermal batteries. A dedicated tester for this operation was used and it ran the test until the nominal 28-volt output of the battery had dropped to 5 volts, usually indicative of the battery being spent and safe enough to move. The failure occurred while a test operator was transferring the battery from the testing primary containment box to another primary containment box within the same room; initial indications are that the battery experienced an over-pressurization failure which led to the battery's base plate being expelled and the operator receiving a non-recordable injury (bruising to the palm of the hand) from the pressure of the expulsion. The operator was wearing the prescribed PPE (safety glasses and high temperature glove) and was handling the battery appropriately with an open, flat hand. Pictures of the scene are below.

  11. SIMULATIONS OF THE AGS MMPS STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARNERIS,I.; BADEA, V.S.; BONATI, R.; ROSER, T.; SANDBERG, J.

    2007-06-25

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The generator is 3 phase 7500 Volts rated at 50 MVA. The peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The motor generator is about 45 years old, made by Siemens and it is not clear if companies will be manufacturing similar machines in the future. We are therefore investigating different ways of storing energy for future AGS MMPS operations. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. Two dc to dc converters will be presented along with the control system of the power section. The switching elements will be IGCT's made by ABB. The simulation program used is called PSIM version 6.1. The average power from the local power authority into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  12. Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2011-03-28

    The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.

  13. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riveros, Carlos A.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  15. Adaptive Environmentally Contained Power and Cooling IT Infrastructure for the Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Ron; Chavez, Miguel, E.

    2012-06-27

    The objectives of this program were to research and develop a fully enclosed Information Technology (IT) rack system for 100 kilowatts (KW) of IT load that provides its own internal power and cooling with High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC defined as 480 volt) and chilled water as the primary inputs into the system and accepts alternative energy power sources such as wind and solar. For maximum efficiency, internal power to the IT equipment uses distributed High Voltage Direct Current power (HVDC defined as 360-380 volt) from the power source to the IT loads. The management scheme aggressively controls energy use to insure the best utilization of available power and cooling resources. The solution incorporates internal active management controls that not only optimizes the system environment for the given dynamic IT loads and changing system conditions, but also interfaces with data center Building Management Systems (BMS) to provide a complete end-to-end view of power and cooling chain. This technology achieves the goal of a Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of 1.25, resulting in a 38% reduction in the total amount of energy needed to support a 100KW IT load compared to current data center designs.

  16. Spark gap device for precise switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1984-01-01

    A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centrigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations.

  17. Spark gap device for precise switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1984-10-02

    A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations. 3 figs.

  18. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report, August 1995--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1997-06-17

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focused on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The research focused on the isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  19. Methods for determining the physiological state of a plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette

    2003-09-23

    The present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter. The methods of the invention include the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer or kinetic spectrophotometer/fluorimeter to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for determining the physiological state of a plant.

  20. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine certified to 2002 MY Federal heavy-duty and 2002 MY California medium-duty emission standards. The stock vehicle included cooled air charge (CAC), turbocharger (TC), direct fuel injection (DFI), oxidation catalyst (OC), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

  1. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The first mass marketed PEVs were introduced in 2010 with the Nissan Leaf,...

  2. New Ulm Public Utilities- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to equipment rebates, New Ulm Public Utilities offers an opportunity for customers to increase their energy efficiency through the ReLeaf Tree Reimbursement Program. NUPU will reimbur...

  3. Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... C-max Hybrid Ford C-max Energi Mitsubishi I-MiEV Nissan Leaf Ford Fusion Energi Ford Focus Electric Smart Fortwo ED Dodge Ram Idle Stop Honda Accord PHEV AVTA Test Cars Level 1 ...

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Treasure Homes, Sacramento...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Treasure Homes met all of its objectives at the Fallen Leaf development: to design and build a project that would be cost effective; and would use technology that was reliable, ...

  5. Electric Vehicle Manufacturing Taking Off in the U.S. | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The LEAF is the first all-electric model to reach 50,000 sales in the United States. ... Nissan also used the loan to develop an electric power train manufacturing line for the ...

  6. Drought-induced tree mortality accelerating in forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that describes the flow of liquid through a porous medium, which is how trees take in water. They found that tall plants with low hydraulic conductance and high leaf area are...

  7. | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media about Center 5 Jun 2014 Solar energy: Springtime for the artificial leaf by Jessica Marshall: June 6 issue of Nature Magazine in a News Feature article highlights research ...

  8. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral invariant relationship: the surface-to-leaf albedo ratio (A ) is a linear function with respect to the surface albedo (A , see Fig. 2), i.e., A ...

  9. EERE: VTO - UPS Truck PNG Image | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ups_truck_18187.png More Documents & Publications EERE: VTO - Red Leaf PNG Image EERE: VTO - Hybrid Bus PNG Image Research Site Locations for Current EERE Postdoctoral Awards

  10. Efficacy of low level electric current (A-C) for controlling quagga mussles in the Welland Canal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fears, C.; Mackie, G.L.

    1995-06-01

    The efficacy of systems (for which patents are pending) which use low-voltage A-C currents for preventing settlement and attachment by zebra mussels were tested with steel rods and plates placed near the intake of a pulp and paper plant in the Welland Canal at Thorold, Ontario. Six racks made of 16 ft. (4.9 m), 2x4s (5.1 x 10.2 cm) were placed into the Welland Canal on August 5, 1994. One rack had 1/8th in (3.2 mm) diam x 12 in (30.5 cm) long steel rods, each separated by 2 in (5.1 cm) attached to pressure treated wood and concrete blocks and an A-C current of 16 v (or 8 v/in); rack 2 had steel rods of the same configuration but 12 v (or 6 v/in) was applied; rack 3 was identical to these but no current was applied and was used as a rod control. The remaining three racks had steel plates, each plate being 3 in (7.6 cm) wide X 24 in (61 cm) long X 1/4 in (6.4 mm) thick and separated by 2 in (5.1 cm); one had 12 v applied (or 6 v/in), another had 16 v applied (or 8 v/in), and the third had no current and was used as a plate control. The racks were placed on the upstream and downstream side of the intake at a depth of about 7 ft (2.1 m) where the mussels populations were heaviest (as determined by SCUBA diving). All mussels were quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis). The racks were pulled in mid November after settlement was complete and the results showed: (1) complete prevention of settlement of both new recruits and translocators at 8 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and with steel plate trash bars; (2) partial prevention of settlement at 6 volts/in with steel rods on both wood and concrete surfaces and steel plates; and (3) that, at current kilowatt hr rates, total efficacy at 8 volts/in would cost approximately $10.80/day/1000 sq ft using rods to protect concrete walls and about $16.32/day/1000 sq ft to protect 3 in wide x 1/4 in thick trash bars. These costs can be reduced even further with pulse dosed AC currents.

  11. Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keast, Craig

    2007-02-28

    Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

  12. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  13. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  14. Electron acceleration by a tightly focused Hermite-Gaussian beam: higher-order corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Zhiguo; Yang Dangxiao; Lue Baida

    2008-03-15

    Taking the TEM{sub 1,0}-mode Hermite-Gaussian (H-G) beam as a numerical calculation example, and based on the method of the perturbation series expansion, the higher-order field corrections of H-G beams are derived and used to study the electron acceleration by a tightly focused H-G beam in vacuum. For the case of the off-axis injection the field corrections to the terms of order f{sup 3} (f=1/kw{sub 0}, k and w{sub 0} being the wavenumber and waist width, respectively) are considered, and for the case of the on-axis injection the contributions of the terms of higher orders are negligible. By a suitable optimization of injection parameters the energy gain in the giga-electron-volt regime can be achieved.

  15. LANL: AOT & LANSCE The Pulse November 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Los Alamos National Laboratory * Est. 1943 The Pulse-Newsletter of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and Accelerator Operations and Technology Division I N S I D E 2 From Alex's Desk 3 First beAm tests with the time Projection chAmber 4 Discovery oF new Phys- ics in leAD-zirconium- titAnium voltAge bArs 5 los AlAmos lenDs its exPertise to cleAn energy AnD cArbon sequestrAtion Projects 6 electric-FielD moDiFicA- tion oF mAgnetism in A thin Film 7 Aot & lAnsce Division stAFF AwArDeD

  16. Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kele?, mit; akan, Asl?; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2015-02-14

    We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.

  17. Electrocaloric effect of metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunami, Daichi; Fujita, Asaya

    2015-01-26

    The electrocaloric effect was observed in association with an electric-field induced metal-insulator transition in VO{sub 2} using a calorimetric measurement under an applied voltage. For a VO{sub 2} plate with a 0.4 mm thickness located in the center of a capacitor-like structure, the metal-insulator transition was manipulated by applying a few volts. The occurrence of a transition in such a thick sample with relatively low voltage indicates that a surface charge accumulation mechanism is effective. The isothermal entropy change reached 94 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, while the adiabatic temperature change was calculated as −3.8 K under a voltage change of 0–3 V. The large entropy change is attributed to correlation of the complex freedom among spin, charge, and lattice.

  18. Adhesion strength of sputtered TiAlN-coated WC insert tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budi, Esmar; Razali, M. Mohd.; Nizam, A. R. Md.

    2013-09-09

    The adhesion strength of TiAlN coating that deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering on WC insert tool are studied. TiAlN coating are deposited on Tungsten Carbide (WC) insert tool by varying negatively substrate bias from 79 to 221 volt and nitrogen flow rate from 30 to 72 sccm. The adhesion strength are obtained by using Rockwell indentation test method with a Brale diamond at applied load of 60,100 and 150 kgf. The lateral diameter of indentation is plotted on three different applied loads and the adhesion strength of TiAlN coating was obtained from the curved slopes at 100 and 150 kgf. The lower curve slop indicated better adhesion strength. The results shows that the adhesion strength of sputterred TiAlN coating tend to increase as the negatively substrate bias and nitrogen flow rate are increased.

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical storage cell containing a redox shuttle additive for overcharge protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross, Philip N.

    1999-01-01

    A class of organic redox shuttle additives is described, preferably comprising nitrogen-containing aromatics compounds, which can be used in a high temperature (85.degree. C. or higher) electrochemical storage cell comprising a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a solid polymer electrolyte to provide overcharge protection to the cell. The organic redox additives or shuttles are characterized by a high diffusion coefficient of at least 2.1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.2 /second and a high onset potential of 2.5 volts or higher. Examples of such organic redox shuttle additives include an alkali metal salt of 1,2,4-triazole, an alkali metal salt of imidazole, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, 1,3,5-tricyanobenzene, and a dialkali metal salt of 3-4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione.

  20. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  1. Low Temperature Plasma Science: Not Only the Fourth State of Matter but All of Them. Report of the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Workshop on Low Temperature Plasmas, March 25-57, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-09-01

    Low temperature plasma science (LTPS) is a field on the verge of an intellectual revolution. Partially ionized plasmas (often referred to as gas discharges) are used for an enormous range of practical applications, from light sources and lasers to surgery and making computer chips, among many others. The commercial and technical value of low temperature plasmas (LTPs) is well established. Modern society would simply be less advanced in the absence of LTPs. Much of this benefit has resulted from empirical development. As the technology becomes more complex and addresses new fields, such as energy and biotechnology, empiricism rapidly becomes inadequate to advance the state of the art. The focus of this report is that which is less well understood about LTPs - namely, that LTPS is a field rich in intellectually exciting scientific challenges and that addressing these challenges will result in even greater societal benefit by placing the development of plasma technologies on a solid science foundation. LTPs are unique environments in many ways. Their nonequilibrium and chemically active behavior deviate strongly from fully ionized plasmas, such as those found in magnetically confined fusion or high energy density plasmas. LTPs are strongly affected by the presence of neutral species-chemistry adds enormous complexity to the plasma environment. A weakly to partially ionized gas is often characterized by strong nonequilibrium in the velocity and energy distributions of its neutral and charged constituents. In nonequilibrium LTP, electrons are generally hot (many to tens of electron volts), whereas ions and neutrals are cool to warm (room temperature to a few tenths of an electron volt). Ions and neutrals in thermal LTP can approach or exceed an electron volt in temperature. At the same time, ions may be accelerated across thin sheath boundary layers to impact surfaces, with impact energies ranging up to thousands of electron volts. These moderately energetic electrons can efficiently create reactive radical fragments and vibrationally and electronically excited species from collisions with neutral molecules. These chemically active species can produce unique structures in the gas phase and on surfaces, structures that cannot be produced in other ways, at least not in an economically meaningful way. Photons generated by electron impact excited species in the plasma can interact more or less strongly with other species in the plasma or with the plasma boundaries, or they can escape from the plasma. The presence of boundaries around the plasma creates strong gradients where plasma properties change dramatically. It is in these boundary regions where externally generated electromagnetic radiation interacts most strongly with the plasma, often producing unique responses. And it is at bounding surfaces where complex plasma-surface interactions occur. The intellectual challenges associated with LTPS center on several themes, and these are discussed in the chapters that follow this overview. These themes are plasma-surface interactions; kinetic, nonlinear properties of LTP; plasmas in multiphase media; scaling laws for LTP; and crosscutting themes: diagnostics, modeling, and fundamental data.

  2. Two-dimensional electromagnetic quantum-hydrodynamic simulations of isochoric heating of a solid target by proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-02-15

    Isochoric heating of an aluminum target by proton beams has been studied with a two-dimensional self-consistent electromagnetic quantum-hydrodynamic model, including the nonlinear quantum effects. It is shown that most protons deposit their energy within several micrometers near the surface, and the aluminum metal target is heated up to several electron volts in tens of Mbar pressure regime within one picosecond. Comparison between electrostatic and electromagnetic cases shows that the strength of electromagnetic field is much smaller than that of the electrostatic field at initial stage but increases more rapidly and becomes larger at later time. The results show that the time evolution of electric field has a significant influence on the interaction of intense beams with a solid target, while the effect of the self-magnetic field is small for non-relativistic beams considered here.

  3. Improving the diversity of manufacturing electroluminescent flat panel displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.S.; Samuels, J.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline calcium thiogallate with a cerium dopant has been deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures below 600{degrees}C on a low cost glass substrate. An EL luminance of 1.05 fL was observed 40 volts above threshold at 60 Hz. This is more than an order of magnitude improvement over earlier crystalline-as-deposited thiogallate materials. These results pave the way for the use of MOCVD as a potential method for processing full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. The formation of the CaGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce phosphor requires precise control over a number of deposition parameters including flow rates, substrate temperature, and reactor pressure. The influence of these parameters will be discussed in terms of structure, uniformity, and TFEL device performance.

  4. Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Nuclear Science Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Ronald Owen; Wender, Steve

    2015-06-19

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facilities for Nuclear Science consist of a high-energy "white" neutron source (Target 4) with 6 flight paths, three low-energy nuclear science flight paths at the Lujan Center, and a proton reaction area. The neutron beams produced at the Target 4 complement those produced at the Lujan Center because they are of much higher energy and have shorter pulse widths. The neutron sources are driven by the 800-MeV proton beam of the LANSCE linear accelerator. With these facilities, LANSCE is able to deliver neutrons with energies ranging from a milli-electron volt to several hundreds of MeV, as well as proton beams with a wide range of energy, time and intensity characteristics. The facilities, instruments and research programs are described briefly.

  5. Compact biomedical pulsed signal generator for bone tissue stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for stimulating bone tissue for stimulating bone growth or treating osteoporosis by applying directly to the skin of the patient an alternating current electrical signal comprising wave forms known to simulate the piezoelectric constituents in bone. The apparatus may, by moving a switch, stimulate bone growth or treat osteoporosis, as desired. Based on low-power CMOS technology and enclosed in a moisture-resistant case shaped to fit comfortably, two astable multivibrators produce the desired waveforms. The amplitude, pulse width and pulse frequency, and the subpulse width and subpulse frequency of the waveforms are adjustable. The apparatus, preferably powered by a standard 9-volt battery, includes signal amplitude sensors and warning signals indicate an output is being produced and the battery needs to be replaced.

  6. Optical memory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  7. High concentration low wattage solar arrays and their applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, R.; OGallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1997-02-01

    Midway Labs currently produces a 335x concentrator module that has reached as high as 19{percent} active area efficiency in production. The current production module uses the single crystal silicon back contact SunPower cell. The National Renewable Energy Lab has developed a multi junction cell using GalnP/GaAs technologies. The high efficiency ({gt}30{percent}) and high cell voltage offer an opportunity for Midway Labs to develop a tracking concentrator module that will provide 24 volts in the 140 to 160 watt range. This voltage and wattage range is applicable to a range of small scale water pumping applications that make up the bulk of water pumping solar panel sales. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittain, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.

  9. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  10. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  11. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  12. Compact biomedical pulsed signal generator for bone tissue stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus for stimulating bone tissue for stimulating bone growth or treating osteoporosis by applying directly to the skin of the patient an alternating current electrical signal comprising wave forms known to simulate the piezoelectric constituents in bone. The apparatus may, by moving a switch, stimulate bone growth or treat osteoporosis, as desired. Based on low-power CMOS technology and enclosed in a moisture-resistant case shaped to fit comfortably, two astable multivibrators produce the desired waveforms. The amplitude, pulse width and pulse frequency, and the subpulse width and subpulse frequency of the waveforms are adjustable. The apparatus, preferably powered by a standard 9-volt battery, includes signal amplitude sensors and warning signals indicate an output is being produced and the battery needs to be replaced.

  13. Dynamic tumor tracking using the Elekta Agility MLC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Martin F. Nill, Simeon Bedford, James L.; Oelfke, Uwe

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) for dynamic real-time tumor tracking. Methods: The authors have developed a new control software which interfaces to the Agility MLC to dynamically program the movement of individual leaves, the dynamic leaf guides (DLGs), and the Y collimators (“jaws”) based on the actual target trajectory. A motion platform was used to perform dynamic tracking experiments with sinusoidal trajectories. The actual target positions reported by the motion platform at 20, 30, or 40 Hz were used as shift vectors for the MLC in beams-eye-view. The system latency of the MLC (i.e., the average latency comprising target device reporting latencies and MLC adjustment latency) and the geometric tracking accuracy were extracted from a sequence of MV portal images acquired during irradiation for the following treatment scenarios: leaf-only motion, jaw + leaf motion, and DLG + leaf motion. Results: The portal imager measurements indicated a clear dependence of the system latency on the target position reporting frequency. Deducting the effect of the target frequency, the leaf adjustment latency was measured to be 38 ± 3 ms for a maximum target speed v of 13 mm/s. The jaw + leaf adjustment latency was 53 ± 3 at a similar speed. The system latency at a target position frequency of 30 Hz was in the range of 56–61 ms for the leaves (v ≤ 31 mm/s), 71–78 ms for the jaw + leaf motion (v ≤ 25 mm/s), and 58–72 ms for the DLG + leaf motion (v ≤ 59 mm/s). The tracking accuracy showed a similar dependency on the target position frequency and the maximum target speed. For the leaves, the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was between 0.6–1.5 mm depending on the maximum target speed. For the jaw + leaf (DLG + leaf) motion, the RMSE was between 0.7–1.5 mm (1.9–3.4 mm). Conclusions: The authors have measured the latency and geometric accuracy of the Agility MLC, facilitating its future use for clinical tracking applications.

  14. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  15. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for a typical 16,000 square-foot office building, with a payback period of less than 3 years.

  16. International linear collider reference design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aarons, G.

    2007-06-22

    The International Linear Collider will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. A proposed electron-positron collider, the ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider, a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, together unlocking some of the deepest mysteries in the universe. With LHC discoveries pointing the way, the ILC -- a true precision machine -- will provide the missing pieces of the puzzle. Consisting of two linear accelerators that face each other, the ILC will hurl some 10 billion electrons and their anti-particles, positrons, toward each other at nearly the speed of light. Superconducting accelerator cavities operating at temperatures near absolute zero give the particles more and more energy until they smash in a blazing crossfire at the centre of the machine. Stretching approximately 35 kilometres in length, the beams collide 14,000 times every second at extremely high energies -- 500 billion-electron-volts (GeV). Each spectacular collision creates an array of new particles that could answer some of the most fundamental questions of all time. The current baseline design allows for an upgrade to a 50-kilometre, 1 trillion-electron-volt (TeV) machine during the second stage of the project. This reference design provides the first detailed technical snapshot of the proposed future electron-positron collider, defining in detail the technical parameters and components that make up each section of the 31-kilometer long accelerator. The report will guide the development of the worldwide R&D program, motivate international industrial studies and serve as the basis for the final engineering design needed to make an official project proposal later this decade.

  17. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  18. SIMULATION RESULTS OF RUNNING THE AGS MMPS, BY STORING ENERGY IN CAPACITOR BANKS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARNERIS, I.

    2006-09-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is a strong focusing accelerator which is used to accelerate protons and various heavy ion species to equivalent maximum proton energy of 29 GeV. The AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps, +/-go00 Volts. The peak magnet power is 49.5 Mwatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. The motor is rated at 9 MW, input voltage 3 phase 13.8 KV 60 Hz. The generator is rated at 50 MVA its output voltage is 3 phase 7500 Volts. Thus the peak power requirements come from the stored energy in the rotor of the motor/generator. The rotor changes speed by about +/-2.5% of its nominal speed of 1200 Revolutions per Minute. The reason the power supply is powered by the Generator is that the local power company (LIPA) can not sustain power swings of +/- 50 MW in 0.5 sec if the power supply were to be interfaced directly with the AC lines. The Motor Generator is about 45 years old and Siemens is not manufacturing similar machines in the future. As a result we are looking at different ways of storing energy and being able to utilize it for our application. This paper will present simulations of a power supply where energy is stored in capacitor banks. The simulation program used is called PSIM Version 6.1. The control system of the power supply will also be presented. The average power from LIPA into the power supply will be kept constant during the pulsing of the magnets at +/-50 MW. The reactive power will also be kept constant below 1.5 MVAR. Waveforms will be presented.

  19. High voltage pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  20. A dosimetric characterization of a novel linear accelerator collimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C. M.; Weston, S. J. Cosgrove, V. C.; Thwaites, D. I.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to characterize a new linear accelerator collimator which contains a single pair of sculpted diaphragms mounted orthogonally to a 160 leaf multileaf collimator (MLC). The diaphragms have “thick” regions providing full attenuation and “thin” regions where attenuation is provided by both the leaves and the diaphragm. The leaves are mounted on a dynamic leaf guide allowing rapid leaf motion and leaf travel over 350 mm. Methods: Dosimetric characterization, including assessment of leaf transmission, leaf tip transmission, penumbral width, was performed in a plotting tank. Head scatter factor was measured using a mini-phantom and the effect of leaf guide position on output was assessed using a water phantom. The tongue and groove effect was assessed using multiple exposures on radiochromic film. Leaf reproducibility was assessed from portal images of multiple abutting fields. Results: The maximum transmission through the multileaf collimator is 0.44% at 6 MV and 0.52% at 10 MV. This reduced to 0.22% and 0.27%, respectively, when the beam passes through the dynamic leaf guide in addition to the MLC. The maximum transmission through the thick part of the diaphragm is 0.32% and 0.36% at 6 and 10 MV. The combination of leaf and diaphragm transmission ranges from 0.08% to 0.010% at 6 MV and 0.10% to 0.14% depending on whether the shielding is through the thick or thin part of the diaphragm. The off-axis intertip transmission for a zero leaf gap is 2.2% at 6 and 10 MV. The leaf tip penumbra for a 100 × 100 mm field ranges from 5.4 to 4.3 mm at 6 and 10 MV across the full range of leaf motion when measured in the AB direction, which reduces to 4.0–3.4 mm at 6 MV and 4.5–3.8 mm at 10 MV when measured in the GT direction. For a 50 × 50 mm field, the diaphragm penumbra ranges from 4.3 to 3.7 mm at 6 MV and 4.5 to 4.1 mm at 10 MV in the AB direction and 3.7 to 3.2 mm at 6 MV and 4.2 to 3.7 mm when measured in the GT direction. The tongue and groove effect observed from exposure of a radiochromic film to two abutting fields is an underdose of 25%. The head scatter factor at both 6 and 10 MV is similar to that from the MLCi2 collimator to within 0.8%. The uncertainty in the leaf position reproducibility is 0.05 mm (2σ). Conclusions: The Agility collimator is a low leakage, high definition collimator where both the MLC and the sculpted diaphragm have been optimized for dynamic treatments.

  1. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  2. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  3. A genomics investigation of partitioning into and among flavonoid-derived condensed tannins for carbon sequestration in Populus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, Scott, A; Tsai, Chung-jui; Lindroth, Richard, L

    2013-03-24

    The project set out to use comparative (genotype and treatment) and transgenic approaches to investigate the determinants of condensed tannin (CT) accrual and chemical variability in Populus. CT type and amount are thought to effect the decomposition of plant detritus in the soil, and thereby the sequestering of carbon in the soil. The stated objectives were: 1. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling (microarrays) to analyze structural gene, transcription factor and metabolite control of CT partitioning; 2. Transcriptomic (microarray) and chemical analysis of ontogenetic effects on CT and PG partitioning; and 3. Transgenic manipulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes to modify the control of CT composition. Objective 1: A number of approaches for perturbing CT content and chemistry were tested in Objective 1, and those included nitrogen deficit, leaf wounding, drought, and salicylic acid spraying. Drought had little effect on CTs in the genotypes we used. Plants exhibited unpredictability in their response to salicylic acid spraying, leading us to abandon its use. Reduced plant nitrogen status and leaf wounding caused reproducible and magnitudinally striking increases in leaf CT content. Microarray submissions to NCBI from those experiments are the following: GSE ID 14515: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 1979. Public on Jan 04, 2010; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 14893: Comparative transcriptomics analysis of Populus leaves under nitrogen limitation: clone 3200. Public on Feb 19, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16783 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 1 week; clone RM5. Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C GSE ID 16785 Wound-induced gene expression changes in Populus: 90 hours; clone RM5 Status Public on Dec 01, 2009; Contributor(s) Harding SA, Tsai C Although CT amount changed in response to treatments, CT composition was essentially conserved. Overall phenylpropanoid composition exhibited changes due to large effects on phenolic glycosides containing a salicin moiety. There were no effects on lignin content. Efforts to publish this work continue, and depend on additional data which we are still collecting. This ongoing work is expected to strengthen our most provocative metabolic profiling data which suggests as yet unreported links controlling the balance between the two major leaf phenylpropanoid sinks, the CTs and the salicin-PGs. Objective 2: Ontogenic effects on leaf CT accrual and phenylpropanoid complexity (Objective 2) have been reported in the past and we contributed two manuscripts on how phenylpropanoid sinks in roots and stems could have an increasing effect on leaf CT as plants grow larger and plant proportions of stem, root and leaf change. Tsai C.-J., El Kayal W., Harding S.A. (2006) Populus, the new model system for investigating phenylpropanoid complexity. International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 4: 221-233. We presented evidence that flavonoid precursors of CT rapidly decline in roots under conditions that favor CT accrual in leaves. Harding SA, Jarvie MM, Lindroth RL, Tsai C-J (2009) A comparative analysis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, N utilization and carbon partitioning in fast- and slow-growing Populus hybrid clones. Journal of Experimental Botany. 60:3443-3452. We presented evidence that nitrogen delivery to leaves as a fraction of nitrogen taken up by the roots is lower in high leaf CT genotypes. We presented a hypothesis from our data that N was sequestered in proportion to lignin content in stem tissues. Low leaf N content and high leaf CT in genotypes with high stem lignin was posited to be a systemic outcome of N demand in lignifiying stem tissues. Thereby, stem lignin and leaf CT accrual might be systemically linked, placing control of leaf phenylpropanoids under systemic rather than solely organ specific determinants. Analyses of total structural and non-structural carbohydrates contributed to the model presented. Harding SA, Xue L, Du L, Nyamd

  4. Non-focusing optics spectrophotometer, and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2004-11-02

    In one aspect, the present invention provides kinetic spectrophotometers that each comprise: (a) a light source; and (b) a compound parabolic concentrator disposed to receive light from the light source and configured to (1) intensify and diffuse the light received from the light source, and (2) direct the intensified and diffused light onto a sample. In other aspects, the present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter, the methods comprising the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer of the invention to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a value for a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data.

  5. 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington Auto Show 2013 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:49 3 of 10 Energy

  6. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  7. Dosimetric characterization of a multileaf collimator for a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head, MHI-TM2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sawada, Akira; Ishihara, Yoshitomo; Takayama, Kenji; Mizowaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Shuji; Yamashita, Mikiko; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Kokubo, Masaki; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To present the dosimetric characterization of a multileaf collimator (MLC) for a new four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head, MHI-TM2000. Methods: MHI-TM2000 has an x-ray head composed of an ultrasmall linear accelerator guide and a system-specific MLC. The x-ray head can rotate along the two orthogonal gimbals (pan and tilt rotations) up to {+-}2.5 deg., which swings the beam up to {+-}41.9 mm in each direction from the isocenter on the isocenter plane perpendicular to the beam. The MLC design is a single-focus type, has 30 pairs of 5 mm thick leaves at the isocenter, and produces a maximum field size of 150x150 mm{sup 2}. Leaf height and length are 110 and 260 mm, respectively. Each leaf end is circular, with a radius of curvature of 370 mm. The distance that each leaf passes over the isocenter is 77.5 mm. Radiation leakage between adjacent leaves is minimized by an interlocking tongue-and-groove (T and G) arrangement with the height of the groove part 55 mm. The dosimetric characterizations including field characteristics, leaf position accuracy, leakage, and T and G effect were evaluated using a well-commissioned 6 MV photon beam, EDR2 films (Kodak, Rochester, NY), and water-equivalent phantoms. Furthermore, the field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were evaluated under conditions of pan or tilt rotation. Results: The differences between nominal and measured field sizes were within {+-}0.5 mm. Although the penumbra widths were greater with wider field size, the maximum width was <5.5 mm even for the fully opened field. Compared to the results of field characteristics without pan or tilt rotation, the variation in field size, penumbra width, flatness, and symmetry was within {+-}1 mm/1% at the maximum pan or tilt rotational angle. The leaf position accuracy was 0.0{+-}0.1 mm, ranging from -0.3 to 0.2 mm at four gantry angles of 0 deg., 90 deg., 180 deg., and 270 deg. with and without pan or tilt rotation. The interleaf leakage was up to 0.21%, whereas the intraleaf leakage was <0.12%. T and G decreased the doses by 10.7%, on average. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MHI-TM2000 has the capability for high leaf position accuracy and low leakage, leading to highly accurate intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivery. Furthermore, substantial changes in the dosimetric data on field characteristics and leaf position accuracy were not observed even at the maximum pan or tilt rotation.

  8. Optical assay technology for safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelson, M.C.; Lipert, R.J.; Murray, G.M.; Schuler, R.A.; Vera, J.; Wang, Z.M.; Weeks, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    Research conducted in the Ames Laboratory Nuclear Safeguards and Security Program during the period July 1, 1990 to September 30, 1990 is reviewed; included are reprints and preprints of papers written during this quarter. The first demonstration of isotopic selectivity in Inductively Coupled Plasma -- Laser Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ICP-LEAFS) is reported and the application of ICP-LEAFS to U isotopic analysis is discussed. Current work in applying optical spectroscopy to the analytical determination of gas phase metal atoms is reviewed. Program administration topics are included in a separately bound Management Supplement to this report.

  9. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of magnetic shielding would be required.

  10. Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Meisner

    2011-08-31

    We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem, and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

  11. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  13. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTAs testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETAs contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTAs NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOEs FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  14. Climate-linked mechanisms driving spatial and temporal variation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth and assemblage structure in Pacific Northwest estuaries, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Southard, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2014-11-01

    Using laboratory experiments on temperature and leaf metabolism, and field data sets from Washington, between 1991 and 2013, we developed lines of evidence showing that variations in water temperature, mean sea level, and desiccation stress appear to drive spatial and temporal variations in eelgrass (Zostera marina).

  15. Solid state boson condensation model of cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waber, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This theoretical study is based on the second suggestion of Leaf Turner which was independently developed by Chubb and Chubb. It lead to the selection rule, Bosons In, Bosons Out, which helps to explain the low yield of tritons, protons, neutrons and 3He. The production of the boson 3He has now been correlated with simultaneous production of excess heat.

  16. Compact Beta Particle/Positron Imager for Plant Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl; Stolin, Alexander; Majewski, Stan; Majewski, Stanislaw; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, Alec

    2011-06-01

    The 11CO2 tracer is used to facilitate plant biology research towards optimization of plant productivity, biofuel development and carbon sequestration in biomass. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using 11CO2. Plants typically have very thin leaves resulting in little medium for the emitted positrons to undergo an annihilation event. For the emitted positron from 11C decay approximately 1mm of water equivalent material is needed for positron annihilation. Thus most of the positrons do not annihilate inside the leaf, resulting in limited sensitivity for PET imaging. To address this problem we have developed a compact beta-positive beta-minus particle (BPBM) imager for 11CO2 leaf imaging. The detector is based on a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube optically coupled via optical grease and a 3mm thick glass plate to a 0.5mm thick Eljin EJ-212 plastic scintillator. The detector is equipped with a flexible arm to allow its placement and orientation on the leaf of the plant of interest while maintaining the leaf's original orientation. We are planning to utilize the imaging device at the Duke University Phytotron to investigate dynamic carbon transport differences between invasive and native species.

  17. DNA encoding for plant digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase and methods of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benning, Christoph; Doermann, Peter

    2003-11-04

    The cDNA encoding digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase (DGD1) is provided. The deduced amino acid sequence is also provided. Methods of making and using DGD1 to screen for new herbicides and alter a plant's leaf lipid composition are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors.

  18. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, A.M.; Wagner, D.G.; Teese, G.D.

    1994-06-28

    An apparatus is described for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm. 5 figures.

  19. Autonomous mobile robot for radiologic surveys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudar, Aed M.; Wagner, David G.; Teese, Gregory D.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for conducting radiologic surveys. The apparatus comprises in the main a robot capable of following a preprogrammed path through an area, a radiation monitor adapted to receive input from a radiation detector assembly, ultrasonic transducers for navigation and collision avoidance, and an on-board computer system including an integrator for interfacing the radiation monitor and the robot. Front and rear bumpers are attached to the robot by bumper mounts. The robot may be equipped with memory boards for the collection and storage of radiation survey information. The on-board computer system is connected to a remote host computer via a UHF radio link. The apparatus is powered by a rechargeable 24-volt DC battery, and is stored at a docking station when not in use and/or for recharging. A remote host computer contains a stored database defining paths between points in the area where the robot is to operate, including but not limited to the locations of walls, doors, stationary furniture and equipment, and sonic markers if used. When a program consisting of a series of paths is downloaded to the on-board computer system, the robot conducts a floor survey autonomously at any preselected rate. When the radiation monitor detects contamination, the robot resurveys the area at reduced speed and resumes its preprogrammed path if the contamination is not confirmed. If the contamination is confirmed, the robot stops and sounds an alarm.

  20. Environmental TEM study of electron beam induced electro-chemistry of Pr₀̣₆₄Ca₀̣₃₆MnO₃ catalysts for oxygen evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mildner, Stephanie; Beleggia, Marco; Mierwaldt, Daniel; Hansen, Thoma Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciston, Jim; Zhu, Yimei; Jooss, Christian

    2015-03-12

    Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) studies offer great potential for gathering atomic scale information on the electronic state of electrodes in contact with reactants but also pose big challenges due to the impact of the high energy electron beam. In this article, we present an ETEM study of a Pr₀̣₆₄Ca₀̣₃₆MnO₃ (PCMO) thin film electro-catalyst for water splitting and oxygen evolution in contact with water vapor. We show by means of off-axis electron holography and electrostatic modeling that the electron beam gives rise to a positive electric sample potential due to secondary electron emission. The value of the electric potential depends on the primary electron flux, the sample -conductivity and grounding, and gas properties. We present evidence that two observed electro-chemical reactions are driven by a beam induced electrostatic potential of the order of a volt. The first reaction is an anodic electrochemical oxidation reaction of oxygen depleted amorphous PCMO which results in recrystallization of the perovskite structure. The second reaction is oxygen evolution which can be detected by the oxidation of a silane additive and formation of SiO2–x at catalytically active surfaces. Recently published in-situ XANES observation of subsurface oxygen vacancy formation during oxygen evolution at a positive potential [³²] is confirmed in this work. The quantification of beam induced potentials is an important step for future controlled electro-chemical experiments in an ETEM.

  1. SPi User Manual V0.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; Newcomer, M.; Dressnandt, N.; Villani, G.; Weber, M.; Holt, R.; /Rutherford

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the Serial Powering Interface (SPi) ASIC. SPi is a general purpose ASIC prototype designed for use in serial powering of silicon detector instrumentation. This description is written as a user manual to aid application, not as a design description. SPi is a generic custom ASIC, manufactured in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS by TSMC, to interface between a constant current source and silicon detector read-out chips. There is no SEU (single event upset) protection, but most (not all) components are radiation tolerant design. An operating voltage of 1.2 to 2.5 volts and other design features make the IC suitable for a variety of serial powering architectures and ROICs. It should be noted that the device is likely to be a prototype for demonstration rather than a product for inclusion in a detector. The next design(s), SPin, are likely to be designed for a specific application (eg SLHC). The component includes: (1) Seven bi-directional LVDS-like buffers for high data rate links to/from the read-out chips. These are AC coupled (series capacitor) off-chip for DC level conversion; (2) A programmable internal programmable shunt regulator to provide a defined voltage to readout chips when linked in a serial powering chain; (3) A programmable internal shunt regulator control circuit for external transistor control; (4) Shunt current measurement (for internal shunt regulator); (5) A programmable internal shunt regulator current alarm; and (6) Two programmable linear regulators.

  2. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

    1991-07-23

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

  3. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfield, Dennis K.; Vocaturo, Michael; Guttadora, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH.sub.3 OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth.

  4. Vehicle to Grid Communication Standards Development, Testing and Validation - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowri, Krishnan; Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-09-01

    In the US, more than 10,000 electric vehicles (EV) have been delivered to consumers during the first three quarters of 2011. A large majority of these vehicles are battery electric, often requiring 220 volt charging. Though the vehicle manufacturers and charging station manufacturers have provided consumers options for charging preferences, there are no existing communications between consumers and the utilities to manage the charging demand. There is also wide variation between manufacturers in their approach to support vehicle charging. There are in-vehicle networks, charging station networks, utility networks each using either cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee or other proprietary communication technology with no standards currently available for interoperability. The current situation of ad-hoc solutions is a major barrier to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. SAE, the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), ANSI, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and several industrial organizations are working towards the development of interoperability standards. PNNL has participated in the development and testing of these standards in an effort to accelerate the adoption and development of communication modules.

  5. A long-lived relativistic electron storage ring embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen belt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.; Elkington, S. R.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Goldstein, J.; Hudson, M. K.; et al

    2013-02-28

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts are thought to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. The outer zone is comprised predominantly of mega-electron volt (MeV) electrons that wax and wane in intensity on time scales ranging from hours to days depending primarily on external forcing by the solar wind. Thus, the spatially separated inner zone is comprised of commingled high-energy electrons and very energetic positive ions (mostly protons), the latter being stable in intensity levels over years to decades. In situ energy-specific and temporally resolved spacecraft observations revealmore » an isolated third ring, or torus, of high-energy (E > 2 MeV) electrons that formed on 2 September 2012 and persisted largely unchanged in the geocentric radial range of 3.0 to ~3.5 Earth radii for over four weeks before being disrupted (and virtually annihilated) by a powerful interplanetary shock wave passage.« less

  6. Examination of VRLA cells sampled from a battery energy storage system (BESS) after 30-months of operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SZYMBORSKI,JOSEPH; HUNT,GEORGE; TSAGALIS,ANGELO; JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    2000-06-08

    Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries continue to be employed in a wide variety of applications for telecommunications and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). With the rapidly growing penetration of internet services, the requirements for standby power systems appear to be changing. For example, at last year's INTELEC, high voltage standby power systems up to 300-vdc were discussed as alternatives to the traditional 48-volt power plant. At the same time, battery reliability and the sensitivity of VRLAS to charging conditions (e.g., in-rush current, float voltage and temperature), continue to be argued extensively. Charge regimes which provide off-line charging or intermittent charge to the battery have been proposed. Some of these techniques go against the widely accepted rules of operation for batteries to achieve optimum lifetime. Experience in the telecom industry with high voltage systems and these charging scenarios is limited. However, GNB has several years of experience in the installation and operation of large VRLA battery systems that embody many of the power management philosophies being proposed. Early results show that positive grid corrosion is not accelerated and battery performance is maintained even when the battery is operated at a partial state-of-charge for long periods of time.

  7. Antifuse with a single silicon-rich silicon nitride insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Habermehl, Scott D.; Apodaca, Roger T.

    2013-01-22

    An antifuse is disclosed which has an electrically-insulating region sandwiched between two electrodes. The electrically-insulating region has a single layer of a non-hydrogenated silicon-rich (i.e. non-stoichiometric) silicon nitride SiN.sub.X with a nitrogen content X which is generally in the range of 0volts for CMOS applications by controlling the composition and thickness of the SiN.sub.X layer. The SiN.sub.X layer thickness can also be made sufficiently large so that Poole-Frenkel emission will be the primary electrical conduction mechanism in the antifuse. Different types of electrodes are disclosed including electrodes formed of titanium silicide, aluminum and silicon. Arrays of antifuses can also be formed.

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Presidential Permit Applications for Baja California Power, Inc. and Sempra Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2001-12-05

    In separate actions, Sempra Energy Resources (SER) and Baja California Power, Inc. (BCP) have applied to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Presidential permits pursuant to Executive Order (EO) No. 10485, as amended by EO 12038, and 10 CFR Section 205.320 et seq. (2000), to construct, operate, maintain, and connect electric power transmission facilities crossing the international border between the Us and Mexico. SER and BCP each propose constructing separate new double-circuit, 230,000 volt (230 kV) transmission lines extending about six miles south from the Imperial Valley Substation (IV Substation), owned and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E), to the US/Mexico international border. In each case, the objective is to connect the proposed transmission lines to natural gas fueled electric generating plants being constructed in Mexico for the purpose of importing electrical power into the US onto the southern California electrical grid. The proposed transmission lines would traverse about six miles of federal land administered by the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  9. Photon-counting solid-state photomultiplier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petroff, M.D.; Stapelbroek, M.G.

    1989-02-01

    The Solid-State Photomultiplier is a silicon device capable of continuous detection of individual photons in the wave length range from 0.4 to 28 ..mu..m. Operated with an applied bias near 7 volts the device responds to the absorption of an incident photon with a submicrosecond-rise-time current pulse with a narrow amplitude distribution well above the electronic readout noise level. Optimal photon-counting performance occurs between 6 and 10 K and for count rates less than 10/sup 10/ counts/s per cm/sup 2/ of detector area. A 60% counting quantum efficiency has been demonstrated at 20 ..mu..m, and near 60% was observed in the visible light region. The underlying mechanism involves extremely fast internal charge amplification by impact ionization of impurity-band electrons and results in a pulse for each photoelectrically or thermally induced free carrier. The thermally induced dark pulse rate at 7 K is sufficiently low that background limited detector performance is obtained at a background of less than 10/sup 6/ photons/cm/sup 2/s.

  10. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.S.; Ball, D.G.

    1997-09-09

    The instantaneous V{sub co} signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C{sub o} is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V{sub co} signal is split between a gain stage (G = 0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V{sub co} signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G = 10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V{sub co} signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V{sub co} signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V{sub co} values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit. 11 figs.

  11. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S.; Ball, Don G.

    1997-01-01

    The instantaneous V.sub.co signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C.sub.o is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V.sub. co signal is split between a gain stage (G=0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V.sub.co signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G=10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V.sub.co signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V.sub.co signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V.sub.co values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit.

  12. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  13. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  14. Feasibility of gate-turnoff thyristors in a high-voltage direct-current transmission system: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurray, W.

    1987-08-01

    This study to identify potentially attractive applications for gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) converters in utility systems includes both high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) valves and static volt-ampere reactive (VAR) controllers. The work includes a broad review of basic principles and the power circuit arrangements that are judged to be most attractive. The major differences between ordinary thyristors and GTO converters are discussed, including alternative HVDC transmission systems and static VAR controllers that are possible with GTOs. Whereas a current-source type of converter is the obvious choice with ordinary thyristors, the use of GTOs allows either current-source or voltage-source converters to be considered. A computer-aided analysis of the basic 6-pulse GTO current-source converter system is presented, including general equations for steady-state operation and plotting calculated waveforms. An analysis of a GTO voltage-source converter is given in less detail. Due to incomplete performance data, unresolved critical problems such as protection, and the disadvantages of higher cost, complexity and losses, it is difficult to recommend a specific GTO converter system at this time. The major advantage that GTO converters can offer is rapid and smoothly continuous control of reactive power. Further development of GTO converters should be aimed towards an application where reactive power control is very important and not readily achievable by conventional methods. 12 refs., 47 figs.

  15. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  16. A 200-A, 500-Hz, triangle current-wave modulator and magnet used for particle beam rastering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, C.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a simple 2D beam-rastering system to uniformly spread a 100-mA 6.7-MeV cw proton beam over a 50-cm by 50-cm beam stop. The basic circuit uses a 20-mF capacitor bank, a IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) full-wave inverter, and a 1-mH ferrite dipole magnet to produce a {+-} 500-Gauss peak triangular-waveform deflection field at 500 Hz. A dc input voltage of 200 volts at 2.6 amps (520 watts) produces a 160-ampere peak-to-peak triangular current waveform in the ferrite magnet at 500 Hz. For dual-axis rastering, two ferrite dipoles are used, one at 500 Hz, and the other at 575 Hz, to produce a uniform 2D beam distribution at the beam stop. The paper will discuss the IGBT modulator and ferrite deflector in detail, including current and voltage waveforms, and the ferrite magnet B-dot (dB/dt) signal.

  17. InGaAsN/GaAs heterojunction for multi-junction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Klem, John F.; Jones, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    An InGaAsN/GaAs semiconductor p-n heterojunction is disclosed for use in forming a 0.95-1.2 eV bandgap photodetector with application for use in high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells. The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction is formed by epitaxially growing on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) or germanium (Ge) substrate an n-type indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) layer having a semiconductor alloy composition In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As.sub.1-y N.sub.y with 0volts and an internal quantum efficiency of >70%.

  18. Improvement of graphene field-effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane surface treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Sk. Fahad; Sonde, Sushant; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji, E-mail: deji@ece.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) treatment. Both electron and hole field-effect mobilities are increased by 1.5??2, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac point also moves closer to zero Volt. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS treatment. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77 K and room temperature (295?K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77 K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295?K after HMDS application, indicating reduced carrier scattering. Performance improvement is also observed for FETs made on hydrophobic substratean HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted, and intensity ratio between 2D and G peaks is increased after HMDS application. We attribute the improvements in electronic transport mainly to enhanced screening and mitigation of adsorbed impurities from graphene surface upon HMDS treatment.

  19. ION GUN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  20. Development of a low energy ion source for ROSINA ion mode calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, Martin; Altwegg, Kathrin; Jaeckel, Annette; Balsiger, Hans

    2006-10-15

    The European Rosetta mission on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko will remain for more than a year in the close vicinity (1 km) of the comet. The two ROSINA mass spectrometers on board Rosetta are designed to analyze the neutral and ionized volatile components of the cometary coma. However, the relative velocity between the comet and the spacecraft will be minimal and also the velocity of the outgassing particles is below 1 km/s. This combination leads to very low ion energies in the surrounding plasma of the comet, typically below 20 eV. Additionally, the spacecraft may charge up to a few volts in this environment. In order to simulate such plasma and to calibrate the mass spectrometers, a source for ions with very low energies had to be developed for the use in the laboratory together with the different gases expected at the comet. In this paper we present the design of this ion source and we discuss the physical parameters of the ion beam like sensitivity, energy distribution, and beam shape. Finally, we show the first ion measurements that have been performed together with one of the two mass spectrometers.

  1. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Arnold R.

    1984-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A drop of a transparent electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The drop of redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. Illumination light is passed through a transparent rod supported over the surface and through the drop of transparent electrolyte. The drop is held in the gap between the rod and the surface. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

  3. Method and apparatus for determining minority carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Arnold R.

    1984-02-21

    Method and apparatus are provided for determining the diffusion length of minority carriers in semiconductor material, particularly amorphous silicon, which has a significantly small minority carrier diffusion length using the constant magnitude surface-photovoltage (SPV) method. Steady or modulated illumination at several wavelengths provides the light excitation on the surface of the material to generate the SPV. A manually controlled or automatic servo system maintains a constant predetermined value of the SPV for each wavelength. A probe electrode immersed in an electrolyte solution containing redox couples (preferably quinhydrone) having an oxidation-reduction potential (E) in the order of +0.6 to -1.65 volts couples the SPV to a measurement system. The redox couple solution functions to create a liquid Schottky barrier at the surface of the material. The Schottky barrier is contacted by merely placing the probe in the solution. The redox solution is placed over and in contact with the material to be tested and light is passed through the solution to generate the SPV. To compensate for colored redox solutions a portion of the redox solution not over the material is also illuminated for determining the color compensated light intensity. Steady red light is also used as an optical bias to reduce deleterious space-charge effects that occur in amorphous silicon.

  4. Three axis velocity probe system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Smith, Jr., Nelson S.; Utt, Carroll E.

    1992-01-01

    A three-axis velocity probe system for determining three-axis positional velocities of small particles in fluidized bed systems and similar applications. This system has a sensor head containing four closely-spaced sensing electrodes of small wires that have flat ends to establish a two axis plane, e.g. a X-Y plane. Two of the sensing electrodes are positioned along one of the axes and the other two are along the second axis. These four sensing electrodes are surrounded by a guard electrode, and the outer surface is a ground electrode and support member for the sensing head. The electrodes are excited by, for example, sinusoidal voltage having a peak-to-peak voltage of up to 500 volts at a frequency of 2 MHz. Capacitive currents flowing between the four sensing electrodes and the ground electrode are influenced by the presence and position of a particle passing the sensing head. Any changes in these currents due to the particle are amplified and synchronously detected to produce positional signal values that are converted to digital form. Using these digital forms and two values of time permit generation of values of the three components of the particle vector and thus the total velocity vector.

  5. Measurement of Activation Reaction Rate Distributions in a Lead Assembly Bombarded with 500-MeV Protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Meigo, Shin-ichro; Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Yasuda, Hideshi

    2000-05-15

    Reaction rate distributions of various activation detectors such as the {sup nat}Ni(n,x){sup 58}Co, {sup 197}Au(n,2n){sup 196}Au, and {sup 197}Au(n,4n){sup 194}Au reactions were measured to study the production and the transport of spallation neutrons in a lead assembly bombarded with protons of 500 MeV. The measured data were analyzed with the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI combined with the MCNP4A code using the nuclide production cross sections based on the JENDL Dosimetry File and those calculated with the ALICE-F code. It was found that the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A calculations agreed well with the experiments for the low-energy-threshold reaction of {sup nat}Ni(n,x){sup 58}Co. With the increase of threshold energy, however, the calculation underestimated the experiments, especially above 20 MeV. The reason for the disagreement can be attributed to the underestimation of the neutron yield in the tens of mega-electron-volt regions by the NMTC/JAERI code.

  6. Drive Cycle Analysis, Measurement of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of a PHEV School Bus: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.; Gonder, J.

    2011-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed real-world school bus drive cycle data and selected similar standard drive cycles for testing on a chassis dynamometer. NREL tested a first-generation plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) school bus equipped with a 6.4L engine and an Enova PHEV drive system comprising a 25-kW/80 kW (continuous/peak) motor and a 370-volt lithium ion battery pack. A Bluebird 7.2L conventional school bus was also tested. Both vehicles were tested over three different drive cycles to capture a range of driving activity. PHEV fuel savings in charge-depleting (CD) mode ranged from slightly more than 30% to a little over 50%. However, the larger fuel savings lasted over a shorter driving distance, as the fully charged PHEV school bus would initially operate in CD mode for some distance, then in a transitional mode, and finally in a charge-sustaining (CS) mode for continued driving. The test results indicate that a PHEV school bus can achieve significant fuel savings during CD operation relative to a conventional bus. In CS mode, the tested bus showed small fuel savings and somewhat higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions than the baseline comparison bus.

  7. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion ponent of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the electrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  8. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion component of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the elecrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  9. Joule heat generation in thermionic cathodes of high-pressure arc discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benilov, M. S.; Cunha, M. D.

    2013-02-14

    The nonlinear surface heating model of plasma-cathode interaction in high-pressure arcs is extended to take into account the Joule effect inside the cathode body. Calculation results are given for different modes of current transfer to tungsten cathodes of different configurations in argon plasmas of atmospheric or higher pressures. Special attention is paid to analysis of energy balances of the cathode and the near-cathode plasma layer. In all the cases, the variation of potential inside the cathode is much smaller than the near-cathode voltage drop. However, this variation can be comparable to the volt equivalent of the energy flux from the plasma to the cathode and then the Joule effect is essential. Such is the case of the diffuse and mixed modes on rod cathodes at high currents, where the Joule heating causes a dramatic change of thermal and electrical regimes of the cathode. The Joule heating has virtually no effect over characteristics of spots on rod and infinite planar cathodes.

  10. Nature of high-energy ions in the cathode plasma jet of a vacuum arc with high rate of current rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beilis, I.I.

    2004-10-04

    The production mechanism of extremely high-energy (up to 10 keV) ions observed in vacuum arcs having only a few tens of volts of arc voltage was considered. A model was developed for the plasma acceleration in a high-current ({>=}1 kA) short pulsed (<1 {mu}s) vacuum arc, taking into account the high rate of rise of the spot current (dI/dt>100 MA/s). A system of equations, including equations for the cathode spot and the plasma jet, was solved self-consistently with dI/dt in the range of 0.1-10 GA/s. It was shown that the plasma could be accelerated to the measured energy in the near spot region due to a gas dynamic mechanism and that the ion energy depends on the ratio of the ion flux to the electron flux. This ratio is determined by the cathode erosion rate. The calculated cathode erosion rate varies from 200 to 10 {mu}g/C when the ion energy increases from 0.1 to 10 keV and well agrees with measurements.

  11. Rheology and microstructure of concentrated zirconia-alumina suspensions for gelcasting composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleier, A.; Omatete, O.O.

    1992-12-31

    The relations among colloidal stability, suspension rheology, and solids loading are elucidated for zirconia-alumina mixtures containing 20 volt ZrO{sub 2}, based on solids. The lower colloidal stability of ZrO{sub 2} limits the rheological properties of this system. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is less than 49 mV, high degrees of pseudoplasticity, high yield stress, high viscosity, and long relaxation times characterize the binary suspensions. These effects occur, despite the fact that ZrO{sub 2} is the minor ceramic constituent. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is maintained above 49 mV, suspensions with high solids loading (55 vol%) can be prepared which behave as Newtonian fluids over the 0-to-200 s-1 shear rate range and as an elastic solid at higher rates. As the solids loading of a highly stable binary suspension is increased, the rheological properties change. They evolve from those of a near Newtonian-like fluid with nearly independent particles (40 vol%) to those of a pseudoplastic fluid with a weakly interacting particle network (50 vol%) to those of an elastic-like solid composed of crowded, strongly repulsive particles (55 vol%). Low-shear conditions for suspension-transport and mold-filling operations that ensure a homogeneous arrangement of ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a gelcast ceramic seem promising.

  12. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, K.H.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.

    1991-04-30

    A system is described for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array of solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1[times]3[times]5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A wake-up' circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described. 4 figures.

  13. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.

  14. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  15. Degradation of Photovoltaic Modules Under High Voltage Stress in the Field: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Rummel, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    The degradation in performance for eight photovoltaic (PV) modules stressed at high voltage (HV) is presented. Four types of modules--tandem-junction and triple-junction amorphous thin-film silicon, plus crystalline and polycrystalline silicon modules--were tested, with a pair of each biased at opposite polarities. They were deployed outdoors between 2001 and 2009 with their respective HV leakage currents through the module encapsulation continuously monitored with a data acquisition system, along with air temperature and relative humidity. For the first 5 years, all modules were biased continuously at fixed 600 VDC, day and night. In the last 2 years, the modules were step-bias stressed cyclically up and down in voltage between 10 and 600 VDC, in steps of tens to hundreds of volts. This allowed characterization of leakage current versus voltage under a large range of temperature and moisture conditions, facilitating determination of leakage paths. An analysis of the degradation is presented, along with integrated leakage charge. In HV operation: the bulk silicon modules degraded either insignificantly or at rates of 0.1%/yr higher than modules not biased at HV; for the thin-film silicon modules, the added loss rates are insignificant for one type, or 0.2%/yr-0.6%/yr larger for the other type.

  16. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  17. Protection characteristics of a Faraday cage compromised by lightning burnthrough.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Bystrom, Edward; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Montoya, Sandra L.; Merewether, Kimball O.; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Martinez, Leonard E.; Jojola, John M.

    2012-01-01

    A lightning flash consists of multiple, high-amplitude but short duration return strokes. Between the return strokes is a lower amplitude, continuing current which flows for longer duration. If the walls of a Faraday cage are made of thin enough metal, the continuing current can melt a hole through the metal in a process called burnthrough. A subsequent return stroke can couple energy through this newly-formed hole. This LDRD is a study of the protection provided by a Faraday cage when it has been compromised by burnthrough. We initially repeated some previous experiments and expanded on them in terms of scope and diagnostics to form a knowledge baseline of the coupling phenomena. We then used a combination of experiment, analysis and numerical modeling to study four coupling mechanisms: indirect electric field coupling, indirect magnetic field coupling, conduction through plasma and breakdown through the hole. We discovered voltages higher than those encountered in the previous set of experiments (on the order of several hundreds of volts).

  18. INITIAL EVALUATION OF A PULSED WHITE SPECTRUM NEUTRON GENERATOR FOR EXPLOSIVE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Michael J.; Miller, Gill T.; Reijonen, Jani; Ji, Qing; Andresen, Nord; Gicquel,, Frederic; Kavlas, Taneli; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kwan, Joe

    2008-06-02

    Successful explosive material detection in luggage and similar sized containers is acritical issue in securing the safety of all airline passengers. Tensor Technology Inc. has recently developed a methodology that will detect explosive compounds with pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy. In this scheme, tritium beams will be used to generate neutrons with a broad energy spectrum as governed by the T(t,2n)4He fission reaction that produces 0-9 MeV neutrons. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with Tensor Technology Inc., has designedand fabricated a pulsed white-spectrum neutron source for this application. The specifications of the neutron source are demanding and stringent due to the requirements of high yield and fast pulsing neutron emission, and sealed tube, tritium operation. In a unique co-axial geometry, the ion source uses ten parallel rf induction antennas to externally couple power into a toroidal discharge chamber. There are 20 ion beam extraction slits and 3 concentric electrode rings to shape and accelerate the ion beam into a titanium cone target. Fast neutron pulses are created by using a set ofparallel-plate deflectors switching between +-1500 volts and deflecting the ion beams across a narrow slit. The generator is expected to achieve 5 ns neutron pulses at tritium ion beam energies between 80 - 120 kV. First experiments demonstrated ion source operation and successful beam pulsing.

  19. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  20. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, James H.; Lavietes, Anthony D.

    1998-05-29

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  1. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L.

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  2. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  3. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  4. Method for the depth corrected detection of ionizing events from a co-planar grids sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Carini, Gabriella

    2009-05-12

    A method for the detection of ionizing events utilizing a co-planar grids sensor comprising a semiconductor substrate, cathode electrode, collecting grid and non-collecting grid. The semiconductor substrate is sensitive to ionizing radiation. A voltage less than 0 Volts is applied to the cathode electrode. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the cathode is applied to the non-collecting grid. A voltage greater than the voltage applied to the non-collecting grid is applied to the collecting grid. The collecting grid and the non-collecting grid are summed and subtracted creating a sum and difference respectively. The difference and sum are divided creating a ratio. A gain coefficient factor for each depth (distance between the ionizing event and the collecting grid) is determined, whereby the difference between the collecting electrode and the non-collecting electrode multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient is the depth corrected energy of an ionizing event. Therefore, the energy of each ionizing event is the difference between the collecting grid and the non-collecting grid multiplied by the corresponding gain coefficient. The depth of the ionizing event can also be determined from the ratio.

  5. Ultrafast pulse radiolysis using a terawatt laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oulianov, Dmitri A.; Crowell, Robert A.; Gosztola, David J.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Korovyanko, Oleg J.; Rey-de-Castro, Roberto C.

    2007-03-01

    We report ultrafast pulse radiolysis transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy measurements from the Terawatt Ultrafast High Field Facility (TUHFF) at Argonne National Laboratory. TUHFF houses a 20 TW Ti:sapphire laser system that generates 2.5 nC subpicosecond pulses of multi-mega-electron-volt electrons at 10 Hz using laser wakefield acceleration. The system has been specifically optimized for kinetic TA measurements in a pump-probe fashion. This requires averaging over many shots which necessitates stable, reliable generation of electron pulses. The latter were used to generate excess electrons in pulse radiolysis of liquid water and concentrated solutions of perchloric acid. The hydronium ions in the acidic solutions react with the hydrated electrons resulting in the rapid decay of the transient absorbance at 800 nm on the picosecond time scale. Normalization of the TA signal leads to an improvement in the signal to noise ratio by a factor of 5 to 6. Due the pointing instability of the laser this improvement was limited to a 5 to 10 min acquisition period, requiring periodic recalibration and realignment. Time resolution, defined by the rise time of TA signal from hydrated electron in pulse radiolysis of liquid water, of a few picoseconds, has been demonstrated. The current time resolution is determined primarily by the physical dimensions of the sample and the detection sensitivity. Subpicosecond time resolution can be achieved by using thinner samples, more sensitive detection techniques, and improved electron beam quality.

  6. Superconducting Super Collider site environmental report for calendar year 1991. Pre-operational

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This is the first annual SER prepared for the SSC project. It is a pre-operational report, intended primarily to describe the baseline characterization of the Ellis County, Texas site that has been developed subsequent to the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Supplemental Environmental impact Statement (SEIS). As such, the emphasis will be on environmental compliance efforts, including monitoring and mitigation programs. The SER also reports on the measures taken to meet the commitments made in the EIS and SEIS. These measures are detailed in the Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) (Department of Energy (DOE), 1991), which was prepared following the signing of the Record of Decision (ROD) to construct the SSC in Texas. The SER will continue to be preoperational until the first high-energy (20 trillion electron volt or TeV) protons collisions are observed, at which point the SSC will become operational. At that time, the SER will place more emphasis on the radiological monitoring program. This SER will report on actions taken in 1991 or earlier and briefly mention some of those planned for calendar year 1992. AU actions completed in 1992 will be addressed in the SER for calendar year 1992.

  7. Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tobin

    2009-07-01

    This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.

  8. ARM Airborne Continuous carbon dioxide measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26

    The heart of the AOS CO2 Airborne Rack Mounted Analyzer System is the AOS Manifold. The AOS Manifold is a nickel coated aluminum analyzer and gas processor designed around two identical nickel-plated gas cells, one for reference gas and one for sample gas. The sample and reference cells are uniquely designed to provide optimal flushing efficiency. These cells are situated between a black-body radiation source and a photo-diode detection system. The AOS manifold also houses flow meters, pressure sensors and control valves. The exhaust from the analyzer flows into a buffer volume which allows for precise pressure control of the analyzer. The final piece of the analyzer is the demodulator board which is used to convert the DC signal generated by the analyzer into an AC response. The resulting output from the demodulator board is an averaged count of CO2 over a specified hertz cycle reported in volts and a corresponding temperature reading. The system computer is responsible for the input of commands and therefore works to control the unit functions such as flow rate, pressure, and valve control.The remainder of the system consists of compressors, reference gases, air drier, electrical cables, and the necessary connecting plumbing to provide a dry sample air stream and reference air streams to the AOS manifold.

  9. High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

    The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

  10. High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System, Phase 1 Update: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hambrick, J.; Narang, D.

    2012-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale photovoltaics (PV). Building upon the APS Community Power Project -- Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2011 IEEE PVSC conference that introduces the project and describes some of the preliminary consideration, as well as project plans and early results. This paper gives a status update of the project and presents selected results from Phase 2 of the project. It discusses baseline feeder modeling, load allocation, data acquisition, utility-scale PV integration, preliminary model validation, and plans for future phases.

  11. Atomic Resolution Imaging and Quantification of Chemical Functionality of Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Udo

    2014-12-10

    The work carried out from 2006-2014 under DoE support was targeted at developing new approaches to the atomic-scale characterization of surfaces that include species-selective imaging and an ability to quantify chemical surface interactions with site-specific accuracy. The newly established methods were subsequently applied to gain insight into the local chemical interactions that govern the catalytic properties of model catalysts of interest to DoE. The foundation of our work was the development of three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM), a new measurement mode that allows the mapping of the complete surface force and energy fields with picometer resolution in space (x, y, and z) and piconewton/millielectron volts in force/energy. From this experimental platform, we further expanded by adding the simultaneous recording of tunneling current (3D-AFM/STM) using chemically well-defined tips. Through comparison with simulations, we were able to achieve precise quantification and assignment of local chemical interactions to exact positions within the lattice. During the course of the project, the novel techniques were applied to surface-oxidized copper, titanium dioxide, and silicon oxide. On these materials, defect-induced changes to the chemical surface reactivity and electronic charge density were characterized with site-specific accuracy.

  12. Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marcus, Frederick B.

    1978-01-01

    A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux.

  13. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  14. PbTe/TAGS RTG Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A. )

    1993-01-10

    The paper describes the results of studies on an RTG option for powering the global network of unmanned landers for NASA's Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission. RTGs are essentially unaffected by diurnal and seasonal variations, Martian sandstorms, and landing site latitudes, and their waste heat can stabilize the temperatures of the landers and their payload. The RTG designs described in this paper are based on PbTe/TAGS thermoelectric elements, in contast to the SiGe-based RTGs the author described in previous publications. The presently described RTGs differ not only in the choice of thermoelectric materials but also in the use of much lower operating temperatures, conductive rather than radiative heat transfer, an inert cover gas instead of vacuum in the RTG's converter, and fibrous instead of multifoil thermal insulation. As in a previous Teledyne design, the Fairchild designs described in this paper employ flight-proven General Purpose Source modules and Close-Pack Arrays of thermoelectric converter modules. Illustrative point designs of RTGs producing 41 and 51 watts(e) at 28 volts are presented. The presented performance parameters were derived by detailed thermal, thermoelectric, and electrical analyses (including radiator geometry optimization) described in the paper. The Fairchild study showed that, with appropriate modifications, the Teledyne design can be scaled up to higher power levels, and it identified solutions to ensure adequate fuel clad ductility at launch temperatures and adequate thermal conductance from the thermoelectric cold ends to the RTG housing.

  15. MOD-RTG multicouple test results and mission readiness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, R.F.; Kelly, C.E. )

    1993-01-10

    MOD-RTG represents the design configuration for the next generation of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), aimed at improving specific power and efficiency over current General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (GPHS-RTGs). The modular RTG reference design has been described in previous papers (Hartman 1988). The multicouple is a key element required for the successful development of the modular RTG. The multicouple is a high voltage, thermoelectric device employing a close packed, glass bonded thermopile array of twenty thermoelectric couples, connected in a series circuit. The multicouple is designed to operate at a 1270 K hot junction temperature and a 570 K cold junction temperature, yielding a power output of approximately 2.1 watts at 3.5 volts at beginning of life. The objectives of the MOD-RTG program are focused on establishing a multicouple life test data base and life prediction capability which will permit, with reasonable margin, a projected multicouple life of greater than eight (8) years. This paper summarizes the current status of multicouple life testing and performance modeling and the level of technology readiness needed to demonstrate mission readiness for MOD-RTG.

  16. The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2015-12-04

    High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.

  17. Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

    1983-04-01

    A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

  18. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  19. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. ); Taylor, E.R. Jr. ); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  20. Commissioning of the new AGS MMPS transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajon,E.; Badea, V. S.; Bannon, M.; Bonati, R.; Marneris, I. M.; Porqueddu, r.; Roser, T.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Brookhaven AGS Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a thyristor control supply rated at 5500 Amps. +/-9000 Volts. The peak magnet power is 50 MWatts. The power supply is fed from a motor/generator manufactured by Siemens. During rectify and invert operation the P Bank power supplies are used. During the flattops the F Bank power supplies are used. The P Bank power supplies are fed from two 23 MVA transformers and the F Bank power supplies are fed from two 5.3 MYA transformers. The fundamental frequency of the F Bank power supplies is 1440 Hz, however the fundamental frequency of the P banks was 720 Hz. It was very important to reduce the ripple during rectify to improve polarized proton operations. For this reason and also because the original transformers were 45 years old we replaced these transformers with new ones and we made the fundamental frequency of both P and F banks 1440 Hz. This paper will highlight the major hurdles that were involved during the installation of the new transformers. It will present waveforms while running at different power levels up to 6MW full load. It will show the transition from the F-Bank power supplies to the P-Banks and also show the improvements in ripple made on the P-Bank power supplies.